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Covenant of Grace: 



^1 The gradual! breakings out of Gofpel- w^ 

S|graceffomi^«i«^ toChrift are clearly difcovered, §3^ 

^1, the differences betwixt the old and new Teftament are |l3^ 
~|j laid open, divers errours of y^?-;^?/^/^;?^- and others are, llS^^ 
I confuted*, the nature of Uprightneile, and the way |i3^ 
of Chtift in bringing the foul into Communion §3^ 

with himfelf: i||^ 

Together with many Other Points, both dodrinally and f'^ 
pradicaliy profitable, are folidly handled. ' lij-gg. 




By that faithfull fervant of Jefus Cfhrift, and Miniftcr |^ 
of the Gofpel, John B'^a l l. [|J7 

Publifhed by S i m e 6 n As h. |;i^ 
^ — ^ — -^ —i^ 

I the Lor J havecaiied tleeinri^biecufKeJe, and rvfU bold thine hand, andrviU^.:^ 

fiee^ thee, and give thee for a Covenant of the people, fdr a Ugh of the Gen- 0^ 

jg. - tiles. Ifai 42.6. . - , M^^ 

i But ye are come unto mount Sionandumthe city of the living Godythehavetily i§^ 

leTuJalem.,and to Jefus the MeJimureftbe sea? Covenant^andte the bbud of. p ^-* 

§Fjn\Ung,that Jpeah^ttb better thitigs^hen tiat of Jbel. Heb^ia 1^,24. '^ 

Thtftcret of the Lord in with them that fear hiniy and he »iU flje'w them hit 

Covenant. VULz^^t^, 

LONDON, jg|j 

Printed by g. Miller iox JE^^ard Tre^frev on Ludgate hill necr U :*^** 

riccc»bridgc at the Signe of the Bible. 1^45. pji^ 

To theChriftian Reader. 

Good Reader, 

E doe nop concetpe iirnecefiar^^ to 
giye credip unto the enfuiagTrea- 
tlje by our Tefltmonf^ feeing the 
learned^andholy -pporks of the Re» 
yerend Authour doe ahundanply 
praife him in the gate. His Gate* 
chifme^ '^ith the expqfidon thereof bk Treafifeofthe 
life afWaithy together "^ivb othsr, Books more lately 
puUijhedy tending to reconcile the differences of the ^e 
timeSi doe/ufficiendymtnejje to the ynorld^ both bk 
gr^^ abilities and Pietie, And if God had been plea^ 
fed to lengthen hk tife^ ^e hlieve^ he might haye 
hen <vsry ferweabk^ in feeking to reconcile our 
prefent fad differences ahmt Church-Goyernment^be^ 
caufe (as 'Si^e underUand ) be had thorowly fludied aH 
tbofe Controyerfiei\ But feeing the Lord hath depri' 
yedfis ofbk help intkatkinde^ m are right glad^ 

J 2 that 

To the Reader. 

that the Church (hall haye the benefic af any la- 
hours^'^htch be hath left fir fublikeufe, and in jpe^ 
ciaU of this fithjed (the Covenant: of Grace) foneed^ 
fuQ and profitable. And that acquaintance T&hich '^e 
had mth fhis^faithfull feryant of leftis thrifty 
doth incline us "^ith aUmMngneJ^e^togiyeour appro' 
bation of this piece -^ although cur manifold implojments 
bayenot/uffered m to perufe it^fo exa£lly^as other" 
wife ^eJJjould hay e done. 

We (ball d^Jtre^that by thy faithfui improyemenP 
hereof i thy knowledge of the foederall tti^n^aBions fc- 
twixtGoiandhii people^through' lefmCbrifti may be 
much augmented fUnto his honour^ and thine eyerlafling 
kappinelfejnhim^in^bom wearcJ^ 

Thy faithful! Friends, 

Edward Rbymolds.^CThOmas Hill. 
Dan I e l C a wdr e y.^'^An t h oy y Burg e s s . 
EdmOnd Calamy, 

To the ^R^der* 

Good ReadeR;^ 

He worthy Authour of this Treatife 
(who was my very dear and much 
honoured friend ) bequeathed unto 
' mCjas a legacie of his love^this, with 
the reft of his Manufcripts* This 
pitce he prepared for the Prefle, pur- 
. pofing the enlargement of it, if the 
Lord had continued hisTife and health: and lam con- 
fident, it would have come abroad better poliflied •, if he 
having complcated it, yad then furvayed the whole Ta- 
brick,when fct together. Akhough'atthcfirft Iwas un- 
fatisfied in mine own thoughts, ^whether I fhould adven- 
ture the printing of it, becaufe imperfed, yet upon the im- 
portunity of Friends, being incouraged by the judgement 
of fome Reverend Divines, who had perufed it, I have 
now made ii pubUls^, without any addition, diminittionj 
or alteration. The fubje<!^ of the book is excellent, profi- 
tableandneceffary^ even, the my fiery rvhivh hath been hid 
JTfm ages andfiom generations J but now is made manifefi to Col.i.a<5^= 
the Saints, That bleffed Apo{lle,who experimentally un- 
derftood the utmoft worth of humane learning, did yet 
contemneit^incomparifonof that knowledge which is 
taught in this Treatife. 1 determined ;(?# (faith he) to know i Cox,i.u 
my thing amoftg you {^mongyoUy knowing Corinthians,) 
jdveJejmChriH* "ic^doHbthfej J coum all things butlof^e, phil.j.c, : 

To the Reader, 

fdr tk ex;ellc}$cj of the knowledge sf Chif Jejfts my Lord, iacotnpimbly fweet 'and iatisfying is it unto a 
fclf-ftudying Chriftan foul^ to be acquainted with the 
fafehf uU enga|emsncs of the Almighty Majeftie, unto the 

poarpenicencEiner, through that Son of his loves, in a 
Covenant of freCjrichjeverlafling gracel This Covenant 

being tranfaded betwixt Chrift and God, here, here lyes 

the firli and moft firm foundation of a Chriftians com- 

g fore. I mil gim thee for A Cevenam of the people , andwi^ 

%<:ot\,t&. ejiablijb theemh,6cc. AUthefromifesofGodw him dreXea^ 
And in hm Amerty to the glory of God, X herefore the Ser- 
vants of the moft High C notwithilanding their own 
changeableneflfeand unworthinefTe) may hold up their 
hearts and hopes to enjoy all Gorpell-Prerogativcs 
through him, becaule God hath laid, I will make an 

Ifai.if^ijj, everlasiing Covenant with you, even thefure mercies of J>a^ 
. vid. The right uoderftanaing and the fruitful! improve- 
ment hereof, will be fearoaably fupporting and folacing 
to Gods 'people in thefe dolcfuU diftra^Sied times. \Ve 
have, through Gods mercy, a glorious work, the work 
of Chureh-Refbrmation under hand, now, though diffi- 
culties, delayes , and oppoficions, doe caft difcourage- 
ments upon our hearts, yet from hence^ we have heart- 

rrii.y4 I'S*. i^ing. The msuntaim (hall depart , and tj^hils be rem{>ved,but 

i«v my kindneffe (hall mtdeparpfromthee, neither jhall^ 

**' ' nant of my peacebe removed, faith the Lord, that hath mercy 

onthee, Qhthoff4fJIiciedi and t(ff]edrpithtempejfsj and not 

comforted, behold,! mil Jay thy. fiones with faire colours, a»^^ 

lay the foundations mth Sdphkes,6zCe And when bloudy 

oppreUours prevail and profper, we may thus plead with 

^"4.74.10, ^^^ God, Have refpecf mm the Covenant: for the darkplace4 

of the e^nh are full of the habitations of cruelty. For the te- 

nour of the -Covenant, which God makes with Chrift;and 


To the Keader^ 

his fpirituali feed, runs thus, If they break' my fiatutes, and f^^^h>iU 
keep not mj commandments : Then will I vtftte their tranfgref- . ^ ** 

ftonsmththeredjand their iniquities with fir if cs. J^eyert-he" 
lefs, my loving kindnelfewill J not utterly takefrom-hm' nof 
fufer my faithfulneffe to faH.My Covenamwill 1 not Ifte^kytor 
alter the tUng that tsgpne out of my hp^Scc, And, ^s for 2tecli.5.ii. 
the€ alfoy by the blond of the Covenant J have fent forth tiypri- 
foners out. of the pit, wherein ^ no water. How pretious be- 
yond all expreffions are the treafures of Gods love in the 
Covenant of Promife ! Thefe mines are digged up and 
difcovercd in this difcourfe, many obicure Scriptures^ full 
of rich Gpfpell-Gracearc here interpreted, from the ori- 
ginal! languages, and by a judicious comparing of one 
place with another. Thebook (I believe) will commend -^ 
itfelf unto the conftderate Reader : and becaufe fo many 
godly ^learned, well-approved brethrenjhave been pleafed 
to- honour it with their atteftatioh, therefore my fuither 
teftimpny would be altogether needlfefs and unfeafonable. 
If the phrafe ot fpeech feeme fometimes knotty and unu- 
fuaUVldefirethat ferious attention may take oft that dif-. 
couragement. A little diligence doth often conquer great- 
appearing difficultieSjand love of truth will make labori- 
ous infearching after the knowledge of it.The Lord dired 
and profper thy perufall of this Treatife, that thereby thy > 
foul may be edified in grace and comfort, through theac- 
complifhment of his glorious Promifes in the Lord our 
Saviour^in whomjand for whom^ I will endeavour to ap- 
prove my felf, 

thyfiithfuli friend and Ser/vant, , 
i?45- S I M E N A s H. : . 

Th b Con 


The Contents of the feverall Chapters. 

,, OF the M part, 

I . /^Fthe Jt£mfic4tht}S of the ^ord Govs pant, pgg. i ; 
%S^Ofthe Gov. god made '^kh man in the fiAte oflanscencj, p.^« 

3. OftheQ^MQa^niofgracemgenerail, P'?4« 

4. Of the Covcnsmt of promije, p»37, 

5. Of the Qo\cn^nt of promi/e made With Adzm immediately upon 
his fall, p. 3 5, 

6. Of the Covenant ofgrdceyOs it ^as mfihs and manifefied t» Abra» 
ham. p.47, 

7-, t>/r^tf Covenant of grace under MqCgs till the retHrne of Jfracl 
f rom the 'Babylonifb captivity, , . p.pi. 

8, c^^p or/ ic filar explication of the Qo^^ra^tf that godmade y)oith 
Ifrael, ^W "^ehat Mofes broftght to the further exprejfare of the 
Covenant of grace, p. 1 2 2. 

p*. Of ?;&(f Covenant that God made VPtth David. p. 1 4 j, 

io. Ofthe CoYcmnt that God m^deVpith IfracII after tJhe Bahjlo' 
hijh captivity, P^iS^, 

I I . Of Truth md upright ne^e, p. I ^^, 

The fccond part. 

1. .O/r^^NewTcftament, <?r Covcnanr, and how god hath revea- 
led himfelfe herein. p.ip,4,, 

2. CM}? the LMediatonr of the New Tcftament, for Vahom he dyed' 
androfe agaiae. ' ^ p. 2 03.' 

3. How Chriji hath fulfilled the office of Mediatour^ or ^how he is the 
)Mediatour6fthe\>kcwlLt^2imQm, p.1^4. 

4. HorvChriJi dsth bring his people into Covenant, orfeUowfhip ^itly 
himfelfe, p.323. 

5. B.o'^ (fhriftians anf'^er tothecatt ofChifi^ andfo come fohave 
FelloWip^ithhim, P«34f. 

Srrata, ; 

P4g.iA.U\niirg. n'"13 p.ttJ.i^ r, how tlmt faith wMch th,e exift juftice 
ill the Co/enant of nature prefuppofecb p.\6^l penult, r.vwnh (^hri&ip.ij,' 
marg.T&L$oi cuamt, ^pcfi. eu-^^n.po'^.i.l-att.dete is, ptf^.mar.rjKtut) vhaJ^ttf^^ 
p.^d^marg parv9mfciat.p»ToA, a 6. r. challenge tbar, p.^i I'm penui^,ini^X 
p.\^^Mn.ult,v>],a<Ta^.pzo^d,io,^o^itions»ptZ%Z,linMtt. and then p i^i^l.u 
bdkvcnot.p.z6S,l,^,dtk ii* p.'&7B l,i i. furrogation.^.zyo. /.»?."1£I3p.i8o,, 
t.i<i' dele whichispenill only,not fia%U. p.i.^f.1 \. dvTi4'0'/Q''p-^9^ '• }°- 
payeth.p,|oj./.i?>never, p, jos^war, i/4rtAc^3t''J'^?'o^^' ^c* /'•i^/'. /.io. the 
former by reall uaion, that is.p.-^zoi a.or which arcj, j.ire the VYork$,|j, jjo* 
/.i£?.tlcfentd,/.ii,defetrfidnolongcr»p, 149,/,!, 

F T 

Covenant of Grace 

C H AT», I. 

of the fignijicatiens of the word Covenants 

' HE word tranflated Covenant, fome derive 
of another that fignifies to chiife, or to 
eate ; becaufe ufually they had a feaft at 
making of Covenants : or it is a thing 
which two choofc, and of which they mu- 
tually agree and promife betwixt them- 
felves: although the word be ufed, when 
one alone doth promife with aiimple pro- 
mife, and fo it may be referred to the Teftamentary dilpofition. 
Others derive it of a roote that importeth tocut, divide or fmite: 
which being joyned tortile word Covenant, fignifiethtomakeor 
ftrike covenant ot^reement. Gen.i'^.i^. 
J^ the fime day the Lord made a Co- 
'venant ^hh Abraham* Jer.34.iS. They 
have not per firmed the ^ords of the 
' ' . B ' 



Sept. cT/sQgTTj S'ldihmlwy 5 Reg 8,ai. Jer. 
^^^^Y Gen, ^5, 44. LllX. S'lA^y.tuj 
iPlA^myi: Edit, Coup', dijhoia.mi'^-ieli.s-. 


of the fignificMiofis »f the word OvenMnt^ 

mret. The holy Gbott in Greek cxprcf- Covenant , "^hich thty had made htfir^ 

fetbchi$wordn"l3fundrywaies, asby ^^, Pfal.83.5. They are confiderate a- 

^f''^ Heb 8 8!l^i.7C'^'HK «'.«*"«; gainfithee, Pral.89.3. Ihavemadea Co^ 

iV7*?^oju*<,; Exod. ^4. «,6,r. w»^«f jv*^^ mj chofen. But die where to 

Numb.iU. 1 9. 1 Chron.' g ? septuizint promife, appoint or ordaia, z Chron.7.1 &. 

iiA^nm ihU euav'n!.a^ hi ^^mhjj a.iom As I have promt fed ( or ordained, or cove- 

y/0^. Fa{tam,falf4, firmam fiabtle, quod nantcd ) with David pht Father. And fo 

S^^:^;:!::',"T4C1:%:ZT;:: *" thcnewTeftament. the word uW by 

iuumhsbraicUiceretur,paffumfeculifiml XXi^Seftuagtnt dothlignihe (Lul^ 21.2^ J 

utrarn^ ohviun. Sat pstuni£ bznignitoitut And I appoint unto j oh a Kingdom. Eraloi ► 

fal earneta con^rvat^ fs beaignitoi opet Ego difp^ono vobis regn»m. B^za, Ego pa^ 

iSt pecunUn. Ft etfaju^gebantfsdera gir^or. Syr. Ego poUiceor. And atnon*ft 

^:^U^.^X^t::^:u::T£l f^^^^r^ Co/en.„cs were eftabUnSa 

%,i%,m}m.Par.iibi.cap.9,adHcl. b/ the oblation ot Sacrihce ; Example be- 

Vai5.&c.]ol>^i.i. It IS to bcutidcrftood yond all exceptions^ We have in that Sacri- 

of a folemnc condition to take heed to his fice, wherein God made a Covenant with 

eyes. Bai^; Comment. e^Ariifop bji,^ j^e people of Ifrael, and bound them to the 

iiT^i^^7lltZ'."A^:J'. obedknceofhisUw: whence ic is alfo«U 

led a Covenant or Sale, that is, perpetmll j 
cither, becaiile fait expels corruption, or rather, becaiie fait was u- 
fed in Sacrifices ; as iHt had been faid, a Covenant being ftriken, 
and luch ceremonies ufed, as are ordinary in making Covenants. 
Amongft the Greeks alfo, that it was moft ufuall, appeares not 
only by infinite examples, but by common phrafcs, as of^"* 7a//^y, 
which is as much as to fweare the Sacrifice bein^ flaine, or to efta-" 
blifh a Covenant, And in Homer, Jliad.^. p'i£yvofKiA'^i<ra.. that 
is, bringing or bearing thofe things, which were neccffary in per- . 
forming an Oath, or making a Covenant. The word Covenant or 
teftamentall bond or league, which hath in Hebrew the fignifica- 
don of brotherly or friendly parting, and of explaining the condi^ 
tions of agreement; The Greeli Interpreters doe frequently &n<ir 
almoft perpetually render by ^A^t^x-n, a teftament or difpo(ition> 
P/2/.25. 10,14. PfaL^^i^iJ* ^50.16.^55.20. feldome ^/i-^Mww, 
Covenant, 7/S 28.15. which is uled elfcwhcre,.S'4p.i.i6. i Mac^ 
10,2^. 2o^/'.?r.i3.2 5. ^ 24.26. But in the old Teftament, thcs 
word 5fm/7 is never read for a teftamcntary difpofition, which> 
ofthei{««^^i«/, asZ>r«/»/«*wicnelX;th, is called rn.^ii^from the 
word that.fignifieth to command, and fo to fet his houfe in or- 
der, or to make his will, //S. 3 8. i . Which woid is yet gencrall,, 


cf the ftgnifc^ions of the word Covenant, 

and muQ; be retrained according to the circamftances of the 
place, Whcre-the LXX. and Theodotio tranflate it cr/*d»»», S^m^ 
mAchiu and AquUa turnc it tw^kn, Tfa/.2$. 1 4. Nor is it a thing 
wnufuall with clalficall Authors of the Grcckc tongue toufcthc 
word'^'^'^MXM in the gcncrall fignification ; For (garner aritu citctb 
out oi Ari£iofhan. de Avihus, S'lA^^vAt, S'la^mloj, ufed for to make 
a Covenant. ThcPapiftscarpe at our Interpreters, bccaafetbcy 
render the word Covenant , rather then Teftament : for they 
would have it to fignifie a teftament ary difpofition. But they arc 
deceived, for the fignification of the word is morcgcnerall : and 
theApoftle Heh.g,\6. argueth not frcm the (imple fignification 
of the word, but the circumftanccs of the Covenant. In a Cove- 
nant and Teftament both, there is an ordination and difpofition of 
things according to pleafure : and the Greeke phrafc in the New 
Teftament doth folio w the received Interpretation of the Scftua^ 
gint J although in this the Covenant of Grace is like to a Tefta- 
ment, that it is not eftabliftied but by the death of the Mediatour 
as of a Teftator. 

The Covenant in Scripture doth fometimes fignifie an abfc- 
luteProroife of Gcd, without any ftipulation at all, fuch as was 
the Covenant which God made with Noah prefcntly after the 
Flcud, promifing freely, that he would never deftroy man and 
bfafts with an univcrfall deluge of water any more. gen,g,i i. 
And that Covenant of Peace, and cvcrlafting Covenant which 
God made with PhinehaSy that he and his feed after him (hould 
have the Covenant of an evcrkftingPriefthood.iVaa?^. 2 5,12,13. 
Of this kind is the Covenant wherein God promifcth that he will 
give his eled faith and pcrfeverance, to which promife no condi- 
tion annexed can be conceived in mind,which is not comprehen- 
ded in the Promife it felfc. Hei>.%. 10. 

But oftentimes in holy Writ the name Covenant is fo ufed, 
that in it is plainly fignificd a free Promife of God, but with fti- 
pulation of duty from the reafonabic creature, which otherwifc 
was due, no promife comming betwixt, and might have been 
exaded of God, and ought to hgvebeen performed of the crea- 
ture, if God hadibplealed, Py^/.50.i^. and 25.10. Pfa/.^/^Aj, 
For a Covenant is quiddam comflexHm» implying two things, di- 
ftinguifl^ed either re or ratione, the one covenanting, the other re- 
ftipulatiog or accepting. As alfo two parts covenanted. Firft,the 

B 2 giving 


Syr. ^uidtibi 
iy lihriipTte* 
ceptmum mr»» 
rum. quoJaf' 
Qum mtum. 

of the ft^nijications of the word Covenant, 

giving of fomc future good. Secondly, the retribution of foma 
performance. The fir(t without the fecond,is no more then a Pro- 
mife : the fecond without the firft is no kfie then a Law, though 
the Apoftle, gal.^.22, makes another oppofition of Law and Fro- 
inifc,nature and faith, workcs and Chrift, for that is from a divers 
acceptation of the Promife. But when two pctfons upon tbcfe 
two parts concurre, it is that wc call a Covenaut properly t 
though tropically forRetimesthe Promife, and (bmetimes the fti- 
pulation only is noted by the Covenant. Pfal-So.^, Nehem. i. f, 
ge». 17. 7, p. andfometimcs the feak of the Covenant is called 
the Covenant. Crw. 1 7.10,1 1. 

This diftindion of the Covenant depends upon a diftindion 
of Gods love ; for there is a love of God towards the creature, 
whence all the good that is in the creature doth flow, and there is 
a love of God vouchfafed to the creature,and that for thofe things 
which it hath received, not of it fclfe, but of God, as it was belo- 
ved with that firft love. That we may call primary or antecedent 
(for diftindijon fake) this fecondary or confcqucnt love. Fcota 
that flo wcs both the making and fulfilHog of the Abfolute Cove- 
nant 1 on this depends the fulfilling of the Covenant, whcreunto 
a reft ipulat ion is annexed, but not the making thereof; For in the 
Abfolute Covenant there is nothing in the creature that might 
move God, either to promifejor to performe what he hath promi- 
it<i : but in the Covenant to which a ftipulation is annexed, Goi 
fulfils what he promifsd, bscaufe the creature exhibits what was 
cxadsd , although this that God hath entered into fuch a Cove- 
nant, and promiicd fo great things unto him that performed fucF? 
and fwch obedience, that wholly proceeds from the antecedent 
love, and freepleafurcof Almighty God. TheefT^nce of the Co- 
venant properly confiftcth in the Promife and ftipulation : But 
the words of the Covenant containe obedience required of God, 
and promifedofthemm Covenant, and io by a Metonymie are 
called the Covenant. ^a;<?^. 34. 27,28. Deat.i^,!^ ?^^.ii«2j^4^ 
and 34.1 3. r4- The Tables of the Law were the Tables of the Co- 
venant. The Covenant and Law differ, as fricndiTiip and tables 
obligatory to friendlhip : he that violates thefc, is convinced ta 
breakcthis : HtfA8.ij2.and the tables of the Covenant of La ware 
cilled the Covenantor Teft3ment,and the Book of the Covenant. 
<gA?M 24^4,7. 2 Kwg,2ia, A Covenant is made betwixt men 

ofthefignifcAmns of the wfrdcovemnt. 

of tbofc things, which cither were not due before, or were not 
thought to be due, which arc made firme,ftable and due by the ve- 
ry Covenant, fo that by the Covenant new right is acquired or 
canfcd, cither to one or both, who Covenant betwixt thcmfelves^ 
of any matter. Therefore the Covenant of God doth contain new 
things, grcat,and in no wife"duc,which of his mcere plcafurc God 
oflFcrs unto us. Now where there is huge and infinit3 difparity^ 
there can be noaffuranccofthisfogrcat a gift, but the ccrtainc 
Wordof God, andthcalTured Promife of him who doth never 
HCsDor change. That therefore Man Qiould enter into Covenant 
with God, it was neceffary that men [hould firft give credit to the 
Word of God, and then that they fhouM hope for thofe things 
which exceed their capacity, and (b at laft trufting in God and 
obeying, they fhould obtaine the good things promifed : 2nd Exod.24.^i. 
therefore the words of the Covenant may weH be put for the Cc- 7,8. 
venant. Nevertheleflfe in making Covenant with the creature 
God is not tied to verball expreflions, but often he contrads the 
Covenant in reall impreflions in the heart and frame of the Crea- 
ture, which is apparent in the Covenant fo often mentioned wirh 
the unreafonable creature, and this was the manner of covcnan- 
ting with our firft parents in the ftate of Innoccncy : but is moftr 
obfcrvablc in the rcftorcd reafonablc creature, when God (hall put 
his Lawes into their hcarts,and write them in their inward pans^ , 
Jer,i\ .3 5 . and the more perfedt the creature growes, the more 
reall fhall the imprcflionbe : But yet in all ages of the Church 
paft, and fo to the end of the world, God hath ever, ani ever vjill: 
make exprcflions outward of this his Covenant with mankinde* 
The Covenant is one thing, the name of the Covenant another; 
For the Covenant includes the whole reafon of the Covenant 
with the circumftances*. bat the name fometimes is attributed" 
to fome circumftances. So the Covenant: may be faid to be the. 
ftme and not the fame, that which is the fame in ftjbftanc?jvarieth 
in manner and circumftances. Z)^«f. 5.2,3. and 2p.i. and 4 31.. 
Nor is it a thing unufuall in Scripture,that this Qiould be affitmvd 
of one, and denyed of another, which is more illaftricus in one- 
then in another,though it be common to both, as C^Utth, 15.34, 
Interpreters of Scripture give this rule, when it feemes to deny 
theverycflenceof the thing, it doth deny only fomecircum- 
Sanccorrelpe<3-j<J^^r^9«57. Hg that receiveth me- ^ doth not rt- 

of the Covenam God made mfb man 

ceive me: which negation properly rcfpeds the degrees. Joh,^.^^, 
There u one that accttfeth joh, even Mofes, that is, Mofes primarily 

Sec Jcr. 2?. 7, and efpccially, Gen,/^%s%, GoAfent me hither: when God and his 

lfai.4j, 18. brethrenhaddoncit,bat in a divers manner. 

C H AP. II. 

of the Covenant God made mih man in 
the fiate of Innocenclz^, 

IT hath plcafcd God to dcalc with the reafonable creature, by 
way ot Promife and reftipulation, that is,by way of Covenant: 
I n which God himfelfe is one partic covenanting and promifing, 
and the whole reafonable creature, the other rcftipulating and 
obeying. The thing holden out by God is eternall life with all 
immediate blc0iags, the condition on the part of the reafonable 
creature is fccc, ready arid willing obediencc,whether from nature 
or grace The caufcs why God made choice todeale with the 
Teafonablc creature ia this manner are principally three. Firft,that 
the creature might know what to exped from the Creator, into 
what (late focver cad. Secondly, that the fame creature might 
alwayes recognize, and acknowledge what to retribute. Thirdly, 
Such manner of dealing fuitcs beft with the nature of the reafona- 
ble crcaturc,and his fubordirjation to the Almighty. But palling 
by what might be fpoken of iheCovenant with reafonable crea- 
tures, both men and Angels : we will only confider what Cove- 
nant God hath made with mankind, becaufe the knowledge 
thereof doth in fpcciall manner concerne us, and in the unfolding 
thereof the Scripture is mcft plcntifull. We reade not the word 
Covenant betwixt God and man, ever fincc the Creation, both in 
Innocency, and under the 611 ; but we have in Scripture what 
may amount to as much. As in Innocency God provided and pro- 
pofod to Adam, eternall happiocfle in the prefent in joyments, and 
calsfor pcrfefl: obedience: which appeares from Gods threat- 
ning,<7^«.2.i7. For if mmi muftdieif hedifobeyed, it implies 
ftrongly that Gods Covenant was with him for life, if he obeyed. 
And after the fall, it is moll evident, God was plcafed to hold this 
cpurfe with 9mn,in all ages and conditions, but with fome altera- 
-^ • tions. 

in thefiAteofJnnocemie. 

tions, as fccmed bcfl; in his infinite wifcdome, and beft fitted 
the prcfent condition of the creature. In this manner hath God 
afforded both the prime and fecondary good unto man under Co- 
venants and feales, that he might have the greater aiTurance , fb 
long as he walked in obedience: and herein God was pleafed to 
condcfcend to mans wcakncffc, and for the confirmation of his 
faith to adde Scales to his Covenants, in all times to bind the bar^ 
gaine. The Covenant in generall may be dcfcribed, a mutuall 
compaft or agreement betwixt God and man, whereby God pro- 
mifeth all good things, fpecially ctcrnall happincfl'sunto man, up- 
on juft, cquall and favourable conditions, and man doth promifc 
to walk before God in all acccptable,frce and willing obedience, 
cxpeding all good from God, and happineflc in God, according 
to his Promifc, for the praife and glory of his great Name. 

The Author of the Covenant is God, not God and man, for 
God doth enter into Covenant with man, not as his cqjall, but 
as his Soveraigne, and man is bound to accept of the conditions 
oScred by the Lord. There can be no fuch equality oi power and 
authority betwixt God and the creature, asthat he {hould indent 
with the moft High, but he muft accept what the Lord is well- 
pleafcd to offer and command. The Covenant is of Gcd, and that t 
of his free grace and love: for although in fome Covenant the 
good covenanted be promifed in juftice, and given in juftice for 
our workes : yet it was of grace that God was pleafed to bind 
himfelfe to his creature, and above the defert of the creature : and 
though the reward be of juftice, it is alfb of favour. For after 
pcrfeft obedience performed according to the will of God, it had 
been no in juft 'ce in God,as he made the creature of nothing, fo to 
have brought him unto nothing: it was then of grace that he 
was pleafed to make that promife, and of the fame grace his hap*- 
pincfe fticuld have been continued. The partecs covenanting 
are God and man: for God promifeth unto man upon condition, 
and man promifeth unto God what he requireth. In refpcdt of 
Gods promifc the Covenant is called his : but in refped of the 
conditionSjit may be called mans. God promifeth freely to rei*- Zech.9,11. 
compcncc the good of obedience, which is alresdy due , and ^^ ^j'^ ^^^^'^ 
might be exaded without promife of reward; man promifeth to "^^^^ *^°^^" 
pay that debt of duty,which he oweth unto the Lord,in refpcd of Jepr. ^td{m 
the manifold relations, wherein he ftands obliged unto him. 7 he ,7«. * 



To will and to 
nill the fame 
things is the 
lure bond of 
all amity and , 
Now becaufe 
the communi- 
on betwixt 
God and us is 
of infinite dif- 
tore his will i$ 
a Law to us, 
and our obedi- 
ence is true 
iriove tohina. 

of the Covenant God made mth man 

forme of the Covenant ftands in 4 Promife and reftipulation 
wherein the Lord, thoiagb he might have required the v/hole 
debt of obedience, without promife of reward, in rcfpe«ft of the 
good things already beftowed upon the creatare, yet to the end 
that man might yeeld cheerful! and free obedience, he firft boarid 
himfelfe to reward the obedience of man, before he bound man 
unto him in obedience. 

The SubJ^fl of this Covenant in gencrali is man not differen- 
ced by fpeciallrefpeds : for as the Law was given, fo ihz Gofpeli 
is revealed to Man in this or that fpeciall confideration 
is the fubJ3<S of the Covenant, as it is divided for kinds, or altered 
for circumllance?,and degrees : but man is the fubj ed of the Co- 
venant without fjch particular confiderat ions. The Lord having 
refp.^d to the mutability and wcakncffj of mans nature, was phs* - 
iedj astotry his obedience by Symbolical! precepts , fo to evi- 
dence the sflfurance of his faichfuli promife by outward fesks : 
but when the crearurefhall grow to abfolute perfedion and un- 
changeablcnefle, fuch lyrabolicall precepts and outward feairs 
ftiall ceafe as needleife. The good promifed is eternal! blcfTrdneiT: 
with all good things that doe accompany it, or belong thereunto: 
the good required is obedience to the jaft and righteous Com- 
mandcment of God, which he as our Soveraigne Lord doth 
claime and call for, according as he fhal! prefcribe and appoint. 
The end thereofjs the glory oi Godj-z/wi. the praifc of his wifc- 
domc, juftice and bountie. And in all thefe things the Covenants 
bowfccver divided in kinds, or varied in degrees and circumftan- 
ces, doe fweetly confent and agree. But feeing the Covenant is 
not one, but manifold, both in kinds and degrees, we muft diCtin- 
guiihir, and weigh more diligently what doth agree to every 
kind, and whs cin they agree, and wherein they di&rone from 
another. Some diftinguiOi thus,?he Covenant is either of Nature, 
or of Grace, or fubfervient to both, which is called the O'A Tefta- 
ment. Others thus, the Covenant is Legal! or Evangelical!, of 
works, or ofgrac<\ The Covenant of workes, wherein God 
covcnanteth with man to give him cternall life upon condition of 
perfed obedience in his owne perfon* The Covenant of Grace, 
which God maketh with man promifing cternall life upon ccn'» 
dition of beleeving. And this diftindion is one for fubflance 
with the former : and with ttat which may be taken from the 


in theftate oflnmeemh 

fpeciall confiSeration of the fubjedl with whom it was madc^ 
fcilA^Q Covenant made with ^Adamm the (late of Innocenciej 
or with man after the Fall. We rcade not in Scripture, the Co- 
venatit ofworks,orof graccwr/4<?;»j5'^/4^^; the ncereft wccomc 
to it is i?<?w. 3, 1 7. the Law of works oppofed to the Law of faith- 
which holds out as much as the Covenant oFworkeSjSnd the Co- 
venant of Grace. For there the Apoftle is difputing about /uftifi- 
cation, and by confequent eternall Salvation, which is Gods part 
to give under a Covenant But of this hereafter. The Covenant 
which God made with our firft parents, is that mutual! contra(5fc 
or agreement, wherein God promifed ctcrnall happinefle to man 
upon condition of intirc and perfed obedience to be performed in 

The Author of this Covenant was God his Creator and Sovc- 
raigne, who had beflowedmany and great bleffings upon man, 
furniilied him with excellent abilities, and enriched him with 
fingular priviledges. This Covenant God made in Juftice ; yet fo 
as it was of Grace like wife to make fuch a ftee promilc, and fo be- 
ftow fo great things upon man for his obedience. God did in 
ftridl juftice require obedience, promife a reward, and threaten 
puniChment: but yet as beuatifull and gratious unto his creature^ 
intire and psrfef!:, if hefiiould fo continue. God 6iid in juilics 
proportion the reward and the worke, the welghc of the blefling 
promifed, and the work of obedience required : but yet I cannot 
thinke it had been injuftice in God to have given lerfe, or not to 
have continued fo great things to man, fo long as he continued 
bis obedience : No, God was pleafed to manifeft his goodnelfe 
to man continuing in obedience, no kfle then his juftice, as for- 
merly in creation he had (hewed himfclfe exceeding gratiousto 
m3n,abovc other vifible and corporal! creatures. 

This Covenant God made with man without a Mediatour: for 
there needed no middle perfon to bring man into favour and 
friendfhip with God, becaufe man did beare the image of God, 
and had not offended *. nor to procure acceptance to mans fervice, 
becaufe it was pure and fpotleffe, God did love man being made 
after his Imagci and promiied to accept of his obedience per- 
formed freely, willingly, intirely, according to his Commande- 
ment, The forme of this Covenant ftood in the fpeciall Pro- 
Hiife of good to be received from juftice as a reward for his work, 

C rOoe 

10 ^f ^^^ Covenant God made with man 

^oe this and live : and the exad and rigid exadion of psrfeft obe- 
dience in his own perfon,without the leaft fpot or failing for mat- 
ter or manner. The good that God proniifcd was in it kind a per- 
izdi fyfteme of good, which was to be continued fo long as he 
continued obedient, which becaufe it might be continued in the 
eye of creating power for ever, we call it hjppinefFj,lifc,and ever- 
lading happineffe. But upon a fuppofition of Adorns perfifting 
in a ftate of obedience, to fay that God would have tranflated 
him to the ftate of glory in Heaven, is more then any jaft ground 
will warrant; becaufe in Scripture there is no fuch promife. 
And if wc muft not prefume above what is written, we may fay, 
e^<iii2;w {Kould have continued in that blefT^d eftate in which he 
was created, but as for his tranflation after fome number of y eares 
fpent on earth, wc reade it not. In this ftate and condition 
jf^4s»i obedience fhould have been rewarded in jaftice, but he 
could not have merited that reward. Happinefle fiiculd have 
been conferred upon him, or continued unto him forhis workSg. 
but they had not deferved the continuance thereof : for it is im- 
poffible the creature fliould merit of the Creator, becaufe when 

Lskt !7« 1 o, ^^ ^^^^ ^°"^ ^ ^^'^ ^^ ^^"» h^ is 3n unprofitable fervant, he hath 
done but his duty. The obedience that God required at bis hands 
was partly nataralljto be regulated according to the Law engra- 
ven in his heart by the finger of God himfelfe, confifting in the 
true, unfained and perfect love of God, and of his Neighbour foE 
the Lords fake: and partly Symbolical], which ftood in obedi- 
ence to the Law given for his probation and iriall^ whether he 
>- would fubmit to the good pleafure of God in an adiot itfelfc 
meerely indifferent, becaufe he was lb commanded ► Thcughr 
God had put many abilities and honourable priviiedges upon man g 
yet he remained hisSoveraignc, which by an afl of reftraint, he 
was pleafed to make man thus exalted to know, which he ^'^A by 
requiring and commanding his creature to abftain ftom one fruit 
in it fell e pleafant to the eye , and- good for meat. This was 
mans Homage-penny, a thing before the command indifRrentj, 
unto which he had a naturall inclination, from which he was 
now to abftaine, becaufe God (who bad before given to man as 
part of his patrimony, and not as re ward of his obedience to this 
f articular rcftraint,liberty to eat of every tree of the Gardcn)herc 
mtcrpofed himfelfe and refsrved this as an Homage unto himfclf, 


in the ftmof Inmcemt^* li 

God in his Soveraignty fet a punilhment upon the breach of this ^ 
his Commandemenf, thatman might know his inferiority, and ^^"♦*'»^« 
that things betwixt him and ©od were not as between equals. 
The fubjed of this Covenant is man intire and per fecfi-^ made a& 
ter the Image ofGod in Rightccufneffe and true holineflc, furni» 
fticd not only with a reafonable fouls and faculties bcfeeming, but 
with dinuQ qualities breathed from the whole Trinity ,infufed in- 
to the whole man, lifting up every faculty and power above his 
iirft frame, and inabling and fitting him to obey the will of God 
intircly, willingly, exa(31y,for matter and mcafure. Whether this 
was natural! or fuper natural! unto the fir ft man, is a queftion need- 
kffe to be difputed in this place,and perad venture if the termes be 
J^ightly underftood, will be no great controverfie. Only this muft 
be acknowledged, thatthis was v^^^«//excellcncic above all the 
creatures, and that in the fallen creature this quality is fuperns- 
turalh Unto this mutual! Covenant God added afeale toafTurc 
the protoplaft of his performance and pcrlifting in Covenant with 
him, and further to ftrengthen his obedienccj with the obedience 
cf his po(lerity,which upon his breach with God was made void. 
This Covenant of works made with Adamihould have been the 
fame unto his whole poftericy, if he had continued as in all after 
Covenants of God, they are made with Head and Root, reaching 
unto all the branches and members iffuing from them, Rom.'$.ij^ . 
3 Cor, 15.22,47. The proportion holding in Abrahamxo Chrift, 
till the Covenant be rejcded in after commcirs. But this Cove- 
nant was fo msdc with Adam the root of ail mankind, that if 
tranfgrciTed, his whole poderity fhould be liable to the curfe tem- 
porail and eternall, which entred upon his fall. This Covenant 
was a Covenant of friendfhip not of reconciliation ; being once 
broken it could not be repaired ; it promifed no mercy or pardon, 
admitted no repentance, accepted no obedience, but what was 
perftd: and compleat. If Adam had a thought after his breach, • 
that he might have healed the matter, it was but vainc prefumpti- 
on, and leaft he lliould rely upon a vainc confidence in eating of 
the tree of life, God drove him out of the Garden. But this Co- 
venant was not peremptory, not the laft nor unchangeable. Woe 
to ail the poflcrity of Adam, if God (hould dcale with them ac- 
cording to the ftntence here denounced . W^ben man had plunged 
himfelfe into mifery, it pleafcd the Lord to reveale his abundant 

C 2 Grace 

iz oftheCovemntGedmadewiihmnn 

Grace in the Covenant ofGrace, of which hereafter. 

The end of this Covenant is the demonftration of Gods wife- 
dome, bounty, goodne0c and Juftice, both rewarding and punilh- 
ing : and it made way for the manifeftation of his rich grace and 
abundant free mercy brought to light in the fecond Covenant, 
Three queftions may be moved here not unprofitable, nor im- 
OucH,U peJ^tinent. i. Why in the Covenant of nature (as it is called) 
''^ * * God doth not exprefTcIy require Faith, but Obedience and Love^ 
And the. anfwer is. That only by confequsnt Faith is rcquired,- 
: and not exprclTely in this Covenant, becaufe there was not the 
leaft probable caufe or fufpition why manfhould doubt of Gods 
love, for finne had not as yet entred into the world : but in the 
Covenant of Grace it was contrary, for that is made with a con- 
feier-ce terrified with finne, which coald. be .raifed up by none 
other meaneSjbut by the free Pronaife of mercy, and Faith imbra- 
cing the Word of Promife, freely and faithfoUy tendered, and to 
be received by faith only. 

Againfj in this Covenant is confidered, what in exai51; juIHce 
man doth owe unto God : (but he oweth juftice and Sandity i) 
but in the Covenant of Grace whac God reconciled to man in his 
Sonne,would offer, and that is bountifully r ff-red. 
]§U0^2* 2- ^°^^ ^^^^ Faith, which prefuppofeth exad juftice in the 

' "" Covenant of Nature, differs from that Faith which is required in 
the Covenantof Grace ?: • 

Anfrv.Vsi'ith, which the exad righteoufnflTe of man in the 
Covenant of Naturc,doth prefuppofc, agreeth with faith vjbich 
is required in the Coveriant of Grace in this, that both are of God^ 
both is a perfwafion concerning the love of God, both begetteth 
in man mutuall love of GtjidjbcciJure if faith abo!ind§,love aboundsj 
languifhing, it languilheth ; and being extin<5l,it is estinguifhcd-i 
But they differ firft in the Foundation. For Faith which the 
RigbteoufnefTvof nature prefuppofeth, kaneth on the title of-in-! 
tire nature, and therefore after the fall of ^^^^s it hath no piace-i 
for althpugb God love the creatures in thcaifdves;, yet he hates 
them corrupted with finne. No therefore can perfwadc 
himfelfe, that he is beloved of God in the title of a creature; (for 
all b^ve finned) nor love God as he ought.But the Faith,of which' 
there is mention in the Covenant of Grace, doth Icane upon the 
Fjcomife mad«in Chriil. _ Secondly, when both are of;God, yei 

in the fiate of Inmcencie, 


tbatfaitb which cxat^righteoufneffsprefuppofeth is of God (as 
they fpeakc in Schooles) per modum tiMuYA ; B ut the Faith rcqui* 
red in the Covenant of Grace, is ofGodfhutpeywo^um gratU fn* 
f^rnatHralii, Thirdly,thc righteoufnefTe^ whichthc faith of nature 
bcgetteth was changeable j bccaufc the faith whence it did flaw, 
did depend upon a changeable Trinciple of nature: But the San- 
dity, which the Faith of the Covenant of Grace bcgetteth, is 
eternal! and unchangeable, becaufc it comes from an eternal! and 
unchangeable beginning, the Spirit of Grace. 

But if the Faith and Holinefife of Adam was changeable, how q^jc^\ 
^ouldhebefecurc,orfreefromdiftra<aingfeares; the anfwer is, •' * 
the mind of ^^^p»,which was wholly fixed, and kt in the adrrii- 
ration and fenfS: of Gods goodneffe, could not admit of fuch> 
thoughts ;, fuch cogitations could not creep into it. 

3 . Whether the Covenant of works fland on foot in the pode- o ^^ ' 
rity oiAdam, though not in rcfped of lik and happinefi^, yet in " ' 

refpe^ofthe things of this life? To this foms anfwer affirma- 
tively,becaufc many of tbeffi, from fomc remainders of the fore- 
mentioned abilities, did many good thingsfor the good of bodies 
politicke wherein they lived. £«>?». 2.13,14,15,16. v^hich God 
retributes with good things in this life, to ibmc more, to fome 
leiTej but to all fome. And it cannot be denied 5 bat foiBe remain^ 
dersofGods Image or notions of good and evill, aretobefaund 
amongft the.Heathen : and that thefe things, in them who lived 
without the pale of the Church, have been increfefed by culture 
of nature under DifciplinCjby Arts and Exercifes, and might re- 
ceive improvement by vicinity to the Church ; from wbich tbe^r 
might Icarnc fome tilings to enrich them in- this-trad; ; And tbai^ 
God hath beftowed many and great bleffings upon thempertai- 
ning^tothis life : But it may be qaeftioned, whether thefe tbings^^ 
come from the compad.of workcs, or be gifts of bounty and 
Gods righteous adminiftration, for a time r^fpiting the fentencc 
denounced againft man for -breach of Covenant^ and touch fafing 
unto him fbmc tcmporali good things for the ufe and benefit of 
humane Society. Yea, it may be worthy confide rat ion, Whether 
thelc things be not granted unto them in Jcfus Chrift, according 
to the Covenant of Grace, which was mads u]56n the very fall i- 
^ whom not only tlic Elcdt, but the whole frame of nature re.^ 
e;eivcdbenefit«^ . In ths Creation God rajfed up. a gr^at Familj,- 

' C 3 . . whereiQ' 

14 ' of the Covenant God made with man in the fate ofjnnocencie. 

wherein he made Adam the head, and all his poftcrity inhabitors, 
the frame of Heaven and Earth his domicile, the creatures his 
iervants, this Family upon tlie fall was broken up, the prcfent 
Mafter turned out of bis imployments, the children beggcrcd, the 
fervants returning to God their Soveraigne, and the whole frame 
of the creature under attainder. God thus defeated, (if I may fo 
fpeake)fets up a fecond Family, called the Family of Heaven and 
Earthjwhcrein JcfusChriftjthe womafisfeed,^f». 3. 19. is the 
Hcad,0^^;/^.2 8.i8.i?;>)?'^/i.22.^o/.i.i9,2o. ailed the fecond 
Adam.LorA of ?11 things in Heaven and Eartb,and that with more 
fovcraignty and amplitude of inj oyment then ever the firft Adam 
had J the whole creature being put under bis feet. The children 
of this Family are the faithfull, who be the adopted Brethren^ 
i?0OT.8.i5.fometimescalledthefeed. The fervanrs be the wic- 
ked, and thofe of two forts, cither fuchas attend in the Church, 
nearer about Chrifts perfon, or further off, as in farmC'houfcs for 
bafer offices. The creatures, by a fecond ordinance from their 
former Mailer free,arc{iated upon Chrift,though they beare fomc 
brands of evill from the finne of their former Matter : the domi- 
cile, though not fo beautifull,refurnes to Chrift. So the Cove- 
nant ofGrace,entring upon the breaking up of the former Family^ 
inveftcth Chrift with all as purchafer of the loft creature from re- 
venging juftice, and as Lord of all things in Heaven and Earth, 
who freely conferretb the heavenly inheritance upon the adopted 
fonnes and brethren, and vouchfafeth earthly blc flings, and fomc 
fpirituall common gifts to the wicked, which may be called fer- 
vants, both thofe that more neerly attend his perfon, and thofc 
that be further ofi; But of this more hereafter. 

C H A p . 1 1 1. 
of the Covenant of Grace in generall. 

THe Covenant of Grace is that free and gracious Covenant 
, which God of his tneerc mercy in JefusCHrifV made with 
man a miferable and wretched (inner, promifing unto him pardon 
of finne and eternall happinefle, if he will return from his iniqui- 
ty, embrace mercy reached forth,by faith unfained, and walke be- 

of tht Covsnant of Grace in gemraU. 1 5 

forcGodinfincerc, faithfull and willing obedience, as becomes 
fiich a creature lifted up unto fuch injoymcnt, and partaker of fuch 
pretious promifes. This Covenant is oppofite to the former in 
kind, fo that at one and the fame time, man cannot be under the 
Covenantofworkcs and the Covenant of grace. For he cannot 
hope to be juftified by his psrfedl and exaft obedience, that ac- 
knowledging himfclfe to be amiferable and loft (inner, doth ex- 
ped pardon of the free mercy of God in Icfus Chrift embraced by 
faith. The condition of the Law as it was given to ^Adam^ ex- 
cludes the neceflity of mercy reaching to the pardon of finne : and 
the ncccflity of making a new Covenant, argues the former could 
not give life, HebJ^rj. He that is under grace, cannot at the fame 
time be under the law : and he that waites for Salvation of meerc 
and rich grace to be vouchfafcd, cannot cxpcd it as the defcrved 
wages of his good worke from juftice, and not of mercy. 

What then may fome fay, is the Law aboliflied, or is it lawful! 
for Chrift ians to live as they lift, becaufe they be not under the 
Law ? 

Not fo ; but the Law hath a double refpecl ; one as the unchan- 
geable rule of life and manners, according to which perfons in 
Covenant ought to walke before and with the Lord, and in this 
fenfc it belongs to the Covenant of grace. The other, as it is pro- 
pounded in forme of a Covenanr, as if he muft neceflarily perifh, 
who doth neglcdor breakcit in the Icaft jot or tittle, and in 
this fenfe the Covenant of grace and workcs are oppofite. The 
matter of Evangelicall precepts and of the Morall Law is the 
lame, but the forme of promulgation is not the fame : the rule is 
one, but the Covenants differ. Materialy the Law, that is, 
the matter and argument of the Law, as a rule, ftands in force : 
hut if formslly it did continue as a Covenant, there could be no 
place for repentance, norfor thcpromifeofforgivcneffe, or mer- 
cy reaching to the pardon of finne, or the cyaickning of them that 
be dead in trefpaiTiS. The Covenant of workcs is of /aftice, the 
Covenant of grace isof grace and mercy, which cannot agree and 
take place in one and the fame fubjed : for he that trycth jufticc, 
pcrcciveth not the force of mercy, & \ contra. This might be 
€ommon to both Covenants, that God doth freely give reward, 
becaufe he was not bound unto it by any Law, and that is done of 
grace, which wc arc not tied unto by Law : but in the Covenant 

ofthtCQvcn&m of Grace ingemrall. 

Bonitatis T>ei 

Uberare nos vo • 
iuit : qtted vera 
aliterqua^a ra^ 
H moio libera' 
:^e nos nolaitf 
pccatorum bo« 
'firoTurn e,f ms' 

of Grace, hs gives the reward of ftiecre and rich grace, and that 
£0 the creature which hath defcrvsd Hell. 
■ This^ Covenant cntsred im mediately upon the fall, and fo may 
be called a Covenant of Reconciliation, not of friendfi^ip. At 
the very inftanf , when God holy and true, was pronouncing 
ludgements upon the fevcrall delinquents in the fall, fetting 
downe bis iemence againft the Tempter, both in his inftrumcnt 
the Serpent, and the rsalne Author Sathan, he brings in the par- 
ry who (bould execute the fame, in which execution is unfolded 
the Covenant of grace for the Salvation of the creature, that the 
Serpent had dsftroyed, that God might be knowne in wrath to 
remember mercy. , Atthe very fall, and before Judgement was 
pronounced upon the delinquents that were tempted, the Cove- 
nant of mercy was proclaimed, that byvertue of this Covenant 
God might prevent further waftcofhis creature, which Sathan 
might haue wrought upon his new advantage in following his 
good fucceffe,. and^that the tempted might have fome comfort 
before their jadgemsnt, leaft they might have been f wallowed 
up of wrath. 

The Authour of this Covenant is God, confideredas a merci- 
fuU and loving Father inlefus Chrift : as a Creator he flrooke Co- 
venant with Adamin his integrity ; as a Saviour he looked upon 
the poorc creature plunged into finne, and mifcry by reafon offin. 

The caufe that mo-v'ed the Lord to make this Covenant, was 
not 8ny worth, dignity or merit in man : for man never had 
ought, which hehadnot received^ and now by his difobedi- 
ence, had deferved to becaft off for ever s neither was the prefenc 
mikxy into which he had cafl: himfdfe the caufe that moved the 
Lord to receive man into favour .-for the Angels more excellent 
by creation, as miferable by their fall, he hath refcrvcd in chaines 
of darknefie : The fole moving caufe, why God made this Cave- 
nantj was the love, favour and mercy of the Lord. Deut.^j.j.^^ 
Only the Lord had a delight in thy fathers to love them, (faith Mofes) 
and he chofe their feed after them. Deut, lO. 15. When I pajfed by 
thee, andfarptheefolltitedin thine owne hlood^l faid unto thee, ivhen 
ihofitvaSiinthy i>locrd,li'(je, £z,ek: 16. 6, -See £^ek^^6,^2. Lnk^u 

, This Covenant was made in Chrift, in and through whom wa 
ere reconciled unto God :for fincc God and man v/cre feparated 


of the Covemm ofGracem generally 


by finnc, no Covenant can paflfs betwixt tkcm, no reconciliati- 
©ncan becxpe<flcd, no pardon obtained, but in and through a 
in«diatour, b innes were never remitted unto any man, no man 
was ever adopted into the place and condition of a fonne,by grace 
and adoption, but in him alone, who is the fame yefterday, to- 
day, and for ever, Jefus Chrift,truc God and true man, AU.^ 1 2, 

The fall of our firft parents was occafion of this Covenant : for 
God fuffcred him to flip, that he might manifeft the riches of his 
mercy in mans recovery. Mercy freeing man from mifery pofli- 
ble might have taken place before tranfgreflion, and have difcc- 
vercd it fclfc in the preventing offinne,and fo of mifery : but it 
feem«d good unto Almighty God to fuffer mifery to enter upon 
man through finnc, that he might make knownethe infinite ri- 
ches of his mercy, in fuccouring and lifting him up, being fallen 
and plunged intoaftatc rcmedikffsand defpsrate for ought he 
knew. Bcfiics, we may conceive, that Almighty God, upon 
juft grounds difdaining, that fuch a bafc creature falneby pride, 
fliQuld thus upon advantage of the mutability of his rcafonable 
creature, ruinate the whole frame of the Creation, and trample 
the glory of his name under foot : and withall looking upon the 
Chaos which finne had brought, and would further make, if fomc 
fpeedy rcfuedy was not provided ; did out of his infinite and 
boundlefle love to man (though in the tranfgrcffion,} anxl jafl and 
dreadfull indignation againftSathan, give forth this gratious and 
free Covenant. 

The forme of this Covenant ftands in gratious and free promi- 
fcs of all good to be repaired, reftored, augmented, and a reftipu- 
lation of fuch duties as will ftand with free grace and mercy. 
For the Covenant of Grace doth not exclude all conditions, but 
fuch as will not ftand with grace. The Covenant which wag 
made of free love, when we lay wallowing in our blood, and 
which calls for nothing at our hands but what comes from, and 
(hall be rewarded of mcerc grace, is a Covenant of grace, though 
it be conditional!. So the pardon of finne is given of grace, and 
not for workes, though pardon be granted only to the penitent, 
and faith on our part, a lively, unfaincdand working faith be re- 
quired to receive the promifc. 

The parties covenanting are two, and fo are the parts of the 

D Covenant, 

^^ut naflr<e 
tern idufam ht. 
bet. Sedaliter 

nimirum pxnte 



caufam earn ha* 





1 8 of tkCo^ettant0fOracemgemraiL 

Covenant, the one in rc{ps3:ofGod,theothcrinrcfpcdof man, 
A Covenant there is betwixt Goi and man, but nomutuall ob* 
ligation of debt i for fach mutaall obligation is founded in fome 
equality ; but there is no equality between the Creator and the 
creature, much leffs betwixt the Lord mod high, and man a 6n- 
ner. Ifman had never offended, God almighty, who gave him 
his being and perfe^ion, could not have been indepted unto him, 
but as he was pleafed to recompence the good of obedience, in 
the creature that never deferved puoiQim ent : much IciTe can God 
bcindeptcd to the creature that hath ofeded, who can neither 
^ endure his prefence nor beare the weight ofhis wrath, nor fatisfic 
Juftice, nor deliver his foulc from the thraldome of finnc. The 
obligation of man to God is of double right and debt :.but it is of 
rich gra;ce and abundant love , that God doth bind himlelfe unto 
man. God doth promifeinthisCovenanttobeGodand Fathcs 
by right of redemption, and Chrift to be Saviour of them that bc- 
icevein God by him> and in faith do ycild (incere, uniformCj 
willing, upright and conftant obedience unto his Commande-s 
ments. f^.5 141,52,53 *Z)^«;.;i.d. Ezek^.^6.2$,i6, ge»»ifi 
5 34>5 . ?^« 5 2-40 . & 3^5 .p. Heb,^, I o, 1 1 , 1 2. y/4 5 4.7. Hof.2»jp, 
The ftipulation required is, that we take God to be our God,^ 
that is,, that we repent of our iniquities, believe the promifcs of 
mercy and embrace them with the whole heart, and yeeld lovfi^. 
feare, reverence, worfhip, and obedience unto him, according^ 
to the prefcript rule of his word. Repentance is called for in this it fetteth forth the fub)c6l capable of Salvation by 
faith, butisitfelfeonlyan acknowledgement of (inne, no hea- 
I^uicei^. ?* ling of our wound, orcaufc of our acquittance. The feeling o§: 
A^. IF, »8. paine and (icknefTc, caufctha man to defire and feeke remedy, but 
%^^J' ^g/°* 3t is no remedy it fclfc. Hunger and third make a man to defire 
*e '. I • i7»j ^^^ £^^^^ ^^j. gj^j^ ^yj g ^^^ ^^ j^^^ f^^^ j^y being hungry. By re? 

pentancc we know our felvcs, we fcele our Ackncfie, wehunger - 
and thirft after grace, but the hand which we ftretch forth to re- 
ceive it, is faith alone, without which repentance is nothing but 
darkncff: and dcfpairc. Repentance is the condition of faith and 
the qualification of a perfon capable of Salvation : but faith alone 
isthccaufccf Juftification and Salvation, on our part rcquiredo. 
Jt is a penitent and petitioning faith, wherby we receive the pro- 
snifcs of mercy, but we arc not juftificd partlyby prayer, partly 


of tk Covenant cfGraccingmer all. 19 

by repentance, and partly by faith, but by that faith,which ftir- 
rcth up godly Ibrrow for finne, and cnforcqth us to pray for par- 
don and Salvation« Faith is a neccifary and lively inllrumcnt of 
Juftification, which is amongfttbc number of true caufes, not 
being a caufe without which the thing h not done, but a 
caufc wherby it is done. The caufe without which a thin g is not 
done, is only prefent in the adion, and doth nothing therein: 
But as the eye is an adive inftrument for feeing, and the eare for 
bearing, fo is faith alfo for ju^ifying. If it be demanded whofe 
inftiumentit is? ItistheinftrumentoftheSoulc, wrought ther- 
in by the Holy Ghoft, and is the free gift of God. In the Cove- 
nant of workes, wcrkes were required as the caufe of life and 
happinefle s but in the Covenant of grace, though repentance be 
neceflary and muft accompanie faith, yet not repentance, but 
faith only is the caufe ef lif«. The caufe not efficient, as workes 
jliould have been, if man had ftood in the former Covenant, but 
inftrumentall only : for it is impoffible that Chrift, the death and 
blood of ChriO, and our faith fhould be together the efficient or r 

procuringcaufesof juftification or Salvation. When the Apo- 
ftlc writcth, that man is not juftified by workes^ or through ^g'?^^**'**- 
workes, by the Law or through the Law (oppofing faith and Gal.2.*itf.i7, 
workes in the matter of Iuftificatior>, but not in refpeifl of their Rotn.4.»,j« ' 
prtfence : faith, I fay, and works, not faith and merits which 
could never be) without doubt heexcludes the efficiency and force 
of the Law akd workes in jaftifying : But the particles By and of 
doe not inthd fame fenfe take Juftification frou the Law and 
workes, in which they give it to faith, tor faith only doth be- 
hould and receive the promifes of life and mercy, but the Law and 
works refped the Comtnandements, not the promifes of meere 
grace. When therfore Juftification and life is faid to be by faith, 
it is manifeftly fi^nified, that faith receiving the promife, doth 
receive righteoufncffe and life freely promifcd. Obedience to all j^ ' 

Gcdis Commandements is covenanted, not as the caufe of life,but g^ loi'ii » 
as the qualification and effed of faith, and as the way to .life, ier.7, »/. 
Faith that embraceth life is obedientiall, and fiu'tfull in all good Lcv.i^i.i 7^18. 
workes ; but in one fort faith is the caufe of obedience and good Luk, lo.a/ 
workes, and in another of luftification and life cternall. Thcfe ^^''•^M*'* 
it fceketh in the promifes of the Covenant ; thofe it worketh and 
prcducetb, as the caufe doth the c^t&. Faith was the efficient 

D s > caufe 


20 f the Covemmcf Grace fngerterall. 

Heb,ii,4,7, caufe of that pretious oblation in Abell,of reverence and preparing 
- _ the Arke in Noak^ of obedience in z/4hraham .-but h was the in- 

flrument only of their juftification, For it doth not juftific as it 
produceth good workes, but as it reccivcth Chnft, though it can- 
not receive Chrift, unlcflc it brings forth good workes. A difpo- 
fition to good workes is ncccfTary to juftification, being the qua- 
lification of an ad-ive and lively faith. Good works of all forts arc 
neccflary to our continuance in the ftate of juftification, and io lo 
our finall abfolution, if God give opportunity : but they arc noC 
the caufe of, but only a precedent qualification or condition to fi- 
naii forgivcnefTe and cternall bhfTe. If then, when we fpeake of 
the conditions of the Covenant of grace, by Condition We un» 
dcrftand whatfoever is required on our part, as precedent, con- 
comitant or fubfequcnt to juftification, repentance, faith 2nd o- 
bediencearcall conditions: but if by Condition we underftand 
what is required on our part, as the caufe of the good promifed 
though only inftrumentall, faith or beliefe in the promifcs of frca 
^ mercy is the only Condition. Faith and workes are oppofed in 

thematterof Juftification and Salvation in the Covenant, not 
that they caonotftand together in thefamc fub/edl, for they be 
infeperably united, but bccaufe they cannot concurrcor meete to* 
gethcr in one & the fame Courtjto the Juftification or Abfolution 
of Man, For in the Court of Juft ice according to the firft Cove- 
nant either being juft he is acqu'tted, or unjuft he is condemned i 
But in the Court ofMercy, if thcu receive the promife of pardon, 
which is done by a lively faith, thou art acquitted andfct free^ 
and accepted as /aft and righteous : but if thou believe not, thou 
art fent over to the Court of Juftice. 

Obedience is two- fold, pcrf€d: in mcafure and degree, this is 
fofarrc required, tbatific be not performed, wemuft acknow- 
ledge our finne incomming {hort : And this God is pleafed £d 
cxadt at our hands, that we might walkc in humility before hiojj 
ftrive after perfedion, and freely acknowledge his rich grace and 
snercy in accepting and rewarding the beft fcrvicc we can tender 
unto his Highneftf, when in the Court of luftice it defcrveth to 
be rejedcd. 2. Sincere, uniforme and conftant, though imper- 
fed in meafure and degree, and this is fo neceffary, that without 
it there is no Salvation to be expeded. The Covenant of Grace 
caileth for p^ft^ion^ accepteth finecrity, God in mercy pardo- 

ofthi Covenant of Grace ingentralL % i 

ning the iropcrfcftions of our beft performances. If perfedion 
was rigidly exaftcd, noflcfti could be favcd : if not at all com- 
manded, imperfcdion (hould not be fin, nor perfcaion to be la- 
boured after. The faith that is lively to imbrace mercy is CTec 
conjoy ned with an unfained purpofe to walkc in all well plcafing, 
and thefincere perfixmance of all holy obedience, as opportuni- 
ty is cflFercd, doth ever attend that faith, whereby we continual- 
ly lay hold upon the promifes once embraced. Aifluall good 
workesofallibrts (though not pcrfedin degree) are neceflary 
to the continuance of aftuall juftification, becaufe faith can no 
longer lay faithful! claime to the promifcs of life, then it doth ver- 
tuaily or adually leade us forward in the way to HQavcD.Forifwe 
/4j, ypehavefelloxpjhipmfh Cfodandwa/k^in darkfifjfe, we lie and doe 
not the trmht'Btit if we walks in the lightAi he u in the light ^ we have 
fellowfhip one with another ^ I }oh, 1 .5,7. This walking in the light^as 
he is in the light, is that qualification, wherby we become imme- 
diatly capable of Chrifis r jghteoufnesjor aduall participants of his 
propitiation, which is the fole immediate caufe of our jfuftificati- 
on, taken for remiflion of finnes, or afluall approbation with God. 
The truth of which Do£lrineS'^7<'"^;» likewife ratifies in tearmes 
equivalent, in the words prefently following : Andthe blood of t^i^h^u^l 
Chrifi chanfeth Hs,{vj2\\fXng in the light as God is in the light), 
from allfinne. But of thele things more largely in the feverail de- 
grees how this Covenant hath been revealed. 

Id this Covenant man doth promife to repent ofhis finnes, and 
repenting to cleave unto the promife of mercy made in Icfus» 
Chrift , and in faith to yecld willing, cheerefull and continuall o- 
bedience. Incontradsamongftmen, onemay askemore, and 
the other bid leflc, and yet they may ftrike agreement ; But it is 
altogether bootlefle, for men rothinkeof cntring into Covenant 
with God, if they be not refolvedto obey in all things. The pra- 
ftife of all Gods people, who ever made Covenant with his High«- 
ncfle, doth exprcffely fpeake thus much, when they folemnly en- 
trcdinto, or renewed their Covenant : for thus they promife,, 
fVhatfoever the Lord faith i thatmilTvedoe,Sxod,2/\.^,j. The peo- 
ple faid unto J ofliua. The Lord our God wi/iweferve, and his voice 
will we obey, foJh.2J:^,2 3. And they entredinto Covenant tofeeke the 
Lord Qod of their Fathers, with all their heart i^nd with all tke'.rfonlei 
That whofoevfT woftld norfak^ the Lord god oflfrael, fhould be fut 


of the Cevemnt of Grace ingenerd. 

to death f whether fmdU or great, whither m4n or i»oma*t, 2 Chron.l^, 
12,13. And the King flood hj the fUlar^ addmade a Covenant he- 
fore the Lord, to xfalke after the Lord, and to hefe his (fommonde' 
ments, aKdhisTefiimonies, andhisfiatutes, reithall their heart, and 
all their fouU^ to per forme the words of this Covenant that rvere yprit- 
ten in this boeke ; aim all the feo fie flood to the Covenant, 2 Chron.^J^ 
31,2 Kin^s 23.3. Thej entred into a Cttrfe, and into an Oath t9 
tualke in Qods Law, which was given hy LMofes the Servant of God, 
andtoobJerveanddoedltheCommaniementsofthe Lor ^ our Cjod, 
andhis ludgements, and his Statutes, Neh^io.ig, And thus run- 
neth the exhortation of foj^ua to the two tribes andhalfe when 
he fent them home (Take diligent heed to doe doe Commandements of 
the Law, which Mofes the ftrvant of the Lo/d charged yoti, to love 
the Lord jour Qod, and to walke in all hii wayes, and to keepe his 
(fommandements , and to cledveunto him, andto fervehim with aU 
your heart, and with all your foul e, lojh.ii,'^. Which mud not (o 
be undcrdood, as if he that did of frailty and infirmity cflF^nd in 
any one jot or tittle, (liould be held a Covenant breaker :for then 
ro man fnould be innocent, but the promife mail be interpreted 
according as tbe Law or rule of obedience is givcr,which caileth 
for perfedionbut accepteth fincerity. In the Covenant of ajcrcy 
we bind our fclves to believe and reft upon God with the whole 
heart, fo as doubting or diftruft of weakneffe and infirmity, 
muft be acknowledged! a finncj but every fuch frailty doth not ar- 
gue the perfon to be a tranfgreflbur of the Covenant. And the 
fame holds true of obedience. But of this more largely in the par- 
ticular manner bow God hath been pleafed to adminifter this Cu- 
venant. Man then doth promife to fcrve the Lord, and to cleave 
unto him alone, which is both a debt of duty, and fpeciall prcroga- 
tive,and he doth reftipulatc or humbly intreat, that God would be 
mindfoli of his holy Covenant or teftimony,that he would be his 
Godjhis Portion,his Protedlourjand rich reward. Tbcfc things be 
io linked together in the Covenant, as that we muft conceive the 
Promife ofGod in order of nature to goc before the Promifsand 
obedience of man : and to be the ground of faith, whereby mercy 
promifed is received. The offer of mercy is made to man an un- 
beleever, that he might come home,and the promife muft be con- 
^ ceivcd before we can bclcevei elfe we fhould beleeve we know 
Bot what, and faithlhould bang in the aire without any founda- 

of the Covendm of Grace in gemralL a ^ 

tion : but mercy ofiercd is embraced by faith, and voucbfafcd to 
bim that beleevetb, Alfo the duty which God calleth for, and 
man promifeth, is mans duty but given of God. By grace man is 
enabled and cffeiflually drawne to doc what God commandeth. 
The Covenant could not be of grace, nor the good things cove- 
nanted, if man by his own ftrength did or could performs what 
God requireth. 

This Covenant was firft publifhcd, and made knowne by lively 
voice : afterwards it was committed to writing,the tables there- 
of being the holy Scripture. It was made both by word and Pfal.8^.4,5?. 
Gath, to demonftrate the certainty and conftancy thereof : and Dcut.t5>,i», 
Icalcd by the Sacraments, which on Gods part doe confirme the J^j.^ ..«, 
Promifemadebyhim: and on mans part are bils obligatory or Hcb.6.17,18. 
hand-writings, whereby they teftific and bind themfelves to the 
performance of their duty» Lake i . 7 a. 

For manner of adminiftration this Covenant is divers, as it 
pleafed God in fundry manners to difpenfe it : but for fubftance 
it is one, thelaft, unchangeable and evetlafting. Oae, For fefpn 
(, hriB u the fame yeBerday,a»d to day, and for cvevi The lad : for it Heb. i|,«, 
fucceeded the Covenant of works, but none (hall fuccccd it. In 
it God hath revealed his whole pleafurc touching the Salvation 
of man,and hath manifcfted his principall properties, the riches o^ 
his grace, wherein he delighteth tobe magnified. He that is not 
faved by the Covenant of Grace, muft and fliall pcrilh evcrlafting- 
ly. Unchangeable and everlafting : for therein God hath revea- 
led himfelfc, in refpeftof the things he willeth concerning mans - 
Salvation to be one and the farn§ for ever. There is tione ovher re- 
lation and refpeft, that might give occafion toanotha Covenant. 
It was the pleafurc of God to iliew mercy to man miferable ; but 
he will not extend compslHon to him that obl^inately and wil- 
fully fhall contemnc the riches of his grace. The; Covenant made 
with Adam in the ftate of altered for our great good 
and comforts but this Covenant is like the Covenant of theday irai.J4.<: 
and of the night, it ft ands faft for ever and,cvcr. Though men be ^' ^^ ^ 1 1*?. 
unfaithfull,God continucth faithfuH : he waitcth iortherconvcr- , Saro,7»5. 
fioa of them that goeaftray, and if they returne, he will receive Dcui.4.u! 
them into favour. The Lord will not utterly caft oft that people, 3cr.j. i,i. 
whom he hath once chofen, and received unto mercy. And in Rom.c.6. 
refpedof the life tocomi, the Covenant is eternal! s fjr after thi<5 ^"** * k»,'9« 

2 A of the Covenam of Grace ingentrAU, 

Hof.1j.14. life the pcople'cflfcflually in CdYCiJant {ball live with the Lprd 

Ma(:th,a2,3», forever. 

Externally this Covenant is made with every member of the 
ChiKch,evcn with the Parents and their children/o many as hears 
and embrace the Promifes of Salvation, and give and dedicate 
their children linto God according unto his direftion : for the 
Sacraments what arc they but fcalcs of the Covenant ? But fa- 
vingly, ^flFidually, and in ipeciall manner it is made only with 
them,Wiio are partakers of the benefits promifed. And as the Co- 
venant is made outwardly or efFedually/o fome are the people of 
God externally ,others internally and in truth. For they are the 
people of GodjWith whom God hath contrafted a Covenant, and 
who in like manner have Cwornc to the words of the Covenant, 
God ftipulatingjand the people receiving the condition: which is 
done two wayes : for cither the Covenant is made extrinfecally, 
God by fomefenQblc token gathering the people, and the people 
embracing the condition in the fame manner, and foan csternall 
confociation of God and the people is made : or the Covenant is 
en? r:d after an invifible manner, by the intervention of the Spirit, 
and that with fo great efficacy, that the condition of the Cove- 
nant is received after an invifible manner, and fo an internall con- 
fociation of God and the people is made up. 

Here it may fuffice briefly to mention thefc things, becaufe in 
the fundry manners of difpenfation,they will come to be difcuffed 
iDore at large. 

From that which hath been faid two things may be gathered.' 
I . How the Covenant made with Adamy called by fome Divines 
the Covenant of Nature, agrceth and diOlTeth from the Covenant 
of Grace. 

They agree in a gencrall confiderarion of, i .The Author,which 
is God only wif",moft holy, our fupreme and abfoluteSoveraigne. 
2,.The matter of the Covenant, which is aCommandcment and 
Promife of reward. 3 . The perfons contrading or covenanting, 
which are God and man. 4. The Subjsd not differenced by 
fpeciall refpeds, for the Law was given and Gofpell revealed to 
man. 5. The forme of adminiftration, bccanfc to both Cove- 
nants is annexed a refiipulation. 6, The znd^viz, the bleifedncfli 
of man, and the glory of God manifcl^ed in his wifiomc, bounty 
and goodaefl:. 7. As ^drnj^ in thd ftatc of Innoccncy was 


of the Covenant of Grace in genernH* 2 5 

made able to falfill the Covenant made with him: fo is the Co- 
venant of Grace written in the hearts of them that be hcires of 
the ProttJife in Chrift. 

They differ, i. In the fpcciall confideration of the Authoar, 
caufe and foundation of the Covenants, God gave his Law to 
jleUm as bountifuil and gratious to his creature intir e and perfeiS, 
but in ftrifft juftice requiring obedience, promifing a reward and 
denouncing punilhment. But the Covenant of Grace he made as 
aioving Father in Jcfus Chrift, of his mccre Grace promifing to 
receive them into taTcur,that fincerely and unfainedly turne unto 
him. The Creation of man and integrity of humane nature, is the 
Foundation of the former Covenant : but the Redemption of man 
by Chritl is the Foundation of the Covenant of Grace. 

i. In the forme of Sandion. In the Covenant of Nature there 
is noMediatour : but the Covenant of Grace is made in Chrift, 
in whom God hath made us accepted. The Covenant cf Na- 
ture was not promifcd before it Was promulgated ; but the Co- 
venant of Grace was firftpromifed, and long after promulgated 
and eftablilhcd or ratified in the bloud of his Sonne. 

3. In the fpcciall matter of the Covenants, and that both inre- 
fpeft of the Promife and ftipniation. For the Covenant of Nature 
promifed life, but not righteoufhefTi : but in the Covenant of 
Grace God promifeth to tread Satan under the feet, and to writ* 
his Law in the hearts of them that be heircs of Salvation. That 
Covenant promifeth life to them that pcrfe<5lly obey, but not re- 
miflion or forgivenclle of any, even the leaft iniquity. But this 
promifeth forgivcnefie of linncs and life Cternali to the penitent 
(inner believing in Chtift, and embracing the free promife of 
mercy. In that, life eternsll is proraifcd as the reward of juftice: 
in this, life and glory as the reward of free and rich graceand 
mercy. To him that wdrketb, the wages is of debt j but to him 
thatbeiecvcs the reward is of Grace. In that Ood asaCreatont 
<fothcxa(5t his right of man pure : but in this as aioving Father 
be doth offer himfelfe to the (inner fttiitten with the confcience 
of his (innc. In that, life cternall and moft blcffsd is promifed, but 
only animal, to be enjoyed in Paradife, or continuance in that 
gdodeftate wherein he was fet at firft of the rich bounty of God : 
but in the other, tranflatiori out of ignominy and death intoetcr- 
nall happincffe and glory in Heaven. In the Covenant of Nature 

E 'ipzifcd: 

i6 of the C9venant of Grace ingenerali, 

perfefl obedience is exadieci, fo that if there be but the lead fai<. 
ling in any jot or title, and that but once, a man can ncvar be jufti- 
ficdthereby,nor can the breach be made up by any repentance: 
But in the Covenant of Grace obedience is required, repentance 
admitted, and finccrity accepted i It a man finne and goc aftray,if 
he returnc unfainedly, he fliali be received into favour. In the Co- 
Tenant of Nature obedience and workes were coiainanded as the 
caufcof life and juftification ; in the Covenant of Grace, Faith is 
required as the inftrumentall caufe of Rcmilfion and Salvation, 
obedience as the qualification of the party juftified, and the way 
leading to cverlafting blcflcdncffe. The ob jcift of obedience in the 
Covenant of Nature was God : in the Covenant of Grace God m 

4. They differ in tfce fpeciall confideration of the SubjeA The 
firft Covenant was given to man pure, pcrfed, intire and ibond, 
able to do whatGod required : But the Covenant following was 
made with man a (inner, mifcrable and by nature the child of 
wraths And fo that was a Covenantcf fricnd&ip, this oi firme 

5, In the fpeciall and peculiar refpcft of the end. For the for-t^ 
mi^r Covenant was made for the praife of Gods wiftlome, good<- 
nefle,bounty and jaftice. But the Covenant of Grace was made 
to declare and ict forth the riches of Gods ^race and mercy. In it 
the wifdomc,goodnc(re,power and juftice of God is more illuftri- 
eus then in the former : and the mercy, long-fu&ring and rich 
grace of ^od is greatly magnified, which did not appearc or 
(bine forth at allin the former. 

6. And in their Efieftsand Properties. For not the Covenant 
of Nature,but of Grace doth exclude boaflmg. By the Covenant 
of Nature syfdtm was not advanced above the condition of an ho- 
nourable Servant. In the Covenant of Grace, man hy nature the 
child ofwrath^ is made,the child of God by grace and adoption. 
The Covenant of nature was neither the laft nor cverlafting, but 
being firfl: made way for a better, and being broken was antiqua* 
ted or di&nulled to our dngular comfort.: but the Covenant of 
Grace (hall continue firme and immoveable for evermore. 
,- Thefeeondthingtobe gathered is, That tfee Fathers before 

' Chrift, ever fincc the fall f^fAdam, and Cbriftians in the times of 
the Coipell^ did Uvo upcUr the ^me Covenant for iiibftance, but 


ofthecovemmifGracemgemraR. ^^ 

not for manner of adminiftration, which is moft dearc by evident Heb. i j.8 . 

tcftimonics of holy Scripture, and by the very forme of the Cove- J^''^**' 

nantjwhich was one before and after the comming of Chrift. The and'tj .iV ," 

fame God that calleth us, called them to the hope of ctctnall life : Gal^j.ij, ' 

they were endued with the fame fpirit, and lived by the fame Rom.j.)o. 

faith : Their Sacraments for fubftance in fignification agree with Eph.t.i i. 

ours : and they cxpeded an Inheritance cvcrlafting and undefiled. ^^* * ^- * * 

Religion for fubftance was ever one and unchangeable, and fuch L"y.*6***f' 

as were truly religious walked in the fame way, and waited for ex Jd.j. 6. 

the fame heavenly Inheritance and cverlafting crowncof glory, Matth.ia.jt. 

The Church before Chrift may be confidcred as an hcire, or as an » Cor.4. i j. 

Infant, according to the fubftance of the Covenant, or according ^^' * ^'^»7>^' 

to the manner of adminiftration. In the firft rcfpeft the Church is Hcb'x'^ V"i o 
under the Covenant or Promifc, and her people are called a firec * \i' 
and willing peoplc,an hcire of heavenly and fpirituall bleffings. In 
the latter rcfpcd (he is under the Covenant, in rcfpeft of the diffe- 
rent adminiftration, and her people are called a fcrvile people in 
comparifon, an hcire under Tutors and Governors, not differing 

Chap. Ill I. 

of the Covenant of Promifc^, 

THc Covenant of Grace is cither promifed or promulgated 
and cftabliflied Promifed to the Fathers, firft to ey^^4w, and ^^ J'J ^* 
afterwards to the Patriarchs, and laftly to the people of I frael, and and 1 5 . \l 
that before their comming into the Land of Canaan, and after 
their returnc from the Baby lonifti captivity. Promulgated, after G^l4 4« 
the fulnefle of time came. And hence the Covenant of Grace is ^a" '**^* 
diftributcd into the Covenant of Promife, or the New Covenant, Gi\\\ jj',-; 
fo called by way of excellency. For the Foundation and Media- Ephii'.i»! ' 
tour of the Covenant of Grace is our Lord J efus Chrift, but either 
to be incarnate, crucified, and raifed from the dead, or as already 
incarnate, crucified, and truly raifed from the dead, and afccnded ^'* » *•, 
into Hcavcru For there wasncverfin forgivenbutin him alone, ^ ''J* » 
who is the fame jefl&dajt ^^ io ^J» ^ /»'' ^^. Therefore al- 
though before the Incarnation,Chrift was only God, he was our 

E a Mcdiatour, 

2 8 of the Covenant of promifc^* 

Mcdiatcur> yet not fimply as God, but as the divine perlcn, wto 
{hould take our flc{h, and in it (hould finifh all the Myftcrie of our 
Redemptions and therefore he is called the Lambe of God flainc 
from the beginning of the world, and the Fathers by his grace 
were favcd, even as we. In the afts of Mediation three things 
may bs confidercd. Rcconciliation,by which we are accepted of 
God. Patronage, by which we have acccflc unto the Father. Do«- 
diine,whereby God hath made himfclfe knownc unto men by a' 
Mediaioar. This third aft might be done before be aflunsed our 
flefli, and indeed was done : but the two firft did require his com- 
ming in the fleflj, although the fruit of them was communicated 
to the Fathers under the Old Teftament, by force of the divine 
Promjfe, and certainty of the thing to come with God» 

1 fit be objeded, that the caufe is before the effjft, and there- 
fore the incarnation and death of Cbrift muft goe before the 
communication of the fruit and beneHc thereof unto the Fa- 

The anfwer Is, That in naturall caufes the Propofition holds 
true, but in morall caufes the cff,'d may be before the caufes and- 
fo the fruit and vertue of Chrifts death was communicated to the 
Fathers before his Incarnation. But although the Sonne of Goi 
before he was manifefted in the fkfbj. was our Mediatour with- 
God (to whom future things areprcfcnt) becaufehc (hould be> 
and thcf fore for his fake finnes were remitted, men did teach and 
learneby his Spirit, the Church was governed by him : yet the. 
manner and rcafon of that Mediation was propofcd more obfture- 
ly, the force and cfScacy of it was Icffe, and did redound to few- 
er. The Covenant of Promifc then was that Covenant which 
God made with nAdamy the Fathers and all Ifracl in Jcfus Chrift 
to be incarnate, crucified and riifcd from the dead : And it may 
be defcribed the Covenant, wherby God of his meere grace and' 
mercy in Jefus ChriH to be exhibited in ths fulnefle of time, ^\^ 
promife forgiveneffe of finnes, fpiritaali adoption and eter nail life, 
unto mail in himfelfe confidercd a raoft wretched and miferable 
(inner, if he (hould embrace and accept this mercy promifed, and 
waike before God in fincere obedience. God the Father of his 
Deur;9,f. meere and free grace and mercy loeking upon own in Jcfus 
Gal.j.iS^t Chrift, in v/hom he is the Author and caufe of this 
Luk.i.54,$5» C&¥cmint, Ht hmh hofpn^hu fer.vAnt Jfr^H in rcmevthssce o\ hU 

of the Cevertdnt of Promifc^ . 7 9 

pfercfy M he^sks to our Fathers, to Abrdhdm, "aftd to his feed for 

ever. Thus faith the Lord God of Ifrael, yonr Fathers dwelt on ■^^f^x^.x, 

thtotherfideofthefloudinold time, even Terah the Father of 

Ahva,har», and the Father ofNuthor, and thejferved other gods, 

t/fnd I took jour Father Abraham from the other fde of the 

fioud,and led him throughout all the Land of Canaan, and multi-* 

plied his feed, and gave him Ifaac* 

The condition required in this contrad,is the obedience of faith.' 
Remiffionofrinnesjgfatious adoption in Chrift, and thclnheri- 
tancex>feternali life is promifed to bcleevers : and eternall con- 
demnation peremptorily threatned againft unbeleevcrs. 

Chrift, whom God hath exhibited in the GofpeU, as he was 
promifed to the Fathers in the Scriptures of the Prophets, is the 
ob/cft of this Covenant. 

The end thereof is the praife of the glorious grace and m^rcy of 
God in Chrift to come. 

In this Covenant there is a mutuall compadl betwixt God and 
man ; God in mercy promifingjand man in duty binding himfdf 
unto the Lord. 

It was made with man a (inner, and reacheth to. the faithfall 
and their feed, as God hath promifed to accept the children of be- 
iecving parents, upon due and religious tender of them made unco 
his Highnefl'e according as he hath prefcribed : but faving effectu- 
ally it was made with them only, who beleeve in him that/uftii 
fieth the ungodly, be the heires of falvation, and walke in the fteps 
of our Father Abraham. 

This Covenant doth beget children to liberty, doth adminifter 
thcrighteoufneffeof faich,3nd the inheritance by faith: hop.% peace 
of confcience,life in Chrift, and fpirituall joy is the efted tni r jof. 

Internally the Spirit doth feale up the truth of this Covenant in & Cor.4 1 1, 
the hearts of the faithfull. For when the adoption and the inheri- Rom.p.^,^, 
tance pertained to the Fathers under the Covenant of promife, the ^^^^'^ ^' 
fpirit of adoption and earneft of the inheritance pertained unto ^°"^' '^^* 
them likewile. Externally it was delivered and confirmed by ccn ii.^k 
word and oath,andfealed by the Sacraments. Luk.i.7j. 

For fubftance alfo this Covenant waseverlafting and unchange* 
able; The New Teftament did not abolifli the former, butth<2 
fbrmerwasfulfilled by the latter.. And in all thefe things it &oM pr^j^^jj i^, 
agree with the ne\y Covenant : which here only arc out briefly 

E 3 " named,^ 

20 " of the Covenant of Prornif(LJ» 

named, bccauCc the confirmation of them muft be fought in the 
Cihapcers following. 

And if the Covenant ofPromife, and the New Covenant doe 
Epb,i.i8,i J, th^ 2gree in fubftance, then it muft necefl'arily follow, That there 
»o.* * * is but one Church of the Eledjthe fame Communion of SaintSjOne 
and 4.4,1. Paithjone Salvation,and one way of obtaining the famc,t/j«. by, 
"Secondly, that the Word of God was no leffe incorruptible feed 
Rom.i I.I7. ^^ the Fathers and thelfraelites then to us : That the Fathers 6i^ 
I Cor. io.x,j. cat the trueflefh of Chrift by faith, as well as we in the times of 
^ Cor, 4. 13. the Gofpell : That they and we are partakers of the fame Spirit: 
and that the Sacraments of the Jewes did fignifie and feale to 
them, the fame promiCes of eternall life , which our Sacraments 
doe to us. The Sacraments of the Old Teftamcnt were not types 
of our Sacraments, ss fometimes they are called by Divines : but 
they typified the fame things that ours doe. For as the Covenants 
under which they and we li ved,were one for fubftance : fo ate the 
Sacraments one in their fcommon nature and fignification. ^ ■ 
Thirdly, that the f aithfull before Chrift were faved by ,th^ 
He b. I i,9w free mercy of God in Chrift, did know God and Chrift, hw the 
pfal. 10 5,1 J, ipirituall promife of life eternall, and were equall to us Chriftian^ 
Ifai.5i.(J. in all fubftantiall graces of the Covenant. ; 

Fcsirthly, and from the fame grounds we may conclude, that 
thefoulesofthefaithfuil, who departed this life before thecom- 
ming of Chrift in the flefh, were immediately received into Hea- 
ven. For they were taken to glory ,and faved as we: Nowfucbas 
A& i< 1 are taken to glory, are taken to Heaven. For the Scripture know- 
eth no place in which God doth ordmarily di(play his glory, but 
Heaven. And what ihould hinder their tranflation into the hea- 
venly Jerufalem^when they are removed out of this earthly taber- 
nacle ? Not their finnes, for they which could not hinder them 
from Sandification , fitting them for Heaven,' could tiot hinder 
them from Heaven : Not want of Faith, who now have that faith 
which Abrahamy^n^ many of them had : No want of efficacie 
in Chrift, he was the Lambe flaine from the beginning of the 
worldjhewas yefterday, to day, andforeVer; his death waseffc- 
^uall to cauTe them to find pardon,ahd the Spirit of Sandification, 
Not any privikdge of Chrill : for not fimply to afcend into Hea- 
ven was Chrifts .prK'iledge,but to afcend foulc and body, as heire 


of the Covenani 9f PromipL^, ^ j 

of all things, and the Auchour of Salvation to all that obey him. 
D avid is laid not to have afcended into Heaven, but that is fpoken Aa.1.14. 
in refpeft only that he was not raifed in body, and gone into Hea- 
ven body and foule, as the heire of all things, and perfon who was 
to fit at Gods right hand. Jt is alfo faid, The Fathers received Heb, i i.j^ 
mt thePromife,/cil. of Chrifts comming in the fieOi toperforme 
the worke of our Redemption : but as they received the prooiifc 
of forgiveneiTejand of the Spirit of Sandification, fo after their 
death they were taken into Heaven. They whofe Pilgrimage and 
fojourning ceafed with this life , they could not but be in their 
Countrey at home after this life. But Heaven is the Countrey of 
the Saints; for where their Father is there is their Countrey* 
Thole who walked as ftrangers here on earth, becaufe they looked 
for an heavenly Jerufalem, a City whofe Maker was God, they Heb.M.13,14, 
leaving this earth were tranflated thither. The tranllating of 1/4*11. <. 
Enoch, LM^fes, and Elias feeme to figure out no other thing, tKing.z.'n. 
Chrift was the fcMre-tunner of Enoeh, not in ait, in refpe<5l of the «Luke %. 3 1. 
a{fumption of his humanity into Heaven, but in vcrtue and merit, 
i^rom the beginning of the world, a place was prepared for all, 
whom God had chofen in Jdus Chrift, Matth, 25 . 3 1 . and so. 2 3 . 
but a place was to be prepared of Chrift, for us, in refpecfl of the 
promifed paiment,by the force and efficacy whereof the effed was 
before obtained, but with rcfpeft to fiiture labours, which were 
both certaine and prefent With God. For a morall caufe, though it 
be not prefent in ad, if it be fuppofed as future,may have its eft'ed:; 
Thefaithf uU before Chrift, when they removed out of thele earth- 
ly tabernacles, were received into everlaftiog habitatJMiSi. X»^r 
i^,p. Now if the godly at the inft^nt departed j. were beftowed ih 
iny place but Heaven, they then did goe to manfions, which they 
were to leave in a (hort tioK, even then when Chrift did afcend. 
Our Saviour promifed to the penitent Theefe upon the Croffr, 
^hirdayjbah thou h^^irh mcsM Zaradife .- which if it was not ^^jj^ ^ , 
into Heaven,but intoXtw^w, it was but for aihoct tiaiej fon thsBC, 
was to be broken up within a few houres fpace. 

But to retume to the matter in hand, SheiCbv^nant of Promife 
and the new Covenant are (o one for lubftance, that what is in the 
firft for weight and cficritiall,is in all the degrees following, and to 
beunderftood, though not mentioned^ and.Wbatfoever in^any tfcer 
4egree appeares as iubftantiall to the Covenant, chat was included 


3 z of the Covemnf of Fromijt^^ 

in the firft propounding of it but in fundfy accidents, which no- 
thing hindsrihsir fabSantiall unity ,thejr are diftinguii>icd. 

X Ioh.i.7,s. Firft on the part of the Ob)z&y Chrilt exhibited in the New 

&4- »4« Covenant, isptomifcd as to come in the Covenant of promife. 

iJ^tg'if For it was meere the promife foould goc before the Gofpdl, and 
'^^' '* be fulfilled in the Gofpdl, that io great a good might earneftly be 
4c{!red before it was beftowed, and that the cxpe&ation of them 
that waited for the confolation oilfmel might not be f ruftraced. 

Sccondly,ln the manner of adminiftration and meafure of faith. 
For the knowledge of ChriO, and faith in him to come, was more 
obfcurcanddarke, then the knowledge ofhim already come, and 
faith which doth behold hijn prefent. The manner of Chrifts 
Mediation was more fparingly and obfcurely reveakd ; his perfon, 
the manner of execution of the office of Mediatour, and the bene- 
fits that we receive in him, more darkly unfolded, fometimes pro- 
pounded in generall words, fometimes Qiadowed in types and fi- 
gures, fcidome more specially defcribed. And thereafon why 
thcfs things at firfi: were more darkely delivered, may be : firft^be- 
caufe things prefent or pad are fcene more clearely thenihings to 

Heo, 1 1. 17» come-: prophefics be obfciire before the accompliilioient. 2.Th« 
Church was then in her Infancy and rude, not come to her ripa 
flge, the Lorain iiis infinite -wifdomefo difpoling the matter, 
3. It was meete the cleare and full revelation of this myfter^ 
Ihould be referved to Chrirt the chiefs Prophet. TheAuthourof 
life was to lay open and make manifeft the way to life : Till the 
Vray into Heaven was really entred by the true high Prieft, after 
the. order o^CMelch'-fedech^it was not fully manifcfted : Heh.^, 8. 
Under the Old Teftamentthc way into the H.olieft was hot afef^ 
lutclyfliut, but vailed, not altogether untraced, but not falty laid 
open : becaufc our true and reall high Prieft had not made fatrf^ 
faction by the offering up of himfclfe a facrifice once for all, nor 
rconfecratcd that new and Hving way through the vaile,t]hat is 
10 fay^his SeCh. 4. The minds of men were to be heM in a Ion* 
ging dcfirc and expedation of Chrift ; and the obfcurc revelation 
of Ghrift and his benefits did fervc to raifc their liearts to an ear- 
_iicft dcfirc of his comming^ in refpedl of the cleare revelation and 
:great and glorious bleflings they might then exped. Boat in this 
i^iiturity we may obfervefome degrees : Before the Law given 
by LMofes the promife was more ofifcure ; the Law being given, 


oftheCoveamofPremij^^. j5 

even to the tim:s of the Prophets leffe clcaret in the tiroes of the 
Prophets even to M« the !S4;?fi^, moreclearc. Even from the 
firft giving forth of the promifcuntillthc commingofChrift in 
the flcih, the revelation was more cleare, diftindl, ample, as the 
coaiming of the Mcfliah did approach neerer and neerer. For 
the Church by how much it was neerer to her beginnings, by fo 
much it was the rudcr,and therfore to be inftrudled in a more rude 
forme. As the time of the Sunne approacbeth neerer, or if fur- 
ther o^, fo is the light that goeth before it, greater or leffor : and 
as the time of the arifing of the Sonne of righteoufneflc is more re- 
mote or nigh at hand,fo was the revelation that went before more 
dimme orckare. It was mectcand expedient that when the 
coraming of the glorious King of peace and righteoufneffs did 
draw nigh, the hearts of men (hould be raifed up in defire and ex- 
pe«aation of him : But the better they were acquainted with his 
pcrfon and office, the more diilindtly they underftood the time of 
bis comraing, the more lively taft they bad of the benefits they 
ihould receive by him, and the greater tokens they fawof his 
glory approaching, the more their hearts would be enlarged to 
defire and cxpedt hi in. Moreover it was the good plcafure of God 
to manifeft the riches of his grace, not aH at oncc^ but by degrees, 
as be faw it moft expedient for the glory of his great Name, and 
the good of his people in feverall ages and ftates of the Gharch, of 
which we fliallhave occafion tofpeakc largely in the Chapters 
following. But here two things muft be noted to prevent fomc 
doubts that may arife, Firft that clearencfis of Revelation is two- 
fold. O'le <?n the part of thc^re-vcakr, when the revealer dcaleth 
fo, that unkfle he have a rude hearer, or altogether malitious, it 
may be underftood of the hearer what he mcaneth. The other 
dearc, even on the part of the hearer, when it is fo great that the 
rudcnefle of the hearer cannot hinder, that he fhould not perceive 
what is fpoken, but his malice only r In the firft fence, the reve- 
lation of Chrift in the Covenant of the promifewas clearctbut 
the teftimony concerning theKingdomc of Chrift could not be 
underftood of a rude hearer before the accompliftiment. 
' If it be objefted, how then could they be faved ? 

In the fecond place it is to be obfervcdj that Chrift doth not 
fave as clearly knownc, but as he is fincerely acknowledged. But 
when the Revelation was fparing and darkc,no man can deny that 

T Chrift 

54; of the C9^empt ef PremiJiL^, 

Chrift was truly and unfainedly acknowledged in the Church of 
the lewes. The word of God is the meafure of faith, and that is 
true and faving faith, which believethall things which.are revea.- 
ied, and in that manner wherein they are revealed, and therefore 
the faith of the Fathers was found and effeduall, becaufe they be- 
-- lieved what God was pleafed to reveale, and after that niannec 

wherein it was revealed of God. 

A Third difference arifeth from this ; for Chrift with, all his be- 
nefits was propofed to the Ifradites under types and figures* As . 
ixod.24 7.8. the Priefts, Altars, Sacrifices, Propitiatory, were all types of Chrift his Prieft-hood and Sacrifice : and the Land o? Ca}iaa>t a 
H ^l* H^^* & ^yp^ of Heaven ; the Lord leading the lewes by the help of earthly 
07 s 'J,^o,i I- ^♦^i'^^SS to heavenly and fpiricuall, becaufe they were but young and 
aorn.'j ,'t u tender : which was one caufe why the Covenant was more obfcure^ 
? [ohci i.u heavenly things being wrapt up under earthly. But in the new 
11.: b. 3 . 18. 6c Covenant Chrift is offered to be fecne with open face ; the truth, 
^- ^' fubftance and body of the things themfelves is exhibited ; and all 

, \aile of figures removed.our mip-ds are ftreight dired^ed to heaven- 
ly bleifedntffe. 

4, The variety of adminiftration doth ofS^r a fourth diflFerence 5 
G^l.^,,!2.&3. j^Qj the Apoftle compares the Nation of the lewes to an heire 
'^'^^' 4^ yet an Int-^nr, thatis under Tutours and Goverflours. The 

^hriftiian Church to anheire come to ripe j^^tes.. 

And from this ariftrth a fifth difference. That as an heire not 

Gai.f.i, come to yeares, not differing from a fervant, the Church was held 

under the Ceremoniall Law/rom which they that believe in Chrift 

are delivered aft^rr the expiration of the ti^ie of neurture appoin- 

^d,c^ the Father. ; . . ! ■; 

Sixthly they differ in the number of them that are called tp the 

Dfut,ii.83 ^Kicipatioji of the Covenant.' The Covenant of promife was at. 

Maih. jc.^j(5, tarft concluded within the Families of the Patriarkes,. the reft ha» 

& i 5. 24> -^ng excommunicated themfelves, and then within the confines os 

limiE&qf liviea ; that in the lewes there might be a moft illuftrious: 

type of Eledion, andofre;e<^on in the Gentiles, that is, of the 

. Church of God and Sathan, But the partition waUbetwixt iew & 

Gentile being broken downe^ the Covenanted gyafe w^ xBade 

WifhaUlSiti^ns...":' ^ ,' ,; -•.':':,•.. ^'-.--.T 

^ r |p Yfcntfelfst-he efficacy of Chrift promifed is leffer then of Chrill 

GeH.xi.i8. m\^t^* ia the CoYsnanc of proaitfe, ce^taiae prpmifes con- 

DtuM^.Sjj,. -v.jr'j "' ~" ' ^ ^' ~""" cerning 

of the Cevenam cfFromifc^, 35 

cerning corporall bleflings, were made unto the Fathers ; and ex- 
terfiall bieflings were oiore efteemed, as Symbols of fpirituall and 
heavenly : But under the New Covenant, bieflings fpirituall, and 
the gifts and graces ofthe Spirit are in more ample and plentiful! 
manner powred upon, the Church, . Remiflion offinnes though 
it was certaine with God, was leffe felt under the Covenant of 
Promife, becaufethe cloud of the Law put betwixt the mercy of 
God and the eye ofthe foule ; the grace of God was more obfcure- 
!y revealed, and the meanes of expiating finne by the death c£ 
Chrift ; as alio becaufe remifllon oi finnes was not really obfained 
byourfurecy, for as yet he had not made the fatisfadion promi- 
sed. The Spirit was powred in lefle plenty upon the faithful! s be- 
caufe that benefit was to be referved to the times of Ghrilf, who ^-^J^ 1. J4' 
was firft to receive iht Spirit above meafore in his humane nature, ^°'"^' »• » 6..& 7. 
and thence to derive grace unto all us. The lewes as heir^s were joeu'* 8 
partakers of the Spirit of Adoption^but tempered with the fpirit of 
Servitude, becaufe they were Infants, under the yoke ofthe Law,'. 
the way to heaven not as yet clearely manifefted : But the heire Gal 4 6, 
come to ripe yeares, is altogether led by the Spirit of Adoption, 
The fenfe of future glory was aKomore obkure, becaufe there is 
more obfcnre mention of it, and ofthe way thereunto in the Old 
Teftament. If we fpeake of fome particular pcrfons under the firft 
Covenant, they were endued with greater gifts of the Spirit then 
many under the New :bat.more light of knowledge, and greater 
plenty and abundance of Grace is bellowed upon the Church in the 
time of the Gofpell, if we refped the body of the Church and 
faithful! in Generall. 

Eighthly, thefealesof the Covenant of promife were in num- 
ber more, infignification m.ore obfcure, inufe painfull and bur- 
denfome, peculiar to fome people as the Covenant was, and to 
continue only untill the time of reformation : But the feaies ofthe 
New Teftament are in number few, in fignification clearcj ia Vife 
cafy , common to all nations, and to endure for ever. ,,:..' 
And from thefe grouds it may be concluded, That though the Fa- 
thers being delivered from the Tabernacle of the body, were made Heb.8.5. Sl lo- 
partakers oflifeeternall in Heaven .yet they had not before Chrift 20* 
that perfeft ftate in Heaven, which now we and they are prefent- 
lypofleitcd of: for they were not to be perfeded without us, as 
neither ihall we be perfeded before that bleifed day of the fecond^p^o, 

F 2 comming 

3:5 of the Covenant of Promifc^ 

ming oFChrift, wherein the body oi Chrift, that is, the Church, 
ftiall be abfolute and perfed every way. Not to infift upon this, 
that the former Tabernacle Handing, the way to the Kolitft was 
not fully manifefted,and that there muftbe fome proportion be- 
twixt the manifcftation of the way unto and lenfe of the future 
tife, in this life,in them that be of ripe age, and the fruition of it in 
the life to come: This iscertaiae, the Fathers who died before 
Chrift, did exped in Heaven their Redeemer, on whom they had 
beleeved for forgiveneiTe of finne and life everlafting: even as 
foutes now exped the Refurredion of the body, the fecond appea- 
rance of Chrift to Judgement, in regard of which things they are 
notperfeded. Now hence followed a want of much light and 
jioy,whichGnthefightof Chrift, God man,entring the Heavens, 
did redound unto them : as we in earth now have not the fulneffe 
of joy which then we ftiall have, when we ftiall lee the accom- 
pliiliment of what we exped. 

C H A P . v.. 

of the C6vemm of Promt fe made with Adam im- 
mediately ufon his falL 

THe Covenant of Promife began immediately upon the faU,and 
reached unto the com ming of Chrift in the flefti, which is ob^- 
Icure in comparifonofthe new Covenant, but in it fclfereceiveth 
diftindionof degrees, according to the feverall breakings out of it 
to the darke world, and the growth from feverall manifeftations 
of God, as was proportionable to the number and qualities of 
thole, who in fucceeding ages ftiould take benefit : fo that atfirft 
being like a young fapling, it grew to be firme, alwayes a fruitful!^, 
tree. In Scripture it is delivered unto us under thefe degrees of 
growth, both in refped of fuller and more clcare manifcftationt 
and as we may fuppofe of numbers that received benefit by it, 
Firftjfrom ^Aam untill Abraham, Secondly, from Abraham 
untill the Covenant made with Ifrael upon the Mount. Thirdly, 
from MofestoVax^ : which muft be fubdiftinguiftied : for the 
Gavenant which God did promife to make with Ifrael and J udah 
ypon the delivery from the N^rth Ceuncrey, was to^ exceed the 


made with Adam tmmehately ufonhis faH, 3 7 

former Covenant, which he had made with their Fathers, when he 
brought them cut of Egypt. ^^^.25. 5? 6,7)8. The firft breaking 
forth of this gratieus and free Prcmile and Covenant was imme- 
diately upon the fall, and isexprefltd in thefe words, 1 ^i/lp^ut Gen.5.1^. 
enmity between thee andthe^owan, and hetrveen thy feed, and 
her feed : Hefhall bruife thj he^d,and thoufhalt hruife his heele. 
Herein God fetting downe the irrevocable judgement and finall 
overthrow and dtftrudion of Satan, the arch-enemy of his glory, 
and mans Salvation , Gods fearefuU doomes-man : into whole 
power man was now fallen, he proclaimeth his rich grace and 
mercy towards mankind in Jefus Chrift, the womans leed, who 
fliould brcake the Serpents head. In the maledi<ftion of the Ser^ 
pent is included the greateft blefling of God moil mercif uU tOi^ 
wards miferable and wretched finners. In reference to this grati- 
ous antient Proclamation of mercy the Goipel is called everlafting. ivctyyihdov B.t- 
Revel.l^.6. I faw another Angel flying through the middeft of avtov. 
Heaven, having the everlafting Gojpe/i, r]ot in refpe^of the fu- ,^P<^<^-H-^. 
ture, but of the time paft,/a7. which was promiled from the be- ]i"f°'J^j'°^ 
ginning of the world. For as the hils, paths,. and dtfolations ei.^ ^'^^ 
are laid to be everlafting or antienr,.fo the Gofpel), that is from the. didv/a,. Jer:5. 
beginnings 16.6c 18. 16. 

This firft Promi(e of grace and life was-publinied by theLord ^^vol dir»vtot. 
himfelfe to mankind now dead m finne, and enemies to God, that Gen.i.U/ 
a&they had heard from him thecurfe againft finne, and faw and irai.54.4. * 
felt the fame in part executed upon them, fo they fhould heare di^x^uA dtu' 
from him the promife of ablolution, left they fhould be fwallowed f^- 
up in defpaire. When they ftiould heare peace proclaimed by the J^'^',^^*• 
Author of Peace and Jadgement, both by "him that was immedi-f '^f^yp'^'"' 
ately provoked and ortended by finnej.and came now to,' fentenee 
the tranfgreftburs *. when they, fhould heare peace proclaimed by. 
him in his owne perfon, by his owne voyce, it muft needs put more 
life and encouragement into them , then if the glad tidings had. 
been brought by lome MeiTenger , or divulged by Ibme He- 
rauld only.. 

The party upon-whom the Prom ifes-of mercy are fetled, is here; 
propounded as the feed of the v^'oman, and under the next degree . 
3iSth^{eQdot Abraham : Cdikd the An^ el cf the Covenant, fhe Mal.j.i; 
bead of all things te the Church : even Jeftu Chrifi the or.hbe" Eph.i»az. 
g^Jtten Sonne of God^ Wlio being, God over all blejfed fir ever*. J^^'?***' 

F 3 Rom,. "* *^'^' 

38 oftkCovemmofFremifc^ 

R.oin,j.|. R0m.g.$, (hovld come of David ind Abraham, and fo of Eve 

according to the flefh, for ilie was the mother of all living. Chrift 
God and man is made of God an Admm (often oppofed to the 
firft Adam,! Cor.15. 21522,23, 45.; Head, root, common re- 
ceptacle and llore-houfe, in whom are treafured all good things, 
which from him are communicated to the faithfull. As in Adam 
our being natural!, cur hopes of life and death, and in event our 
condemnation, was received, before ever they came to be apply ed 
aad received adualiy in us : So in Chrift as in a common tlore- 
, , lioufe every thing is firft placed, which afterward is to be imparted 

tp any beleever. The firft Adam, created after the Image of God, 
but a meere creature only, was intrufted with the Promife of life 

MJtth.s8,i p* for his pofterity, and he betrayed all the body : But now God of 

his infinite mercy ordaineth a fecond»/f(!/^»*, even the feed of the 

woman, that is, Chrlft-man, but lifted up above the condition of at 

creature by union unto the Divine Perton, that fo as man he might 

ft ■ ^ , , . , ,„„,,,,.„,,„ be fit to receive that trull- for men, as God he 
It IS deare, that this battle pet tamed to .rj j. l-u 

jhewotnan and her feed on the one p.r- mjgiitundergoe the burden and charge,which 
sy, and to this Deviil thit fpake by the Was now greater then God laid upoa the firft 
Serpenr,andaU the wickcd.on the other ^(s/jw^j- flioulders. To havc put the prime 
party. TDarp. But then it cannot in fpe. rjghtofthe Covenant upon every particular, 
ciallbeappiyedtothe Virgin /^3j/. if had left occafion to infinite fals; andwithall 
the Vireim A/ary ra^y be laid to bruile jr • !.• u ^' r j u 

the Scrp^ents head, bccaufe cbrift was opened a gap to dif-union,which tne Lord ab- 
borne of her , by the fame rc.ifon we horreth : To have cholen out a meere crea- 
niay fsy, (he was crucified and died tor ture, and under the fall, how could he have 
^^,^<^' made fatisfad:ion for finne formerly com- 

mitted , or free himfclfe from the bondage of Satan ? There- 
fore that the Promife might be fure to the Heires of Promife, 
God puts this honour and charge upon Jefus Chrift, whd 
was the feed to come, to whom the Promises were made, 
Gil. 5. 19. and in whom all the Promifes for all his brethren are Yeamd 
» Cor. 1.20, \^^,„^ 

The parties v^ho are to partake of the benefits promifed , 
are inclofed in the woman as the Mother of the good, or rather under the former terme, the womans feed. For the word feed 
and zi.13, js fometimes taken for one, but often colledively , which muft 
be judged by the circumftances of the place. Now in this 
Text by the womin is meant Eve, and by the feed of the wo- 
man, the poftcricy of the woman, thofe^yt-//. which degenerate 


ntade with Adamimmediatdy upn the fall. ^g 

not into the feed ofthe Serpent, which is pro- tu n a. j • r ■■ 
vedby tKe oppoficion of feeds there m^de. l^l^:^;:Ji[^:SlZ 
Forastheleed or the Serpent mult be taken oftheTexr. TheSeptuagint tranflatcs 
colledively, fo alfo the feed of the woman, h Avrltox autq: chyfofl,Hm, 17, ixi 
that the oppofition may be fir. But by the Gen. hath «WV> though his Ladnc in. 

enmities tore-lpoken ot do pertaine to all the /. j.5, , 5. Cajetan. snuchm, cofmop. m 
godly pofterity of £ve, even from the be- Ger.r, ?, PagniKcAr.MomanutfSacra" 
ginning, To that the faithful! who lived before ^"fi'^* Pran£i/.Georg.tom,u Paihemat^ 
themanikftationof Chnft in theflefh, can- g"j'-\^^ ^De^prlVl'f ^'rV'"^" 
not be excluded, but they muft be underftood Hab? I'.'i It^^TeTpull^i PeZ'. Z 
under the name of the leed. Chrift peculiarly Dm,c*p. Q^t.genersinmpn-. 

Was the ieed of the woman, but the faichfuil tavduL\.fag.iz6^ lay.diihketherea- 

are comprehended under that title alfo j the '^^"S* ^^*= ^yp^- feiit Jdver/m lud^os^ 

feed ofthe woman is tobetakencolkaively, f;V'"»' nl^'f ^Tfj*:i ^f'^ 
I r • J L J. u 1 t 1 L ^^^, S.a!ndld' pram Je Idol, Kara. %*^L 

but fo as ^t doth Jiomprehend them only jWho • ^ ^ «w.iv^/«. s* >> 

are not the Serpents feed, but oppofite to them. Chrift properly is 

the ieed by which the Promife is to be fulfilled : the f aithtull are 

the feed to whom the Promife is made: The Promife is made to 

the faithfull,and they are and fhall be pareakers of the Promife ; 

but Chrift only is thecaufe ofthe blefling to be communicated, 

Chrift and the faichfuil are comprehended uruier one kind of feed 

fpirituall,notcarnall : but C hrift the principall, who in that feed 

doth fo exceil, that in him he doth bring all the ittii of iAhahizm, 

according to the Spirit unto unity ^ the f aithfull are the feed aifo,as 

they iliall inherit the Promiiein and through Jefus Chrift. 

The worke of Chrift ti>e womans feed is to bruife the Serpents 

bead : which is a phrafe of fpeech fitted to the condition of the 

Serpenr,wh:ch is obnoxious to this hurt, when he is compelled to 

creep on the ground, that his head Ibouid be cruihed and bruited 

by the feet of men. And thereby is iigmfcd, that C hrift fliould 

idtlkoy death, and him that had the power of deathjthat is, the de- 

yi%}ieh. 2. 14, that he (hould dettroy the workes of thedevill. Joh.ii.ji^ 

I 'jik. 3 . 8. And this is true of the f ^ithfull alio by commumcanon 

withCiirift.. Chrift hath braifed- the Serpcajs headby his owne 

power : ^ bttt the fairhfuE overcome by the power of c hnft. The 

VKitory IS common to all the feed : but the author of vidory in the 

itedjis he who is the Head and chief c, and to Whom as to an Heads 


^o of the Covenant ofPromijL 

the unity ofall the reft is reduced. T^htveovercomrtheevidone, 
Luriif«°* i7<?^.2.i3. BybruiiingcheSerpearsheid we raal: noionly ui- 
derftand the deadly wouad given totheadors perlbaandhis in- 
ftruments, but the deColicion aF tioCe workes, which the Temp- 
ter had by the fall planted in the nature of the fallen creature, as 
pride, vanity, ignorance, luli&c. ifoh.'^.S. Ephef.i.if. No>v 
the nature of the fallen creature is fuch, that if yoa continue fais be- 
ing, and remove off hiai the workes of the Serpent, you muft ne- 
ceflarily bring in the contrary habitsof Grace and goodnefle, as 
of knowledge, faich, love, feare and other Graces of the Spirit. 
So chat under this oneblelling is comprehended whatfoever is ne- 
ceflary to fpirituall ble:Tednes. ForitSathanbe vanquillied, the 
curfe oi the Law is removed, finne is pardoned, the Image of God 
repaired, fpirituall frcedome and adoption obtained, and everla- 
ftinghappineffeOiallinduetimebepofftfred. Allchefebleflings, 
which concurre to make up perh(n: happmeiTc, are infeparably lin- 
ked, andthepofTellionofany one is an undoubted pledge of the 
reft in due feafon to be injoyed, So the Apoftle laith, God that 
Tit.!.2.^ cannot lie y fromifed eternall life before the world be^an, orra- 

<^l pf^a^av ^^^^^ ^^^^ temforafacfiUria, that is, from the beginning of ages, 
'^MeaLin jf. ^^^' ^^ ^^^^ famous promife of the bleffed iecd. It feemes lome-, what harfti to interpret the word premifed, by decreed co pro- 

mife : and therfore iz is better to rcfcrreit to .his promile made 
from the beginning of the world. And it is manifcft, by this 
phrafe *^o x^^V^f -ifmiay, he meaneth nothing but what the fame A- 
poftlefignifieth by x^>^'^* ^^^^'''"S Romi').2$.sind nothing is Sig- 
nified thereby, but what elfewhere the lame Apoftle doth intiinate 
by this phrafe, ATforo^v duufvm^ Ephef.y.^. anddTizTJivdieavovy Col, 
lee. i8, 8, 1,26, and that notes the fame that ati'^ n ettm©-^ /^c?. 1 5 . 1 8. as 
g/5 7sf a/£yvcj, Hei^, j. 2^. 2ind. in Tbidimciif Hf^.ij.S. are the lame. 
But this pttrafertTre-rictf.vjV©-, in it owne force and propriety doth 
not fignme from eternity, Z;*/^. 1.70. ^<^,3.2i. 

But how muft the Serpents head be bruifed ? even by Chrifts 
fuffeting death to fatisfie revenging luftice, which was offended by 
craufgreflion under the former Covenant. This is expounded un- 
der this terme of bruifing his heele by the Serpent and his feed : 
which worke and labour of love is cypified in the blood of the Sa- 
crifices, executed in his croffe and pallion. The devill and all his 
ixiftruments (the Scribes and Phsrifees and Romanes whom Chrift 


made with Adam immediately uftn his fall. 


calleth the children of the devill) laboured mightily to bring him 
to the croffe, fuppofing they had gotten full conqueft when he was 
laid in the grave : but when they hoped to have vanquiihed him, 
the Kingdome ot darknefle was utterly overthrowne, Sathan, fin 
and death were conquered and taken captive, and whatfoever 
might be brought againft us, was taken away, as the leaft bill or 
£croale,C*/.2.i4,iy, i 70^.3.8. i 7*^^.3.18. Chrift was wounded 
in the heele : but by the power of his divine riature, he loon reco- 
vered of his wound : being pit to death concerning the fle/hy he vpm 
auickned by the Sprit ■^and live th through the^ower ofGod.tCor, 
13.4 iPet.3.18. But by the wound he received, he wounded 
his enemies irrecoverably : he bruifed the head oF the Serpent, 
which wound is deadly. He f pay led principalities and powers, and 
made ajhew of them openly. And it is not improbable, that in re- 
ference to this promife, that Chrift by his death fhould conquer 
and fubdue the enemies oFour Salvation, he is laid to be the Lam^ 
JlainefromthefoHndation of the world, Rev.1^,2, For what can 
we underftand by that phrafe/rt'w the foundation of the worldjjut 
fro the beginningjWhich cannot note eternity which is withoucbe- 
ginning:&r then from the beginning fliould be as much as before 
all begianmg or without beginning. But feeing the death of Chrift 
to vanquifti and fubdue the enemies of our Ibule is publilhed in 
this ancient and famous promile, ever renowned in the Church of 
God, in reference to it, it may be laid, that he was flaine from 
the foundation of the world . 

Thefe words doe containe a manifeft diftindion betwixt the 
feed of the woman and the feed of the Serpent, and a promife of 
alfured vidory to the feed of the woman over Sathan, and all fpi- 
rituall enemies to be adminiftred according to the decree of God. 
So we reade, that the names of fome are written in the booke of 
life from the foundation of the world, Rev.iy.2, that God hath 
laved fome, and called them with an holy calling, not according 
to their workes, but according to his owne purpofe and grace, 
which was given them in lefus Chrift before the times of the ages, ' 
2 Tim.i.^. that God hath from the beginning chofen fome to 
Salvation through fanflification of the Spirit and beliefc of the 
truth, 2 Thef,2. 13. In all which paflages that choofing, writing 
and calling is to be underftood, which is taught in this famous pro- 
mife, whereunto they feeme to be referred. For the phrafe is, from 

G the 

The very fight 
it felfc was tri- 
the Devill ran 
.with all his 
might againft 
Chnfti hekil, 
led hitnfelfe. 
Angry Bees 
flinging once, 
raakcrhem- ' 
fdvts drones 
fcrevci: Sa 

of the Covemnt sfPromifku 

tkf beginningox. the begtHning, docb (ometitnes note thecime of 
the conftitucion of the Iewi(h Church, ?indits policie, prefently 
from the going out of Egjp i as Pfal.j^. i. Kemembei: the Con-, 
gregation which thou haft purchafed of old. LXX* *^' «??c« ?, It 
Signifies alfo the beginning of the difpenfation of theGofpell prea- 
ched of Chrift bimlelfe ; f or then a new manner of revelation of 
the Do(5trine oi the Gofpell was brought in, Lukz i •2- Alio froin 
the beginning is as much as from the beginning of the worlds from 
rhe foundation of the worldj oratleaft, little after the beginning 
of the world, //?/?. 8.44. the devill isfaid to be a murderer from 
the beginning, and to finne from the beginning. 1/0^.3.8. The 
word beginning ablolutely and precifely put, is taken one of thefe 
wayes, but with an addition or reftraint from the circumftances 
oi the Text, it imports fome other beginning, as of the preaching 
of the Gofpell, to this or that place or people, or the like ; as Phii, 
4,1$. I /o^.^. 7,8,23,24. But this phrafe from the beginning ne- 
ver imports from eternity, in any paflkge of Scripture : and it is 
Jjpmewhatftrange to interpret the beginning of duration by eter- 
nity, which is eflentiaWy and abfolucely without beginning of du- 
ration. Now when the Apoftle faith, God hath chofen the TheC- 
falonians from the beginning, what can we underftand thereby, 
but God hath manifefted fome outward declaration of their ele- 
d:ion, according to this famous promifemadeto^^i^jwandjEs/f, 
that the ked of the woman iliould breake the Serpents head. Som^ 
would referre it to the time that the Gofpell was preached a- 
mongft them, or to the time of their efied:uall calling s but the 
^Noxd hgimmg precifely and abfolutely put is never Co taken ; nei- 
, the'^can itbeiaidi that the Theffalonians were chofen asfoon as 
i^he Gofpell was firft preached unto them : for it may well be, that 
it was often preached unto them before they believed :nor from. 
tfee beginning of their e{Fe(fluaU calling, if (as they would have it) 
thefaithfull perfevering, not (imply the faithfull, bciheobjedof 
Qods Eiedion. Of the other Texts alleadged the fame may be. 
faid, un!;o which the fbrefaid anfwer can in no fort be fitted :fQ 
that we may conclude, in all the fore-cited paflages there i? ^n ap» 
parant allulion to this grand, ancient promife of mercy prclaime4 
immediately upon the fall, letting forth » manifeft diiFerence be* 
Kwixttheleedofthe woman and the feed of the Serpent, accor- 
4«i^ to ^hc eWion of God. Befides, m thefe woyds is implyed 

ff^ade with Jdam immediately ftp0»hu faff, 4j 


t Covenant confifting of a promife and ftipulation, made not in-* 
ternally alone with the heiresof promife, but externally admini* 
ftred, offered unto and accepted of all the members of the Church, 
y'iz. o€ Adam zndEvffy and all their pofterity, that were dedica- 
ted to God by them, or did accept or receive the promite oi mer- 
cy. If no Covenant had been made, there could have been no 
Church, nor pleafing lervice tendered unto God. If this Cove- 
nant had not been externally adminiftred, no unregcnerate man 
could have been in the Church, nor have communion in the ordi- 
nances of Religion. But by vertue of this Covenant, C<a/«asweli 
as y^^ff// offered Sacrifice unto God, as a member of the Church, 
and after his Sacrifice was rcjeded he heares from God, Ifthott da 
well jhalt thoH not he accepted? which is a promife of the Coyc- '''^""^-^j^- 
nant that tooke place after tl^ fall j for the former Covenant made 
fio mention of mercy to be vouehfafed to the delinquent upon re- 
j)entance,nor of acceptance aher tranfgreflion. Of this Covenant 
there be two parts ; firft a promife, :k a ftipulation. The promife 
is, that God will pardon the finnes of them that repent unfainedly, 
and believe in his mercy : which he doth truly promife to all in Co*- 
Venant, and effe<5hjally beftow upon them that be heires of the pro* 
mife. 2. The ftipuUtion is, that they believe in him that jullifi- 
cth the ungodly, and walke before him in all wel-pleafing. This 
may be gathered, becaufe the promife of forgivenefle cannot be re* 
ceived, but by faith, and by faith it is that we overcome; the wotid^ 
and vanquifh Sachan, the enemy ot our foules. Thus we read^ 
that if y faith the Elders ehtained a good report : and that hy faith jj^j, , j^ ^ 
AheleffereduntoGodAntoreexeellent Sacrifice then Caine: hy 
Tfvhich he obtained wttnej^e that he was righteous : and that by faith 
Enoch was tranjlated, that hejhottld not fee death : and that Naah 
became heire of the right eotfifne^e which is by faith : which is an 
argument fufficienr, that they underftood bow faith was required 
in this Covenant or promife. And feeing it is the property of faith 
to worke by love, and to be fruitful! in all good workes, of neeef- 
fity if faith be commanded, obedience is requited, though not as 
the caufe of life, yet as the way to life, and the fruit of faith. If 
we fHuft beleeve in God, we muft alfo walke with God, and 
worke righteoufnefTe. To whomt God gives to believe in him, t^ 
them he gives to obey, and doe all his Commandements; as he 
«ioth^E& alt that be Gfk£kmViy acid internally in Cavetsasic with 

Ga his 

4f, oftheCovenmtofpromijk^ 

bisHighncffe: and oi whom he requireth faith in his Promife, 
of them be cxadeth obedience to his Commanderacnt , fcii. of 
all them that be outwardly in Covenant. Thus w& find, that by 
faith Enoch walked with Gpd, or walked before God in all well- 
pleafing. H(f^.ii.5 6. C]en,'^,ii^2^. And towhat endisremifii- 
onfromfinne promifcd,that man fctfrec from the curfc ef the 
Law and ftroke of revenging juftice (hculd wallow in profanc- 
ncflc? NojbutthatheftiouldferveGod in holinefle and rightc* 
oufneflfe all the dayesof his life. 

But how doth God require thefe things at the hand of the rea^* 
fonable creature fallen, unleffe he give them fulficient grace tobe- 
lecve if they will ? • 

The anfwer is, man in the ftate of Innocency, being made after 
the Image of God, had power both to beleeve and obey, which be- 
ing loft by finne, God is not bound to repaire. And though he had' 
not juftifying faithjbecaufe it argueth imperfedion and finne, and 
could not loofe what he had not? yet by traafgreffion he brought 
himfelfe into fuch a ftate of bondage and wrath,which could not be* 
removed but fc^ faith in Chrift. 

2. When God in juftice doth ikuE men up in ignorance and 
unbelicfe, and with-hold from them both the graces of his Spirit, 
and the meanes thereof, his judgements are juft, though fecret. And 
if for the finneof man, God may ;uftly cait off millibns> andiioc 
vouchfafefo much- as outward meanes of Salvation unto-them ; he 
mayalfoexadl faith and obedience upon promife of pardon and 
eternall happineffe, whei>hedoth not deliver them firom thral- 
dome and bondage fpirituall whereunto they plunged themfclves^ 
Was it; injuftice in God to promife acceptance to Cain if he 
did well, -when as yet he was not let free from the bondage of 

' Sathan, • , 

3. God doth deny nothing to them that be outwardly in Co- 
venant with his Highnefle, that he is bound to give either in ju- 
ftice or by promife, fothat it will be in vaine for them to plead> 
with God : for if they come ftiort of mercy promifed jit lY through 
theirown^ wilful! negkcl or contempt. - -' 

4. Noinan is hindred from beleeving through the diffiailty or 
anreafonablenelTebf the command, or through Ws owne fimpl6' 
infirmity, as being willing and defirous to beleeve, but hot able^" 
which inability deiervespitty: bat his inability is of corruptioa 


madt with Adam imme^ately upon his fall. 45 

and witfulneflre :. he doth not beLeeve, becaufe He will not, he is 
wnable , becaiie he doth not covet or defire , which is inexcu- 

J. His inability tobekeveis joyned- with the wilfull refiafall of 
mercy promifed and voluntary purfutc of fomeinfcriour good, as 
more to be defircd then Gods favour. But of this more in the rtexc 
degrees of the Covenant. 'ar-tr^. .'; 

Under this Covenant outwardly admiriiftred, were cdrnpre;- 
hended both Adam and his pofterity, even fo many as he fhould 
dedicate unto God, or Ihculd accept of the Covenant, untill by 
iWilfull departure from the faith and worftiipof God they d ifco- 
venanted themfelves, and their pofterity. As the Covenant w^as 
after made with ^Abraham and his feed, and is- now made with 
beleeving Parents for themlelves and their children after them : fo 
was it with aAdam, and thofe that (hould defcend from his 

.T^hey that lived under this adminiftration of the Covenant 
did oifer facrifice unto God by divine inftitution and appointment, 
as is manifeft in the example of y^^<f/ and Noah. We readenot ^uzmUmthm- 
indeed, that God gave any Commandement touching burnt offe- J5 '^Y**' ^""^ 
rings or facrifices ; but without queftion what they d'ld, was done -^'^^ "^auod^Zn 
by divine prefcript ion. What a iaithfull (ervant doth on earth, fhie/l nifi jujfu 
which he- cannot doe buc by command and appointment of his 'Domini, & no 
Matter^ for that, if he doe ic, we prefume he hath the Commande- ^fi ftulm^ om^ 
ment of his Mafter^although he doe not fay fo. But ^^^/ and "" i^femgmt, 
Noah faithfuU Servants of God, offered (acrifice, which they '^andatum%ti. 
could not well doe^^but by the Commandement of God i therefore aw/i mn dicau 
they were focommandedi. though fomuch be not exprefled. All Bell. deSacr, 
Ceremonies whichfignifie grace areordained of God, or they be Cmf.Uz»c,i, 
unlav;fulli But the Sacrifices were Ceremonies which dgnified 
grace, k is written o£Ahel, that by faith he offered a- better fa-' 
erifice then Cam,.zn6:,th^tGodhad refpe^ unto Abel and his fa" 
crifice : Of the facrifice of Noah it is faid, thac God fmelled a fa". 
'vonr ofrefi.: but in faith the facrifice could not have been offered^ , 
if it had not been prefcribed : it fhould not have been^iccepted, ifc\ 
IrihadnotcarriedttheftampofGod. For thofe Sacrifices were the 
types of Chrift, and feales of propitiation and remiffionof iinnes^ 
band through the btoud of Jefus r-which mufk be prefcribed, or; 
they cannot be accept^ti. Thefe . Sacrifices then- were inO:ituted of 

G 3 Godj 

46 offhC^eMntcffromifi^ 

God, and may well be called feales of the Covenant, as they did 
fignifie remiflion of (ins in and through thebloud oi Chrift, our 
true Prieft and Sacrifice. Whether God was pleafed to confirme 
his Covenant by any other vifible fignes or (eales, in that ftate of 
the Church, is more then the Scripture hath revealedo 

One queftion remaineth to be difcuffed,)?//. Whether this Cove- 
nant of Promife was made in Adam with all and every Infant that 
(hould afterwards be born into the world > 

There be fome that hold the affirmative part, viz^ That all In» 
fants, whether borne of beleeving, or infidell parents, are compre- 
hended under the Covenant of Grace, according to the internaJl 
efficacy, though not according to the externall adminiflration, (o 
9S they be truly and effedually partakers of the benefits promiled 
therein. But the Authors of this opinion doe neither conlent with 
themfelves in this, nor with the trutfi. Not with themlelves : for 
they lay Chrift died for all men confidered in the common lapfe or 
made, in refped of impetration, not of application. But if all in- 
fants be partakers of the Benefits of Chrilt, he died for them, and 
fo for all men in refped of application : all men are effedually re* 
generated, juftifiedjfandified and adopted, untill by difobedicnce 
they fall from that eftate. Againe they confcfl'e, dhac God with 
the Fathers may and hath reprobated the children, which is di- 
redly contrary to this aflertion. Arm, in Perk. pag. 92. P rob as 
(Perkifffe) ^ratU reje^ionem j>ravifam, non ejfe caufam defer- 
tioniSy ejftia Infantes extrmfxdm evangelicun* ruarientes, grati- 
4imnoKrefudiaverunt,qttitamenreprobifunt, & a Deo defer ti^ 
At,in(jHam ego in P arentibti4 ^ avis,abavi4t amvify trimvu! E* 
■yangeiii grAtiam repudiarttnty qno aBumerueruMt, ut a, Dea. 
Aeferentur, Velim emm mihifoUdam ad^rri rationem, cur cum 
^mnes in Adamo contra legem peccaverinty fofreri eJHS,at^ eo 
ipfo j>ce»am meriti (unt & dyfertionemy etiam infantes in (uis 
yurentibm c^uibm gratia Evangeliva oblatzi tfiyac rcpudiam,non 
feccaverint contra gratiam Evan^elii t l^erpnna enijHeflfoS' 
d^rii Deiratio, t^uodflii in parentibm comprehendantnr ^ ven^ 
fiantur. And whereas they teach that Chrtfl: died for all men in 
refped of impetration corirfideredin the ma^, but not as impeni- 
ten£,unbeleGVers,or obftinate, let this opinion ftand, and he died 
for impenitent and unbeleevers only in refpedoi impetration, but 
for aU mt»in the maffe eflfedttally, fo as they be adoally fee into 


made mth Adamimmidmdyu^o» his falL . aj 

the ftate of grace, andmnde partakers of the benefits of Chrifts 
death. It is contrary to the truth. For no fuch thing can be found 
in the Scripture. In this firft promife we find a manifeft diftinftion 
betwixt the feed o^ the woman, and the feed of the Serpent : but 
that all Infants be of the feed of the woman, that we rcadenot a 
and therefore we cannot receive it. And when we fee by expe- 
rience, that many thoufands are excluded from the externall Co« 
venanc, and God hath left them without all meanes, whereby they 
fliould come to the knowledge of Chrift if they live, we cannot 
thinke all Infants cffe6lually to be comprehended within the 
Covenant, and to be partakers of the good things promifed there- 
in. We know God is not tied to the meanes, nor doc we abfolute- 
ly exclude every particular man from the grace of the Covenant,, 
who is excluded from the Covenant outwardly adminiftred: but 
we cannot thinke, they fhould univerfally be partakers of the grace 
of the Covenant, who are rejeded and caft q& in refped of the cx^ 
ternall pledges and adminiftration. And if all Infants be parta- 
kers of the benefits of the Covenant, it is a wonder the fruits there* 
of doe feldome or never (hew themfelves in them that livej or that 
God fhould leave them in fuch condition, as if they live, it is ten 
thoufarid to one, being deftituce of all meanes to bring them to the 
knowledge of Chrift, they fhall fall from the grace received, and 
fo plunge themfelves into eternall perdition. Whether this opini- 
on will rtand with the tenourof the Covenant as it was renewed 
and further manifefted to tx/^r4^^»? and the Ilraelites after hioia, 
we fiiali have occafion to coofider in the CJtiapters following. 

Chap, V f . 

of the Covenant of Grace as it was made and. 

mamfe^ed to {^kakam, 

T He Covenant made impiediately upon the fall mth ^daw 
and^v^, God delivers it by accident, when he denounced, 
judgement upon Satan, and in that whole paffage doth not menti- 
on the name of a Covenant i but in the further manifeftationof the 
Covenant of Grace to iy^haham, God doth not only of purpcie 
M into i t, and diredly look at it,but openly declares thenature of 
, the 

48 of the Covenmt of Graces 

the Covenant. Ge». 17.7, 8. And What is more remarkeablejGod 
would have CMofes fpend many Chapters in opening the fpeciall 
paiTagesof this grand contrad betwixt God diX\<i Abraham. Ac 
thefirft breaking forth of the Covenant,it was propounded in dark 
and cloudie termes, not eafie to be underftood, and moft thm^^ 
fparingly expreffed, and indeed rather implyed then expreffed : fn 
this fecond rife and further manifeftacion of the Covenant, we 
have it iaiddowne in a plaine and coneeiveable language to all 
whom itconeernes. Gen.iJ.j. I'^ill ejiahlijhmy Covenant be- 
tween me and thee, and thj feed after thee in their generations §r 
an ever lading Covenant : and it is fully expreffed both in refpedt 
oi the Head and Purchafer or Undertaker, the confederates in this 
Covenant, and fubtederates, the good things promifed, and con- 
ditions required therein. That place of Gen. 3. is feldome al- 
ledgedin holy writ, but now and then by way of allufion : but 
thoieofthePromifemade to tAbrabam and his feed often *pref- 
fed in the perlbn of Chrift, not only as Meritor of the Promife and 
Satisfier of revenging wrath, nor yet as Maker of the Promifes' nor 
only as Ratifier of thePromifcs by his death, nor as having the 
prime part in the Promifes as man and Head, but as Treafurer 
of them for the whole feed of Abraham. For all the Promifes 
of God in him are tea and Amen, to the glory of God by m 
2 Cor. 1. 20. And ?/?»/, when he had to doe with the fal(e Apol 
ftles, who would have blemidied this free Covenant made with 
Abraham^by thtCowenmtoi theL^Wygal,^. 1^^16,1 J. he foin- 
fiftethupon it, as that in a fort he preferrcth this manifeftation' 
and proveth that it was confirmed of God in Chrift, and could not 
bedilanulledby theLaw. ; 

This Covenant was made in forme of a Promife to be perfor- 
med according to the purpofc of Eledion : /« thj feed Jhall all 
nations of the earth be blejfed : and in forme of a Covenant confi- 
ftingofa free Promife and reftipulatioq, lam God all-fufficient 
Vcalks be fire me, and be thou }erfiU : Genay.i. And therein jhc 
inward force and vertue of the Covenant is to be diftineuiflied 
from the outward adminiftration , as we are to (hew here- 

The Head upon whom this Covenant is fetled, both as Under- 
taker and Confirmer, Purchafer and Treafurer of all good things 
promifed therein, is Jefus Chrift; which is more fully expreffed 


as it was tmds mdmmfeHtdto Abraham. 

^~" .^ ___^ t" 

«|d ofcep repeated in this fecond breaking forth of the Covenant 
Qc»^^^, and 18.18. and 22.18. In thy feed Jhall all the nati 
ms of the earth he ^lejfed: which cannot be underftood oi the feed 
CQllea:ively but fingulariy, fcil. oi Chrift,as the Apoftle expreflely 
proyetb, faying. Now. to Abraham and hi, feed W^ the promife o.l , .* 
madehefatth not to ^e feeds, a^ jpeaking of many, but of one Vpho ^ 
^Cf>r*fi But we muft not conceive the Apoltles argument to 
be taken from the Grammatical! ufe of the word Seed- for that 
IS often put CQlleaively in the fmgular number : but from the 
quality of the bleflings there promised, which could not be accom- 
pliihedinanyotherbutinChriftalone. And this is evidently hoU 
den out tQ be thelitcrall fenfe in other places. ^Bs 2.24 2/ Bur 
Where {ball we find mention of the paffion of Chriit in this ex- 
preflureof the Covenant unto Abraham, which in the firfl mani- 
feftation was clouded in the phrafe of bruifmg his heele : and is ef- 
tenmU to the Covenant of Grace in any overture of it, as contai- 
ning the price aud ranfome by which all hinderances are removed 

^l\Apome^mh,ChnBV^,u made acnrfeforu^jhat the blejl», of G.I , » u 
Abraham n^tght come OH the gemiles. Soms anfwer. that tbif ij 
thrice put on m the paffageof this Covenant with Abraham- firf^ 
in the fcderall confirmation by the figments with the fmoakina 
fornace, and burning lamps, which pafTed between thofe pieces 
&(?».ij.8,p,i7. which howfocvcr it typified the dividing of A^ 
Mamsked in Egypt with their fiery labours 2nd forrowes • vet 
primarily the type expreflith the torment and rending ofChrift 
^t"Ju"1^};'7'''^^^^^^^ and fiery lampe, the 

wrathofGodthatrunnethbctwixr,andyetdidnot confume the 
rent and tornc nature. Secondly, they conceive this pcrpeffion of 
Chrift wasexpreflcdinthcblcujof the Circumafion. %„ "7 
10,11 For they beef opinien,tbat where God commands ftij- 
dingofbluudinany his ancient Ordinances, it doth fully reach 
unto the bloud of Chrift,and his cverlafting TeSament. The bloud 
which was Hied m the figncs ordained to fcalc the Covenant of 
Promife, what did it fignific but the bloud of Chrift, whereby the 
CoYnantwastobefealed La%,we may' find a full exprclfion 
of his paffion in the rcfolvcd facrificc of /A, which was tvoicali 
the deathof Chrift,andtheRammein hisftead : SnTstt 
tor* an EmblemcofGodsloveunto the world, in that he hath 
truly facrificed bis only Sonne Chrift to take away Cmnc^oh.^.je. 

H And 


of the Covenant ofGrasc^ 

typo vertit TrC' 
melm ex Syri 

vox ticbraice 

Fropheta Pf^U 
-pH. i.redditur 

<?i Hebr.ii, 

G?i.J7 7« 

Gal 5. 16. 

And if Corns of thefcbs not lively exprefiions, it may feemc t« 
bs implyed in the very Promife : for how ftiDuld the blefling pro- 
mifed corns upon the poflcrity oC Abraham, if the promifsd feed 
had not borne the curfe of the Law, and by fuflPering removed it, 
that mercy might be glorious io conferring rigbteoufncfle and 
life etcmall. 

In the former Covenant a fccret honour was put upon Sve, as 
fhe wasmadc(ifwemayfofpcakc) the firft pipe whereby God 
conveyed the grace of his Covenant unto her pofterity, who did 
not degenerate into the feed of the Serpent. But here the Cove- 
nant is made with Abraham j who received it, not as an cxaaiple 
only, nor as a type, but as an Ordinance leading unto the convey- 
ance of the fame Covenant to all the confederates. In which 
fenfe it is plainly fpoken to in the Epiftles to the Rom, and gal, 
and hccalkd the Father of the faithful!. Rom./^. ii, i2,l5. and 
-'they which zrQoithQhhhthQ childreit of Abraham, Qal, 3.7. the 
'feed of Abraham, Gal. 3.29. Abraham is not the Father of the 
'faithfuU cfF:dively, as if he fliould be the worker of faith in all, or 
that men ibould be borne faithfuU of him : For fb God only by 
the holy Ghoft is the Father of the faithful! : But analogically foe 
the grace of the Covenant given unto him on that condition and 
pi:ivilcdgc, that as Fathers, transfcrre and psfle over their rights 
and inheritance to their children : fo he as a Father fliould propa- 
gate the righteoufneffs of faith and free blcffdneflc to all the faith- 
ful 1 by Dodrine, Example and Covenant. So that all who re- 
ceive this Covenant flora Gcd in Chrift, doe likewife by faith 
draw it through Abraham, to whom tlie promife was made, 
§^l'l, 16, 

The Subfederates are defcribsd,and by that differenced from al! 
the woridjto be Abrahams feed. / W/// efiablijh my Covenant be-^ 
tvpeenme dnd thee, ayjdthj feed after thee, in their generadons, for an 
ejverlail'mg Covenant, to be a God unto thee, and to thy feed after thee* 
Wher.^ tbcfe fpecialties are hoiden out. That God will be as good 
a God to Abrahamsfccdj as he is to Abraham himfelfe, and that 
whatfoever right by the Covenant was invefted upon Abraham, 
fhould dcfcend as from a Parent under this Covenant, to all his 
f:ed by vertue of this Covenant made with him. But we muft 
diftinguiiTi Abrahams {czd. For fomctime by the feed oiAbrOm 
^swism^antChrifi-jwhoisths piime and principal! feed, who 

" fird: 

as it was made and manife^edte Abraham, .51 

firft cntrcd the Covenant as PurchaferjMaker, Confirmer, and up- 
on whole perfon it was fetled for us all by Ahr^am, Againe, by 
9/ibrahamj feed arc meant all that receive this Covenant frora 
Iiim,whethcr by outward adminiftration only, or internall force 
and vcrtue alfo. In the eye of God and Scripture all bcieeving 
Gentiles are the feed of Akahamy which may be called the Chri- 
{lianfeed; /« thee Jhall all T^tions of the earth be hleffsd : whfch Gen.fs.^. 
muftneedsbeundcrftcodofthe Gentiles which fhould bcleevc, and 18.18, 
and is plainly fo interpreted by the Apoftle: Therefore it U hjfahh^ ^"^^ a'»^8. 
.the^ it might be hy grace y to the end the premife might befm-e to all R^n' 4.>6ji7» 
thefeedi not to that only ^hich ii of the LaWy but to that alfo "^hich ^^^^ * *" 

it of the faith of Abraham, ^ho ii the Father ofm ally As it is Wittett^ 
I hazfa wade thee a Father of many Nations, That he might ■he the Fa- 
ther of them that beleevCy though they be not circumcifed, that righte- 
attffiejfe might be imputed to them alfo* And if ye be(^hrifisy then are Gal. jji^^sa, 
ye Abraham ffeedy and heires by Tromfe. All belecving Jewes and 
Profclytes arc comprehended under the feed o? Abraham, and 
may be called thefpirituall feedjn oppofition tothecarnall or na- 
turallfeed only. This diftindion of y^^^-^^^wj feed fpirituall and 
.niturall the Apoftic plainly fpecifieth ; Neither becaufe they are the ^^^ g 
./i^ of Abraham are they all children : but in Ifaac Jhall thy feed be cal- and j. ^s \1 
led: tk^t iiy they "^hich are the children of the fie fb^ thefe are not the 
children ofGodj^but the children ofthepromife are counted for the feed, 
Befides, all that defcend from the loynes of Abraham, and all that 
were borne in his houle, and bought with his money are counted Gen, 17; n, 
for the feed, though indeed many of them were wicked and pro- » h »!• 
fane. Therefore Abraham is commanded to circumcife every 
man-child, both him that is borne in bis houfe, or bought with 
money of the ftranger, which is not of his feed. Thus Ifimaely 
^^, and others were circumcifcd, counted Abrahams (ztdy and 
under Caycnant^,iintill they fell away, and difcovenanted them- 
felvcs*. .but their pofterity are not counted for the ictd, becaufe 
they utterly fell away, and departed from the faith. The whole 
Nation of the Jewes defcending from Jacob y^t^zs accounted the 
feed o^zy^braham, untill the time of Reformation, tl)ough many 
amongft th^m were wicked, and oft- tisies feil away. / kftoyv 
( faith our Sa^^ipiit' to the Pharifees) ye are Abrahams feed,^ but yee J9^9 2. i 7. 
fcek^to Mitt me,fo did not Abraham, In refpsd: of the cxtemall ad- 
ttiiniftration of the Covenant they were counted the feed : but 

H s they 

52 _ of theCevemm ^f t^f-mcj 

they walked net in the (lepsof the faith o^ Ahrak4m,2ila^\h&dhi^ 
indeed and truth thsy were not the feed. And the Apoftle fpea- 
king to the J c wes, who had piK Chrift to death, faith, Te are the 
iSt.l^x J. children of the Tr^phcis, and of the Covenant, ^hich G<fd maie "9oith 

o»r Fathers^ I^V'^^ ^^'^° Abraham , And in thy feefd fh&ll «// the 
Kinredsoftke earth he bieffsd. Further it is to be dbfcrved, that in 
all the feed the CGveDantreacheth to Infants Ijofnt of the feed 
under the Covenant,whieh was ths reafon why tbe^ tnuft receive 
thefealccithe Covenant at eight dayes old. Neither tnaft w€ 
put off'this, that Infants havetohly j*^/fl^/a!^>'»/foir tb'ey bc^fe"^^ 
Tnur children are hdljSmh the ApOltie, I t^<^.7. 14. 1^^% 
Covenant, though by naf ur e finfiill. Indfced it is trde they ^e net 
capabJcof many aduaii irjsyiKtnts under th« Go've'natit, ftor'df 
aduall Faith : but through the free grace and acceptation of God, 
the Proffiifc of forgivcnelTe, and the Kingdome of Heaven belon- 
geth unto them. So tbat if any perfoncodfjcitito^oirenant ^Hd 
procreate children, that man and his iflbe a'r?c /«<^r4f», and may 
grow up into a further body from that beginning. From this W^ 
, jiiay fee the tt ue ground of all Covenants ^s they receive difference 

^ '9- from the parties irijoying, whether perfonall, fsimily-Covenahf s, 
or national!. Perfonall is the caufe of famJly-Gdvenatits, as\/^rf- 
hkws Covenant, the ground of his Fatailies enffance : and fo tbc 
C cvcnant mide with the Family the ground of rtati'onaU,^s in the 
families cf7*«^(?^ cad together, made all IftElclundsr Covenant, 
And herein appearcs the truth of the former diftindtion, that the 
Covenant is made according to intcrnall force and efficacy ,or out- 
tvard adminiftration only. 

The things on Gods part prom'^fed under this manifeftation tb 
Abraham and his fabfcdcrates arc held forth in thefc and the like 
expreflions : / 1*/// wake thee a great Nation, ctitd iWillb/eJfethee^ 
Cen.i&. i,J* .^^^ ^^^ thy nawe great, and thoHjhalt be a bleffing. And J vfilt bleffe 
thcfn th^t b/ejfe thee, and curfe him that cmfeihthee \* and in iha fhdU 
■ aU Families of the earth be blejfed, Vnto thy fe^'d^ltl give thu l^nd. 
Lift up no-0 thine eyes^ andlooi^frem the place Where thoii art, North- 
G n. 1 8.1 8, tvardand SoHthward,a»d Eaflwardand fVeFtvpdrd, F^r all the Larid 
Gcn.i 1.14,1 f, VehickthoTtfeeB, to thee ^ill I give it, and to thy feed fof^^ver. And I 
'^« "^ill make thy feed of the dufi of the earth ; fa that ifaMdn ^m^imber^ 
the dufi of the earth, thenlfrall thj feed atfo be nttifhbred. '^eare not 
*' YcVi . Abraham, I am thy fhield , and thy exceedhig great riward^ Looks 



as it vfas made mdmmfefitdio Abraham . 5 2 

now torvafds Heaveiti andttU tke flarreytifthoH he nbletonumhet 

them* AndhefaldumohlmtSofi^ithy feed he, I am the Almighty Gen. 17. t. 

God: and Iff ^ make my Covenant beticveen me and thee, and mil mul- 2, 

tip/y thee exce€c^nglj,^ndtkouJhalt ha Father of many Nations. 3* 

And I vpill make thee exceeding frmifuU, and J tvttt make Nations of ^* 

thee, and Kings piall tome om of thee. And J will efiai^/i/h my Cove- ^' 

ftant betrpeen me and thee, and thy feed after thee, in their generations, ver.'io, 

for an everlafting Covenant to he a Cjodunto thee^ and to thy feed after 

thee, Andl will give (into thee-, and to thy Jeed after thee, the Land 

wherein thoH art a f ranger, all the Land of Canaan for an everlafling 

fofefjion, and I rpillhe their (fdd. By mjfelfe have Ifworne . faith the G en, i ? 16 1 7, 

Lord, for kecaufe thou haU done this thing, and hafl notmth-heldthy and 24,7. 

Sonne-, thy only Sonne, That in hleffing Itvill blejfeihee, and in «?»/• 

tiplyiw I wiMmuliipli thy feed as art es of heaven, andas the fand 

which is upon^hefea'Jhore, and thy feed fiallpojfejfe the gates of his em'' 

mies. And t/^ thy feed JhdlLalLthe Nations of the earth be bie^ed-^becaufe 

thoti hafl obeyed my voice. . j i 

The grand Promifcs of this Covebsnt arc, that Cod would be 
the God of Abraham and of his feed, whereby is (ignificd,that God 
would hz to him, what he had tc vcakd hiodfeife to b-, his King, 
■and Father, his Portion and rrotcctburi that he would pardon his g j^^*^*' 
finnc, write his Law in hisbeart,;icadc biminto all truth, defttad pfai.'A^/^.' 
bim from all evill, and in due time receive him untoelory. Eap^y Hiero!9.inE\.u. 
are the people that be infnch a cafe: yea, blejfedare th'y that have Cjod ShadJai, Sym, 
for their Cjod. This god is our God for ever, and ever, hefhall he our Thecd. trs-vh, 
guide mtill death. Andthis isimplyed, ia that the Lord exTprefTed ^^^^fi^'^^f^* 
biffifcifeunto yf^ra6^;«tobe Alinighty,or AlUfiiffia£ne,thsnurfe lim.nbJhim 
ohlliiving things, (lrong,and potent to doe w-hadoevCT he wiii, pojumtudime 
whocan being all things to nothing, as hs made? all things of no- ifn t?.6, 
thing, can give^and take away, give pknxifuUy, abundantly, as '^^^ SepC. 
plcaleth himfclFc, whofe^goodnc ffsdoth copisufly- reach unro all mf^. ts ^sS. 
bis creatures. TheSept.lfttsrpracrs-fomctitiies ei^ptre{ls~this tiv Gcii49.zf. 
tlebythsconiinon naii^c'QfGod t fcrnctimesahey. crrait ditfaho- ^ j"!!'^'*' 
gcther, and for / am god Almighty, they xranflite I am thy God ; ^JIj ' '^',^ 
fometimes they put' for it, theGod of heaven,; Tyklpi.i . fome- y\i,^9youis 
times they render: itbya^ word that fignifisrh fit, fufficicnt,ftrang Imvh. Sept. 
and ptotcrit. '7»i ^ i . 2- but -rnoft icosimonly Ma^^-y ^ Omni- faAoy^^^cii* 
potent^ abletodoe all thiRgjs,.^«»f 15.35. and X3.25. and 23.11?. ^ T^rnVm 
aodi26. i5. and 27. 11. and parapbraflically , who hath made ^^'ZLlf 

H I; all 

54 of the Cevenam of Graces 

'all ihings, fob 8. 3. Sometimes they turne it heavenly, PfaL6S^ 
ly. once they retaine the Hebrew word 'wd^'^^',$, and 
once they ufc an cxpreflion, which comes nigh to felfe fufficicncy 
071M to ' '- ^"^ contentation, 7<?^ 2P.5:. i^m materia copofus eft valde. But 
iiiKcuf. ^'^'^ when God manifefted himfeUc to Abraham to be God Almighty, 
the meaning is not fo much to exprefle what God is in himfelfe^ 
as what he woold be to Abraham and his pofterity % as afterwards 
Exod.5, ? when he faith he would be knowne unto them by his name feho" 

'S'^^jtherby is meant that he would gifc being to the promiies for- 
merly made nnto them. And in many paflages, when the Scrip- 
ture fpeakes of the eternity of <3od, theabfolutc eternity which 
PfaKco 2. refpeds God himlelfe, is not undcrftood : but that wherby be 
j>filiioj.*i 2, will (hew himfelfeternall in his loveand favourand rich graceto- 
3 g, 28,19. wards bis people. Art not thoufrom everlasting, Lord our god^ 

Hcb'f.18, vpejhallmt^ie. And when the promife was m^d^to Abraham, 
,<5en.izj,j. thati»him, orln his iced, alLnatioKS ofthieanhPiOuldbebLe^ed^ 
Aa,|.i5. therein was preached the Gofpcll unto Abraham^ that the Gen^ 

Heb6x*|.''' tiles fhould be turned from their finnes, j unified by faith, adop- 
GaLj.?. ted to be the Sonnesof God, made partakers of ths promifcd Sp> 

rit, and receive theJnheritancepurchafed for the SaintF, 
Voff. refp. R2- . Untothefefi?irituall blcflings, it plcafed God to add. the pv&. 
v-rfp. mifc of many and great temporall good things, which" arc fully 

cap, 2 J. branched out in the words before cited, and may be reduced to 

thcfe heads, f. Prote(5Hon, /<«w r^/y^;V/j^. The Sept. hath it, i 
pfal.5.4, & 7» will protect or ftand betwijct the and all dangers, that may thrcat- 
pf'l 82. ^^» or feem to come nigh thee. The like promife is often repeated 
in Scripture, wherini not (imple aid or vulgar manner of protc-; ^io" isfigni.^ed, but prefent, certaine, eftedluiU defence, nigh 
Deut. 10. 'at hand conrinually, and that performed with great care and 
Gen. 5'-. 15. promptnesof mind. 2. BJic\ics2inA honour, I rviil make thee ^reat 
Jcr. M.8. and tky name Jhalijbe^r eat, .j. MaltipHctty of feed j 1 will multiply 
Hof. I. lo, iheetxceedinglj\ ..There be:threc things in Scripture ani;Heathen 
ID i*o!*2?»'& Authours, wh/ch are ufed proverbialiy, to (ignify an huge and ex«* 
40* 19I ceeding great humber, the duO: of the earth, the fands of the fea, 

Jcr.j j.»3» and ftarres of Heaven. And all thefe are brought to refrmblethc 
Thcocrit. Jo- exceeding number into which the feed pk Abraham ^^xM. breaks 
^ C * ^o!r"5* ^^^^^> ^J^^' 1 3 • ^ ^- & i ? • 1 7 • ^7^«* 1 5 • !> • : 4- T h e Landiof C^4 • 
Sen^lnMe^ ' *** ^^ promifcd as an e vcrlafting pofTelfion, ;and therein bojy Go- 
ovil Tfifi, vernmcnt, Church ordinances and other bkffings attending thcr- 
js/f^,4, on^ 

as it was made mdmanifeHedte Abraham, j j 

on : all wbich are ftated upon ftAbraham and his itaturall feed by 
y<«ro4 and wc find verified in them. 

Touching thcfe bieilings we muft obferve firflr, that God gave 
more of the temporall, Icffe of the fpirituall to the naturall feed in 
the firfl: ages : but in the latter ages more of the fpirituall bleflings, 
kffe of the tcraporall and outward to the Chriftian feed of the 

Secondly many of Abrahams carnall feed in joyed the outward 
bleflings, which reached not the fpirituall ; as infinite numbers 
that dwelt in the Land of Canam^ and being lews outwardly did ' 
partake in outward priviledges beloging to the pofterity of f^acob^ 

Thirdly, thofe that injoyed this outward part of Abrahanut 
blefling and priviledges of the Covenant, cannot be called ftran- 
gcrs altogether from the Covenant of promife:for the Apoftle 
conf^lTstb, that the carnall lew in his time> was not wholly bro- Rom. $1 4, 
ken off from tke Covenant and the Service of God, with the pro- 
mifes ; which may be faid of carnall Chriftians, which live with- 
in the pale of the vifible Church, with correfpondcncy in fomc 
mcaiurc unto the ordinances, Thefe injoymg the outward blefr 
iings of -^^^^^w, are in the eye of the Scripture reputed to be 
within theCovcnant of grace, whereof we have an apparanC 
proofc, Deut.ig, i o. Where all are faid to enter this Covenant 
to the very hewer of wood and drawer of watsr,aniongft whom 
was the carnall, as well as fpirituall feed. 
' Fourthly, it istobeobferved, that thepoflcflson of the Land 
G^Canaan^ as it was a part of their outward happineflfCjfo it was a 
^ype of the etcrnall reft, Heb,/^i, as n:iall be proved more at large 

It may bs demanded how the Land oi Canaan^ which the If- 
raelitespoflfefied for a time,can be called an cverlafting pofTrflion. 

The anfwcr is, that the word tranflated evcrlafting doth not e- 
vcrfignifie that which {hall have no end, but an age, terme or 
continuance . 1 1 is fpoken of the adlions and vertues of God : of 
the time paft or future. OFtbe time paft, and fo we readc of the 
bounds ofages, Pro.22.28. The paths of ages, 7^^.18.15. The 
dayesof ages, "D^/^ The ycares of ages, Tfai.yj,'^. The 
dcferts of ages, Ifai. 58. 11. loP^fta 24. 2. / hid my peace of 
@U, J/a,j{z,i^' that is, long time. Of the time to come 
with determination cettainc or uncettmCy as mtUi- tk )f 


oftkc Covenam0f(^r4<€^» 

sternum qui 

I Sam. i|.ij« 

^d meaperp: 
tuttm deduct te 
tempQra ear* 


J0(h. 24. Si 

Gen. I $.6* 

^'^HhiUi at l«ng as he Ihethy as long as the LamofC'eramauicj id in 
forciy er m long oi the earth eaditreth, and fach iike,as, HejhAllferve 
thee for ever, 1>eHf. i JT . 1 7 . and u utitili thejeare ofJuUUt Lev, 1 5 . 
40,41 . hefhaUferve them for ever, Lev,.2$./\6, chat is, all the daycs 
of his life. He/hail appeare before the Lord for ever, l Sami.zt, 
that is, aslongasbelivcth. I will praifc; the Lord forever and 
ever, 77^/. 1 45. i,^. that is, as long as I fhall have any being, ?/i/, 
146.2. Sothecaresofthisage,./l/4«A.T3.2 2. is put for the cares 
of this life, Z,»j^.8. 1 4. The Covenant of the Sabbath and Circhm* 
cifion is called everlaftmg^ Exod. 3 a. I ^, 1 7. Qen, 17. 1 J . that is,du- 
ring the ttmeofthe Old Teftamerit, or until! the time of Refor- 
mation. The earth fiandeth for ever^ EccLf, 1 .4. Pfal. 1 04,6. that 
is, as long as the world fhali endure, as long as the fafhion, tenor 
or forme of I he world Quil continue, i Cor.f 31. The grave is 
called the boufeof ages, or an cverlafting houie, Eeclefi 2 .7. The 
dcfolations which (hall end in the fpaceof70 yearcs, arc called 
everlafting dcfolations, /ifr.25.p. And that which whiles it laftetb, 
is never interrupted, is ^id to be everlafting, P/^/. 2 5. ^-T^ mtrcus 
which are everlafiittg, that is, which thcu alway cs ufcft, being ne- 
ver interrupted. So it is a parpetuail fpeech, which is never in- 
terrupted or broken off, though it may have an end. So that wc 
muft wifely confider what doth agree to every place, even to the 
appointed end, and that rather hidden intbewill of God, then 
made knowne to men. And if wc take the Land o^ Canaan pro- 
perly and literally, it was not the everlafting Inheritance of Ifra- 
cU abfolutCj but relative, not for ever, but for a long time prc- 
fcribed of God, evcnuntill the time of Reformation : Beit if wo 
looke to the thing fignified it is an everlafting inheritance to the 
fpirituall feed* 

Thefe promifes were freely made of grace, and of mecre grace 
the bleflings promifed were conferred upon the feed. Fot Abra- 
ham himfelfe was an Idolater, when it pleafcd God to call him out 
of Vr of the Chaldees, and to make thefe rich promifes unto him. 
And as Abrahams calling was of grace^ fo are all the promifca 
made unto him when he was firfi called. Tbevaaes u due unto him 
tbfitworkethupondefertt but the inheritance vfiM given to Abraham bj 
jromife, Abraham believed God^and it wad imputedto him for righte- 
aufne^e. And if faith be reckoned to Abraham for righteoMfnefey he 
hath not toglerj before God, We readc indeed the Lord faid unto 


a* it was made and mamfefied to Abraham, jy 

Abrahamy f»r becaHfe thou hafl done this things 4ndhAfi not with held 1^,17* 
tbj Seme, thine only Sonne^That in hlejfmg / nviO. ble^e thee ^c. But 
the fame promife God had formerly made to iAbraham, and faith 
in thcfe promifes was the caufe of his obedience; thcrforchis o- 
bediencc was not the caufe why God gave the promife. An oc- 
cafion or antecedent it might be of the renewing of the promife at 
this time, but it was no caufe of the promife itfeUe, nor of the 
accomplifhment. For that whithout which, and before which 
the promifi was, could not be a caufe of th<: promife, or the good 
promifed. Befides, the bafisand foundation of this promife is 
Chrift, whofc incarnation could not be merited by tAbrahums o- 
bedtencei The particle bccauf?, is a note of order and confe- 
qucnce, flitwing to whom the promife did pertaine, not of the 
caufe why it was made, or the good promifed ihould be perfor- 
nacd. '-s ■>-^. v^^■\i.J 

Ifit bcfaifli thi-'^Wrf promifed to exf;^4^4w is called a re- Gen, if. 1,2. 
ward. ■'"• ' ■; -^ s . ,-. . 

Thearifweris, the word reward fometimes doth import no- 
thing, but an abfolute and free gift of God, though no a^ion 
V5/ent before to which rccompence was due : as <yfw.30.18. Leak 
filtbs ^odhmth given me my reward, hecatife I have given my hand- 
iiiaidtomyhHfhand^Pfal.iif.^. Children are the Inhsritanceof the Genbrard. in 
'Lordj andthefrtiite of the womi>e is his reward. There is a reward P^^'-**^* 
of a debt, fuch as is due to the workeman for his labour upon de- 
fcrt :and a reward of grace, fuch as God giveth to them who la- 
bour in well-doing according to promife. A pcward is g^ivcn to 
the worker of free gracei but not for his workfe as the procuring 
or deferving caufe. There is a relation of order and conkquencc 
betwixt the workc and the reward, that theorte gocth before and 
theothcr folio weth, but not a proportion of cquiparancie, price 
or degrees, that the one 'liouJd match or purchaf^the other.. A -^({aeltcompea. 
recomDchce is ^iveii ti) obedience, as comfort siid folacs to theoi -^^^^ ^f* ^^^^' 
that fuffer for Weir-ddiSfe : bcit it is ngtgivera for their ohediencei al'^^J^I^^i" 
as wages to the laboufter, or lands and poiSrfliohs for the price pr'opterumm 
paid in band. -/Reward is fbmetimss called retribution : bat in reJditw aliuL 
Scripture not only the reward of good' or evill, but finply good P^a'-iS. 20, 
Or evill d6niets thereby figriified, ^^hough nothing went before to 
defcrve or^^roeilFC it. Thofthafijhewedilis day how thou, hafi dealt Gen,"^o. 1 f. 
^fiUwith'hki If J have rewarded evill unto bim that was at pSAce i Sam. %^, i8„ 
' I with 

58 of tfie Covenant of Graces 

ffal.'/.a.l -jvlthme. The Lord hath dealt botintifuUy rvithm;. He hath 
^la ,i;.5. ^^^ dealt Tfvith U4 after our jinneSy nor rerporded m after our 
&i*i6.7i* * iniquities. Deale bonntifiiUj with thy fervant. And if a benefic 
Pfal. 1 1 4. 1 7. freelj? vouchfafed be called a retribution, the retribution promifed 
& .'4^ 7. and of grace conferred upon the workers of righteoulneffe, doth 
Iia.^.9- ^ not inferre dignity or worth in the work rewarded. For when 
pr iTo? ' ' ^' ^^^ "^^'■^ performc his promife of meere grace, he is Caid to retri- 
y^^'d^lSl*. bute, not that heoweth any thing to any man, or that he can re- 
Vcrbuml^y ceive any that hath the reafon of a benefit, but becaule he doth 
qaodvuigdred' good unto them according as of his rich grace he was pleafed to 
(iitur, retnbue- promife. And if God be laid to render or repay a reward, thence 
^fi^nml^m- '^^ ^*'^^^ ^^^ follow, that good works can merit ought at the hands 
piHrefare.ftu of God : for the word is of farre larger fignification, and imports 
idem repomn, no more fometimes, but co reftore to one, that which was his own 
nimirumbene- before; SiSC^Utth,22,2i, Render to Cafary the things that are 
fiiumfro kwe- Cafars. Luk^^.^i. » It is faid of the child that our Saviour healed, 
jjcioy injuria ^^ reSiored him to his father, Luk.4.20. He c[ave a^atne the 
etiam priorem books to the Mimster. Sometimes It IS to give Without relpect to 
tonjene in ali- merit or de(ert ; as Alatth. 27.58. Pilate Gommanded the body to 
quern, -velto- be given ttnto him. Ads 4.3 3. With great porr^er the Apofiles 
mniy^ /'/'f' gji-ve tefiimony of the refiirreclion of our Lord fe/ns Chrijh^ 
SnchMveZ ^f*^^' 3 -3 • & Z^.'^> 2 Chron. 6. 2- j . where the Hei?f ew hath 
4c.:-;j'oc!. ' * nothing but give, the Septuagint tranOate it render or repayl 
Miui j» pill. Moreover,it fignifieth to repay according to vow or promife, as is 
*3=^' to be feen in many places of Scripture : Deut. 27,.2\, P/aL22.26. 

Thatacompa- ••^/^^•50'H- C?"' 11^.1.2,17. Hof.J^l. foh,2.10, Nah.l.l^, 
ry of mifcre- J^ biicf there is a retributioh of juftice ilridly taken, which is ac- 
Mit wretches cordiiig to. defer t ; /W. 1.7. /ert^z.iS. Exod.22.y6, and there 
fnouid be be- is a retribution of grace and'bounty, whjch is of favour according 
ioved/aved, :to;promi<e, 'ds Rfith.z.i 2. Prov. 1^.21, and 25.22. nottoadde, 
fIif4-''rTron ^^^^-^^ ^^^^ ^^^ ^^^^ S^^*^ orcviU, isfaid to retribute ; Pfil. 1 3 7, 
"SkiS^ach* ^- '7^/S/.-3-5.ii- So tiisitif God;be("aid.,toj:e^fider-Qr retribute ac-j 
ity religion . cording toour righte0ii(riejTe,k is-not in rerpc.^: of the worthinefji^ 
Joth'noc dc ofpur deeds,as, jf they defer ved it, ;;but of .hisjfree promife and ^cl^ 
ivc iij nature mercy,v/hereby he hachbound himself to accept of our (incere obe- 
'^^[I^^J^'J,^:^ dience,andgracioupy to reward it*. .. .•-.i.} ,,; 

doch^nolexra ^^ ^°^ ^^^ pleaded fiiepiy co pKake the(e'pf0»ife§. to-e^fe- 
ir, only 1<d vc ^^'Wj io alfo to confirme theiame untahim by Oath. My mjfelfe 
^hdyiis ir. kavt Ifpiornefiiih the Lnd^ Wherein God. mUing m9re abunr 


as it x&jts made and manifefied tik Abraham . 5 g 

dantiy tejh^rfunto ^eheiresofPromife theimmumbilitj of his 
counfeUt confirmedit by an Oath • that by two iynmntivble ihings^ 
in VPhich it wds imfojfible fir God te lie, \>ee might have firong 
€ Oft (elation, ^ho have fled fir refitge to lay held upon the hofefef 
yefiretu. Abraham was ftrong in faith,yet was it not fupcrfluoos 
or altogether needleffe, that God of hisiuperaboundant love and 
mercy, fhould adde his Oath to the former promife, for the fur- 
ther fetling and affurance qf hi^fervant. Here that common fay^ 
ingmaybeof ufe, Aboundant cauteloufne^e doth not hurt, nay, 
ft is of great profit andbehoofe. But this is to be farther noted, 
chat God had refpeft to the pofterity oi Abraham. For Ifaack^ 
was prefent then, to whom the promifes were confirmed in his 
father : which, when both the one and the other, ought to incul- 
cate to their pofterity, it was a matter of no light moment, that 
they might holily affirme, that God hath confirmed them both by 
word and Oath. 

In this pailage, Abraham believed God, and it tvas imputed to ^ 
him fir righteoufneffe, both the fpirituall good things promifcd RomL?^' 
on Gods part in the Covenant,and the condition required on mans Gal.^.ij, * 
part, are implied. For the Apoftlc hence concludes, thuAbra' Jam.j,*!* 
hamv/as freely juftified by grace through the redemprion that is in 
Chrift Jefus : and in this is included all eternall and fpirituall blef- 
(ingSjWhich doe accompany each other. For whom God doth ju*. 
ftifie,them he glorifieth. In the firft expreifion, the thing required 
on our parts was obfcurely implied, and we had much to doe to 
find it out : but in this paflage it lieth bare. <tAbraham believed^ 
&c. This condition in ty€brah<^,m, the Apoftle fully followeth 
againft the Jufticiaries of his and our times, oppofing it to the 
condition of works irr attaining the bleflings of Abraham, ftrong- 
ly proving that this faith made Abraham the friend of God, and a 
juftified perfon, having nothing to glory in this kind before God, 
from any worke. But feeing this text is fo oft alleadged and pre!- 
itd by the Apoftles, and fo much controverted among men, it is 
not amifle to handle the words more at large. In the Originall 
word for word they run thus. He beleeved the Lord, or in the 
Lord, and he imputed that to him righteoufnefe* The Sptuagint 
render it, ar^i the Apoftles alleadge it thus, ^Abraham beleeved 
God,andit was imputed to him fir righteoufne^e : The Word, be^ 
lievedi imports, he thought the words of God to be fure, certaine, 

I 2 ftablc 

6q of the Csvenrnt of promifr^ 

ftable andconftant; and fignifieth fuch a beliete, asisoppofed to 
fainting; as it is faid ot Jacob, when he heard the report of his 
fons that fofcyh was alive, his heart fainted, becaufe he believed 
not : bu: when he believcdjhis hear: revived. (7i?)*. 45. 2 5, 26. And 
T> avid iainh of him-eUe, / h^d fainud.HnU^e 1 had hcleeved, PfaU 
^y,i I . So that it is a lively motion ofthe heart or ioule affentiag 
unto, and trufting in the word of God as lirmc and ftedfaft. Now 
whether you reade the word following, in or upon God, as tAritu 
and "Vagniney or God,as the Apoftles alleadge itj it is all one : for 
here to believe God, as all circumftances doe fhew, is to put truft 
Job. f , 1. ^i and confidence in God, or wi th lively adherence to fticke or cleave 
unco the word of God. A»dhe imputed, fc, God,or he in whom 
Abraham believed, as the conftru(5lion it fclfe and words ibllow- 
» Vx,z%X ing raanifeftly convince : or, it was imputed, as '^ aftive verbejs 
Mich, 1.7. amongft the Hebrewes arc expounded paflively. The word tran- 
E^ek. 13.47. Ciited imputed^ is of large fignification, and imports to thinks, 
iSam°is!is. *"^c^of*) Ronf-6'^^* P/G/.44 22. Rom.S..,6. devife,purpore,con- 
jer.18.7,8. elude, Rom.^.iS. refolve,plot,e(leeme, fore-fee, reafon, J^^r/^ 
& 49?®. 11.51. confult of a matter how it may be brought to pafle, looke 

& IS. 11. unto,and take care of. But more properly to the matter in hand 
Esod,s6, 1, ^j. j^ ^^ account unto a man, or repute unto a man, or reckon unto 
inii^ja'i?. ^ "^^^ ^"y thiu^ tobe his, or to be good pairaent and fatisfaftion 
for him in hisaccounts. And chat we may the better conceive the 
meaning of it in this text, let us confider ibme other paffages in 
which it is ufed : Blond pjall be imputed utJto thatman^ he hath 
Gen 38,?% jy^fl bloud* This your heave offering fhall be reckoned nnto you^ 
L-"' I" 4..* ^ though it Were the come of thethrejhingflo'Ore. Letnot T»y 
& >^ 5^. Lordim'tite iniquitj tome, Blejfcdiithe fttan tovhomthe Lord 

Nan3b.18.i7. imputeth not Jinne. Phineof Ftoodup, atide^fecHtedjadgemffity 
zSam.ic.'o, and fi the plague fiayed, and that "^^ as counted to him fir righ- 
^^ , *°' teeMfhe([e. If the uncircHmcifedkeepe the ordinance of the Law^ 

Hal' 106 2 1 ^''^^^ ^°^ ^^^ uncircumcifion be counted for circumcifion^ That 
Rom. »- i6. righteoufnefe might be imputed to them alfo. Sinne if not impti» 
Rom 4. 1 E. ted "^hen there is no Lare. The children of thepromife arecoun^ 
8c J. 1 8. ted for the feed. Let a m^n (a account of us, as of the Minifieri 

^cT^'!* ofChrifi. God was in Chrifi reconcilino- the "^orld to himfelfi, 
^Cor.j.i*. ""^ imputing their (innes unto thentj, j refaine, left any man 
iCor.ii.e. Jhould account of me, above that he feeth in me* At my frfi a'/*' 
sTitn.4. i<5. filtering Human ajjified,but (Mfirfooke me\ I pray God,that it may 

4S it ivas made and mamfefled to Abraham. 6i 

net be Uid to their charge. Even as Dat/id alfo defer iheth the Rom.4.6, 

Hefedpieffe ef the man, unto "^'hcmGed impttteth right eoufneffe 

■without "^orkj* Jfhe hath "^rengcd thee, or oweth thee ought, put Philem.v* 1 8. 

th^t on mine account. Now to him that \^'crketh,the "^ages is not Rom.4..4, 

counted by favour, but by debt. Here it hinders nothisg, that 

righteoufntfle imputed fiiould fimply note out arighteoHJntfleof- 

grace and acceptation, whenas the word imputed joyned with 

others noting deleft and debt, may fignifie the cleane contrarjv 

Eorexample,whenitisfaid,that God gives gifts H7it 9 the fonnes of Ff^^ ^3. 18. 

men, all underftand a free beftowing of good things amongft Ep'^'4.s. 

them : but when-he faith, he giveth them the ffirit efflnmber, Roai.u.g, 

fjes that they fhould not fee, eares that they ftiould not heare : 

then albeit the word [_ giving'] in itfelfe promifeth feme grace, 

yet being matched wich fuch words, it hath a contrary fignifica- 

tion to that which naturally it (ignifieth : when mention is fimply 

of vioknt men, and of raveners or fnatchcrs, by and by all that 

have judgement underftand men of wicked life : But when it is 

faid, that the Kingdome of Heaven fu^ereth violence, and that M'tch.tiit* 

the violent catch it away \ it is eafie to know, that this violence 

and catching falleth not into the lot of- the wicked. Likewife the 

word profane, foundeth in all mens eares (bmc foule and damnable 

thing : but when itisfaid,. the Priefis profane the Sabbath and Mattb.12^5; 

are guiltlejfe, all know that it is no word of reproach. 

But to reture to the matter, to impute is either to acknow- 
Itdc^e that which is truly in one, to be his indeed, and to attribute 
it to him, or elCe to attribute that to one which indeed is not his. 
In o^encrall it is to tranfcribe or transferre and put over die caufe of 
any thin^ to any one* So XJlplan, in lege 1. parag. Item quari-^- 
tur de feViirat : Sibi imputent, quo mtnui idoneum fide ]ujfa» 
remacceperint i ideft,afcribant ^ trihuant. Item apud furif' 
confiilt, Impumre fgnificat acceptumfeu expenfum ferre, ut im^ 
■ptitare fibi debet, qm credalttsfiiit. Legum. t.§. dolHr>nff,de eo 
ve){ aHemfaBum. To impute then is to afcribe a matter good or- 
cvill, or the caufe thereof to any one> which he hath, or hath not. 
The imputation oi an evill is two-fold,iuft and due, when the evill 
imputed or the caufe thereof is in the I'ubj'ed to which it is impu- 
ted : io (in is imputed to him that hath committed it, and folly to 
him that hath not fpoken that which is ri^hc, ^0^4^.8. and the 
debt is imputed to hiin that laidertooke tomakepaymeut,orgive 

I 3.. fadskdion,- 

62 O} the Covenant of Graces 

fatish<5ion. Unjuft or undeferved,when the evill or caufe thereof 
is not in the fubje(5t, as when a fault is imputed to an innocent, 
and punifhment inflided upon him that neither offended in his 
own perfon,nor undertooke to^e furety tor the offendorji Sam.i. 
i6.Gen.i%,\$. PUn.lib.^.caf.i. 

The imputation of a good thing is done three wayes, by right, 
grace and injuftice : becaufe law, juftice and right is oppofed to in- 
juftice and grace. But here it muft be noted, that its- one thing to- 
. lay a man is reputed juft, another to fay, this or that thing is im- 
puted for righteoufnefle ; a man is reputed juft, hni not imputed 
juft ; reputation is Ipokcn of the concrete, imputation of the ab- 
ftrad : imputation is the caufe, reputation the effeft : Imputation 
by debt or right is, when that which is inherent in the fubj'ed:, or 
due to it, is imputed, as wages counted of debt to him that wor- 
keth. But many things due cannot be faid to be imputed, unlefle 
the word imputation be taken improperly for giving or acknow- 
ledgement j aswefhould improperly be faid to impute glory to 
God for to give or acknowledge. I mputation by injuftice is, when 
righteoufnefle of quality or faA is imputed to an unjuft man, and he 
is acquitted contrary to law. Imputation by grace, whenrigh- 
teoulnefle is imputed to them that be unjuft in themfelves, and the 
guilty is acquitted,not of debt,but of grace, yet not againft juftice, 
but upon juft and equall confiderations. Righteoufnefle alfo is put 
either for fome one individuall righteous ad, done after a manner 
plealing and acceptable unto God, which is called the righteouf- 
nefle of the fad, or it is put f6r univerfall righteoufnefle, which is 
eitherthe matter of juftiflcation, or atleaft the thing required on 
our part to juftification, and is called the righteoufnefle of the 
perlon : which latter is here to be underftood, as is more at large 
to be fliewed hereafter. Now from all that hach been ipoken it fol- 

1. That perfed a ndftrid righteoufnefle of quality or work in- 
herentjis and ought to be imputed of juftice to tiie fubjed in whom 
it is : but by gracious eftimation it cannot be imputed in the place 
or roome of righteoulneffe inherent : for what is accounted by 
grace, that either is not in the fubjed, or it is not really that in the 
roome and fteed whereof it is accounted, 

2. Works of righteoufnefle done in faith after a manner plea- 
ling and acceptable unto God,are of grace imputed to the doer for 


or it was made and mam f eft id to Abrahdm. 6^ 

jufl: and righteous adions, the imperfedlions tha c cleave unto them 
being ir'reely pardoned. Not that works are able to beare the exadt 
trialloftheLaw, orcanftindasthemacterof juftification before 
the Lord : but that God in Chrift is pleafed to accept of our works 
as good and pleafant,our perfons being accepted in his beloved, and 
the weaknefle of our works covered by his interceflion. Thus 
Phinehaf his executing of judgement was imputed to him for righr pf^j^ i o5. ? i , 
teoulnefle. And thus vie les^e. This Jhall h our rig^teou/fj^efe Dtue.&.a'j, 
he fire the Lord our God, if we take heed to k^epe allthofe Com^ 
mandements* Thonjhalt re^ore hi-m the pledge, ^hen the Sanne Deuf.i4, iij, 
goethdpwne, that hemay Jleepe in hu r^i^^ff^y a»d iflejfe thee, 
and if /hail be righteoufnefe unto thee be fire the Lordthy God, 

3 . Faith or belief e may truly be imputed for or unto righteouf-' 
neffe, as it is the fole working inftrument and relative adion re^ 
quired on our part in the Covenant of grace, unto free juftification. 
-For by iaith alone in Chrift, through the meere grace and mercy 
of jGod, we obtaine full pardon andremiflionof allourfins, and 
fo our works come to be acceptable in Gods fight, 
., .^, The righteoufnefleofone being of grace accepted for, orim- 
pi{tqd to another, is righteoiiCrieffe imputative :. but this ftands 
not in a ba?e opinion, or naked eftjmation without reality or truth, 
butjn a reall donation and communieacing of righteoulne iTe unto 
l>im, t^at is efteemed j'uft. True it is, righteoufhefle imputative is 
^ot inherent iq.them unto whona it isimputed,as in the lubjcd: but 
{t is made theirs by right of donation. 

5. It may alio be noted, that the vjord Impmatioyt, Iiach refe- 
rence to fome other thing, aad commonly commech in betwixG 
tvvo things, the one the, thing \yhich is imputed, the other that TertuWi'e^,' 
whereuntoit is imputed, fo that imputation hath relation unto Gent. Cap. j, * 
both. And to make this manifeft, we may confidet thele three ifa no/sen c 
phrafes. IhcRvHis, The obedience of ChriB is impuped unto f^^^J^tioniim 
jfiflificatipfj, conformable to that faying of the Apoftle, By the s^.^n'adMm 
obedience ofonjs man many arre made righteous. The f^scond phrafe M.nno amori 
jSj I'aith is impu.ted ayito righteqpifnejfe. The third is, Righteoftf" fuS mputata. 
nc^cisimp'.ited unto lifs,^ The equivalent whereof we have, Rom* Tidi.i.HijK 
4, II.. (2^5- 1,7, 1 8. In the firftphrafe imputation is betwixt Chrifts ^''^^v("^: 
obedience, J as-the thing which is imputed, and juftificatiop as the '^\t^'i3,^^' 
end whereunto it is imputed-, and it h^h reference. In the (econd tet, ^ 

phrafe, imputation commeth in betWixt f aithjas the thing which is. 


64 of the Covenant ef Graces 

imputed, and righteouneffe asthethingwhereuntoitis imputed. 
In the laft phrale,imputation commeth in betwixt righteoufneflc it 
lelFe as the thing impuced, and life as the endwhercunco it is im- 

This paffage whereof we now fpeake, is diverfly interpreted by 
Orthodox Divines, but all aiming at the fame truth, and meeting 
in the maine, being rather feverall exprelUons of the fame truth, 
then different interpretations. The firft is. That faith is imputed 
unto righteoufnefle, that the obedience of Chrift apprehended by 
faith, may be righteoufneffe unto the apprehender. For faith and 
bdeeving ever implieth the polTeflion of Chrift and his obedience 
in our hearts; and the imputationof faith unto righteoutnefle, is 
the thing that makes Chrift pofllffed by faith to be our righteouf- 
nefle. Chrifts obedience is righteoulnelTe in it felfe, fo that it is 
neither our faith, nor God&imputation of our faith, that makes his 
obedience to be righteoufneffe : but imputation of faith to us as 
ours, maketh the obedience of Chrift poifciTed by faith ( being 
righttoufnefle in -it felfe) to be our righteou(nefle. For as the 
making of that, whereby we obtaine ponellion to be ours, maketh 
the thing poffefled alfo to be ours : fo that imputation of fiith 
( which is a giftfupernaturall and not within ourpower) maketh 
Chrifts obedience zo be that unto us, which it is in it felfe though 
it were never imputed unto us. And to confirm^^ this^cxpolition, 
that of the Apoftle is alleadged : iFitb the heart man hheveth 
Rom, 10 lOa ffftto right eoufne^e, and with the month he conjejfeth unto falva* 
tion. In which fentence, the Greeke word which is rendred [_un~ 
to^ cannot be rendred [] j^r ] without darkning, if not perverting 
the true fence and meaning of that place. For we are faid to be- 
lieve with the heart unto righteoufneffe, in the fame fence, and 
meaning, wherein we are faid to confeffe with the mouth unto 
falvation. Neither is there any reafon why faith fhould be faid to 
be imputed unto righteoufoeffe in any other fence, as concerning 
the wcMrd "[jintol^ then we are faid to believe unto righteoufncfle ; 
but in all reafon the Greckc word which we rcnder,«»^<?, muftin 
both thefe phrafes be taken in one and the fame fence : that is, as 
we believe with the heart, to this end that we mightby faith ( as 
the only apt and meete mftrument, and only covenient and effe- 
(fluall m<fane; to apprehend and pofleffe ) attaiiie to the pofleflidn 
of the righteoufneffe of God in Chrift-: cvenfo the Lord' our God 


as it was made mdmanifeHed to Abraham, 65 

impntech faith to us as our own, to this end that the righteoufneffe 
which we pofleffe by it, may make us righteous before him, or be 
righteouCnefTc unto us in his fight. 

The fecondexpofition is, that faith is gracioufly imputed, rec- 
koned or efteeraed for righteoufnefle, or in the place or fteed of 
righteoufnefle, becaufe the righteoufneffe of Chrift is imputed to 
none but belecvers. For thole finners onely are juftificd before 
God, who (wefpeakeof them that live till tiiey come to yeares 
of difcretion ) by a found and laving faith doe lav hold of, and rely j^a ^ femper 
upon Jeius Chrift, as he is fet forth of God to be a propitiation, tacemumun. 
Hence it is, that the Covenant of Grace, in fteed of the righteouf- ?"*'»' aJSirman* 
nefle of the Law required tolegall Juftification, which is wanting '^^\^1 '*^'" 
in us by reafon of our fins, exatflech no other thing inherent in us, lijtul^^tacen '*' 
as a caufe of Juftification, or condition in refpedl whereof we are hiaaffirmoHtur 
juftified, but faith alone. And thus in a fit fence it may be faid, " 

that faith is of grace accounted, in fteed of legall righteoufnefle : 
not that it is the meritorious or materiall caufe of our Juftification, 
as legall righteoufnefle fhould have been, if Juftification had been 
by the Law, nor that it is accepted for the perfed righteoufnefle of 
the Law: bnt becaufe it is the fole inftrumentall or conditional! 
caufe, required on our part to Juftification, in refped whereof we 
are acquitted from our fins. For in the Covenant of workes pcr-^ 
fed obedience is required at our hands to Juftification ; but in the Repmare five 
Covenant of Grace nothing but faith on our parts is called for, and i^pmre idju* 
that not as the forme or matter of Juftification, but the inftru- fi"^^^* idem 
ment only, whereby we receive remiliion of fins, and are partakers fii/jxhco"^'*' 
6Fthe merits of Chrift. merare. 

The third Expofition is, that when faith is imputed for righ- 
teoufnefle, it is not to be underftood materially, as though the 
dignity, worth and perfection of faith made us /uft ; but relative- 
ly and inre(ped of theobjed, that is, to us beleeving righteouf- 
nefle, fc. of Chrift is freely imputed, and by faith we receive righ- 
teoufnefle and remiliion of fins freely given of God. And there- 
fore tofay faith /uftifieth, and faith is imputed for righteoufnefle, 
are phrales equivalent. For faith juftifieth not by it's merit or dig- 
nity, butasaninftrumentandcorrelatively, that is, the merit of 
Chrift apprehended and received by faith juftifieth, not faith* 
whereby it is apprehended and received, unkfle itbe by an impro- 
per fpeech, wherein the ad of the objed, by reafon of the neare 

K and 

65 of the Covenant ef Grac^^ 

andftridl connexion betwixt them, is given to the inftrumenc. 
And with this expoiicion for fubftance of niatter agreeth theirs, 
that make an Hy pillage in the(e words ; faith is imputed unto, or 
for righteoufnefle, as if the (ence was this, righteoufnefTe is impu- 
ted unco faith, or the f aithf ull are partakers of the righteoulneife 
ot Chrift. The thing queftioned in thefe expofitions is, whether 
the words mud be taken tropically or properly : but the matter 
and fubHance of dodrine contained in them, is one and the fame» 
3^or herein they all agree, that (iAbraham did beleeve the whoh 
truth of God revealed, but his beleete which was accepted for, or 
unto righteoufnefle, did refpedl the promifed feed. Abrabanu 
bsleeved the power of God to performe whatfoever he promifed ; 
he bjleeved what(oever God plainly promifed, and he beleeved 
what God promifed though farrc off, as the giving of the Land of 
Canaan : but the principall thing promifed was, that in his feed 
all Nations of the earth Ihould be blefled, and belief in this promife 
was accepted for righteoufnes. All earthly promifes made to Abra^ 
/i4«w,proceeded from the meer love and favor of God towards him, 
and many of them were types and figures of fpirituall, fo that in 
beleeving them, he muli needs beleeve the promife of blefling in 
liis feed, which is Chrift. Abraham could bdeeve na promife, 
but he muft beleeve that God is the revi^arder of them that dili? 
gently feeke him : but he cannot beleeve in God, as the rewar? 
der of them chat feek him, unleffe he have an eye to the promifed 

The righteoufnefle here mentioned \s not the Angular righteouf^ 
nefl'cof chisorthatad, whereby a man is faid to doe juftly oc 
righteoufly, which is called the righteoufnefle of fad ; but uniyer- 
iall righteoufnefTe or the righteoulneffe of Juftiheation, whereby a 
man. is freely acquitted from all his fin?,, and accepted of God as 
righteous unco life, whic i is called righteoufneffe of the perfoni^ 
¥aith is not imputed for righteoufnefle, in rcfpe<^ of the worthy or 
dignity of faith either in habit or a(?t, but in refpedl of it's office, 
whereunto it is ordained in the Covenant of Grace,, as it doth irn- 
brace Chrift, and thereby we are made partakers of the merits c£. 
his free and willing, and perfed: obedience to the command of 
Grace. Faith is accounted for righteoufneffe in regard of the ob- 
jed, and is a caufe of that Juftification which is of grace. A caufe, 
Kay, not a bare condicion w^thoi]^ wiiicih the thing cannot be : but 
---'■' ■ ^^ ' ■" acaufe: 

I Cor. 1, JO, 
Rom, I o 4. 

as it w^ made and inanifeHed to Abraham. ^- 

acaufe, not meritorious or materiall, bat inftrumentall only, re- 
cdving Chrift promifed and offered in the word of grace. For 
howfoeverour righteoufneffe be called the righteoufnefle of the 5^?'^ *'* 
faith of Jefus, orby thcfaichofjefus, faith it felfe is never called ' *^'®' 
oar righteoufnefle. Wereade that Chrifi is mude unto m of God 
rifhteoufnejfe, thzt by one mans obedience many are made righ- 
teoui, that Chriit is the end of the Law fir righteoufkeff'e to e- 
'very one that heiicveth, that the believer is jLiftified by him, and 
by faith in him obtaineth remiflion ot fins. We find alfo by con- A; Go<f iu 
ference of Scriptures, that to be juftified by faith, and to be jufti- prfdeftinate 
fied by Chrift is in fubftance all one. And what can be the fence of ^^^^j] .^^ °^ g"*^* 
thofe places, but this, that Chrift is the meritorious and materiall of bem^^o^ 
caufe (fotofpeake) of our Juftification, faith the condition and ia fcllowfhip 
inftrument,whereby v/e receive Chrift made of God our righteouf- of f crfon, 3n4 
nefle. The Apoftle making comparifon betwixt the firft and fecond ^^ being the 
e^(!/^w flieweth, that as fin com meth from ^i<*?w alone unto us f^/"" of «>« 
all, as he in whom we have all finned : So from Jefus Chrift alone cJa'/n J'hee . 
commeth righteoufnefle to all that are in him, as from him that venanthedid' 
hath fatisfied the juftice of God, and performed gratefull obedi- make with 
ence at the commandment of grace, for them all. In which cora^ ^^^3 2nd rhc 
parifon faith never hath the place of our righteoufnefle, but an^ fommandmerit 
fwers in our participation of righteoufnefle in Chrift,to that which ilfnl dovJT 

is the ground of our being partakers in the fin of ^^^w. For, as 

we were one with Adam, and in refped of orignall and nature 
were in him, and one with him, and lb by being in him and one 
with him, did all in him and with him tranfgrefle the command* 
mentofGod; evenfo, inrefpedoffaith, whereby onely we are ^b7n'"Vh''^ 
united unto Chrift, and fpiritually made one with him, and in- Son more then 
grafted into him, we all in him did fatisfie the juftice of God, or dunesoffree. 
are made partakers of the fruit and benefit of his fatisfaftion. Thus obedience, 
our union with Chrift and meanes thereof, is alwaies to be diftin- 
guiflned from our communion with him, in the participation of his 
righteoufnefle, as the fruit thereof. Like as our being in Adanu^ 
and one with him, is to be diftinguiftied from the fruit thereof, 
which is communion with him in the participation of his tranf- 
grellion. If faith be only the hand whereby we put on Chrift 
both as a juftifier and fandifier, then it is not the garment of righ- 
teoulnefle, wherewith we are cloatbed. But it is only the hand 
whereby we put on Chrift as a garment,(?4/. 3. 27.5^^.1 3. 13, 14. 

K 2 Faith 

his life, did 
ftrike it and 
fulfill ic of 

vvhich fiiould 
of grace have 

^3 of the CcuemtJt of Graces 

"Faivh juftifieth as :it imbraceth the rightepufneiTe of God. But 
Cbrift only is the t ighceoufnefle of God, allowed and ordained of 
Godtobeour righteoufntflV. In the third to the Romans and 
elfewhere , cfi we meet with this phrafe , PVe are jftflified by 
faith: Now in the fiith Chapter o\ thu Epiftle, verf.ij. itis • 
faid, i\i2ki^Te JbA&raigne in Hfi through fefm Chrifi, and verfe 
\^, t\i'3i.Lbyhiiobe^isnce^eJhaIl bemade righteaia. Whatinthe': 
firft place is called Juftification and Salvation by faith, that in the 
other is called making righteous and raigning in life through Chrift 
and him believed on. And (o we reade, that of faith,and by faith, 
Ro,n. 3. jo.Sj and through faith we are jnftified ; but we never reade for f jith we 
•S-^' are juftified, ^^,3.16. tirft, Feter faith, His name hath made 

thU man (pund , through faith in his name : And then , the 
faith ^hich is by him, hath given to him this di§foJition of body. 
I« it not plain here, that faith hath healed him, is as much as his' 
name, or Chrift believed on hath healed him : the one phrafe ex- 
pounding the other. Chrift brought in everlafting righteoufncffe 
into the world, Z)^>?.9.24. But faith was in the world before the 
cocoming of Chrift in the fleOi, Heb. 11. 2, And the Spirit of God 
in Scripture evidently diftinguifheth betwixt faith , and Chrift ap- 
prehended by faith j faying. The Fathers Veho believed, received 
not the fromife I that IS , Chrift the matter of the promife, and 
confeqaently of righteoufncfH*. Faith they had received : but the 
promilethty had not received : becaufc Chrift (in whom their 
blelledntfle was promifed ) was not exhibited in their daies. For 
allbtit by faith they apprehended Chrift crucified to come, and the^ 
righteoulbcffe, which he was to bring unto the world at his com- 
. ming : yet that righteoufneffein thefubftance and matter of it, 
was never brought into the world. So that the very defigning of 
a precile time for the bringing in of our righteoufneflfe into the 
world, declareth that that righteouTneffe materiall, is^to be diftin- 
guiQied from faith, which was in the world in all ages before it 
was brought in. For faith was in the world, and did apprehend 
righteoulnefle, which was to be brought into the world, lon<' be- 
fore it came, as well as now long after that rightcoufneffe perfor- 
med, it can lay hold upon it to juftification. For the faith of 
Gods children before the day of Chrift, and the faith dPGods chil- 
dren now after the day of Chrift did never, nor yet doih appre- 
hend any other righteoufr»efie, but that which in that day was 


as H voM made and mamfeBedu Abraham, 5^ 

brought into the world. For it is as eafie to faith to apprehend 
righteoafneffe to come, as it is to lay hold on righteoufnefle paft or 
by-gone : like as our faith apprehendeth many things, yet to come, 
as our glorification. h . 1 ;<. 

Vor§iius zad. his followers cxj:ound this Text in this fence* 
Faith, that isi repentance, converfion and new obedience « ac^^ 
coptnted fir right eoufneg'e, that is, in the place or ftead of legaU 2^ 
righteoufnefle or exad: obedience, though it be not fo indeed. And "^' ^' 

fo they freely conteffe, Juftification by works, which the Apoftle 
faich, is by faith without the worksof the Law, But that they- 
might not feeme diredly to crofle the Apoftle, they fay, we are 
not juftified by the works of the Law, thatis,exad: and every way 
perfed, wbereunto wages is due by debt ; but by works of grace, 
graeiouQy efteemed for righteoufnefle, when in the rigour of the 
Law it is not exad and perkd righteoufnefle. ; , . 

^utfix^ we re2idey thu God hath fit firth Chriff to h sfroptf ' 
iiAtion hj faith in his blond, that bj thi faith of fefta, Wf might ^'* ^'**'^^ 
receive rem'tjfion offinnes : but we find not, that he hath ordai- 
ned Chrift to be a propitation through works, that by works we 
fhould be faved. And if God have not taught any fuch manner of 
Juftific^icion, it is not for us to receive it. We reade of two waies 
of Juftification, by taith and works : but of a third manner by, 
hith and works,both as joynt caufes or con-cau{es,we find nothing 
in Scripture. 

Secondly , By the doftrinc of faith we are bound to acknowledge 
and contefle that Chrift Jefus by his ecernall Prieft-hood, is not on- 
ly thefole meritorious cauie of all grace or righteoufnefle inherent^ 
requifite to finall abfolution : but thefe prefupppred i;i the ,par ty to- 
be abfolved, he is likewife thefole immediate caufe of finall abfo- 
lution or juftification. Without obfervation in feme meafure- to 
all the Commandments of God, we cannot enter into the king- 
dome ot heaven ; but we enter not for the obedie.nce, we h^ve per-r 
fon-Rsd. To whatule then dothour inherent righteoufnefle or oh-i 
fcrVanceofGodscomra'andementsferveus.? If it hath been fin- 
cere and unfained, though imperfed, yet the faith tiiat brought 
it forth will make a fincere and faithluU plea for mercy in the day 
oftryall, in which he that hath been an hearer only, and no doer 
of the Law, or hath done in p^rt, what God would have done, but 
not fincerdy> nor faithfully, fhallnot be heard. Our imperfe<^ 

K 3 obedience 

7© of the Covenant of Gra^cj, 

©bedience then is not the immediate caufeof our abfoluticn, buc 
the obedience and righteoufncffe of Chrifto By the immediate and 
next caufe we underftand fuch a caufe as is neceflarily accompanied 
by the efted, and without whofe participation the eflfeft never 
doth, nor can be-f all any ; fuch a caufe as whofoever is partaker 
ofi is by participation of it, forth-wichabfolved; fuch a caufe as 
-who (o can probably hope to be partakerof, he may upon the fame 
degrees of probability hope for finall abfolution ; liich a caufe, as 
who (b doubts or feares, leaft he (hall never be partaker of in this 
life, muft upon the fame termes doubt or defpaire of his abfolution 
or lalvation. Buc if workes be accounted for the exadl righteouf- 
neffe of the Law iinco us , not the obedience of . Chrift received by 
faith, but the worlds of holinfffc in us, are the abfolute cau(e of re- 
miilion of fins and acceptance unco life. And what elfe doe the 
words found, as they be interpreted, but, that as exact obedience 
to the Law, fhould havebeen the matter or caufe of Juftificacion 
from >aftice,fo (incere obedience by the eftimation of grace, is the 
matter of Juftificacion by grace. They will fay, I know, faith 
and workes are onely the condition without which remilfion 
cannot be obtained : but faith is not a bare condition, wich- 
oat which the thing cannot be, (for that is no caufe at all ) 
buc an inflrumentall caufe ; and workes, if they be any caufe^of 
Juftification, inftruraentall they cannot be, but the matter whefe- 
, upon, and for which we are juftified or accounted righteous. 
Workes doe not embrace Chrift, but if caufes of Juftification, 
they muft challenge to themfelves : and therefore, how faith and 
workes iTiouldbeconjoyned ascon-caufes in Juftification it is im- 
in^oqBdd rh'-- P^^^'^^^ ^^ conceive, feeing the one, that is, faich attributes all 
vimuefialiqui to the free-grace of God ; the other, that is, workes, challenge 
tram meritU to themfelves : the one wiliafpire no higher, but to be the inftru- 
mencall caufe of free rem ilfion ; the other can fie no lower, but 
to be the matter of Juftificacion, if any caufe at ail. For if works 
be accounted to Us m the roome or place of exact obedience in 
fi-ee Juftification , -doe they not fupply the place .> are they not 
advanced to tlse dignity of works compleate and perfect in Juftifi- 
cation from juftice ? 

•'^-^5. If faith with workes be accepted for righteoufneffe to Juftir 
gelation, then faith juftifieth not as it imbracech the promites of 
mercy, and by it we partake in the merits of Ch rifts death and 


as it vsa$ fn^de andmrnfeficdta Abraham. 71 

©bcdicnce, but as it doth givca{f:nt to the truth of thcGofpell, 
and adhere and ftickc to the Commandemcnts: for in tbatlcnfe 
it is an ad or cxcrcife commanded in the ©ofpell, and not only as 
it doth receive Chrift and the promife oi forgiifencffe. But in 
Scripture every where faith in Chrift, in the Lord Jefus, or the GaLj.15. 
bloud of Chrift is faid to jaftifie, not faith in other promifcs, i pet.2.14^, 
thrcatningS; or Commandemcntf . .! 

4. How can it be proved, thatin tbematter of Juftification 
the Apoftle doth oppofe faith ro workes ex3<flly p^rfed and com- 
pleat only, and not to the workes of grace done according to the 
prcfcription of the Law, as it was given to the Jewcs to be a rule 

bow people in Covenant ought to waike. To him,-, that "werksth Rom.4'4A 
( faith he ) the wages is of debt : but he I hat worketh is not only 
perfedHy jiaftj but he that is mercenarie, that is, to him that wof- 
keth for bis reward, as if the reward fhould be given him for his 
worke. For thus the Apoftle argues. When wages is given to an 
hireling or mcrcenary,it is of debf. But Juftification.orlifeisnot 
given of debt, but of grace. Therefore it is not given to him ihat 
worketh, or to the mercenary. Properly God oweth nothing to 
bim that fulfiUeth the Law either exadly or lincercly, when they 
doe nothing but their duty, and there is no proportion betwixt 
God and them : but becaufc they feekc righteQufnfffle and life by 
workes, if God ftiould retribute to them a re ward j he Chould bs 
thought to doe iti3S it were cf debt. 

The Law was given to be a rule of dircdipn to them that be 
in Covenant : and workep of" the Law arc workes done accor-^ 
ding to that prcfcription : which the Apoftle here excludes from 
Being any caufe of Juftification, though fte that, walkes according 
to this LaWj being not an hearer, but a doer of the Law , i^ . 
bkiT;d in his decd» But of this more at large in the nesfc 

5. Confider the oppofition which the Apoftle makes betwixt 
hisownerightcoufnefle, whfch is of the Law, and the righieoutr 

ntff<z which is of God by faith. / comt all things (faith he ) ^«a P^^'-I-^ - 
Aidung^ that 1 might mnne Chriflt af}d be found in hitn, mt having 
mine owne righeoufhejf; ^ yvhich ii of the Law , htt that which U 
through tlie faith of (^hrifl , the righteoufnejfc rvhicto is of Cjod by -. 
faith. If then the righteoufncfle of God through faith be the 
matter whercuponj or fbr which \vc ^re juftihedj we are not ju- 


of thi C6vem»tof Gracz^ 

Rom. 10,4. 
a Cor. J. J 5i 

turhomo par^ 
fsrtiali, is* 
imperfecta in* 
hitenUi par- 
timaccepti la- 
tiene imperfeili 


ftifiedby workcs : but the rightcoufncflfc of God through Faith is 
the matter whereupon we are juftified. Chrifi « the e»dofthe 
Law for rij[hteo(if»eJfe to every ene that beleeveth* We are made the 
righteonfw^e ofGodin him. The rightcoufnefli of the Law \% not 
here put for workcs done cxadly by the ftrength of nature, bur for 
workes done according to the prescription of the Lsw,according 
to which people in Covenant ought to walkc,to whom God hath 
promifed, that if they keep his Commandements, they Qiall be 
unto him a peculiar people, chcfen generation, and royall prieft- 
hood. By the righteoufneiTe of God to underftand rcmiflion of 
nnnes and regeneration ; by faith, faith and workcs, and by the 
rightccafne{feof the Law, workcs done by the ftrength of nature, 
is rather to offer violence unto, then to interpret this Text of Scri» 
pture. And by the fame reafbn the Popiih Gloflcs upon this Text 
arc confuted as falfe and vaine. Bellarmine would make the fcnfe 
this. Faith is imputed for righteoufneflV, that is, faith is jufticc, 
by which tyfhaham wasjuftified. For if AhrAham tvoi jttftifed 
hj 7i>orkes,he hathroheretfto q^lnrj in himfelfe, "But mth god he hath 
f)ot whereof to ^lery. To him that worketh nor, faith is imputed 
for rightcoufnefle, therefore faichis not therighteoufnefle of the 
Law. The Qucftion there difputed is not by what worke Ah-a* 
ham was juftiSsd : but after he had done many and great works, 
in the manner of Juftification, he prcfented himfelfe before the 
throncofgrsiCCfnotonly fhif forma pauperis, but which is more 
of an ungodly man, to receive abfolution from the hand of grace 
by a true and lively faith. And faith is accounted for righteouf- 
nefTe by gracious acceptation: but what is accounted by frecfa- 
vi»ur,that is not truly and really the thing it is accounted for in= 
hcrcnt in us. 1 1 will be faid, Faith was not reputed to ABraham 
for righteoufneiTe, after that he excelled with many vertues ha- 
ving embraced Chrift: But the holy Ghoft rather teftifies, al- 
though the excellency of v^^^^^w/ vertue was gr^at, whereby he 
hadincrcafed by long perfeverancc, yet he was not other wife ac- 
cepted as righteous unto life, but bccaufe by fiith he received 
grace offered in the prom ifc. The faith of Abraham was great 
and excellent for degree and mcafurc, but it was not accepted for 
rightecnfncflc in regard it was ftrong and eminent : but becaufe 
it laid hold upon the promifed feed. The fsAth oi Abraham was 
eminent, but not pcrf€6l,and juftificd him not abfolutcly as an ex- 

as it rvas made andmanifejledto Abraham. 73 

ccllcnt vcrtuc, but relatively as it received the promife o( aiercyj 
nQt as if Abraham was thereby made perfect by inherent hoH- 
neflfe, for then Abraham had whereof to giory in himfclfe, but as 
in himfelfc a (inner and ungodly he obtained free and full remiffi- 
onofthcmeerc grace and favour of God, So that we may con- 
clude from this paflage of holy writ, that Abraham yf]^'& juftificd 
by faith alone : but this his faith though alone in the aft of Juftifi- 
cation, noother gracecoworkingwithit, was not alone in ex- 
igence, did not lie dead in him as a dormant and idle quality. Sa- 
ving faith is lively and operative , attended with every other 
grace of the Spirit, fetting them upon their worke, animating and 
quickning them thereto, and regulating them therein. It ftirres 
up forrow for (inne, and purpofe of amendment ^ itraifethtbc 
foulc earncftly to long after, and heartily to crave mercy: it comes 
to Chrift as an humble, poorc, penitent petitioner for forgivencCfe: 
but that which \s done by faith ftirring up forrow, and working 
by prayer, is not done partly by faith, partly by forrow,and partly 
by prayers, but by that faith which doth enforce to pray. For 
faith leaneth upon the promife, and no promife is made, the con- 
dition of prayer being Onut forth, ^yiske^ andit fhallbe gtvenjoUt 
Mark^ 1 1.24. Therefore our Saviour Chrift being intreatcd of 
many that he would healc them, attributeth all the force of their 
przycrstohkhyThy faith hath fivedtheff. And fo by what faith 
Abraham embraced the promile, by the fame he offered up his Son 
Jfaac, Workesthcn (or a purpofe to walkc with God) juftifieas jaai,i.a« ti, 
the pallive qualification oft he fub/ed capable of J uftification, or * * 

as the qualification of that faith that j'jftifieth; or as they tcftific 
or give proofe that faith is lively : but faith alone juftifieth, as it 
cmbraceth the promife of free forgivenefle in Jcfus Chrift. Abra- 
hams faith was accepted for righteoufneflTv:, but Abraham himfclfe Gen. 1 7. i. 
is commanded to walke before God, and to be prrfed. There be 
divers phraf s in the Scripture of the Old Teflament, cxprefling 
the fame thing for fubftance: as to walke before god. gen ij.i, ♦jq'^ 
Seft. sf^Tfoi/. and 24.40.3nd 48. 1 5 . 1 Ki»,^.6.Sept.><-A(ia? S'irw^iv, LxX' ' 
Pfal.116.9. Ifai.'^S.S- Pfal.$6.i^, 1 ^i«e. p.4. to roalke with ^^'^'<'^* 

God. (7f«. 5. 2 2. and 6.9. MaL^.6, CMic, 6. 8. to walke after god, q*. 
2 Kifj^.2 ^.l^Hof.i I. !0. to walke in the name of God. Zech^io. 1 2, . ..^ » 
to walke in the wayes of god. i King, 5.14. Deut, 10, 1 2, i 3,14. '^^^^^' 
wholly to follorv after the Lord, i, e.lo eKhT^itGi]jMo\^^\GncQ to the otiW 

L Lord. 

74 OfthC0vemn((fGr4C€^ 

J^^ Lord* Nf*m^,^i,i2» ^wM.35.^<?Ai4.i4. to fiandin the fight jif 

7 • god. I Kiftg.ij.l, tovfalkein the light of the Lord, Ifai, 2. J. to 

walke in equity, Ifai, 57. 2. to walke in truth, in judgement 

and uprightneffe. i Kifjg.i,^, and 3.^. 2 Ki»g,2o,S» The two 

fir ft phrafesof walking with Goi and before Gqd, the Sept, In- 

ivn^iTii^ivctv. , terpreters doc raoft commonly render, topleafeGodj though 
DOW and then th^y retainc the phrafe of walking with or before 

^^^^- 3 ^'3' God, or walking after God s and the Apoftle feemes to have rc- 

fpc6i unto their tranflation,when he doth fo alleadge it,f^<?^.i 1.5. 

For he k re-ported to havepleafed Cjod. In the New Teftament 

there b? Pbrafes that import the fame thing for fubftance: as fff 

Tpalke In the truth. 2 Joh,^, to walks in all the Commandements, Sta- 

tmes and, Ordinances of the Lord, Luke 1,6. to walke worthy the Lord, 

Ihat is, as becomes the fonnes of Gi)d, i 7'^<f/!2.i2. J?/>^.4.2. and 

tio pleafe him in all thitiffi. Col,, to walke in-Chrifi. Col.2,6, that 

is to d<K all after the rule and command of Chrift, verf. 6. and fct 

before our eyes his glory, as the white wc fhoot at in all affaires 

great and fmall. To walke with or before God then is to commit 

our felves wholly to his care and divine protedion both ill life 

and all our adlons, and sflTuredly to pcrfwade our felvcs that he is 

she prefent and jud beholder of all thoughts, words and a«SioDS 5 

to reverence him as ever prefent and beholding ail things j to be 

ready at his beck and command, (ludioufly^ readily, chcarefully 

to receive his Comm^.ndements, and at all times reverently to de- 

, ffieaneand carry our felves before him: to turne our eyes and fix. 

all our fcnfes upon the Lord, and to attribute what good foevec 

we enjoy, to the Lord alone. In briefc, to walks before God, is 

from a true and '5ncere heart to believe, thinks and doe whatfb* 

' ever God prefcribeth, and that in fuch manner as he prefcribeth ; 

to attend upon the pure wor (hip of God, and to live holily, juftiy, 

unbiameably : as they arefaid tobe jjH before God, who aretru- 

Luke !.(?. ly and fincerely juft, or fuch as be righteous by way of emincncy. 

lake h\Sf in comparifon of others : what is done finccrely, and clcgantly,is 
. J s - faid tobe done before the Lord.i!r^tfjf.i.3.Z»^.i. 57.1 T%ejf.^.i^, 
;1 "■ . Thus iA^rahamwss commanded, and by the grace of God cna-, 
bkd to walks with or before God. ^f». 24. 40. and 48a i y. But 
fometimes in a peculiar fenfc, to walke with God istominifter 
before God. i J^«>. 2, 3 s, 3 3 . and to walke before tb c face ©f God , 
is to be 3jnderil©o4 in the fame manner s the Metaphor, being ta-- 


as it 1^ as made Andmaniftfiedte Abraham, 

ken as it fcccics from two fticnds, who well agree betwixt 
thcmfckcs, and willingly take their journeycs together being at 
•nc, and in good agreement. And to goe before the Lord is fpo- 
ken oiJohnthc'Baftifl in apeculiar fcnfc, Lhkjs i.i 7. noting that 
he went before him as an harbinger to prepare the way for the 
Lord, as Kings and Princes have fome that goe before them, 
whom when we fee, prefently we conceive the Ring hitrvfelft is 

In the old Tcftameni there be two words translated perfcdl^ 
and they be much of the fame ufe ; The firft noteth that perfedi- 
on to which nothing is wanting ; the other that which iscom- 
pieat, abfolute. The force of this word feemes to containe in it so 
hcape of perfcdion s but they are put prom jfcuoufiy one for the 
other; as Jofh. lO.i^.C^On CjV3 a whole orperfc(5i: day is 
rendered by the Chaldee Parapbraft CD^Sty CSV^cZ^ 
Se^temSabl^atha, HD' DH; the Chaldee Paraphraft.iaS^i^. They 
are fundry wayes tranflated by the Seventy 1 as fimple or plaine. 
Ge».i% .27. Jacob w as a perfed man, that is, fimple, without de- 
ceit; blamekfle, or without reprehcnfion. Gen,ij»i, 'Be thou per- 
fi^. LXX. blamek0c. foi> 1.7,8. and 1 24.and p.20, without fpot, 
Tftl.i'^.2,PfaLii9.l^%Q. Lev.i.%,Tfal,i^,2J^» to which CD1D 
gr.iies!/.©- is oppofed. C^»t,/^,j, Pro.^.j, J?«tf^4g.2 2,and 45.18, 
innoccnt,without muld or puni{liment.*Py^/.i 8«25.Jufi: or righ- 
teous; Prov,2%»i$. fofh.i/^,!^. I Ktng,9t^, Prov.11,1* whole 
or intire. E^ek: 15. 5. 1>eue, 27. 6, Jofh, 8. 31. holy or godly. 
Amos 5.10. PrevK%:2\, 'Prot/'2/.io.2pJnnocent, with- 
out fault or malice. Pfd.%^,\i,*)ob 8.20. Pfiil,iJ.'ij.Tfal,ioi,2, 
"jProv.i^.S. pure. ^/?«.2 0.j,5. finglc or finccre. Prov»io.^.2 Smm,,truc. Df«f.g2.4.Pr'(7«'.28.^. 7/^^^38.3.1)^^25 15, per- 
fc(a.2)f»M8.l3.C4»f.5.2. iKmg,Z,6i, and 11. 4. and 15.3,14. 
and full. 2 Kin^.io,'^, l Chroft.z^.p. and 2 Chron, 1 6.g. and ip.p. 
and 25.2. % QhronA'^.i'j^ Inthe New Teilament there be three 
words ufuaily tranflated perfcd". The firft fignificth, that which 
doth confift of all its parts or membcrs,which arc required to any 
workc, fo that iiothing is wanting, nor fuperi^uous: the Meta- 
phor being taken from even or equall numbers, which may be di^ 
vidcd into cquall parts. 2Tim.^,i^^i6,iy, And the compound 
wordfignifieth to amend, or rcpairc and (et in joynt a part loofe, 
or flipped afidc, LMafth.<^2i, Mark.\,i9, gal,6,i, to faflaion 

L 2 fitly 





of the Cevenam of Promifc^ 

suntur tsXh et. 
Mai. 1. 14; 

1 Their. ?.tj. 

fitly and in comely order or proportion, H^^.io.j.and 1 1 .3. Ro^» 
9.23. to fulfill or furnifh. ^^,21.5. Luke 6. 40. and to pcrfc«^ 
and joyne or bind fatt together, i (^ 2 Cer.13.1i. 
1 Thef^*io. I f ^/. 5. lo. £;j;&f/: 4.11,12. The LXX. ufc this 
word to give the fignificaticn of two others that fignifie to up- 
holder undctprop and make cquallj Pfaljy.$. Pfal^ 1 8.34. The 
fccordfignifieih whole or intirc. iThejf.^.z^. /amesi.^. The 
third p£rfc«ft,£/>^f/r4. 1 2 . lames i .4,5. i Joh. 4. 1 7, 1 8. But all 
thefe in ufc import the fame thingfor fubftance. A thing is faid 
to be petfcft three wayes« i . 1 hat is peifed which is intire in 
all intcgrall parts, firmcly knit together, faculties and fundions 5 
when there is in all the parts cf Sandification fomethingj as 
lively creatures arc brought forth perfec^l. Infants compleat in all 
their parts and members arc pcrfed:. In this fenfe perfei^ is op- 
pofed to that which is divided, imperfed, maimedj. as an Em- 
bryon not yetfaChioned in the wombc is oppofed toapcrfccfi In- 
fant I Pharifaicall love as partialljame and maimed, extending it 
fslfe to them that loved them only, is oppofed to pcrfedl love, 
which ftrstcheth it felfe to friend and ^oc LMatth.^.^y^^S, an in- 
tire heart is oppofed to an heart and an heart, a double heart that 
makes a major part againft it {die. i Chron. 12-33, J^- ^^^ i" 
that which is intire, all things doe mutually anfwer one another, 
doe ccnfpire into one: that is not intirc which diff^nts from it 
f:lft*,is not one and whole, or in which there is divifion and dif- 
sgrcemcnt. Thus Chriftians fandificd by the Spirit cf grace in 
every power of i he foule, the feeds of all vertues being ingraft cd 
in them, andfirmely compaft and knit together, fo that freely, 
willingly, and upon advjfcd deliberation they cleave unto the 
Lord, and without partiality or willing negleft move to all ou- 
tiesof Piety, Juftice and Mercy, ^re faid to be pcrfed, though 
they be not freed from manifold infirmities, no grace of the Spirit 
in them be come to perfed growth. An intire, holy, blamelelTc 
convejfation, dircdcd according to the will of God in every 
place, ftate, and condidon of life, is faid to be pcrfcdl. 'B/eJfeJI are 
theferfiSlinthe'^dj, Pfdi,lig,%, Keepe thy fervant from ^refum^- 
tueus finnesythettjhall 1 hperfsEi, Pfal. t^. 13. / ^^ alfo per^B 
before hingy and I k^pt mj felfe from mine iniquity, Tfd, 18.23. \t is 
recorded of /(/Q,t hat his hean VcasperfB Veith the Lorda/i hii dayeSy 
though in the fame booke many infirmities arc noted in him. 

I King. 

asitrvasmadeandmamfefiedtoAhrahAm, 77 

iKivg.l^.l^. 2 Chron»l$.l7' Thus Noah, Gejj.6.6, Job 1.1, 
Hezekiah, 2 Xi^^.ao.s. are laid to be perteft. David to walke 
in his integrity, T'yS/. i6. i .yet thefe examples muft not be referred 
to the lecond degree of perfe <:^ion» The body is incire, when ail 
parts are fo knit together, that each ispreferved, and fit for his of- 
fice : the foule is intire, whenallthepartsof righteoufnefle areri- 
vetted together aniongft themfelvc-s, and in the whole : the con- 
verfation is intire, when no office of life is negledled, no precept ' 

carelefTcly forgotten or fleighted 5 when no occafions or occur- 
rences can remove men from their holy parpofes undertaken ac- 
cording to Gods word. This perfed: man is fet as oppofite to the jam i.g, 
unftable,double minded,perverle, frowardand reftltflejWho are off 
and on, turned upfide downe with every contrary wind, divided He that can be 
and at odds with themlelvts ; wholoppeand ftraiten the Com- concenced to 
mandements as will beft fland with their occafions, take and leave ^^ naught in 
at pkafure, reft in the externall ads of piety or /uftice, or cleane nauoh' i^' ^' 
depart from GddsCommandements. The integrity (f the ttp^' very'thin-:' " 
right /hall gfiide him, but the perverfenejfe of tranjgre/fofs Jhall 
defray them, Prov.II.3. If J fay I amperji5l, mixteownmouth 
fhaHfrovemeferverfe, Jobp.20,2l,32, TVhofowalkfthintirely 
jhall befifi, but he that is prverfe in his double wayes fhallfMl 
inane, Prov,28.i8. So it is noted of vf ^«;<««?, th^it hii heart was 
not perfiB with the Lord his God, I King. 15.3. of ^Amaziah^, 
VZ'Z,iah,fotham, they did that which woi right in the fi^ht of the 
Lord, but not with perfeEl hearts, 2Chion.25.2, & 26.4. & 
27,2. 2 King. 14.3. & 15.3. Sindoi: Solomon, that ^-hen he was 
eld, his ^ives turned away his heart after other gods, and his heart 
was not perfe B with the Lord, as was the h-eart of David his 
father, I King. 1 1.4. 

3. That is laid to be perfect, which hath obtained an- high de- 
gree of perfedion, not fimply, but in comparifon of that which 
is beneath : when a man is lo habituated in his courfe, that he hath 
attained a facility and conftancy in well doing. Children new borne 
are perfed, that is,in tire s but when they be come to ripe age, they 
arc perfedl in comparifon of thefelvs as new born babes. But every 
growth argueth not comparitive perfedion, bat that only which 
is fo great, that it may feeme to introduce a new forme : be when 
by long pradicc a man is fo habituated in his courfe, that he bath 
attained a facility and conftancy in. well doing. Gimldren arc mors 

L 3 perfed 

78 oj the CevenantofGrac^ 

perfed then Infants new borne, and Striplings then Children; 
but they are not faid to be perfeft, becaufe the growth is but fmalls 
but when they are come to ripe age, althpugh as age encreafcth 
7ikH&)^^ much may be added, they may be called perfcd, becaufe then 
Tchm^i. they have attained as it were a new forme. So to be perfe<Sl and 
abiolute, the Phildfoph^ doth attribute to men of ripe age. Arifi, 
Hifi. Ani. /.a. caf.l. de part. Animal, lih^. cap,lo» Strong 
me Ate ( faith the Apoftle ) helongeth te ihem that are perfiEty or 
Hek^.ij?. cfflillage.Hek^.i^. tho(c thathaveleft theRudiments ofChri- 
Eph.4.ij,tt5 ilian Religion are called perfed, perfed in refpe'd of them that 
*^* be babes in underftanding, and ftand in need of milke. 10^.14. 
20. The Law makes nothingperfeEt. Heb.'j.i9> becaufe it was a 
rudiment only which was delivered to children, fo that he that is 
ieafoned with the knowledge of the Gofpell, is perfed in reiped 
of them that be inftruded only in the Law. We Jfeake Wifdome 
amongfi them that areperfiU. I Cor. 2.^, here fomc underftand 
men, and by perfed they underftand all Chriftians in gen€rall,who 
are perfed in refped of them that knew not the Gofpell : Ochcrs 
them that in fpeciall had made greater progrclle in the faith : others 
underftand tfee word things orfomewhat, that this fence flaould 
be, that this wifedome doth conlift in perfed things. But how- 
ever this text be interpreted, the Apoftle elfewhere manifeftly 
iConfirmeth this point, (liewing that tome were perfed in compa- 
rifon of others, who had not yet attained to perfedion. Heroic 
muft be remembred, thathowfoever the word perfed be referred 
to knowledge in the myfteries of Religion in the writings of the 
Apoftles, yet it is not leldome referred to pradice and manners. 
In thefirft reference, they are faid to [je perfed, who have obtai- 
ned an high degree of knowledge in heavenly and divine myfteries: 
In the fecond, they that teach in deed and fad that they have lear- 
ned what they profeffe. Let patience have its perfiB^ork,, Jam. 
1.4. that is, letitihewicsfincericy and conftancy in works, that 
not in words and geftures, but in deed and truth it be approved ; 
that it cannot be overcome in the greateft evils, but doth faould out 
and remaine invincible. He that can bridle his tongue, is a perfed 
man indeed, fam.^,2. that is, he is not one that is inexercifeto 
iearne, which is the meane to perfedion, but hath learned indeed 
what he profefleth. He calleth that perfed which is p«rformed in 
Kmth and deed, and is not countctf et i and fo (in is faid to be fini- 


as it was m/tde and manifefled to Ahaham» jg 

(hed, when it is commkted,fam. 1.15^. and every fbund/olidj ope- 
rative grace,is called a perfedl gift, and iincere, unfai- 
ned love,is faid to be perfed: love, i Jeh.^.iZ. Chrift was mads 
;perfiB through Jhfferi'/jgs^ Hcb.2.10. as he learned dhedience by 
the things which he fifferedyHeb.^.S. for there is an experiment- 
tall learning. And to this purpofe belongs that fp&ech oF cur Sa- 
viours upon the croflc, It is jinijhed : for hereby was fignified, 
that he had fulfilled all things, which he was to doe upon earth, 
X»j^i 5.3 2, and they that Ihed their bloud for Chrifts fake and f or 
the Gofpels are faid to be perfeded. Thus the patient are called; 
perfed, becaufe patience is a document of a mind moft exercifed . 
in piety and godlinefTc. So the power of God is perfe<flcd in our 
weakenelTe, 2 C or. 12. g. for the vertue of Chrift is not perfeffledv 
in weakenelTe as in the fubjsd:, not by infirmity as by the efFe^ s 
but when it fhewethit felfe in the greateft and principall things. 
The power of God is not encreafedjnor diminifhed : bat theii it is 
iaid to be perfed:ed, when in the judgement of man it doth that 
which is moft hard and difficult. For we live and die in God, and 
'this is of the power of God; but when in the greateft ftreights, 
, and even in death it felfe we live and breathe, the power of God . 
doth after a fpeciall manner (hew forth it felfe, and is perfeded in 
us, that iSy doth fhew it felfe to be exceeding great, which cannot 
be conquered or overcome. In the fame manner as the Apoftle 
faith. Path isperfi£tedhy^orkj, Jam.2.2ii not that works doe 
perfed: faith, but that faith whileft it brings forth good works, 
doth manifeft how perfed: it is : it borroweth not force from 
workes, but in works doth declare what force it hath. Thus the 
graces of the Spirit are perfedled , whileft by the efFe<ff s« it is made 
manifeft how perfed they are. 

3. That is perfed, whichisevery way abfoluteandcompleace, Pi'^^.sp.?. 
to which nothing is wailting, nothing fuperfluous : and fo the pr'\'^'^o'*^' 
loulesof the juft are made perfed inHeaveno. In the firft degree j^^b 1 2,'. a'?", 
perfedion is neceffary to falvation, without which we cannot be ' ' ^* 
partakers of the eternall inheritance i in thefecond and third de- 
gree it is to be ftriven after, though thelatter cannot be. obtained 
in this life. The greateft meafure of perfedibnuttaineable in this 
prefent life^ is an imperfed perfedion ; but that imperfedion is 
iin J and therefqre though we come fiiort,we nnuft ftrive forward 
towards perfcdioBathat we might be petfed hereafter. 

\ Integrity- 

8o of the Covemnt of Grucc^ 

Integrity is neceffary, becaufe the moft holy God will never 
give himfeUe to be pofl'cffed and enjoyed to a fpirituall adultrefib, 
Rcv.i4.s,4. whodothafted any other lover more, or befides him. A woman 
may have many friends, but one as an Husband : Conjugall love 
of ic own nature,is oFthat kind, that it muft be of one, and cannot 
be communicated to many. If God be wholly ours, we muft be 
wholly his. And if we joyne ought with God, or take in ought 
with him, we doe not, we cannot cleave to him alone. When 
there aj;e two objedts upon which the heart is fetjit is divided; and 
men of divided hearts, can have no fcUowrhip or communion with 
him. We cannot ferve God,unle{Ie we fcrve him intirely : he can- 
not be our Mafter,if we have any other. Matth.6.2^. Godheares 
them that pray with their whole heart, fer.2^.11,1^. is found 
ofthem that fceke him with their whole heart. P(al.iiQ,2.Deut. 
4.29,30. takes pleafure in them that be intire in their way. Prov. 
11.20. and accepts their work. Dent.'^^.ii, If aChriftian be 
not intire, he can never be perfect in degree : for what is defective 
in parts, can never be made up by any growth. He can never come 
to be a perfedl man in Jefus Cerift, and every way compleatc, in 
whom the work of grace is imperfed and maimed in the parts ef- 
fcntiall or integrall. li a plant be imperfcd, it will never be a per- 
kd: tree : li a Child be borne maimed or imperfed, no growth of 
parts received canreftore what is defedive in nature; If aChri- 
ftian be fandified in mind only, or in fome aff eilion only, and not 
in every part, no growth in what he hath obtained, can ever make 
his fandification perfed and compleate. Integrity is the qualifi- 
cation of a (libied capable of finall pardon, and cternall blefTcdnefle 
through grace. RemilTion of fins is received by faith, but faith 
that embraceth pardon,doth unite and knit the foule infeparably to 
God, and to the word of his grace, it feafoneth every affedion, 
and ftirreth them up to their proper fundions- according as the 
word diredeth. Blejpd is the man ^hofe iniquity is firgiven^ 
and'^hofs Jin is covered: Blejfed is the man to ^hom the Lord 
imputeth no Jin, and in vohofe Jpirit there is no guile. 

God will paffe by the imperfedions which he efpieth in the beft 
fervice of his children, when once he feeth their hearts to be intire 
and perfed towards him. Hypocrifie drowneth many excellent 
graces, and caufethGod to take no notice of them : but integrity 
isfo wdlpleafing to his Ma/efty, that if it be not fhaken, he will 


as it was made andmanifeHedte Abraham, 


* King.! 9. 1 Is 
Hofe i.4« 
2 Chran.f o. 

noE fee many other infirmities. This is the chalenge againft the 
Church ot Sardis^ I have not fiund thy ^orks ferfs 6t be fire God, Rev. j . s 
David had many imperfeiflions, and did often ftep afide in the 
way, but he is not accufed to breake the whole Law in any thing, ^ 
fave in the macter of Vriah, I King.r^.^. The HolyGhoft 
hath noted fundry defers in ex//S, but addeth this of him by way 
ot conclufion, yet his heart "^as ferfiH towards the Lord aMh^ 
dajesy I iCi«^.i5.l4.Contrarilyin7^^^j after alargedefcriptioH_ 

ofmany excellent thingSjit is obferved, ^^/■^'^^/^ ^^^^'''^'^^^<'^^<' 
watke in the Law of the Lcrd with all hit heart ; and fo his fervice 
in deftroying Ahabs houfe ( rewarded with a temporall bleiling 
to the fourth generation) Was reckoned murder. Hezekjah is 
bould to pray in behalfe of th^m that came unprepared to the PaiTe- 
over. The good Lord be mercifkH unto him that fre^ are th his 
heart tofeeketheLordGody though he be not clearffed according- 
to the pftrification of the SawBuary, An Husband will beare 
with many aberrations in the behaviour of his Wife, fo long as he 
is perfwaded of the intireneffe of her heart towards him : and fo 
dealeth the Lord with them that feare before him with all their 
hearts. Great is the excellency, many, the priviledges of the intire 
and perfe(fl man. Better is the foore that walkethin hisintegri- pfoy.jg.5 
tj, then he that isferverfe in his "^ayes, turning away no\^n this ^ 19, i, 
fide, now on that, though he be rich. Integrity advanceth the Pral.n9.i. 
poore man above the wealthy, and yeeldeth him more found com- 
fort and profit both, then all the riches in the world can. They 
are blejfed that '^alke in the perfiEiway : Not they that walke 
in the way of the Miniftery, or of the Magiftracy, but indefinitely 
they which walke in any way allowable by the word, with a per- 
fed heart, be it never fo meane or fimple, they arc blefled. Blef- 
fed are the unde filed in the way, whatloever it be, be it to betjfie ^"li^fffe there 
fcowrer of Channels, drudge in a Kitchen, or to ferve in the ^^-T^^PJ^^ea 

r> u- » t) ' man IS adtual- 

^allies. . iyblclTcdrbut 

More particularly. TheperfiBJhallnot be cenfiunded. Let my thecaufeof 
heart be intire inthyfiatutei, that I be not afijamed. For God biefledBcflets. 
"^illnot caFi away the per fi^ man , neither will he take thewic- ^^^^ free mercy 
kidby the hand»i\t OidLvittrnt to nt^tdi^hnX. he doth not fir get °p^f^°^* g ^ 
them that fillow after righteoufnejfe : he is thought to favour, job.8, fo, *'' 
but he doth abhorrethe^orkers of iniquity* The eyes of the Lord Pfa,j7, i8,ip. 
runne to and fio throughout the whole earth, to Jhew himfelfe a Cbron,i<5,9b 
, M flrong 

Caufall blef- 
fednefle is thQ 
pardon of fia j 
but perfeftioa 
IS bleffednefTe 
in order to the 
execution and 

22 of the Covenant of Graces 

i'ial. J 8*2 }. Breng in the behalf e ofthem,whofe heart ^ perfeB towards Upitj s 
Howioever they may be weake in theoifclves, in him they (hall be 
vidorious: his power ihall be perfcded in their weakenefle. For 
PCal.if.iS. as it is in thePfalme, With the perfeB ma»,thm wih Jkew thy 
felfe per fe B : thou wilt not faile him in his need. This is the na- 
ture of God, that he frameth himfeif e to the difpoiitions oi men, 
good to the good, hard to the ftubborne, intire to the perfed: that 
Waite upon him. The Lord knoweth the dayes 9f the perfeBy and 
their inheritance fhall be fir ever ; that is, he feeth to what evils 
they lie open, what help they need, and ordereth all events to their 
Frw.jS.i^. fpeciall good. He that ^alketh in his integrity is (afe : no danger 
^i(?fjag» can overtake or meete a man in that way; becaufe he is under the 
fliadow and protedion of divine providence. Right eoufneffe prem 
ferves him that is intire in the way, bat Veickfdnejfe ov^rthrovf-^ 
eth thefinner, Prov.13.6. &ii.5,^. Let integrity d^nd upright- 
neffe preferve me, Pfil. 25.21. Integrity is a guard,that doth con- 
tinually keep watch and ward j and doth not only leade men to 
a good way, and tell them what is their duty,and fit to be perfor- 
med J but maketh the way pafliblc for them, and them profperous 
in it. An intire heart, is a channell or Barke in which the graces of 
the Spirit are contained, and faith doth fwimme above all ftormes 
and tempffts : but a mind void of all integrity,is full of fliftcrs and 
chincks, that if the molt holy liqueur of piety be; oftered, it is pow- 
red in and out together and at once. This is the nature of integri- 
ty, that by it the foule is intire in it felfe, and hath a fpintuall con- 
tinuity, which may be fhadowed forth by the (imilitude of things 
corporall i, and therefore fo long as integrity is preferved,the heart 
isapt tocontaine and keep lafe the graces of the Spirit ; if it be 
cracked grace would be loft, (hould not God make up the breaches 
of it. A foule dqftitute of grace, is ftarke dead i an heart witftout 
integrity ,not well compared, is next to death or deftrudion ,• as % 
fhip full of holes, or a body unlooied or diflblved. An heart well 
compadt and knit faft together in the Lord ( as is the intire ) is 
P5oy.?<), i> valiant and couragious in all dangers,trials,temptations. ~It is n©t 
put out of countenance with tlanderous tongues, nor ihaken with 
feare of troubles.. T^o?/^^ mine adversary (hould -write abook& 
agaipfi m£, weuld I not tuks ^^ tipon my Jhoulder, and bind it an a. 
crowne unto me^iiiih.fob ? The hypocrite in peace and fecurty 
m^, Ce^me ftrong and valarous v but let God by (ome afflidion 

4* it was made andmmifeHedtd Abraham, 

drag him out, as it were by the cares from his lurking hole, and 
convent him before his tribnnall, and thou {halt not fee any thing 
more abjed: and heartlcfTe. Then is that of the -Prophet verified, 
ThefinnersmSionareajrMd, afiare is come among the hypo<- Ifa^j|.i4jij, 
crites. whoamongmfhalldtvell^i^ the devouring fire f Who 
{mong ui Jhatl dwell With the everlafiing bnrning ? But the entire 
heart, even in this cafe, holds out confident and couragious. And 
nomarvell, for every man thatwalketh in his integrity hath the 
priviledge of a treble guard, the guard of Gods procedion, of the 
gjDod Angels, and of a good cohfcience, for his defence againft all 
adverfary power. MarkjheferfB man, and behold the upright, PH ?7-?7« 
fir the end of that man is peace : fir the Lordjhnll helpe arid deli- P^.S7'4o« 
•verhim, he /hall deiiver htm fromthe kicked, andfave him, be- P^*^*»^*» 
cai*fe he truHeth in hi'm^. The Lerd^ill defind the perfidy and 
he hath given his Angels charge over them, to be are them in their 
hmtds, andkeepe them in their ^aies : In which refpe(5l they may 
fay with the Prophet, how many fbever rife up againft us, they be 
more and ftronger that be with us, then they that rife up againft u$. 
Moreover,they are bleiled of God with a good confcience, which is 
as a ftrong Caftle,againft which no batteries of the enemy can pre- 
vaile J he is a moft valiant Champion, who will not be daunted 
with any proud on-fet of the Adverfary, whichheknoweth to be 
weake, and of no ftrength. As thers is nothing more bafe, or foo- 
ner abaftied then a corrupt confcience, deftitute of integrity : So 
nothing more bold and hardy then a good and perfed confcience. 
David in the midft of all his reproaches had the face to profede the 
nameofGod before Kings and Princes, without ever being blan- Pf.u^sij. 
kedat their prefence. And (hall a man fo guarded, regard the 
enmity of any? fear the thrcatnings of any, though never fo migh- 
ty ? be difmayed at any hard condition that he is fallen into for the 
prefent ? No,he will not be afraid for any evill tidings, for his heart 
is fixed and trufteth in the Lord . 

Integrity addeth to the glory of our good acflions, even fuchas 
aire but of the lower fort. There is not the meaneft duty whatfoe- 
ver, which integrity will not let a faireglolle upon, that in fome 
relpeds it fhall be matchable even to workes farre greater in their 
owne nature. A poore labouring man that lives by his hands, ha- 
ving perf ortfied holy obedience to God therin with an entire heart, 
may have as muchcoi^ifort on his death'bcd, as the htik Minifter 

M a ot 

8.4 of the Covenant 0f GracG^ 

or Magiftrate, whofe fervice in it feife is farre more honourable : 
yea, if iiis integrity be greater, his comfort alfo {hall be greater. 
For God regards not fo much the matter,, as the forme of obedi- 
ence : nor lo much the thing done, as the affediion wherewith we 
doe it. Wife men regard more the mind of the giver, then the va- . 
lue of the gift. When we firft give our hearts wholly and entirely 
to God^ then is our fcrvice, how fmall foever, very acceptable ^ 
unto his Majefty. It is not the greatnefl^ or multitude of^ofe 
good workes which we have done, but the good dilpofition of an 
honeft and entire heart in the doing of them, that doth bring com- 
fort, as the intemall qualification of that faith, which makes a. 
found plea for mercy before the throne oi grace. An halting heart 
daiheth the acceptance of the moft glorious worke : an entire heart 
addeth weight to the bafeft fervice. The widdowes mite was lit- 
tle in worth, had not her good heart raifed it's price. In value 
it came farre (hortof the fuperjBuities that the rich men caft into 
the treafury ; but her heart was better, and fo her gift greater then 
theirs. When Hezekiah had received the fentence of death, what . 
was, his comfort? even this, the confcience of his integrity. O 
»r g. . Lordremember how 1 have "talked before thee in truth and '^ilij 

^ ^ a perfect heart. This Was his refuge, though the good workes he 

had done were in regard of his calling of the higheft note, the re- 
ftoring.of the true worlliip of God, the purging of the defiled - 
Temple and Prieft-hood ; yet he did nofcomforc himfelfe in thefe 
fo worthy workes, but in the perfedion of his heart, knowings 
well that the worke it lelfe, though never fo glorious, is of no'e--= 
%o?ji.£Q. f-c^£^^j ifthe heart be rotten, perverfe or halting. The entire in 
heart are the Lords delight, greatly belovea of him for the pre- 
fent, and fiiall more, fully fee, feele and enjoy the comfort and 
pf 8 ti " happineflfe of his favour ia time to come. The Lord God ^iH- 
lXa,6o.i9. X^'i^'holdno good from them that ^alks i>* integrity : tor he is- 
both their Sunne and Shi'eld, he will give grace and glory. As the. 
Sunne doth illuftrate, cKerifh and quicken all things with its heatc 
and light :. So doth the Lord vifit the entire, and refrelh them by 
Pfc?.s,Ko his Spirit, yea, and as a Shield proted them from all evill. The 
Frov,28»io. ferfiB Jhallremaine in the Land fir ever and leave their inkeri- 
Ptoveso.7. mnce unto their children* fVho (o caufeth therighteotis to goe a." 
Bray inane viR'^aj, hejhallfakhimfelfiiyitohii ore ne fit : ^«^ 
the en tirejball have go od things in pojjejjionj and their children af» 
Ur themjhall be blefeA, " J^ 

as it vpos made andmmifeficdto AbrahAm. 


The effefl and token of integrity is a fetled, wetadvifed and de- 
liberate defire, re(olution, will and endeavour to be enformed,. 
what is good and acceptable in the fight of God, andtodired: his 
wayes at all times^ and in all places according to rule ©f righteouf- 
neffe : for he aimes at one ra arke,, and pitcheth upon the right ob-r 
jed.. Thejuft man walketh in his integrity. It \s the commen- 
dation oi David, that he did that Vehich ^as right in the fi^ht of 
God, and turned not ajide from anjthingthat^" as commanded all 
the dates of h^ life. 

The fruits of this refolution are thefe and fuch like | 

Firft, there is no fin though never fo deare, precious or profi- 
table, which a perfedl Chriftian would not willingly e(py out and 
judge in himfeUe,. I'iv.ill declare mine iniqmty, l^iibe firrie fir 
my Jinn e* 

Secondly, it workesa diflike of finne in ail, even in thofe which 
bcmoft neare and deare unto us. 

Thirdly, 1 1 is joyned with a continuall care to preferve himfelfe 
innocent from all fin, efpecially his particular and formerly belo- 
ved tranfgreffions. Iwaspetft(ftbeforehim,andI kept my fclfe. 
from mine iniquity. 

Fourthly, In all conditions he will looke to himfelfe, that he- 
be not carried away with unbridled paflions. In regard of feve- 
rall ftates,^ men are fubjed: to be tranfported with diverfe afFe- 
<5lions , as with pride , pteafure, (ecurity in profperity, impati- 
ence,, fretting , difcontent in adverfity. Wherefore the entire 
Chriftian doth ever look to his heart, that it be not diftempered^ 
with thefc things. 

Fifthly, If the heart be entire with God, it will admit his word , 
for dire<Skion in all things. Thy teftimenies are my delight and my 
Counfellaursy that is, they governemy mind and heart-> of them 
I take advice. ^11 thy judgements^ere he^re m^ : and 1 did not 
fut away thy SttttntesfromWe. 

Sixthly, They that are entire are faid to have fulfilled after the 
Lord, that is, fully or entirely to have followed him, Depit,i.^6. 
Numb. 1^,2^. 

Seventhly, The perfect man putteth away froward and per- 
verfe fpeeches. The poore that walketh in his integrity is op- 
pofed to him that ispeivcrfe in his lips, that fpeaketh froward 
ihings*^^ .^ 

M 5 Eighthly^^, 
I King,! J.J. 


pr. 18.23. 


Pro% n.tgl 
Pfal. ii9,i4t 
Pal.18.a2. . 


Numb. 31,1 1. 


of the Covenant of Graces 


Amos J.JO. 

I CHron igi.19 
Mac i^xi. 



z Chron.28.^, 

t Ghion/aS.^, 

Eighthly, His care is to keep himfelf unfpotted of the world* 
doing kihat which is honeft, pure, praifc- worthy in the fight of 
God and man. This note the Prophet D^W giveth ; for having 
{aid, Bi^lfed are the andf filed in the "doajjhQ teacheth US to difcem 
them by this effeft, (krely thev doe ho iniquitj. 

Ninthly, He will receive evdl ac i:he hands of God thankfully, 
as well as good, andblefle his n'^rne,whenbecrofreth his defires, 
and taketh trom him what he dcligiits m, as well as when he gran- 
cech the delire of his heirc in outward bieiiings. 

Tenthly, An entire heart is ready prepared to ferve God,to part 
with any thing be it never lo deare tor Chriil, and to fuffer any 
thing be it never lb hard for Chrifts fake. 

Eleventhly, He that walketh in his integrity will deale confcio- 
nably at home and abroad, in all duties of his generall and particu- 
lar vocation towards all men. I'^lll ^dk: ^'* the midji of mine 
hoftfe in the integrity of mine heart, I '^iUfct no evill thing be fire 
mine eyes, 

Laftly, He preffeth towards the mar ke, andaimesat an higher 
degree of holineflc", Phil.3. 13,14, 15. One thing I doe, I firget 
that which u behind^ and endeavour hard firward towards the 
mark^, 2 Cor.y,l. 

Inre^rityis thegiftof God, infufed into the heart by the holy 
Ghoft ^ but in this refped: we may not negled the meanes ordained 
of God for the attainment and preTervation of it. God and none 
buthedidplaceD.«'z//^inthehiil Sycn, and give Gideon vidory 
ovc^r the Midianites, as they both well knew, and firmely belee- 
ved : but their beleef did nor emafculate their minds, or tie their 
hands from uling Inch ftrengch and valour,as they had. 

Firft, Caremuftbehadtofurnifli the mind wth the affedio- 
nate knowledge of God in Chrift Jefus* And thoft Solomon my 
finne, know thou the ^odofthy Fathers, and ferve him '^ith aper- 
fict heart. The knowledge of God begets in us a limilitude of 
God. When we come to undcrftand what he is to us, we are made 
to him what he requireth. As when found knowledge entereth, it 
flampeth the Image of God upon the heart: foritaiiimulates the 
mind to,theobi>;dl leen and diicerned. 

2. Allholymeaues mud be ufed to incorporate the word into 
the heart, thatitmayfealon every affedion, andbeare mild uni- 
verfall Soveraignty over us. For the heart is tranf-formed through- 

as it was made andmanife^edto Abraham, g« 

©at iiito the nature of the Word, and every power of foul is brought 
intofub/cdionby an unfained, foveraigne, well-rooted faith, it 
is entire in parts, though imperfed in degrees. Herein all dili- 
gence and paines muft be taken by preparation, hearing, medita* 
tion, and obfervation of all unexpeded occafions of griefe, for- 
row, feare, joy, orfuchlike, to bring the word into the affedi- 
ons, that it may fweetcn their difpoficion, and governe their mo- 

3. In all endeavours we mnft include prayer to God in the name 
otChriftjasachiefeaffociate ; for God ordinarily lets in fandi- 
fying grace at the fame gate, at which honeft hearted prayers 
goe out, 

4. The fourth meanes is, for a man alwayes to poflefle his heart 
with the apprehenfion of Gods prefence, and fo to keepe it in his 
f care continually • to walke with God, as being in his eye, and 
feeing him that is in vifible. This remembrance oi Gods all- feeing 
prefence, will make men ftudy to approve themfelves before God 
in all their courfes, and to fticke unto him with their whole hearts^. 
Could the eye of a jealous husband prieinto every privy corner of 
his wives heart, (he would be afraid to hide any itrange lover in, 
her fecret affedion. If but a man, nay if but a child could looke 
into our hearts, we durft not deale doubly and deceitfully. What? 
Godfeethus, and fhall we dare to dally with him ? Shall I give 
liim part of my heart, and referve another part for the world, foe 
plealiire, for fin ? How fliould not God find this out ? forhefear- 
cheth the heart and reynes, and underftandcth the fecret cogitati- 
ons of every foul. 

5. Another meanes is diligently to review all works of obedi- 
ence, and our affedions in the doing of them : and to obfervc 
what difcomfort and trouble follows the maimed and defective 
performance of good duties. And wichall when we take our felves 
tardy, m an holy indignation to take revenge of our felves, judging 
and condemning our lelves before God. The very thinking of the 
after reckonings we muft come unco , when we have done oat 
work, will make us take heed how we doe it. The remembrance 
ef thelolfe and puniihment they ftiall fuftaine, whofe works are 
not perfed before the Lord, willftirreup refped: to every Com- 
mandment. Tor who is there that ufcth for all his aftions, at th^ 
dayes end to call himfeUe to a fevcre examination, as the hard 

' ' ' ' "' '" • " -Maftec. 

88 oftkCovemmofGraccj. 

Maflrer doth his fervancs, that muft not needs in the very midft of 
his a(?tions, reafon thus within himCelfe j anone all this which now 
I doe, muft very narrowly be looked over, and if the reafon why 
I doe it, my afFeAions in doing, the workc it fcUe be maitned,halc 
or fufrer defed in the parts thereof, I {hall fmart f®r it. O the 
wrings and fecret pinches which mine owne guilty heart will give 
me ; yea, the fentence which by Covenant I am tyed to paiTe up- 
on my felf, in cafe my heart be partiall to the Lord, and my work 
deformed ^ If my worke be not perfed:, (liall I not loofe all my la- 
bour, and be rejedred with it? 

Laftly, It is good to meditate ferioufly on the joyes of heav€n,and 
the rich recompence of reward referved for them that cleave unto 
the Lord with their whole hearts. If the happineffe of Saints here- 
after doc rightly affedl, and be foundly beleeved, a man will be 
contented to part with all that he hath to purchafe that treafure. 
- Whatfoever he hath laid next his heart, he will abandon it with 
dcteftation, rather then deprive himfelf of that eternall inheritance, 
which God hath prepared. 

To ftirre up himfelfe to ftrive after perfedion more and more, 
a Chriftian muft firfl (hame himfelf for his halting, and make it o- 
dious ; ah, the division of my heart, the maimednefTe of my fer- 
vice is lo apparant, that I cannot conceale it from my confcience. 
I have lodged finne, vanity, pleafure, the world in the clofet of 
my heart, which fhould have been kept entire for the Lor-d. My 
purpofes for good have been weake, my refolucions variable, oft- 
times by occurrences and occafions I have been drawn afide. . In 
holy performances I have ferved mine own corrupt aifedions, and 
doing what is right, not done it with a perfed heart. Mine affe- 
ction to good hath been partiall, bafe , deformed ; In the grea- 
teft matters I have been remifle, precife in lefler : ^zealous in one, 
oareleffe in another : ready, to run according to inclination, not 
looking to the diredion of the truth. I have fometimes been for- 
ward to heare, not fo carefull to meditate, and make the word 
•mine own ; eager and fiery againft: fome particular notorious of- 
fences, but not vigilant to bridle rafh anger, boyflerous paffions 
and indifcreet and idle fpeeches. My love to the children of God 
hath neither been pure, nor univerfall : I have been apt to admire 
fome, dif-efteem others according as they carry themfelves to- 
wards me, and fitmcin my humour. If he. be a curCed deceiver, 


as it wa^ made and manifefied to Abraham, 

that having a male in his flock, doth offer that which is halt and 
lame to the Lord : how juftly might I be confounded, who have 
wickedly departed from my God , and kt my affedions upon 
things oi no value ? Will an husband accept of divided love in his 
wife ? will a Prince regard or take in good part,that which is lame, 
blind orfickjforaprefcntfromhisSubjed? OLord, I have dealt 
exceeding fooliflily in tendering fuch fpocted fervice unto thy 

Secondly, He muft refolve to keepe himfelfe more entirely to 
the commandments ot God for the time to come. I have wic- 
kedly departed from my God, but now I will returne, and keepe 
his Commandments with my whole heart. What can I tender unto 
his Majefty, leffe then my felfe ? How can I for (hame intreat his 
favour, unlefTe I cleave unto him with a perfed heart ? Can I de- 
fire God to be wholly mine, unlefTe I be v;holly his ? Can I be lb 
impudent as to intreat God to love me with a prime and con/ugall 
love, and give me leave to love (inne which he abhorreth, to love 
other things above or equall with his HighneUe ? Can I looke to 
be married unto Chrift in mercy, truth and com pa ffion, if my 
heart doe not aifed him above all, and other things in and through 
hin^ alone ? The Lord is a great King, his fervice muft be Without 
fpot or blemifli. His eye learcheth the heart, and perfedly un- 
derftandeth all fecret motions a farre off, and will give to every 
one as he knoweth his heart, and according to his wayes. Men 
of place looke to have their pleafure done in all things by iuch as at- 
tend upon them : and Ihall I prefume to call my lelfe the fervant 
of the living God, when I doe his pleafure in part only and by 
halves. My obedience cannot be perfed in degree fo long as I live 
here, but through the grace of God it (hall be univerfall, and that 
I might attaineabfoluteperfedion in heaven, I will drive after it 
in this life. OLord, I have covenanted to fticke unto thy tefti- 
monies, and by thy grace I will keepe thy precepts ail the dayes of 
my life,unto thee therfore do I fiie for ftrength/upporr,acceptance. 
Create in me,0 God,a cleane heari:,re'/iew aright {con{ignt)pirit 
"Within rne I Eftablijhme'^ith thy grace, that I never faH jyottlj 
my integrity t I Vci/l ksepe thy fiatutes, fir/aks ^^ «^f ^> 

In the former overture of the Covenant by Gods appointment 
they offered facrificc, which was a type of Chcift, and fealc of rc- 

N miflion 


I Kingv8.48. 

They are blef. 
Ted who have 
atcained fome 
perfeftion in 
thc^xcrcife of 
holincs. Every 
dcemes hinj 
happie, who 
harh the per- 
fed skill of 
that trade 
wherein hefs 
I King.8.19. 
It is a great 
fljame to leapc 
hotn pale to 
%ig,and with 
the moone to 
change our be. 
liefs. Thou ar< 
ail^amcd tobc 
<^cccunted an 

Pflf I.IO. 
s Kin.8.5t, 


of the Covenant of Graces 


and 22.^ 

miflion and propitiation by the blcudof Chrift, under thiscx- 
preflion the fame continued : for fo we readc,that Abraham built 
Altars unto the Lord, and offered facrificc. But unto this,it plca- 
icd God to adde^ther affuranccs whereby he bound himfeUe to 
performs the promifes which he freely made of his grace, and did 
cftablith the faith of Ahaham and his pofterity. This Covenant 
God confirmed by federall fignes in the (egments and fiery lamp. 
gefj.J'^, and then by facramcntall fignes, as by Circumcifion. 
^(?».I7. which was a (ealc of promife on Gods part, and an ho- 
mage or fcalrie in Abraham and his feed binding them unto the 
fervice which God required under the Covenant of grace: and 
therefore the z\poftle put this upon them that will ufc Circumci- 
{ion after Chrifl-, that they are bound to keep the whole Law, not 
becaufe Circumcifion for the outward ad was commanded in the 
LaWjb'jt becaufi it v/as that homage peniiy, which tycd them to 
pun(Suan obedience. We may conceive, that God by this Com- 
mandement might now prove Abrahams obedience therein, im- 
and Jhahm, pofing a thing abhorrent to nature, which could not be before 
zndAbrabayns f^pne, becaufe it doth prefuppofe finne and punifhment; And it 
feed, It IS ne- ^^^ ^ notable pledge of his faith, for if he could believe God in fo 
dangerous and fearefuU an execution, they might beleevchimr in 
any other command or promif^ under the Covenant. Circumci- 
fion was not without thcfliedding of bloudjbecaufe the Covenant 
was not yet cftablifhed in thebloud of the MelSah, and that 
might Icade the faitbFull to the bloud of Chrift, as afiaring the 
purgingawayoffinncby the fame. God could have inflituted a 
Sacrament which might have agreed to both fexcs, but of his infi- 
nite wifdome, he mads choice of that which could have being ia 
manner ,and to (j^g males only : but the female was accounted as circumcifcd in 
receive^ the ^^^ ^^-^t : and therefore faithfull women were the daughters of 
cSL'IciGon Abraham, Luh 1 5. i^. and the common pro.Tiife, that God 
in his ficOi, would be the God of Abraham and his feed, did pertains to each 
which jbro' fexofhispoftericy. Circpimcijion ^as a feale of the righteoufne^s 
kam and hjs Which ii by faith, that which is purcbafcd by Chrift> and embraced 
feed had ^.^^z, ^y p^-^i, . jj ^^g alfo a lignc of the Circumcifion of the heart by 
lomtas'ro. ^^ ^y\\\ of Chrift, without which the rite did commend no 
J. ofn.2,» , , jnantoGod. Bent, \o.\6, which Circumcifion of the heart is 
promifed of God as his grace. Beitt,$o.6. and is fulfilled in Chrift^, 
C* A 2 , 1 O3 i I , ThU, $.3. And it wa8,.a fealc of the Covenant, and 


In as much as 


was the figne 
OE folemne ce« 
remt)ny of this 
mutuall league 
between God 

ceffanly im- 
plied (by th8 
tenour of" the 
fame mutuall 
ihat God 
fliould fub- 
kribe or feale 
the league af- 
ter the fame 


as it 19 as made andmamfefiedto Abraham. p i 

Ibofalltbcpromifcstnadc therein concerning things temporall 
to the feed and pofterity o£Ahaham, as they flood in reference 
to the Covenant of Grace. All that were outwardly circumci- 
fed, were not partakers of the fpintuall bleffingspromifed, yet 
was not Circumcifion altogether unprofitable unto them : but as 
chey were within the Covenant, fo did Circumcifion fealc unto 
fihcm the bleflings ot the Covenant. If they were externally in 
Covenant only and by profcflion, it confirmed thgprorai{?sof the 
earthly Canaan and foaie other outward things whereof they 
were partakers : If they were internally and cff^dualiy in Cove- 
nant, it confirmed the higheft bleflings unto them, which they 
obtained by faith. 1 1 appcares then, that ail are not in Covenant 
after one manner, nor doe all that be in Covenant, equally partake 
ofthe fame bleflings: they that be outwardly in Covenant par- 
'take the outward and bafeft part of the Covenant, they that be 
truly in Covenant obtainc the bighsft : but what bleflings ibevcc 
they enjoy, they are given according to the Covenant of Grace, 
andnotofworkes, given of free bounty to them that yceld but 
partiall and faincd obcdiencCjand not merited by their works. But 
of this more at large in the next Chapter. 

From all this it followetb, Firft, that all the faithful! arc of the 
£imQ faith with ^Ahrakam. The Father and the Sonnes fpirituall 
be of the fame beliefe : as they doe partake ofthe lame fpirituall 
privilsdgcs. It is one God that juftifieth the circumcifion and the 
uncircumcifion, and it is the fame faith whereby the Promifts 
of mercy arc embraced. Zacchem is called the fonof Abraham^ 
and hcbclecvcd in Chrift as did Abraham. 

2, Not only Ptomifes of temporall good things . but of fpiritu- 
all and cternall were made to the Patriarks in the Covenant of 
Grace,and fought 2nd obtained by them. They looked for a City 

whofe builder and maker the Lord is. Remiflion of finncs and Heb^ix.ix^u, 
life everlafting was preached in the Covenant,fealcd in the Sacra- 
ment,and typified by the Land of Canaan. To conceit the Fa- 
thers to be an sffcmbly of bruite beads, which looked to be fed 
with earthly bleflings alone, is highly to diChonour them, and 
leflen the grace and mercy of God towards them. 

3. Sacramentall phrafes, wherein the name of the thing figni- 
fied is given to the fignc, are ancient and familiar 5 as Circuaicifi- 
on is called the Covcnant,and the rocke Chrift. Why then fliould 

N 2 our 

92. of the Covemm of Grace under Mofes tili the 

our Adverfarks ftambk at this, that in the Sacrament of the Sup- 
per, The Breaii is called the body of Chrifi:. 

4. In this expreflion of rhe Covenant, the fpiritu^U good 
things proinifed therein are iimited to y^<^r^/&^wandtohis feed. 
But all Infants whatf^evcr are not comprehended under the feed 
o^ Abraham, To fay many thonfand thcufands are excluded from 
the fcales and outward adtr.iniftraticn of the Covenant, when yet 
every one is partaker of the good proaufcd in the Covenant, is to 
fpeakeofourfelves, and not according to the Word of God. We 
will not tie the grace of (3od to outward meanes : but ordinarily 
we cannot affirms they pertainc to the Covenant of Grace, and 
obtaine the higheftbleffingspromifvd therein, whom God doth 
not vouchfafe fo much as out wardly to receive into Covenant. 

Chap. VII. 

of the Covenant of Grace under Mofes till the refurne 

oflfrael from the Bahylonlfh Captivity, 

NOw we are drav/ing downe to Mofes his time, and that ma- 
nifsftation of the Covenant of Grace, which was revealed to 
the Church by his Minidery. The curfs of Gods revenging ju- 
fticchadnow feizedupon mankind for many generations, even 
thoufands of yeares, fo that now it was time (on God to remem- 
ber mercy in the midft of wrath, and to breakc out into a clearer 
f xpreflion of this free graticiis Covenant, extended to a people 
Iprung up into a great number, and tobejcyiicd together in an 
outward poHcfe. The Covenant of free grace running downe in 
u^^hahamj[Qcd was daily caft out, and grew wilde, as in the IlTi- 
maeliteSjEdomiteSjSyrians, &ۥ therefore God was now pleafsd 
to knit the kcd of Abraham together in a Wronger, and ( as I may 
callit) a Rate Covenant, that things might grow better and not 
worfe. The body of the people to whom the Cov^enant pertained,^ 
Was now growne populous and numerous, fo that either it mufl: 
grow wild,and come to nothing by it owne weight, or elfe be 
brought under the Covenant of God into a date and nationall" 
The Covenant wbich God made with Ifracl is cglled the Old 


retnrne of ifraelfiom the Babjlonifh Captivity , p 3 

Teftamcnt or the Law, not becaufe it was tirft, as fome fuppofe, 
but bccaufe it was to wax old, and to give place to the inorc ex- 
cellent Covenant faccceding, and finally to be aboliihed. Hcb.?»i3. 

But here at the ftrftwc meet with a great difficulty, How, 
and whether at ail the Covenant of Grace, was manifeQcd by 

Some ir;akc the Old and New Teftament, as ihe Covenant of 
workes and grace, oppcftte in fubftance and kind, and not in de- 
gree alone; and that to introduce anunfound diftindionj-z/i^. cf 
promi{<;f£t8gajnft Covenant or TcBament, as though God cor> 
icrred Grace anto the "Fathers only by prcmile, and not by Cove- 
nant, leaving all that M^fis puts under Covenant to be the Cove- 
nant of works and old Teftament, not conHdering .that God cal- 
kth his promifc of Grace to Abraham a Covenant. Qen. i 7, i . be- 
ing in every branch a compleat Covenant : not adverting that the 
Apoftle (who knew how tofpcakc according to the fence of the 
old Scriptures) eals the proraifc made unto Abraham 3 Covenant 
or TcHamcnt. Cjal.i.ij. and the Covenant of promif?, diilingui- 
{hing the degrees ot manifeiVation. 5p^^yr2.i2, Neither c^n it be ~ 
proved, that ever God made the Covenant of works with the 
creature fallen t but wbcnfo-^^ec the Scripture fpsskesof Gods 
entring into Covenant with man fallen and planged into finne, 
and for finne defsjrving wrath, it ibuO; be underdood of the Cove- 
nant of Grace, as (ball be fee wed hereafter. 

Others make the Old Teftamcnt a Covenant fubfervicnt to 
the Covenant of Grace, and defcribe it to be that which God 
made with Ifrael in Mount Sina'V tQ prepare them to faith, and to 
iiiflamethcm with a defire of the procr.ife and Evangelicall Co- 
venant (which othcrwife had lar^guiihcd in their minds) and to 
retrain them from wickednelTc as it were with a bit and bridlej, 
until! the time wherein God ihculd fend the Spirit of adoption 
into their hearts, and governs them by the Law of liberty. 
This they make to agree with the Covenant of nature in thiSg 
that in both the one partic contracling is God,tbc otbcr maDjboth 
hath a [lipulatioB annexed, and that the fame in r£fpe(51; of the mo- 
sali Law : the protxiifs is the fame in gencrali,3nd both leade un- 
to Chrift. Bat to-diftcr from it in this, that the Covenant of na- 
ture was made with all men, but this with the Ifraelites slone; 
ti/at was made with man created and perfeft in Paradifc, v^ui had 

N 3 no. 

94 of the Covenant of Gmce under Mofes till the 

no preludk: this was tnadc long after with fome part of man- 
kind finners, in Mount Sjna.i, and had vmnyfvelndU: that bound 
to obedience due by the Law of nature? this to the Ceremo- 
nies alfo s in that the injoyment of life in Paradife was promifed^ 
here in the Land of Canaan: the Covenant of nature leads to 
Chrift by accident, as it fliewes what man doth owe unto God, 
and what puniflitnsnt cemainss if he pay not his debt of duty : 
the old Covenant leads unto Chrift by it feife, for that is the true 
and proper fcope thereof, God exadmg his due of man for none 
other end , but that the creature convidlcd of his imbecillity, 
ftibuld Bic to Chrift. The Covenant of Nature leancs upon the 
Creation and gcnerall confervation ; the old Covenant upon the 
Eiedion of Ifrael, his deliverance out of Egypc,3nd confervation 
in the Land of Canaan. 
^ . The Covenant of Nature was written in the hcartj but the old 

a .4.14. Covenant did beget to fervitode, and fo did compcll and reftraine 
;by force, as when we leave undone what we would doc, or doe 
what we would not for feare : that is cternall, this temporary, 
written in Tables of ftonc ; The thirft after Chrift which the 
Covenant of Nature doth ftirrc up in man, is allayed by the ap- 
plication of Chrift either in the Promife , or in the Goij^ell : 
but the thirft which, the old Covenant ftirredup, could not be 
allayed,but by the comming of Chrift in the fledi. 

Wish the Covenant of Grace it agreeth , that the Author of 
both is God, both contraded with man a flnner : both doth fhew 
finne : both reftraine from finne : both leadeto Chrift : both the 
Symbole of the Charch : both made by a Mediatour,and life pro- 
mifed in both. They differ in thefe, that in the Covenant fubfer- 
vient, God is confidered as reproving finne, and approving rlgh- 
teoufnefle : in the Covenant of Grace, as pardoning Iinne, and re- 
newing man in rightcoufneifc ; the ftipulation of the old Cove- 
nant is, 'Di'^ thk and live: ga/.^,l2. Of the '^^vJ^'Beleeve^and 
thou [halt not come into judgement, foh.'^ , 1 8. The Old Teftamcnt 
was added to the Promife of Grace, which went before. Gal,^, 
16,17. and ftiewcs finne not primarily, but by experience of hu- 
mane weakneffc in keeping Covenant. But the Covenant of 
y Grace doth this primarily, for it teacheth expreflfdy that all men 
arefinners.i2^OT.3.p^2g.and that his happincric doth confift in the 
I'cmi/Iioa of finncs.^ow.4.6. Thsold Covenant did reftrain from 


returmofjfrAel{romtheBahylom[hCapivity, ^5 

finncby compulfion. Rom.j.iiii^. thzCostmntoiGxzcQVjiih 
a free inclination of mind and foule. Rom, ^.12. The Covcnanc 
of Grace leads to Chrift dircdly : the old Covenant indiredlly. 
The old Covenant isthecarnall Symbolc of the Church of the 
Tewes, the new Covenant a fpirituall Symbole of the Church 
bothof Jewes and Gentiles. Mofes is the Mediatour of the old 
Covenant : Chrift God and man Mediatour of the new. In the 
old Covenant is given the fpirit of bondage; but the Spirit of 
Adoption in the new.^ow.S .1 5 . The old Covenant was a mcane 
to the end : the new the end it felfc. The old Covenant did tcr- 
rifie the confciences : the new doth comfort : Man a (inner fal- 
len a fleep is the objed of the old Covenant : the confciencs ter- 
rified, with finne the objcd of the new. The old Covenant (hew- 
ed the manner of worfliipping God, but gave not ability s the 
new Covenant doth both. The old Covenant was an hand-wri- 
ting againft us. O/.2'. 14. thenewaneafieyoke. Matth.ll.^'^.. 
The old Covenant was from Mount Sinai. Beb.iz. 18. the new 
fromSion heavenly, amiable and pkafant. 'T^fal.2.6, The old 
Covenant excludes the Gentiles : the new admits them. The : 
old promifeth life in Canaan : the new in Heaven. But not to 
examine thefe things particularly, by this explication it appearcso 
the Divines of this opinion, make the old Covenant differ from 
the new in fub{lancc,and kind, and not in dcgreeof manifedation, 
as alfo did the former. 

Moft Divines hold the old and new Covenant to be one in 
fubftance and kind, to dif&r only in degrees : but in fetting down • 
the differences they fpeake fo obfcurelyjthat it is hard to find how 
they confcnt with themfelves. For moft coramoHly they diftin- 
guifh them thus : The old Teftament promifeth life to them that 
obey the Law,and condemnes all not perfedly confo» . jble ; the . 
new doth freely pardon (inncs, and give Salvation to iJiem that ~ 
believe in Chrift. The.old was written by.the iinger of God in 
jablcs of ftone : the new by the Spirit of God in the flcChic tables 
of theheart. The old was the miniftcry of death, a killing letter £ 
the new the miniftcry of the quickning Spirit. The old did lay 
upon the necks of the Fathers an intollerable yoke of rites and 
commandcmcnts : the new doth impofe the ea(ie yoke of the 
SpiritjCnduing us with the Spirit of Adoption and liberty of the 
Sonncs of God^ . Thq eld doth involve the Dpfttine of theGrace^ 

!. rf;i < 

g$ Oj the Covemnt ef Grace unde r Mofes till ke 

oUhe Mejftah under the ftiadowes ©f typ3s and rites : the new 
doth containe the fulfilling of the tipes and figares. Ma/ffi is the 
typicall Mcdiatour of thz Old TcHaiBent : Chrift is the true Me-. 
diatouroftheNcw. Thi old is fealed by ths blood of Sacrifi- 
ces i the new is ratified by the bio od of the Mediatour the 
and death of the Teftatour. The Old by oblations did not 
pacine the wrath of God, nor purge the confcience : the new 
containes the true propitiation in the blood of Chrift. The old 
wasimperfed, intolerable, weakc, and therforetobeabolifned: 
the new perfect, eafy, and to continue for ever, &c. with o- 
ther the like before mentioned. And many things herein arc fpo- 
kcn truly, but how all thefe differences (hould ftand, if they be 
not Covenants oppofite in kind, it is not cafy to underhand. 
Some few have laboured to reconcile them one of thcfe two wais, 
Firft that the Old Teftament doth ptomife life cternall plainly 
under the condition of raorall obedience pcrfefl:, that is under a 
condition altogether unpoiTible, together with an heavy burden 
of legal! rites and an yoke of molt ftridl pollicie, but covertly un- 
der the condition of repentance and faith in the Mellias to come 
prefigured by tipes and ceremonies, that by this forme of do- 
driiic, worlliip and policie, a proud, groffe, and ftiife-necked 
people mightbe more tamed, and convinced of their ownc un- 
righteoufncflfe : and that by fuch a pedagogue they might be led to 
Chrift, who was more obfcurely manifefted under thofe ihadows. 
Thcfecondis, By a diftincSioa of c^/<?/^i his proportion of the 
Law from God unto that people : which (as they would) is done 
either with exaction of perfed; obedience deferving eternall life, 
and threatning eternall curfe to all that continue not in every, 
thing of the booke of the Law to doe ity'T)eut.2'/,26. or in a com- 
fortable moderation and I'^tHyjiU promifing blefHngsto thofe who 
doe what they can to performe it. The firft is a perfec^l and exacS; 
draught of the Law of prime nature : the lecond a perfwafion and 
incouragcment to corrupt nature to ftirre up the relfcks of power 
and the Image of God upon hope of future good. The firft is 
propounded to all mankind, this to the Church, though others, 
take benefit by it. In the firft the Law breaths nothing but wrath 
to fallen nature, forthat hath no grace nor mercy, ^o^.i. 17, In 
the fecond Mofes fpeakes Gofpell to the Ifraelites, for the out- 
ward bappineiTc of particulars, and the prosperity of the whole. 


remrne oflfraelfrom the Babjlettijh Captf vky . p^ 

The ftrft and rigid prepolition is of the Morall Law alone, and 
as it W56 contained in the firft writing,, The fecond is 
laid downc in -4/o/^/ whole frame and ceconomy tothat people. 
The firft ftands in full oppofition ro the Covenant of (irace, con- 
taining a perfed Covenant of workcs : but the fecond is and may 
be fubordinatc to the Covenant of Grace, as will appeare. And 
this diftindion (as they conceive) is further ftrengtnened by the 
preparation unto the firft delivery, £xoii.ip. and what ftrid:ncfls 
was there required in the people to prepare themfelvesfor their 
perfons, and what a ftraitc charge was given not to come necrc 
the Mount, leaft they die, Verf. 1 2. in the delivery what terrible 
voices, lightnings, thunders, fire, &e. with the quaking of the 
earth, £0 that neither Prieft nor people muft come ncare Icaft they 
£h6uld be confumed of wrath in the giving of the Law, which 
when the people heard andfaw, they could not endure, but de- 
fired C^lcfes to be Mcdiatour betwixt God and them, leaft if they 
iliould heare God, they fhould die : which was the ground of chat 
Aphorifmc, who ever fa^ god and lived i yea fuch was the terror 
that^fl/whimfelfe faid, Jfeare and quakSiBeh.ii.ti, Thus the 
Morall Law was firft given by God : but not written till the fe- 
cond going up, Sxod.2^.11, where God promifeth to find the 
tables, and write in them with his owne finger : and fuch was 
the feare of the fecond delivery, that Mofes was glad tolcnific Che 
former by reading the judicialls, which he had writ, and to offer 

And thus cJW»/Jir goes up the fecond time, and receives the 
two tables tarrying there forty dayes. Whileft Mojes ftayed the 
people brake the Covenant by Idolatiy. God fent Mofes do wnc^ 
andby wife pfovidencefo ordered, that ^<?/^^ brake the Tables 
of the Covenant ; and now was atidaflit, ^udi Mofeaohtgm a- 
gaine to mediate for this finnc in Aaron and the people, Exod,^ 3, 
i5>.D(?»^.p.Hitherto in the delivery and writing of the Law Mo*- 
rail thunders nothing but wrath : and the more Law, the Icflc o* 
bcdience,till the Law was vailed and fhadowed from them in the 
curfcofit. LMofeshay'in^ tlius travaikd and broken thofe bare 
and open Tables, wherein wascurfc and plague with open face 
painted, heiscalled upagaine, JBxod.^^, *I>eut.2.t. butconfi«» 
der with what alteration. For firft iMefes now muft hew the 
Tables, God would not dcale with that, Agnizing that he Would 

O have 

I p8, Qfthe Covenant of Grace under Uojjss till th^ 

have the Mediatour Mofes to have more to doe with the delivery 
ofthefccond writing then atthefirft, which was the prologue 
to the lenify ing of the Law, wherewith man had to doe. a, Mo» 
y^jmuft bring the Tables up, and God would write the words 
before written, which (hewed that God could not, nor would 
not alter the Law, which was a perfed draught of the firft Law 
imprinted in Adam. 3. Confider that here was no preparation, 
nprany terror of wonders, but a foft breath of God in this pai- 
(agc, noting this, that God had fufficiently thundrcd wrath in 
the former delivery, and now feekcsto cover it that the people 
might heare and obey. 4. ^Ufes muft provide an Arke to co- 
ver the Tables, which was not only for thefafe keeping of the 
Tables, but to cover the wrath and curfe, that the people (Kould 
not lee it, which was thcfirft vaile. 5. We doe not readc that 
ever the Lord would have either the people or Prieftto reads 
thcfe words out of fionc, but as they were mollify cd by Mofes his 
tranfcription, in his bookcs efpecially j wherein Prince and pco- - 
pic were to reade the duties of the Covenant and the promife?.- 
No more tables, there they are-, butdcale not with them, there 
is wrath at the firft opening : which was the reafon why God 
• fmote the men of 'Bethjhewejfjwiih fuch a flaughter, bccaufe they 
durft looks into, and reads upon thefe tables of tiie Arke of the- 
Lord, iSafn.6.iQ. 6. We reade that God, «?.vW 34.5. when 
tJMofes was ftanding before the Lord with his prepared tables, the- 
Lord defcended, and proclaimed. The Lor d^ The Lord, and faid. 
The Lord God mercifull and ^attorn, lon^ fujf^ering and ahoundant 
in merej and truth y forgiziing iniquity y trmfgrtjfionandjinne^ Thus- 
the Lord would take away the edge of the curfe,!though he would- 
write it for end|(Unmentioned. Then the Lord upon the Mount 
rehearfed the Gtvenant of grace with Ifrael, and caufeth Mofes 
the Mediatour to write it, Exod.'^^, 27. And now he had in his 
hand both the Covenarit of works and of grace, the one hid in the 
Arke. the other open in his hands the fame Commandements, 
but the one with wrath, the other lenified by ©od. 7. When 
U\fofes QzmQ downc this appearance of God had changed ^hc 
fiiin of his face, that he was glad to pat a vaile upon him, for o- 
therwifethe people could not, nay durft not behold him, bot- 
x^nne from him, as at firft from God when he delivered the Law 
upon Mount Sinai, which God would have for the very fame end, 


remrm ofjfraelfrem the Bahylom[h Capivity, pp 

tiMofes his (l^inifig face (ignify ing the curfe and wrath of God in 
the Law, as a mecre draught of the Covenant of workcs, which 
the people could not behould, his vaile fignifying the covering of 
this curfc from the eyes of Ifrael. 8. Confider that till the Law 
as a mecre draught of natures Law was inarked and thus vaiicd at 
A^ofes his propofition of the remedy unto thefe carnal! iCraelites, 
in the blood ofthe facrifices, writinthb Ceremoniall Law, it 
could not quiet them,nor pacifie their confcienccs. 9, Obferve 
this one thing further, that Mofes in the five bookes doth fo fliun 
this rigid proportion ofthe Law, that the Apoftle when he came 
to dcalc with the falfe Apoftles about this acceptation ofthe Law 
as (landing full againft the Covenant ©f Grace and Juftification 
by faith, could find but two tcftimonies in all Mofes^ which ns- 
ceflarily convinced this manner of propounding the La\y, the 
OVA, Dent. 2 1.2^, theother, jD(?«^2 7.25. But becaufe this end 
ofthe vailing o^ Mofes his face, as tend ing to fignific the curfc of 
thcMorall Law, and the vailing of it from the eyes of camall 
Jfraelh called into queftionby lomc of prized judgement, and 
that from the parage of iCor.-^, they fpcnd one propofition in 
clearing that place to p rove that it AJ^as the vailing ofthe Morall 
Law in the Curfe. For firft fay they, it could not be the vailing 
ofthebloodofChrift in the Ceremonials j for the Ceremonies 
was a fuflScient vaile to hide that, and to have put an other vaile 
bad been againfTCods love, who would have the people fpiritu- 
alltolockeintoitfor Salvation : one vaile was Sufficient to hide 
fo precious a treafurc. But to the Text, it is phinc in the begin- 
ning ofthe Chapter 2 ^or.3,9, that the Apoftle meancs the wri- 
ting ofthe Lav'N^ in (hsir hearts, namely the Commandemcnts of 
the Morall Law by removing the Curfe, that the heart may clofe 
in with it. S5:condly, Verf.^. The iftiniftery ofthe Spirit is 
oppofed not to the Cloud of Ceremonies, but to the letter of the 
Law Morall : for this kjlleth,fo did not the Ceremony, but quick- 
ning his meafure; Thirdly. Verf. 7. The Miniftcry of the 
Gofpcll is oppofed to that which was graven in ftonc, which was 
the Morall Law only. Fourthly p Verf. 13. Mofes his vaile was 
paton when Mofes vf&s read, and not the Ceremoniall Law a- 
ione, as intending the vailing ofthe Curfc of the Morall Law. 
Fifthly, That which bearcs (he wis Verf. 14. where the Text 
laith, that the vaile was taken away in Chrift. It is true that 

O 2 the 

^^00 OjmCove» mrfGrMe under Mofes tiUtht 

the Ceremonies were removed in the comming ofthe fubftaDce" 
but «,t not « true, and here meant, that thecurft o the S 
I^^mT'^^^ th«~mming of Chrift, and fo thevaile n,ad^ 
wedleffe, (?4/.,.i. But Verf.15. the vaileyet reataine, when 

^ftV'f' ^^^"^ """« ^ *e Ceremony vailing A WoS 
of Chrift, forthatis removed inadl: forthe Jcwes ficrifice na 

for want of an Altar : but it is moft true of the^aShe Mo?S 

people tiU Chrift canje, fo it is nowajadgement Chrift bejns 
cometo(l>adeit. Foritmightbc, iffcene, anacclden Ilcirff 
to drive them to Jefus the Sonne ofMary for a S^iou? But fhe 
knot lyeth in the 1 8. verfe, Sm r>e .11 Jc. wh=?e °tTs' tboS4t 
and ftrongly fpoken, that the vaik fignifieth the CeremSi 
taw. It ,5 true there is a flat oppofition of Chriftian anT T.w 

feetheXiT,^*?".^=-''°''?''?°'^''"*' the other not darin|7a 
dent if te. /°1'' '" S'"ng the Law. But all will be! vi- 
dent If ,£ be /hewed what is here meant by the Image of Chrift 
'"•l-^'''u'''u°".«'i''l°P=" '■^=«'WWchis nottheblfodo^^^^^^ 
vailed in the blood of the Sacrifices, butthe Uw of God wrk n 

bi^ ""'/PrT '?;• '^T-J »• ^'^•) »" *- hwd. which is tbL ne w 
SdZhvr,V^'"'"^T' '■"?" ^''"^^"gUffewhi^hbe^ 
houldfflg by faith, we are changed into the fame Image by the 

&MorailTar' '^''="' *''"*' "'■'"'^'^''^P'" '?='''« 
r^'jT^I '"^f ^^.??«'« of 'his diftinflion is from the Apoftfe 
ArLlL^"'}'^ * r"""" *g""ft;he Morall La w taken as a rigid 
draught of natures Law. onto the 23. verfe, fjrothcrwifs The 
I-aw had been no enemy unto him as a branch of the Covenant of 

fu «; ri^^""^* moderation. By the Law which we call 
the Morall Law,^./«andP.«/meanethemeer=draaghrof the 

|flnaul performance, or eternal! curfe to the difobeycrs in the 
r?i,™ ; ff 'he Uw IS ««;/«««. ?«Wi&,,containinginit 
command and bleffing and curfing. Take command without 
Weffing or cu fing and ,t is no more La w with Mofc, : take fim- 
gaden„„c,a«onofbIeffingand curfe from command, and to 
i«isthreatningandpromife, but no Law. 

/Tbj5 abftraft of the, Laiy here confidetedfroin the reft of A^V"" 

returne eflfraelfiom the Baby lonifh Captivity . i o i 

hisOcconomyispureLaw flifhing wrath upon the fallen crea- 
ture, and therefore called a fiery Law, er fire of Law,Z) <r«f . 3 3 . 3 . 
And for fpeciall caufe exprcffed in generall by the Apoftle, Gal, 3 . 
The Lawy that is thus abftradled, ^as added, hecmfe of tranP- 
grejfton, "Fprfirft, in that long courfe of time betwixt ^Ada-^t^ 
2in<i Mofes, men had forgotten what was (inne, and had oblitera- 
ted the very Law of nature. Therefore God fets out the lively I- 
mage oi it by Mofes in this draught and abftrad, to which end,, 
all the commands faving two are propounded in the negative, that 
fo men by the Church might know the nature ot linne againej 

Secondly, God propounds the Law with curfe eternall to wovk 
death, and to ftiew Gods eternall difpleafure againft fin, Rom,^. 
15. which was ufcfull not only to the world and wicked in gene- 
rall, but fpecially to the ftift'-necked and refradtory Nation, to be 
as a rod to fcourge all their rebellions and backflidings. The Law 
thus laced with blcflings and curlings eternall, abilraded from the 
reft of his frame, makes Mofcs now to begin to breath bledings; 
and no lefle then Gofpel. This comming from a pacified God (as 
^xtf^. 3 3.6,7,8.) may be looked on by the fallen creature with 
comfort, and from this confideration it is that we affirme this Co- 
venant made with the body ot Ifrael to be a Covenant of Grace s 
for it is one, and therefore never by LMofes called Cove- 

Again, It cannot be denied, that To farre as it concerned the 
fpirituall Ifraelite (whom God efpecially tytA and for their 
lakes infolded the carnall in the compad) it was a Covenant. 
Thus farrc for confirmation of that diftindion. But thefe diftin- 
dions feeme not to remove the doubt. Not the firft, becaufe it 
cannot be conceived hov/theold Covenant (Kould as a condition, 
of the Covenant, exacfl perfe(5t obedience defervinglife as necel- 
fary to Salvation, and yet promile pardon to the repentant belie- 
ver : for thefe two are contrary the one to the other. Not the fe- 
cond,- becaufe the Covenant that God made with the Jewes is but 
one, and bow fhould we conceive the Law in one, and the fame. 
Covenant to be propounded as a rigid draught of prime nature,and - 
with moderation alio, as the Covenant of works, and the Cove- 
nant of Grace like wife, when the Covenant is but one, and the 
conditions the fame. Beiides, where the Apoftles doe oppole the ; 

O 3 L^W.^ 

loi of the Covenant ef Grace mder Mofes till the 

Lsiw and Gofpel, or the old and new Teftatnent, not only the 
Morall^Law, as it was given upon Mount Smai^ but the whole 
J ewKTi Pedagogic, orLawof v^s/c-xisunderftood, as it is mani- 
ieil in iiindry padages. Other things to be obferved in that expli- 
cation I will not iniiil upon at this prefent, becaufe they will come 
Tie taw was to be touched hereafter, as v;e pafle along, 
never given or SomeDivineshold the oldteftaaient, even the Law, as it was 
madepjGcVe given upon Mount ^/»4>, to be the Covenant of Grace for fub- 
GofpTaekher ^^^^^^> though propoundedin a manner fitting to theftate of that 
ntheGofpel people, time and Condition of the Church, It was fo delivered 
Bovy wichout as it might ferve to difcover (in, drive the Jews to deny themfelves 
the Law, aU and flie to the mercy of God revealed in }dus : but it was given 
ihoughtheold to be a rule of life to a people in Covenant, 'direifling them how 
ufuall^caUed ' ^° ^^^^ before God in holineflfe and righteoufnefle, that they might 
the Law and inherit the promifes of grace and mercy. This I take to be, the 
the new the truth, and it may be confirmed by many and ftrong rcafons out of 
Gofpel; becaufe the word of God. As firft, by the con trad of that (pirituall mar- 
theLaw is pee. ^ ^^gg ^ little before the promulgation of the Law, defcribed in thefe 
dominant in ^ords : ICeehavefeeneWhat ididunto the Egyptians, and hojv 
the Gofpel in ^ bare y oft. on Eagler ^ings, and brought you unto myfelfe. Now 
the other. therefore if ye "^ill obey my voice indeed, and k^epe my Covenant , 

Exod. 1^.4, y, then ye JhaU be a peculiar treafkre unto me above all people : fir 
all the earth is mine. And yee fljdl be unto ms a. King'- 
dome of Priefis, and an holy Nation, Thefe are the words which 
Jcr.ii.j,j,4/ thoHjhalt fpeakjinto the children of Ifrael : whereunto the Pro- 
phet ^^rfwJi«^ hath reference, faying, H^^^^r^-j^f^^ jvi?^^/ o/"^^^ 
Covenant, and Ipeal^unto the men of fud^h, and to the inhabi- 
Deut4Bi3. mntsofferu/alem, and fay thou unto them, thus faith the Lord 

1 King 8.21. Godoflfrael, Curfedbe the m^nthat obeyeth not the words of 

2 King.zj.s. ^IjI^ Covenant, which I commmded jour Eaters in the day that 

oo.eofthe lyyouiht them forth out of the Lmd of Eqnt, from the iron for^ 
Covenant, Ex. ^^ . ,J - j j ^1 ^'^'^ '' ,. ,,',., 

J . _ nace, (aytngobey my voice ana doe tnem, according to all which 

Deut.4.i3. & IcommandyoH, (0 Jhallyebemypeople, and I will be your God, 

s,i. & 9.9, And this without doubt is to be underftood of the Decalogue, as 

Jcr.j.ES. it was given upon Mount Sinai, feeing y^^/^j- himfelfe doth m 

^. zChrS expreffe words teftifie it. Godhimfelje (faithhe) declared unto 

xi. Ex,?4.i7* J ou his Covenant, which he comm^ndsd you to performe, even 

i8. Eph,i.i,». ten words, andhe wrote them upon two tables ef Hone. In thefe 

Rom. J. 10, paflages obferve, that the Law is called a Covenant, as it is often 

. , elf- 

retttrm ofljrael from the Bahjlonifh Capivity» 103 

clf-wherc the Covenant of the Lord. What Covenant, but of 
grace and merey ? even that wherein God promifeth to be their 
God, and take them to be his people, if they obey his command- 
ments. For fince the fall oi eAdam, the Covenant which the 
Xord hath entered into with his people, was ever free and gracious. 
For when all men are (inners by nature, dead in trefpaffes, and e- 
nemies to God, how can a Covenant betwixt God and man be 
ftricken without forgivenefle of former tranfgrellions ^ If in thd 
ftate oHnnoeency pe'rfed obedience Ihould have been rewarded 
with life from juftice : now that man is fallen by tranfgreilion> chall Paraphi 
perfed obedience cannot merit forgivenefle of fins paft, purchafe . h^iiu^ *- 
Gods favour being juftly difplealed for fin, and^ defer ve everhfting ^^^> » P^t.i.^, 
life. When the wicked and their belt works are an abomination ^/^^"sepr 
to the Lord, it cannot be imagined, that any Covenant fiiould , Pet.2^9*. ' 
paffe betwixt God and man a finner,wicked,ungodiy,mircrabie,but- Esod, 1 9.^ 
in and through a Mediatour.. o^'keics, 

■ Ic was fuch a Covenant v;hereby the fpirituall feed was made a Kpp^/'dfer" 
Kingdomeof Priefts, an holy Nation, and apeculiar treafure unto XudZZn'& 
the Lord. The word i'^^W/^^fignifies ones owne proper good> facerdetum. 
which he loveth, and keepes in ftore for himfelfe, for his fpeciall Regime potefia^ 
ufe: a. rare and exquifite treafure; a thing defired, deare and fin- tUeflpr^iva-^ 
guUr or proper to a man himfelfe. The Hebrew Logicians call ^^^1%^^' 
theii: fift predicable, Segftllah :Oihtvs interpret the word,a beloved -^j^ aujene, 
treafure,a. glorious thing &co be defired jan holy treafure, a treafure quarunu'UprU 
which hath both-magnificence^ fplendour and ornament, Ecclef^ dem jacuhoi 
2.8. the peculiar treafure of Kings. Aqnila renders it fubftance : f^^*' 2> sim'/i, 
Sjm: treafure, or peculiar iubftance, the Sep tuagint, plenty of ^"i-j^^'o* 5«/*^» 
riches^ fo as it doth import multitude or great abundance : Vam- KValnm. 
bias, a treafure entirely beloved, i Chron.7-<j^.i.. I have of mine EL.Aht&L 
©wne proper good, of gold • of my proper goods of excellency, R-Vavid,^ 
that which was mofl; deare unto me ; of gold mofi: pure and refi- ^ona-vnifiKU 
ned, that which is chofen and laid up in a treaiury. A peculiar- ^/p.'^Si- 
people then is a people entirely beloved of the Lord, which is pro- ^J^ 
per to him, the pofieffion whereof pertaines to none other, which vcx Scgulah • 
helayetkup (as it were) in his treafure, Exod.i^}.'). The Chal- fignifiUtnm-^ 
dee Paraphraft renders it, ye (hall be beloved before me. Thecd.t, quandao) avcVi 
a chiefe, fpeciall, or excellent people : andfoDm.26.18. The th}Zt^f£i^ 
Paraphraft hath it, he chofe to himfelfe //r^^/his beloved, and in fiveresaifa 
Qther places. Andfo other Hebricians, iS'^£«//*ii? fignifieth, that (imcuKo^, 



of the ^Cevemnt of Grace undtr Mofes tiS the 

tea /uJahj pe- 

Vatabl. utthe- 
faiirm ttnicedi, 
teSfuspre cun- 
(fit populu, 

Sepr. TTEsla^/ii. 
cr. abmdantia. 
abundant aute 

(unt fretio/a, 
itaijj recondunt 



I Pet. a. 9. 
Revel. «.f. 


©cut. I oc 14. 

Pfal.jj.i2. & 

Jcr.j !.??.& 

thej'fliould be beloved before nim, as a defirable treafure, whick 
a King deliverech noc into the hands of any of his officers, but kee- 
pech to himfelfe, R. Menachen in Exod,!^, MaL^.i-j. The 
Greek tranflacion turns it, a people for peculiar poffeflion. Aiju» 
a peculiar people, deare and precious, which he will not part 
withall. In the new Teftament both expreflions are ufed : for 
P^»/calleth them a peculiar people : Peter, a people for peculiar 
pofl'eflion, which God doch challenge as proper to himfelfe. Vulg^ 
Populus accjuifitlonii, Eph.1,14. This Was the priviledge of the 
Jew, which he obtained by this Covenant, and it is often mentio- 
ned to the praife of Gods free-grace and love towards them,*Z>^;^/-. 
7.6. & 14.2. & 26,18. The Lord bath chofen ^Mob unto him- 
felfs : Ifrael, for his peculiar treafUrey Pial. I g 5 4 But this pri- 
viledge they could never obtain by the Covenant ot works : by it 
they could never have been a Kingdome c Pricfts, or a peculiar 
people : they could never have obtained tiie adoptiwi, or have 
inherited the Kingdome of Heaven. Thefe are priviledges vouchfa- 
fed of meere grace in J efus Thrift, in whom we are adopted^ and 
made Kings and Prielts unto God. 

Secondly, in the promulgation of the Law, the Lord proclaims 
himfelfe to be the God of I frael, faying, larrthe Lord thy God, 
Tvhich have Brought thee out of the land of Egypt, out of the houfe 
of bondage. Some hold thefe v/ords to be the affirmative part of 
the Commandment, in which the Gofpel is preached, and the 
promifes contaised therin offered. Others, that it is a Preface to 
the whole Law, or prefixed as a reafon to perfwade obedience to 
the firft Commandment. But univerially all acknowledge them 
to be the free Covenant, which promifeth pardon of fin , and re- 
quireth faith in the Mrffiah, God is the God of all creatures, be- 
caufe he made and doth conferve all : but by peculiar right he is 
the God of his Church, becaufe he hath chofen it to be heire of his 
Kingdome : whence the people are faid to be bleffed, that have 
God for their God. The Covenant of grace is expreffed in thefc 
words, / ypill be thy Godandthottjkalt be my people : Wherein 
God promifeth to be favourable to the iniquity of his fervants, and 
to remember their fins no more : and to blefte them with all fpiri- 
tuall bieliings in heavenly things. When God then faith to Ifrael, 
/ am your God, which brought you out efthe land of Egypt ; doth 
henotpropcandhimfdfeasthdrKing, judge!, Saviour and Re- 

returm oflfraelfrom the Balfylom/h CapUtJity. |o j 

deemer : Spirituall Redeemer from the bondage of fin and Satan, 
whereof that temporall deliverance was a cype« And although 
therebenoexprcffementionofaMediatourin the Law, yet it is tlTi^iJ^^'' 
included in the word of promifcj /^»3?^j6'^^. From Evangeli- ^' 
call promifes, and the remembrance of them, and alate type, the 
Lord makes beginning, when he gave his Law. And it is further 
to be noted,, that as thefe words, I am the Lord thy God, are 
prefixed to the firft Commandment in the Law, fo are they an- Levic. !#.4/,, 
nexed to all others in fundry places of Scripture, as an argument * ■ » ^ *5 ' ^as ", 
to move to fincere obedience. Leaftthejewcs fhould feare (as I'^'.^/'H* 
itcom,meth to pafle in doubifull matters ) they hearcchat the rule ^^''' * *^' 
of life is prescribed unto them of the true and only God, who is 
theirs by Covenant. Leaft diffidence fhould make them flacker 
God comes familiarly, and commends his gracious Covenant un- 
to them. The reafon from all this is plaine, chat Covenant whe.i:- 
in the Lord ptoraifeth, orprodaimethhimfelfe to be the God of 
Ifraei, is the Covenant of grace, which God made with Ifr'aeL 
But in giving the Law upon Mount Sinai Godpromifed, and pron- 
claimed himlelf to be the God of Ifrael. 

Thirdly, Chrift our Saviour thus reciteth the firft Command- 
ment, H^^r^O-Z/r^a^/, the Lord our God 16 one Lord, therefore Slarksi.aj. 
thou fljdltiove the Lord thy God with all thy heart. And Mofes ^"'-.^.a* 
in the explication of the Decalogue condemneth incredulity, fay- 
ing, ICe JhaU not temft the Lot d your God, Mye tempted him in ^ ^/^'J*?* 
3/<«/^^;fortherethey tempted God by incredulity. Where it is *°^'*^'7« 
moft apparent, that in this firft Precept we are enjoy ned to take 
God to be our God, tochoofehim to be our portion, to cleave un* 
to him, to truft in him as -our only Saviour. And it can hardly be 
queftioned, whether that Covenant wherin we are bound to take 
God to be our Father, King and Saviour be the Covenantot grace 
or no? And by the fame reafon it is manifeft, that the Law requi- 
reth faith as well as love and obedience, and doth build thefe upOR 
k as a foundation. It prefcribeth faith in the firft place, and 
throughout, namely that we acknowledge God the Law-giver, to 
be the Lord our God, the only true God, and teftifie that faith un- 
to him, by an univerfall and uniforme obedience to that whole 
Law and every title thereof. The Lavy was given for this end, 
that it might inflrud us in faith, which is the mother of a good 
confcience andof love. Chrift and faith is the end and fowle of the 

P Uw^ 

lo5 ofthe Ccvemm of Grace under Mofestili the 

Law, iiotun|ierftoodof thejews. The fiimmeofthe Law is faith 
Rom,i 0.4. or love, and both thefe carry che fame fence, becaufe though Mo- 
r 7^'° n* -^^"^ makemencion of love, and Paul ot faith, yet that love doch 
lo.i'i"" "^' comprehend taich, and this faith doth contain love. Certainly, 
Rom.14.a3, f^hat (0 ever u not of faith is fiftns, even all works, though good 
infliew, and for fubftance ieeming agreeable to the rule of the 
Law, if they ilTue not from faith, they are vaine and hypocriticall, 
if they be not qnickned and enlivened by faith, they are but the 
carkafleof agoodworke. And then it God command not faith 
in the Law in (ome fort, why doth he command other things, 
which without it are frivolous ? Our beft works are unfavoury 
Hebiii^^i. before -God, if they be not feafoned with faith : For wkhoHt 
faith it is impojjihle to p^leafe GoA, Therefore the Lord in Cove- 
nant commanding the oWervation of his Law, exaifteth faith alfo,. 
without which the Law cannot be obeyed in an acceptable man- 
ner. Tor when the Law is fpirituall, and commandeth true wor- 
fhip and invocation , how can it be obferved without faith ?- 
Would the Lord have the Ifraelites remaining in infidelity to ob- 
ferve the Law ? Or did he ever allow man fince the fall oi Adam-j, 
m come or have acceffe unto him, but only in the name of a Media- 
tour ? Or was life and (alvation ever promifed to man fince the 
fall, but upon condition of faith in the Mefliah } Indeed the con^ 
dition of obedience, which God requireth and man promifeth, 
is the cbiefcft thing urged in the Law : but free and gracious 
pardon, v;herein confifteth the happinelTe of the Saints is there- 
in promifed and proclaimed. They under the old Teftament light-' 
ly following the letter, miftooke the meaning, not looking to the 
endofthat which wastobeabolifhed, whereunto Mofes had an 
eye under the vaile. Tor they perceivednot fo well the grace in=> 
tended by the iegall Teftament, which the perfedlion of the morall 
Law, whereof they could not but faile, fhould have forced them 
tofeeke ,• and the imperfedion of the typicall Law, which made 
nothing perfeftj fhould have led them to find : but they generally 
r-efted in the worke done, as was commanded by either Law^ 
when as themfelves were unable to do the one, and the other was^ 
an it (elf as unlufficient to help thcmo . ■ 

- Fourthly, after the giving of the Law a Covenant betwixt 
Bcu£^. J I- ^^^ ^^^ ifracl was cftablifhed by mutuall and willing confenf^ 
E^^cJ, t^4^i^ the people promifing to obey and doe whatfoever the Lord com- 

reWff oflfraelfrom the BiihyUnifh Capivity* j 07 

mandcd. IntheLandof Moab LMofes was conimandcd by the 
Lord to make a Covcnannt with the children of Ifrael, befide ^^^^•'^9-1^9- 
the Covenant which he made with them in Horeb. This Cove- 
nant they entred into was the fame that God made with them 
upon Mount Sinai, even the fame that did containc the bleHings 
and ciirfes before pronounced. But this Covenant was a Cove- 
nant of Grace, not of wori«: for God never commanded his 
pcopIe,that he might fet them on high above all people of the 
earth, and that they might be an holy peop-Ie unto him, to avouch 
bim to be their God by a Covenant of works : tMofes would Dsut.i^.ia. 
ncverhave exhorted the people by Oath to bind themfdves uoto 
the Lord in a Covenant of works: for that had been to bind 
tbemfelves unto the moft dreadfull curfes, whereas they were to 
enter into this Covenant that they might profpcr in all that they DcutA^.^. 
doe. That Covenant is of Grace, wherein the good things pro- 
mifed are all free and gratious ; but it i^fas of grace that God pro- 
mifcdtobetheGodofifraeh andthsrefore the Lord, when he ^5^h^'«** 
keepeth Covenant with Ifrael,is faid to keep the mercy which he * °' •'^* 
f wore unto their Fathers, and when he eftablifibsd them for a 
people unto himfclfe, and is their God, he is faid to pcrformc the 
Oath, w hich he fworc unto their Pathefs, to Abraham, to Ifiac, 

The Legall Covenant or Covenant of worlds cannot be renew- 
ed after it is once broken, feeing it adrnitteth not repentance of 
finnepaft, but exaifls perfed and perpetual! obedience. But this 
Covenant made with the Ifrqehtes might be renewed after tranf- 
gre(Tk>n,did admit repentance; when thon art in- tnbulation, and Dcut:.4, jo,j i, 
all thefe ^m^s are come lipan th^e, 'even in the latter dayes, if tJjofi 
tftrne to the Lord thy ^od, and Jhalt be obedient tdnto his voice : (fir 
the Ijord thy Cjodis a imrcijkll god) he ^t/lnot fir/ake the^neither de^ 
fir oy thee, ndrfor^^ef the Covenant of thy Fathers, ^hich hefyvoreunto 
thru. And if thie .Covenant after tranfgreflion m3)rbe rertcwcd,, 
it is of grace. The Law which is written in the heart of tiie fp'i- I'Ki!?.?^ ? <. 
ritpall feed- is parti of the. Covenant • of gt^acc : W the rfghte- pfal. io(5*4f . ' 
oufncffe of faith fpcaketh on this wife; This Com mandemcnt E2ei6,6J,^», 
which I command thee this day, it is not hidden from thee, nci- Deut.j 0. n, 
ther is it farre off. It is not in heavcn.that thou (bouldeft fay. Who o*'"*'*i 
JhaUgocup^tor us to heaven, and bring it Untbtisi that we may 
jieare it^anddoc it; Neither is it beyond tfc fea, that tbcu flioul- 

P 2 deft 

zoS oi'th Cewnmt of Grace under Mofes till the 

ckft %,W ho fli3ll goe over the fca For us, and bring it unto iH, 

that we may heawifj.anddos it?- But the word is very nigh 

unto thee, jn thy moiuh, and in thy hcact, that ihoa mai(l doe it. 

Ifiu 5 1.7. i^4jt the Law given by Mpfis , is.engraven inths heart of the fpiri-* 

P|al.j7|i, tu.ali Teed, or people eftecfluaUy inCovenan?, as tbsy arc called a- 

people in whofe heart is the Law. No man will deny the Covc- 

r^nt whic;h God keepeth with them that love him and keeps his 

Commande.mcntSi to be the Covenant of Grace. But the Go* 

Dui,9 4. ^ venaqt which Iftael entred into, is that which the Lord 

Nshem '.;. {^^gpeth with them that love Hxny and keeps his Commandc- 


I?irchiy5.the gpdiy Kings and' people of Ifrael repenting of 
jT)ai.24.22, ^j^g-j. tranfgrcilions and finnes committed againft God, did oFtcn- 
^tiw. j'^> iio^'^s renew their Covenant^.binding theml^lves tb-the Lord to 
sSam,7ij,4,'). be his. people, and to waike in Gods Law, which was given by ^T^/(?/^;jandtoobferve anddoe all the Commindements of God 
iK,in,ii.i7.^ the Lord, and his Judgements, and his Statutes, with all theic 
* ^'?^°' ' ' -' ^" heartland with all their foule. But JehajhAplut, fojiahi Nehemhh-, . 
Ni'!iol;o -I. apdother godly Governours,. who were v/ell acquainted with 
% i. hxo.'^^!y. . their inflrmlties,, and knew, themfeives utterly unable to fulfill the 
Law,woald never^promife punduall and exat?: obedience, in hope 
' thereby to dcferveetcrnall life, or to receive it from God as the 
reward oi their pcrfe<5l»fervice ; nor fl Jttcr themfelves as though 
jjiey could (land before the Tnbunall-of Gods Juftice in thei? 
o.wn Rightcoufnefle, when upon proofefutficientthcytfaWjtbat 
np fielli could be juftined w bis iight. Without queltion, they 
underOood, that, God of his free grace had promited tobetheis 
Gcd, andofhis undcf^svcd and rich mercy would accept oLtheif 
wilHng and finccjc obedienccithough weake and imperfe<^ in de^ 
gree; whfcJi is in efisdjihat the Covenant which God-mad©^ with . 
ihem. and theyTenewed was a Covenant ofgrace and peace, the 
fsine for fiiUlance that is made with the faithfuU in Christ- in tinve 
(pf tbeGj^fpelL . 

Sixthly, the. Covenant ^hajGod^ made with yfA^*i/:!4w was th«s 
€^!i,i7cv . Covenant ofgrace, as it is acknowledged : but the Covenant 
made with Abr^h^m is forfubltance the fame withthe Covenant 
oiade with Ifrael upon Mount Sinai: the promife isthcfamej 
^rid the things required the fame. For in that God promifed 
tb4hs.w^44,b«..GQdaUTlu%.^nt to /Uuhamj to bkff:- hi:a. 

■"■""' ' ~ mih\ 

retftrne eflfraeljromthe Bahyldm(h Captimty . 

I op 

Gal. 3.8. 

with ail ncccflary blcflfings for this life, and the life to come. In 
this he promifeth freely and o£hisownc cieere grace and ftvour 
tobe their God, and makvS them a Kingdomc of Ptiefts and an 
holy nation onto himfclfe. In that he rcqulrcth of ^^rahmm, 
that he walke with or before hira in integrity : In this he cove- 
nanteth^that they (hould obey his v^ice, and keep his cccimande- 
mems.. And what is it to walk with God or before God, but to 
walk in his Law. 

Seventhly,wheii God gave his Law unto Ifrael upon Mount Si- , k" fa 1* 
naijhe troth°plighted that people unto birafeIfe,,andiiimMfe un- ^ chron.^; i^ . 
to them, and that of his mecre love, not of any merit intbcm. ichr. 17,1,6. 
Thus faith t hi? Lord, I remember thes, the ki*td»e^e of thy youth, tkt z Ghr.6,T4,i<5a^ 
bve of thtfie eJpofffals,'^hef) thouVOifiteJl after me in the^ilderne^i, Jcc.1.2. 
in a Land that ^iU mtjorvefi : I/raelVPasho/ineJfe tinto the Lord,and 
thef^ff fruits of bus iMreafe, When Ipaffedhy thee, and looked upon 
the&3.hehoId thy time "^'m the time of love, and I ^read mj ikirt over 
thee, a^dt'overed thy nakednejfe : jca^jlfware ttnto the&t and entered 
into (fovenant- Vf'ich thee, faith the Lord God, tmd thots. hecammeH 
mina.t But if the Law were a perfect draught of the Law of na- 
ture, ex jdingpundmHobcdienca in the IcaO: jot and tiilc, as 
ncc-flfuy to Salvation, and flaiLing out wrath againft the leafl: 
.tranfgrefTion, without any intimation of repentance, or hope of A<fl.!?.9. 
pardon, the Lord did thai time troth-plight bimfelfe unto q^'^ \°''*' 

Eighthly, the Liw rcquireth faith as well as Ie?e andiobedi- finemi. feopum. 
cncc,'^.nd doth build thefc upon it as a foundation. For the end of 'egls; quia k>^'. 
the Compiandement Is love, love aut ofap^re hearty a good confcience^ f^^^\ jacrlpciis^ 
:4»d fjiith unfained., That love which the Law rcquiretb, either ^chrUliminieru 
-towards- God or towards. man, inuR How from a pure heart, and de'nt.zanchds::.' 
_§Q\\h it is-tbat puriHcth the heart. Chrifi u the end of the Lavofor Fedem cap^.x a, 
rS;ihte9ufm\^efake, and tke Law isa^Schaoie- usasler. to hing «^ u^to Thef.^.lua, 
.Chrifi. But bring us unto Chrift it could nor,, if it did not point ^ J^*^^ Deca«.^ 
hitiiouL unto us, or prefuppofe him as promilcd ; He is not the ^ft'^'eod"^ ' 
end cf the Law^ifthe L,a w did liot dire<!l to hijajand requirefaith own hanlup" 
in him. He is the end of the Law, ss the Law leadeth and dti- on two tables^^ 
.\ech us out of our fdlves^ and from all confidence in any works of wjs anEpk 
,^he L,aw, that by faith in Chrift wc might obtain righteouincfiV. *°"j^ ^^ ^^^■' 
It IS not the properly of a Schooie-maftet to beat and ftrikc, and ,^'i,/"^^^- Jc^. , 
■npt to dire^b lOr.teach. That the cercmonKS otthe Law did pr&-^ ^o the CgvsJ ^ 

E 3^^ \' ^gure,mn^ 


'Ratnoli Af&it. 
I Tim. i.f. 


of the Covenant of Grace under Mofes till he 



X Cpr.5,7. 

Pfal.ii9- *j^' 



The righte* 
oufnelle of the 
Law is teftifi* 
cd by Mofes 
and the Pro- 
and s I. It. 

figure Cbrift, dire<5^ unto bioa, and require faith in him, is a thing 
confeffed a,nd acknowledged of all men. Now the ceremonies 
are appsndices of ths Law, efpscially of the firft and fccond Com- 
mandements, asthey were given to the Ifraelites. And if they 
require faith in the Redeemer to come, how fhould wctbinkc it 
tobeathingpjffsd over in (ilcnce altogether in the Law. The 
dflliveranceofthechildrenoflfrael out of Egypt, was a type of 
our fpirituail deliverance from the bondage of finne and Satan,by 
the power of Cbrift j as appeares by the Cercmonie and Sacra- 
ment of that corporall deliverance, ths Palteover, which was a 
figure of Cbrift our Saviour, Therefore in ths firft Precept the 
Myftcry of our Redemption by Chrift is taught and contained. 
That particular mercy mentioned in that Precept, taught the If- 
raelites to expedl- fpirituail Salvation in the Mepah promifed. In 
Scripture they arc pronounced blefled, who keep the Commandc- 
ments, and obfcrve the Statutes and Judgements of the Lord $ 
but withall their blcflcdneffe is faid to conlift in this, that God 
iraputeth not finne unto them, that their finnes be forg'iven,and 
tranfgreffions covered. Thetrue worQiippers of God then arc 
happy, not for their works , but becaufc God is plcafed to ac- 
cept them in Chrift,and to pardon their offences. This is the true 
fenfe of thofc promifes made to or fpoken of them that walk 
in the pcrfe<a; way, and doe none iniquity. And if life and Sal- 
vation be promifed to them that obferve and keep the Scatutcsi 
Judgements and Ordinances of the Lord, not for the dignity of 
the work, but through the mcere grace and mercy of God pardo- 
ning tranfgrefiionsandfinnes,then is faith in the cJ^<f/)7^^ taught 
and commanded in the Law. The true fenfe and meaning of the 
Law is to be gathered out of the writings of the Prophets : foe 
thefamc Spirit that breathed the Law, informed them in what 
fenfe the Law was given, and how to be undcrftood. But by the 
ExpofitioH of the Prophets it is cleare, that the Law as it was gi- 
ven by y^<7/^/ did admit repentance, and confequently, require 
faith in Chrift. And if the Law did not command faith in Chrift 
the Meffiah,then might not the Jewcsbeleeve in him: for they 
were forbidden to adde any thing thereto,cr to take ought there- 
from. The Law was to the Jewes a rule, according to which 
they ought both to live and worftiip God, to which they might 
not addc the leaft jot or title of their owne heads : fo that eithec 


rctffrn of Jfraelfiom the Bahylomjh Captivity, III 

they muft not worfhip, praife, pray unto and believe in God in 
and through the Meffiab, or elfe faith in him muft neccffarily be 
required. The Decalogue, if we prccifely confider the things ex" 
prefled therein, doth not containc aiany things written ofMofes: 
but as it was a fumme and abridgement of the whole Law,w here- 
unto every particular ffii:;ft be referred, and from which, as a foun- 
taine it was derived, it is a perfed rule whereunto nothing might 
be added. And if withcut faith it beimpoflibie topleafeGod,or 
to obtaine Salvation, the Law which promifeth cternall life to 
them that keep it, doth require faith as well as love or obedience. 
For if faith be neceffary to Salvation, it cannot be that man a fin- 
scr (bould be juftifieda if he could keep the Law : becaufe he can- 
not by future works purchafe Redemption from former tranf- 
grclTions. And from all this it folio weih, that the Law as it was 
giventothe Jcwesjis for fubftancc the C<?venant of grace, or a 
rule according to which the ptople in Covenant ought towalkCo 
The Law is and ever was a rule of life to men in Covenant. Matti 
5 . 1 8, One jot or title of the Lawjhallin no mfepajfe, till all hefulfil* 
led: fulfilled in refped: ofunpartialland fincere obedience, for of 
that our Saviour fpeakes, as is manifeft by the words following,. 
He thatjhall hreake the lea^ of thefe CommandemeKtitaTid teach men 
fOf Jhall be called lea.fl in the Kingdome of Heaven: except your 
righteoufne^e jhall exceed the righteoufnejfe of the Scribes and Pha- 
r^ees; that is, righteoufneflc of habitc and prafl^ifc, which is 
that which the Law, as it is taken in that place, required. 

Many things areobjcded to the contrary,which mulft be clea- 
red before we palTe further. As firlf, it will be faid,, that in the 
Law there is no mention made of Chrift, without which there 
is no faith. And what the Law rcvealetb net, that it comman- 
dcth not. But in the Law there is frequent mention of the Mef- 
fiah, and perpctuall adumbration and reprefentation of him, and 
his oblation in waddings and facnfices. The Apoftle Pafil, where ^^^^'^ J"] 
he profcffcdly handleth the chief heads of faithjto witj that Cbrift 
ought to fuffer, and rife againc from the dead, denieththat he Ad.*5,as. 
faidany thing befides that which the Prophets and CMofes did icor.ij.},^.: 
foretell (hould come. And our Saviour proved out of J^/ff/^-j^^that 
hemuftfirft fuf]&r,andthen enter into glory. And no marvellj. Iuk.24.t7,44 
feeing Mofes by divers types and figures flaadowcd f<itt& the 
death and rcfurredipn of Ghrift 5 as {ball be (hewed after. 



of the Coijemnt of Grace undtr Mofes till the 

Mofti r/rote of 
Chrift, Aa. j. 
a^. and 7, ^7, 
Joh,i,45. that 
they fliould be- 
leeve in him. 
5oh.y.46. Ma- 
ny Prophets & 
JuA mea de. 
lired to fee his 

isi.t^cr 4. 
^hraham re- 
rpyced to fee 

But in the Decalogue there As rid mention of Chrift. NcithcrJs 
that^bfolutely trise. For when God laith, h« is their God, whe 
delivered them out ofthc Land of Egj/pt, doth he not propound 
bimfeif a RedeemersS fpirituali Redeemer of them from the bon- 
dage of finnc and Satan, whereof that deliverance was a ty^c ? 
Buthcisnotalledeetner from fpiritii all bondage but in Chrift, 
Implicitely therefore in thefc words Chrift is contained and 
propofed unto us, wbich is done according to the condition of 
thofetimeSjWhereinasyet all things were infolded and wrap- 
ped up. And it<:annot eafily be imagined, how Chrift fliould be 
revealed in the Cereaioniall Law, if there b: no mention of him 
exprcfil- or implicite in thcfe words. As the Morail Law doth 
fliew and difco^'er {inne,fo was theCereraoniall Law as a bill or 
bond put into the hand of God, whereby they did acknowledce 
ihemfelves indebted to his Divine Majel^ic : and as theCererao- 
niall Law wasaSchoole-mafter to point out and dire<f^ us uitto 
Chrift : (o was the Morail a rule of obedience to them that be iii 
Covenant with God ^ which of neccffity doth prcfuppofe the re- 
velation of Chrift in fomefort. The Ninevites in the threatninijs 
denounced againft them by the Prophet Joftas did apprehend a 
promileofraercy tobeimplyed uponxrondition of their repen* 
tance.; whichpromifc was made in Chrift. And is it any mar- 
veil then we fl^iould affirmc, thelcnowkdge of Chrift to be mani- 
fcfted in fome fort, in thofc words of the Law : if we confider the 
words of the Law^ it doth command that wc love God above all, 
^nd our Neighbour as our fclves: but if wc fearch out the mea- 
ning of the words^ we fhall find it to be foch a love as proceeds 
from faith ; and from what faitb,but in the Meftiah ? That is the 
foundationupon which all works ofiovearcbuilded. In faith it 
felfor with it, there is a motion of the foule towards, or a defirc 
of the heart to obtaine the good promifed, joyncd with an hatred 
effinne and wicked neffe, which may be called inchoate love : but 
true, found, int-ire love, whereby we afF-'d God as our Father moft 
necrcly con/oynsd to us, and reverence him zs the fountame of 
all good things and benefits, which of his meere grace heconfer=> 
reth upon the children uf his love, and wc daily exped from him, 
cv§n fueh as accompany life and falvationjthis is the effect of faith^ 
and follpwcth the apprehcnfion and habitation of Chrift in the 


rettirnerflfraelfrmtth Ba^^9mfh€apivity, 113 

Faith in Chr ift is not ccwnmanded in the Morall L« w as if was 
engraven in the \\Qzxiof<i^dam in the ftate cf innoccncy s but as 
it was given to IfracI, to be a rule of life to a people in Cove- 
nant, it was ptcfuppofcd or <:ommande<i. For the general] fub- 
Aance of duty, the Law then delivered and formerly engraven in 
the heatt was one and the fam« : bit not in tcfyo^ of th 3 fubjea 
by whom, the ob js^ to whom, or the grounds whereupon obe- 
dience was required. Confidence in God wasrcqenredof /^<!^<«» 
by the Law of mture written in bis heart. Confidence in God 
through Chnft or the M^Mah Was feqiilred of the Ifraclitcs by 
the Law publifhed upon the Mount. kAdam was to per&rnK ob^ 
dicncc to the Lord immediately without a Mcdiatour,being hiai- 
fclfepurc and innocent. But the Ifraeiices being in thcai(eivcs 
finncrs, could not in their own names peiforme fcrvke pleafing 
and acdcptableofTtothe L^y^d* ^Adam knew 'lie was bejoved « 
the Lord, fo icfng as he continued In obedience, buthad nov/af* 
faot to wait upon his mercy, whcnhe had brc4en the Covenant 
of works. ButtothelfracHtes God bound himfclfe in Covenant 
Utton MoutTff Sinai, promifing to be their God, and take them for 
his people, rtotwithftanding they were (inners irt ibemfclv©^, 
which could not be without forgivetiefle : aftd this Covenant 
€hcy tnight and didrerrew by repentaiiceaftcr tranf%r^0ion. The 
Law is riot to be confounded with the Gofjjeil, feat the facred and 
kfvidafole knot of the oiw with ihe^tber is to be makjtafned^ an* 
le^e^we fhail make God contrairy ^o-biERrfdfei?' ^ ''ir . .-3 t 

"Iliv Law doth not fo dire^ly and cxprefi^Iy^ teach faith {» 
Chr^, but require obedience, yet doth it leade ds to Chrift, and ^^^" ^'*»^ 
more «ifcureiy comotiand faith in him . The Gdrpeil dotfe m&ct ^^'^^* l^^^^ 
folly rcveail^Chtift, and the grace of God^n bim, cotbmanding GXa-ius 
faithby name: but itdGthaifourc;c,pfe8e,and ck»61 c^edicnce. to be under- 
ttius' iv^reetiy doe the- L«w and GoipeU ^onferit t«^gether. But flood of the 
here it'is tt> benoted,^hat faith^s commanded in^tlre Law> Wliich "^^nner of 
cb^crh every thing *^3* i* g<*0(3, but i« is^given tb-tss, riot few the Propounding^ 
Layir,butGffbcholyGheft. Thedtftinaionof thelawandGo- Sa^Pin fof 
fpeU as^they arc oppofcd one to another is deare and cvideflt : btit types ; thaf the 
asfthe Law wasijiventO'the J^es it' •» not <»ppofite, but fubdr* Doarine was^^ 
dinafetdJhe'GofpcIt. The Law i!«y ift felfc ^onfidered exa<fted "ught plainly, 
pcrfe^onofworksastbecaufooffife: but when that was m- ^^'^o"t types 
pofltblc to nwn'by reafon of she infirmity of his Jeflaj it pleafed Roln!!"'^^* 

CL the *^' 

114 of the Cavenam of Grace under Mofestili the 

the Lord to make knownc to his people by the miniftery o£Mo' 
fei, that the Law was given, not to detaine men in confidence of 
their own works, but to isade them unto Chrifl:. Whatfoever tho 
Law teachsth, whatfoever it promifeth, whatfoever it comman- 
detb, alwaycs it hath Chriftfor the fcopc thereof, for though 
the Law of righteoufncflc promife a reward to the keepers there- 
of ; yet after it hath fhut up all men uridcr finne, it doth fiibftituto 
another righteoufnefTe in Chrift, which is received by faith, not 
purchafcd by the merit of works. And therefore the Apoftlc f, doth reprehend the Jcwes,as perverters cfthe true fenfe and mea- 
6,Si,c, aing of the Law, when they fought to be juftified by their 

works, andfiieweth that Mo/ej taught them to look for Salvati- 
on in the Msiliab, and feck for that rightcoufneffc which is by 
faith. Whereby it is manifeft, that the Law was given to be a 
inanududion unto Chrift, in whom we have Redemption from 
all thingSj from which by the Law oi'Mofes we could not be ju- 
ft-ified i and a rule to the faithfull according to which they muft 
irametheir convcrfation. For what word was that which 3/o,- 
fas^ faith was necre, even in their heartSj but the Law which 
the Lord gave upon Mount Sinai, and promifed to writs 
\ in the hearts of his people under the Covenant of Grgce* , 

And from this ground it is not hard to anfwer what is furthcc 
ob|cclcd againfkthis trutb,as,Iffaithbe commanded in the Law, 
then being juftifisd by faith, we are>aftificd by the works of the 
Law. For faith is not a work of the Law nakedly and abfolutely 
iEonfidercd, as it exadteth perfed obedience of man in his own 
perfon: but of the Law as it was given to the Jewes, to dire^ 
them unto Chrift, who is the ibulc and life of the Law. And 
though it be commanded in the La w,as it is in the Golpel or new 
Covenant, yet it juftifieth not as a part of Regeneration, or an adi 
oF obedience and work of Grace by it worth or dignity, but in cc- 
fped of that office whereunto ii is afligned of God, and as it re* 
ceiveth the promifes of mercy. Itisafophifticallfcrmsof reafp* 
ningtofay, Faith is commanded in the Gofpcll, therefore if we 
be J Lift ified by faith, we are /uftificd by the works of grace. The 
arguments are like,and both faultie. For juftification by faith in 
Chrift is oppbfed to juftification by the works of the Law i Bc- 
caiife he only is juftified before God by the Law, whofsaflsbe- 
^g Qxaminqd ^ the.LaWjare found |iift and righteous according^ 


rtturn of J jr del from the Bdylemlh Cdptivity, 115 

to that which the Law requireth •• but he is juftified by faith, who 
being in himfelf ungodly, believeth in Chrift for falvation. So 
that according to the Apoftks meaning, wherefoever faith be 
commanded, he is juftified by faith without the works of the Law, 
who is acquitted from fin by the meer and rich grace of God in Je- 
fus Chrift received by faith : And to feek juftification by works, is 
to reft upon our works for falvation, as they that anfwer in all 
things to that righteoufndle perfonall which the Law requireth. 
Juftification by faith, and juftification by workes are oppofite, 
and fo is faith and workes ; but faith is not oppoled to 
one ad commanded , whereby the promife is received, 
for then it ftiould be contrary to it fclfej but to works where- 
by the Law is fulfilled in our owne perfons : to workes I fay, 
not to one work : becaufe no one worke can /uftifie, but all are ne* 

If it be faid, the Apoftle doth every where oppofe the Law and 
thcGofpel, ortheold and,newTeftament. The anlwcr is from 
the fame ground ; thacinthe Scriptures of the new Teftamcnt, 
the Law as w^ell Ceremoniall as Morall is ©ppofed to 
faith or the Gofpel : and yet the Ceremonies of the Law did 
prefigure Chrift, as all men acknowledge. Therefore the Apoftle 
doth not perpetually and abfolutely oppofe the Law, and the Co- 
\^enant of grace .• for he teacheth exprcfly, that faith eftablilheth Rofn.3. § s. 
the Law. Tor he underftood the force and (encence of the Law to 
confift in faith : but becaule the Jews addii5led to the letter of the 
Law, didprctermittheforceandlifeof it, Paul proves the Law 
, fo taken and fepairated from faith, to be the caufe, not of life, but 
of death : as that which did not only want Chrift, who is the foul 
of the Law, but is oppofite to him. And therefore Paul doch this, 
becaufe the Jews, (faith being let pafle) did feek righteoufneflc 
in the dead works of the Law, and did oppofe the Law to the Gof- 
pel and Chrift, who was the end and fcope of the Law. This will 
be more plain, if we ftiallexamin the particular paflages of Scrip- ' 
ture^, wherein this matter is handled. The Apoftle faith, the Co- 
venant from the Mount Swai gendreth to bondage, figured by 
the bond- woman and herfonne, who were caft out of Abrahams 
Family. The Apoftle his argument may be drawne thus ; the 
fame proportion which Hagar the hand-maid had to Sarah her 
Miftreffc in\/4^rrf^rfwi houfe, the fame proportion hath the old 

0^2 Tcftament 

7i5 ' ^~ of the Ceven^m cfCrm mkr Molts till tk 

Teftamenttothehew, in the Church ofljod ; the fame propor- 
tion which Hagars off-fpring had to Saraks, the lame proportion 
had thechildrenof the Law, tkac is, the Jeruf^lem Which then 
Was, unto the JerHfaUm which is above, that is, to the children 
of the Gofpel or ions of promile. Now Hagar was fometioies a 
vifible and principall member of ^Abrahmms family, a kind of 
(econd wife taj^braham, and Ijhmael her ionne was For a while 
\Jir4k({fns preium^d heire : yet ^htr Hagar did begin to defpile 
md conteft with her Miftreffe S<sirahy and IJhmael to flout or per- 
fecute Ifit«€, Ahrah^ms heir apparent and (on of promife,both mo- 
ther and fon were caft out of Abrahams houfe, and deprived of all 
hope of ifiheritance in the Land of prom ife. Sarah bearing the type 
of the criK' vifibkChurcfa thoion ear fch,did pronounce that fentence 
Gcn.Mj I o. jjj ExcotnmunicaticHi againft them ; (/afi vftt the boi^d-^oman and 
her (onne, and God ratifying in heaven whan fbe had bound on 
earth, injoytis y^i^r^^jwtoputherlentencein executiQn,(7^?f.2i. 
1 a. The Covenant likewife which God mad e with this people up- 
on K-ji^^r or Mount i'i?2^/, Was as the be-trothing of Ifrad unco 
himfeUe. 1 he Law oi'AIdfes, whilft it was lawtully ufed was 
the oiily CatecbiriBe or IntrodutSion, without which there was 
no entrance into the Church olGod. The children of this Cove- 
nant, did by verttK of it become the prefumed heires or children 
of God. Em when the deputed or nurfing mother came once 
to conteft with the true Spoufe of Chrift, with the new Teftament 
or Goipcl : aad after her chiidren, the ftrufalem which then was, 
began to pcr&cuce the chiidten of the Jtrttfalem, which is above ; 
the motNer with her ofe^ldren, that is, the Law with fuch as 
fought to be under it> were caft out of the true vifible Church, by 
the; Apo&ksj aaco whom our Saviour had committed the keyes o£ 
the Kingdome of Heaven. For it now ftood in fuch oppofitbu 
CO the GdTpcl, as Hagar did to her Miftreffe Sarah at the time 
when l5ie and her fon committed thofe mifdemeanours, for which 
both of them were caft oat iof/^^r<*^;!«7WJ houfe. The ferufihm^ 
which wasonearth, was fometttnes. Of in fome part rather a con- 
ibct thaa an oppofiDeorsdverfary to the |^fT;!s!0^w w^^ 
bove. So was the old Teftament or Law, and atl fuch as lawful- 
ly ufed k, rather fubordtnate allies, then foes or adverfarks to the 
aew Teftament or hdrcsjofpromife. They that ufed theiiawas 
aSc;hoial-m*&ei:K>brin|Ehem un^ GhTift, to them it was the 


returmrfJjrael from theMAhybmfh Captivity » 117 

Covenant of grace for fobftance, Un to fuck as ufed the old Tefta- 
nicnt as chcy cught, ODiy ,as an Introdudjon to the new, there 
was irideed but one Ttftatnent : For as the Schools (peakt V^i 
Mvumprffpur aUiid, iM»numm»tfim. Buz (lichzstdled in the 
Law, and ufed it not as a pedagogie to Chrift, but fought iuftifica- 
tion by the obfervation of the I*aw Morall or Ccremoniail, and op- 
pofed Chrift the foul of the Law, fwch were held under damnable 
bondage, and cur from Chrift. And in this fence the Covenanc 
made upon Mount Sina i did beget children iinto fnch bondage, for 
whichtheyoughctobecaftoutof the, Family of God. And in 
this fence the two dilporuions diifer, net oniy in £ircumftanee$, 
but in {ubftance : they be not only two, but oppofite. By the 
way kt k be obferved, that by the former Ck)veHant upon Mount 
Sinai, isunderftood tte Law given by Mofes, both Ceremoniall 
confifting in divers rites and commandements , and Morall, 
as the Jewcs fought to be juftihed thereby , who refufed 

The Old Tefiament then and the New, arc fomctimes compa- 
red and confidered by f^cried writers, as th? thing inclading and ^ 
included, the Huskc and the Grtjne. The Gofpeil before Chrifts 
time, was in the Law ^ the Corne new f^t in the care. And tha 
Law and the Gofpcli, and tl^ie two Xcftaments, thus conftdercd, 
arc rather c«3e than two, at Isaft there i^ an mm^ of fiibordinati- 
©n betwixt them. The faajeTefta^mfnts may be conilderedfoiiraC'' 
times as abftrai^ed or fctered each ff©m ocfe§r. ThustfeeGoi^ 
pcil or New Teftament fince o«r Saviours death aisd refarre^ion» 
is become as pure Corne, thrc^V-d and winnowed, The Old 
TeSamcot or Law- (tjhus fevered from it) remsines <M:*ly as the 
chaifeot.huskej- Ilf!we>ti»i4S r-onit^lcrthe Law'prOli T^eiiameof,, 
jSs the- Jews s. embrace it, tfiat is, -altiogeshcr fevered from the 
new, to which alcne we ChtiOJajis adhere by fakli, ithcf ar^-not 
only two, but twjo cppoiitestpr contrtii^gs. Ihm opfx^tion or 
fobofdiBaiion bet ween the Legall^nd Ey^ngelicail Teftament is 
opened by the Apol^lej faying, Iftheprfp CovsnAHthMhmfmlp-^ 
/fjfe, phmjhottld no pl<^ce have heen fought for the fecGfid. For fiiu 
dmgfAult xelth them kefmh, IBehold the dayei e^me (fm(h the LerdX 
nhen I T»iU tnal^ anevf Covenant with the houfeof Jfraei^ md the 
hofdfeoffudah rmt^tccordingte the ['ovenantthat Imadewith sksir ^^^'^ 7,KiQj 
f^hirs, inthe ditf'^ken I uok^them ^y pke hand^ t>o leade them om of J'j:*ji.?7, 35, 

0^3 the 

iiS oj the Coven Ant of Grace under Mofes till he 

the Land of Egypt y becaufe they continiieA not in my Covenants and 
Iregarded them not piith the Lord, For this ii the (Covenant that I 
mil make mththe houfe oflfraelafter thofs dayes, faith the Lord :L 
TfifitllfHt my Lavees into their mind andr^rite them in their hearts : and 
I^^tllbeto them a Gody and they Jball he to me a people. But what 
Law was ir, which the Lord promifsthto writeinthe hearts of 
his people? was it not the Law given before by O\iofes? con* 
kerning which alfo CMefes exprefleth the fame promife that Jc- 

lDcut.30,6, rcmy doth ; The Lord thy God will circumcife thy heart , a»d the 
heart of thy feed, that thou mayept hve the 1.ord thy god^ with all thy 
heart J and with allthy foule, that than may efl live. Now that Law 
God himfelfe had delivered in writing, and commanded Mofes 
xo .|4.i,»7. aifo^Q write the fame. Therforc the words of the Prophet as 
touching the writing of Gods Law in our heartSjCan import no- 
thing butthis, that the Liwes which were before bythcminf- 

E2ek.g6,i6, {iziyoi'Mvfes delivered only in Inkeand Paper, fliould by the 

s Cor. J.J »,3. power of the holy Qho[\, through the faith of Chrifl be wrought 
' ' ' ' and written in the affi^dlions of the heart : that God in Chrift 
would not only adminifter outwardly the letter of the Liw,whe- 
ther in writing or preaching, but would by the regeneration of 
the Spirit, give grace inwardly to the obedience thereof. And 
as the Law written in the tables of the heart, and ingraren in ta- 
bles of flone, is one for fubftance : fo is the new and the old Te- 
ftament. Th: Law is not oppofed to the Liw :but the writing 
to writing. Writing in tables of ftone pertained to Mofesor to 
theOldTeftaaienti writing in the heart to Chcift, or the new 
Covenant. The Law is the fame, but otherwife adminiftrcd in 
thehandof Chrift, tfienintimsspaftinthehandof-Mff/f/. Afo- 
^i gave the Law in tables of ftone, but couli not give power 
or ability to doe v^hattheLav/ re<iuired ;but Chrift writcth the 
Law in the iiesrt^ and inabicth thefaithfullin fomemcafure to 
doc what hecommandeth. And in the fame place the Lord by 

Icru j». the Prophet ilieweth, that when he made this Covenant with 

^^ the Fathers which they brake, he declared himfclfe to bean huf- 

band unto them, or joy ned himfelfe in marriage unto them. But 

God never joyned bimfdfe in marriage unro a people, but by the 

Jt:r.^.i4« Covenant of grace. It may be faid the Apoftle (licweth the for- 

mer Covenant Co be faoltie, or that another Covenant was lac- 
liing, Buttbatisnot mentioned to prove the Covenants to be 


retmnofJfraeljromtheBabylomjhCapwity, II9 

two infubftancc oppofite one to the other: but bceaulc the fifft 
Teftamcntdidnotcontainc the Image of the things thcmfclves, 
and therfore was not to be reftcd in, as if we could be juftified by Heb. lo. x. 
the workes of the Law, or cercmoniall obfervanccs annexed : 
butmuftbcufedasanintrodudion toleadeusunto Chrift, who 
isthevery Image of the things thcmfelvcs. This firft Covenant 
therfore could not be fulfilled or cfF^duall, but by the bringing in - 
of afccondj which was prefigured thereby. For the blood of 
Bulls and Goats was not availeablc to purge away finnc: but did 
prefigure the blood of Chnft, which is eiF:5uall to purge our con- 
fciences from dead workes. T he (jloodofB nils and of Goats, and Heb,9^^5,l4' 
the afies of An Heifer [pri»k^i»£ the tinclemey fanUifeth to thefurifj'- 
Ing ofthef,efh, fc. ffom a trefpafle meerely committed againft the 
Law of Ceremonies : but the bloody facrificc of our Lord and Sa- 
viour Chrift, whereof the legall Sacrifices were tipcs and fha- 
dowcs, was alone appointed of God> and is cffc^f^uall to cleanfs 
tis from ail finncs committed againfV thcMoraULawof God, and- 
to purifie us fromfuch dead works,^as, not expiated by his blood, 
would bring forth evcrlafting death. Of nec3flity therfore th^ 
ficft Covenant, becaufc it is of grace, muft bring forth a fecond, 
in which is fulfilled that which in the firft is prefigured. The jq^,,','^*' 
Law wasgivenby CMofej, and the righteoufncir<: of faith was ' '* * 
taught by -^<^^y?^i asourSaviouc tcftincth. Why thendoch the 
Apoftle in the words following add by way of oppofition, but 
grace and truth came by Jefus Chrift? The fence of the place- 
fcemes to be this, That the Law prefiguring Chrift, and redemp- 
tion in him, and teaching and coaamandiag what oug'itto be* 
done, but neither giving grace to doc it, nor containing the fub- 
ftance of the thing prefigured, was given by Mofesxh^i gracc^ 
tadoe what was commanded cams from Chrift, in 'whom alfc^ 
theiiibftanceofwhat was prefigured by the Ceremonies, is ful^* 
filled. But if the Law of <^«9j^i fent the J ewes to Chrift, ani 
dirc<3:ed them how to waikc believing in him, bi^ ofitfelfe did 
notgive grace or truth, of nccefifity it muft make knowne Chrift iCor;?.(?,7 f^ 
in £omc lort, and command faith in him : which is proper to the M'yili^a\:m., 
Covenant of grace. The Lar9,ii a kifUng Utter (faith the Apoftle)^ or as fome 
A»4 the mkifiration efdsMh and condemnation. Bat the fame Law, bookes have iw 
which is called a dead or killing letter, is ftiled a lively word, or ^'f 'iyff/^'f^' 
Uvdy oracles, that i?, fach as gWc life ; The v}oiii^Pml thcr* ^a'Ar%msl 

ito of the CdvinifH #/ GtMct mder UpfesHUtht 

hCt.7 ? 3. f^pg jpg j^fjf tQ jjg uidsriload abfolutely of the Law, but as it was 

ezei^V* Teparatcd from Chrift and the (ilafpdl, of saeo who did reft in 

Nsh g/j'i?' ^^* ^* w, and foagbt to be juftified by it : whereas Cbrift was the 

end of the Law, which the Jswcs not ptrceivir^, they erred 

from the truth, and perverted the t^ue fence and fc€>pe of the 

I*aw. For the miniCtery of ^ff/e^, as it is referred to the mind 

and coimreUof the Lord, is bright and illuftrtous : bat the carnal! 

people could not behold that bnghtncfle, and therefore the Law 

is vailed to tbecaraall Jew, that he cannot behold the light that 

tCorj.ij, ihineth therein. Evtn unto this d^^ when Mcfes iiread, thevaiU 

»* • u upon their heart. Neverthekjfe, »heft it fiaS tmrxe unto the L&rdy 

the voile JhaHht^nmvay, That isj when Ifrael (hall be turned 

unto the Lord, the vaile flaall be taken away, that in the law it 

felfc they may fee Chrift, whom now being blind by rcafon of 

their indurate mind, they could not i^. For there was a double 

vaile drawne over their eyes, the firft of hatred agssnft Chrift, the 

fecond of the Law it felfe, in which Chrift v^as revealed, but 

-^ not fo clearcly as in the Gofpell : which double vaile &all be ta- 

Rorali^i ^. ^^" away, when they fhall be converted unto Chrift. The Law 

^i'to. 3c 7 ^. workcth wrath, and difcovercth finne : yea rcvivcth it. What 

tiic Apoftk ifcakcth of the Law, in tbefe and of her above rebear- 

fed pafifagcs, is to be underftood of the whole Jc wifh ped^ogte, 

vk,, the Law Morailand Cercmoniall as it was given by J/^/, 

Pfal. J 9.7,8,9. And as here, the Law is faidto worke Wrath, and terrifiecfo 

& 1 J 9. 47. clfe where it is fatd to caufe the foule to rcturnc, to^ enlighten the 

eyes, and rejoyce the heart. Of neceflity for the reconciKation 

BeiaiaKom, ofthcfefayings of the Prc^het and Apbftle in /hew contrary, it 

2. ^7. muft be granted that the Law animated by Chrift is pleafant and 

caiv.ia xCoi:. dclightfull, botasit is barely confidercdin oppofitionto Chrift 

Col'2.1 J. and to the GofpcU, as it cxaiSieth pcrfcd obedience, but giveth 

The ceremo. BO ability Car power to performe what is required^ it woandctb, 

liies are vifible terrificth, killcth and worketh wrath. : i. : 

words prea- Of the Law there is a twofold ufeand cobfideration. One as 

^^4"l£''"^' it is a rigid cxador of intirc obedience, and hand- writing againft 

S^'^rS'c us^<»fi"^e, and thus of it felfe barely confidercd, itwoundctb, 

andmatb be-* but heakth not, itTevivethfinnc, but mortificth it not. The o- 

4<jriging ttrtto ther, as it pointeth to Chtift iwwhota Salvation is to be fotrnif, 

lis, °- and dircdeth how to walke m all wcll-pleafing before the Lord : 

" ■ ' apd thus it k an ealy yoke. The Law confidercd without Cbrift 


ruurne eflfrael from the Babjlomjh Captivity. 121 

woandctb, killeth and rcvivcth finnc by rcafon of our Corruption: 
ButtheLawconfidercd inChrift, and asitpointetbunto him, 
killeth corruption, and convcrtcth thefculc. In thcEpiftle to GaLj.xo,!^. 
the gaUtkians the Apoftlc oppofcth the Covenant of Grace to the ^^•7' ? i' 
Law in many things 5 asthat theLaw accurfctb everyone that givJ^^'I.Xa. 
continucth not in all things, that are written in the booke of the thm an^eimu. 
Law to doe them J that it wasfoare hundred and thirty yeares syr.^^rper 
after the Covenant , which was confirmed before of God in ^^ 
Chrift, &c. But it is to bcremembrcd, that in thofe paffages the f^"^:^^-^' ^* * 
Apoftledifputethagainftthe Jcwcs, who traded in the workcs ^ozVimtlm 
of the Law, and thought by the bk)odof Bulls and Goats to be patru:as^ is 
purged from their fiones, or of them that joyned theLaw with afedjNam.i^. 
Chrill in the matter of Juftification, as if Juftificaiion had been i^otfecundum^ 
inpartatlcaftby theworkes oftheLaw J which the Apoftle e- Juxta«jdinatio^ 
yery where condemncs as contrary to the intent and purpofe of Sf Gen f.T * 
the Lof d in giving the Law, The contrariety then of the Law plralell to this 
or Old Teftament, even of the Law as it beareth the figurative areG^lj. 19, 
fprinklingof thebloud of Chrift, and fo poinceth us to him, unto Heb, j.g. The 
thenewTcftament, or Covenant of grace, is not in themfelvcs, '^e3fon& truth 
butin the ignorance, pride and hard nefle of heart of them, who fgejl^f ^ ^'JJ?* 
underftood not, or did pervert the rigbt end of the Law, as if it tae^Anod vv^^ 
was given for Juftification. TheLawasitoppoled toChrift,doth appeared to " 
accurfe every one that continueth not in all things, that are writ- Mo/es m the 
ten in the booke of the Law to doe them : becaufe he that trufteth ^"'M-s 5- and 
in the Law, is convinced by the Law to be a tranfgreflbur ; but ]^"h^" m^*'" 
the Law as given to them that be in Covenant, doth reprove eve- nej v.jjldi"' 
ry tranfgreflionj^rjMid convince every man of finne, who conti- out of the widft 
nueth not in all things that are written in the book of the Law to of the Angels, 
do them, but doth not accurfe the ofFendour in every jbc or title,be- ^"^'^''^ ^^'^ on 
caufe in Chrift fin is pardoned and forgiven.To theJew,who refted ^^^5^ ^.'^^ '^®* 
in the works of theLaw, and refufed Chrift, the Law which was ^^^^J ^^ttU 
given foure husdred and thirty yeares after, did make void the Law'upon 
promife , or Covenant confirmed before of God in Chrift : Mount Sinai, 
But according to the true meaning of the Law , and to them whereof the 
that ufed it aright, it did not make void the promife but eftabli(h it. ^g^f"^^ ^^* 
What the Apoftle citeth of the Law out of D enteronomjy and no- ^^f'j^f^ ^^, 
teth of the giving of the Law after the promife, is for fubftance ^'a«p isth?" 
preached by the Prophet Jerewj at the Lords appointment, when lamc thac ie- 
hefpeaketh of this Covenant of grace without all queftion. Hearc ««'»»« ^V^*' 

R ;. 

122 Apmicidar ex^licMionofthe Covmmt God ma^e wiiklfrael, 

Jer,i i.A,334, jg ffjg ^oKdsofphif Covenant^ arid f^eakfAtfrpo themenofffp/ixhi 
'^**** f^^d fy «»f^ them, thus faith thf Lord God of Ifraely Cur fed his 

the man that obeyeth not the '^ords of this Covenant, ^hich / 
commanded yonr Facers in the day that J broiight them firth out 
of the Land of E gyp from the iron firnace, faying^ obey my voice 
anddoethem^ accordingto all-^hich I command yetii (a jhall ye 
be my feofle, and I "^iU. be your God, That I may ferfirme the 
oath'^hich 1 havefworne unto your Fathers, to give them a Land 
flowingW'ithmilksandhoney, as it is this day : Then anfwered 
I and (aid, (g belt, Lord. Then the Lord (aid unto me, fro- 
claime all thefe Words in the Cities offudah, and in thefireets of 
feru(alem, (aying, Heareye the'^'ordsofthis Covenant, and doe 
them. This Covenant then, which God made with Ifrael, was 
for fubftance one with that he had made before with the Patriarks, 
that is, it was a Covenant of gtace and mercy : though the Law, 
to them that refted in the works thereof-, and perverted the right 
ufeandendoftheLaw, was a killing letter and miniftration of 

Chap. VIIL -^ 

J f articular e Kplkatio n oftht Covmmt that God madcj^ . 
rvjt(? ifrael f and rvloat Mofes brought to the further 
exprejfure of the Covenant of Gracz^, 

THls doubt being thus difcuflfed, we may pltxtfed with more 
facili ty to lay open the particulars of this Covenant. God of 
his free-grace and mercy made this Covenant with Ifrael upon 
Mount Sinai, fifty daies after the I fraelitcs were delivered out of 
Excd. 19.^8. Egypt ; as fifty daies after the deliverance of his people from the 
bondage of fin and Satan, thefame Lord proclaims his Gofpel or 
Ifa «.?. ^^^ Covenant upon Mount Sion in Jeruialem, the Metropolis or 

Micha 4.Z. royall {c2itoi Abraham or Davids feed. God, I fay, of his infi- 
Gal.4,24. nite love and undeferved mercy did make this Covenant : for if he 
Heb. 1 1. 1 8. remember mercy, when he performeth his Covenant, then it was 
pf I o ? . ! 7, 18, of meere grace, that he entred into Covenant, Alfo it is of mcr- 
Nthcm.9.j'».* cythatGpd doth troth-plight him unto any people j for the pro- 
Hof.a,»9. mife runneth^ IwiU betroth thee unto ine for ever : yea, I will 




betroth thee uato mc ki righteoufneffejand in judgement,and in lo- 
ving kindneffe, and. in mercies* But when the Lord made this 
Covenant, he betrothed himfelf unto Ifrael. And when he made 
this Covenanti he did more fully proclxim^ his. great! name, and 
make bis mercy better knowne, then formerly he had done, fou 
ought we find. For he paflfed by before Jl^ofesy and proclaimed, 
TheLfirdi the Lord God, Strong, mercifully and gracious, long' 
fitfering, abundant in goodnejfe and truth : Mseping mercy fir 
thdfi^nds, fir giving iniquity, and tranfgrejfton and Jinne, and 
thgty^ill by no meanes clear e the guilty, u'ifiting tht -iniquity of 
thePathers upon the children unto the third and the fourth gene-' 
ration. Which glorious defcription of Almighty God is often 
mentioned by Mofes, and the Prophets, as the ground and foun- 
dation of their faith, hope and comfort. And whereas he had ap- 
peared to^/^(^r/«^<4»^, //S/^cand ^<^<?^by the Name' of God All- 
jnighty : Now he was knowne to the Ifraelites by his Name 'Je- 
hovah: which Name denoteth both Gods being in himfelf e, and 
his giving of being unto, (that is, the performance of) his word 
J^nd.promife, in which latter refped he here laith , he was not 
knowne to the Fathers by this Name, or as the Greek and Chaldee 
tranflate it , he manifefted not, nor made knowne this Name. 
They being fuftained by faith in Gods Almighty power, without 
receiving the thing promifed, €^^7. 5. Heb.ii 9,10. But now 
their children flbould receive the promite, and To have full know- 
ledge and experience of Gods power and goodnefle, and of the 
cfficacicfof that his Name ^^/70'z//«)?', which therefore they fung to 
■ his praife , upon their full deliverance from the Egyptians, Exodui 
15.3, So upon performance of fur cher pr omilcs or judgcments,hc 
faith, they fhall know him to be 7^^ot/<«k 

This Covenant was given with tokens of ma jeftie and terrour : 
for Mount Sinai WisaUof it on a fmoake^ becaufe the Lord de- 
scended upon it in fire : and the fmoake thereof afcended as the 
fmoake of a fornace, and all the Mountaine trembled exceedingly, 
and the voice of the Trumpet was. going and waxing ftrong ex- 
ceedingly. The Mountaines faw the Lord and trembled, Hab, 
3.10. c^iey leaped like Rammes * B /2/. 1 1 4.4: The earth quaked, 
the heavens al(o dropped at the pre fence of God, eis/en Sinai itfelfi 
at the pre fence of God, the God of Ifrael, Pfal, ^8. 9. Judg.5.5. 
The mountaine burnt Vcith fire unto the rnddH of heaven, ^ith 

R 2 dark»^j[Ci 

Exod. 14^,7. 


PfaI,io3.8. & 


Exod « J. 

1^3,49.2?. & 
Ta.6, &(5o,i5. 
a4ja^.& JO. 

Deut. 5.4,32. 

1 24 Jpartpcttlar ex^Mcmmaf theConHmatGodmAdc; mthlftdel^ 

darkneffcj clouds , and thicke darknej'ey D^ut. 4.IX. and ffOOl 
Beut.4-3faJ^' this, it may be, the Uw is called fiery, H^eut. 53. 2. The Pro- 
phets ufe the like words to fignifie the Majeftie of God, P/S/. i S, 
^,io,ia,i4, &;p7.2,,4, with clouds, and fmoake God often ma- 
nifefted his glorious prefence to his people, Exod, 49.34,9^-. 
2 Chroyi.%,2/^, 8c $.1, & 7,1,2. 7/2. 6.^. Revel* 15. 8. And as 
Princespubli(htheirdecreeswichthefound of the Trumpet : So 
God to his ancient people revealed the pleafure of his Will, and 
gaveanfwers unto them in thunderings and voices, foh.ii.i^ 
Rev,^,'). Sc6.i, & 10.3, &8.J. And^hence (it may be) the 
two reverend Ambaffadours of his voice and divine Maieftie, are 
called thefonsof thuncfer, Mark^^.ij, This is noted as one dif- 
ferisnce betwixt the old and new Teftament, Te are net come un- 
Heb»it.i7,i8, lo the Mount that might be toHched, and that burned ^ith fire, 
'^s*°52''ji*«. ftorfinto blacknejfe anddnrkneffe, and temfefiy and the (iund of 
a Trumpet t andthe voice of ^ordsy ^hich voice they that heard, 
entreatedthat the ^^rdjhouldnot be ffakj^n unto them any more, 
I' or they could not endure that ^hich ^ai commanded. And if (9 
much as a beafi tof^h the Afountaine, it Jhall be fioned or thruft 
thorow ^ith a dart. And (0 terrible ^as the fight, that Mofes 
/aid, /exceedingly ^are and quake. But ye are come unto Mount 
Sion^ and unto the City of the living God, and the heavenly fe- 
yu/alem, and to an innumerable company of Angels,, to- the gene* 
rail ajfembly and church of the fir B->borne,^ \>chichare Written in 
Heaven, andto.^odthe fudge ofaU, andto the [oules ofjufl msn 
madeper^^. It may be hereby God Would teftiBe his anger and 
difpleafure againft finne, not as yet expiated by the bloud of the 
Me0iah, and warne tae Ifraelices to deny themfelves, ftand in 
awe of his Highncfle, and cleave infej«rably unco the word of his 

If any man (hall thinkc , that Chrift the fecond pcrfon in 
TriniJty to be incarnate, who is called the Angel of the Covenanf, 
er Mcffengcr ot th^ Covenant, (feiU by whom it was f:nt unto 
Mofes) lMaI, 3 . 1 . and tlie Angel of h is prefcncc*^^ Exod. 2 3 . 20, 2 1. 
and 33.1 4.. JfaL6s .5i»did deliver the Law unto (J^Ufes, I will not 
gain- fay itj becaufe it ts-expreflely faid, that^<^j was in the 
Ghurch in the wildsrnelk with the Angcl, who fpakc to him in 
the Moupt Sinai. /1^. 7. 3 7. who is called- Chrift, i Cor. 10. p. And 
^his Covenant of Grains was made in Chrift, the promifedieed-i 

andptfhAtUofishroughtto the further expreffure,^c. 125 

for God was not the God of Ifrael but in and through the promi- 
fcd LMejfmk whofc perfbn and offices arc more fully dcfcribed^ 
whofe death and rcfurrcdion is more lively typified in this cx- 
prefiurcofthcCovenapt then in cither of the former. Had ye be- joi,;^.^^, 
/tftfi/^df^e?/?/ (faith Chrifthiaifclfc the Author oFtruth)j<?«»'(7«/^ • • • 
havehleevedme: leorhe^ote of me: that is, Chrift was, if not the 
folefubje6V,yet the only JTcope oiMofeshh writings. And as Mo^ 
y^i,fo the Prophets that followed after him, who wrote by the 
fame Spirit,and under that expreflion of the Covenant, did fpeakc 
of Chrift more fully and plainly then be had done before. In the 
firft promife it was revealed, that the CMejfiah fhould be the feed 
of the woman,to Abraham it was made known, that he (hould be 
of his feed : but in the writings oiMofes we learne, that he was . 
to be both God and man, or that God was to be incarnate, and to 
have his converfation amongft men, after a more peculiar manner^ 
then in the ancient times of the world he had. The promife runs, 
thus, A»d I wi^dvfellawongfl the children ofljrAeliandmll be their E<od,ifli4fa- 
CedfattdthejJhaUkiiovD that I am the Loird their (jod, that brougHt 4^«i 
them forth out of the Land ofSgyp , that. 1 may dwell amongfi them : 
lam the Lord their god. The fame promife is renewed or repeated , 
Andlwillfet my Tabernacle amongfl-jou, andmyCoaleJhall not ab- "Lvflx^tXti 
horreyoUy and I will jyalk^ among yoa, and mil be your G /id, andy e^t^ih 
Jhali be my people. The Chaldee tranflateth the firft place, I will E^£M7-«<Jfl, 
fettle «ny habitation (or divine prefence) amongft thcfonnes of *7,i8. 
Ifrael. And where in the Hebrew it is, 1 will dwell inthcmidft 
ofthefons of IfraeU Qnkelojmd fonathmrcade it,I will place my ^ 
Divinity, But what Divinity ? whether the holy Spirit, or ra- 
ther the Word, aS'Wcrcadc, The Wordrvas .madepjh^and dwelt- j^^ j ^ 
amongflui' whenChrift took our nature upon liim^and came and^ 
dwelt amongft his own, then was this promife pandually fulfil- 
Icdi Or if it bfs referred to the habitation of :God by. his Spirit 
amongft the fpirituall feed of Abrahamy^^s.wc find thcwordoften: j 

\\Ccd,Rom. S. 2.2C or. 6. 1 p. a Tim,l . 1 4., B'phef, 5.17. }am. 4. 5 , 1 

^Cor,i2, then it implieth the incarnation of Chrift, and his 
dwelling amongft the Jewes,, becaufe that was to.goes bcfbrc • ' 

the pjentifull habitation of the Spiritin the hearts o€tbe.faithftilk 
AndiCthe Evangclifts words have not reference tathcforccitedi 
pl3ces,thcy do allude to a paflage in the Prophet Zachary, whence- Zecb.i;?^^- 
thcy fljay, be interpreted. Singandrejoyccy Oidaftghter of Sk^, forj i»,i£* 

ii6 Aparfiadar exfikatrntfiiii^s^isnam <3od^ademt% ifrael^ 

/tf , I come t and I mil dwell in the midfi ef thee^ fmth the L&rd : And 
fiiAnj nations Jhallife jojned to the Lord in that day, and j»aU be my 
fe^ple: andfrnlidrveUinthemidftofthem, and thou Jhalt know thas 

Pfal. 1 i>x. the Lttrd ef Hojis hath fent me unto thee. The Prophets dcfcribc the 

MeJffahtob^thtSQnnQo^^D avid, i^n^ Davids L^f6^ The Lor A 

pral.iio.s, fddmtomj LoYd\ The Chaldcc hath it. The Lc>rd faiduhto his 
WordjOamcly the Meffiah or Chrif^, who is the cternall Word of 
God, by whom he made and doth conferve all things. And in 
other places the Paraphrafts put the Word of God, for ^od or 
Lord, and that fometimes when the fecond perfon in Trinity is 
not neceflfarily to be underftood, and 

irii.T.14. myfouLr^rgniyyvordjer.i.s.i fometimes the Word or promife, theyfo 

am with thee. r^r^. my Word. Ifai. 45.17. j -nr \ ^ a j- ^ ^./ 

By the Lord. Talg. ly the word tf the ^^"^f ' asPfar.Ii9.76. Accorhngtothj 
Lord,Gcn.5.8.The voice «>f Kh.tLotA.Tatg **""'^ ^^^° thyfervant^' where mt Chal" 
The voice of thje word. of the Lord, or ^ee hath Meman Arid fo PfaLl^O.^, 
the word, the Lord (JeMz s^,ie, I ^?iy^:A»d in thy Word (dfpromite) Itruft. 
fworneby^nyfdfe.r^r^ By my wotd.pfol £„t |f the fecond perfon be not ever 


word.pfal.iej.i8.The Lord hath.r^r^.The Y^'^^^ ulethic, yetcertamly mmany pla- 

word oftheLord, Gen.}i.s4,God cameta cts it muftbe fo underftfx)d : and that 

L4«» rAtg. The word catne. So Gcnizo.^. this word was to be incarnate, was'moft 

°'°*/i*^i u ^"Z'^u \^ '^'''\'^^^- ^«^|' "^y certainly fore-told, mim, 102. 11,26. 

word fhall be thy he n I wi 1 fave t r / t i. ^ i- 11 • 

thembytheLprd\hefrGbIc/;/il w.llrl ^'^'^'^^' , ^Pf the Very hterall meaning 

decmcthemby the word of God their Lord, ^r the Plalmilt Will enforce thus much, 

/ that this place was to be meant of 

God, not fimply or abfolutely, but of God incarnate. For the e- 

temall duration of the God-head is not meafurable by daies or 

yeares, but the incarnation of the Sonne of God, or his duration 

in the flefh, may be accounted by number of yeares for the time 

paft, yet are his yeares as man to continue without end, without 

pfl^s any decay or diminution of that nature which he affumed. And 

pfaUo*?!ia ifoutofanyooe place of the Pfalmes, wherehedotliintreatof the 

14,1 J, 1*5,17. deliverance of the Church, it doe appeare that the Mefliah is true, 

Tit.3, 5,4,f , and very God, by the fame reafon, whereloever he fpeaks of the 

^sl* deliverance of the Church, GodandtlieMefliahftiallbethefame. 

But it is moftcertaine in fundry paffages, he that is God, is alfo 

the Mefliah J And for that reafon what is fpoken of the mercy of 

God in the Pfalme following, may be underftood not of the mercy 

of God abfolutely, or confidercd in the God-head only, but the 

. mercjf 

drtdwha Mofes hmgH u the further exfre^ure,(^c , 127 

mercjy of God to be incacnatej to be made King and Judge cuf the 
Caith^ whicib: may be cleared by the vny letter alidcircmBftance 
of the text. For the expeded comfort, whereupon this Ptaimift 
pitcheth, is this, The Lord hath fre^ared his throne in the hea^ vcrf.i8» 
ve'AS, andhii Kingd<)me:rHUth over ad : And thffi iS that King- 
dom and that throne,which Daniel f ore-told,that God long alter 
his time would ered:,Drf.3.44.To be botn of God,what is ic,but to Joh. i. ii,tj. 
be born of immorcall feed,& what is that immortal feed,wherof S'^ 
peter faith, we are bom again,but the flefli and btoud of the Son of . . 
man,who is alfo theSon otGod,whofe flefli is meat indeed,& whofe ^^'^^' *^' * 
bloud is drinke indeed, which nourifheth us not to a bodily, but to j Pct. 1,21,14, 
afpiritualUndimmortall life, which prefuppofeth an immortal! 
feed. Wearebegottenandborneagaineby the preaching of the 
Word, as by the mftrument or meanes : and by the the eternali 
word, that is ( by Chrift himfelfe ) as by the proper and eificienl 
caufe of our new-birth. Thus much S"^ Peters words in that plac^ 
will enforce us to grant according to the letter. For having before 
declared, that the word of God ( by which we are borne againe) 
doth live and endure for ever, he thus concludes, and this u the 
vpord, Tffihicrh by the Gojpel is preached unto yoH, i Pet. 1. 25, 3/<?- 
/^^ialfci and the Prophets did fore-tell, that the Mefliah (or mer*- 
dfuilone, or gracious Saint, as he is called, Pfal. 16/10.) ftiould pfai.g,<5, 
be made tor a little time lower then Angels, and after crowned Hb.r/. 
Wirhglory and honour, and fetover theworks of the Lords hands: i^(^U^6,io, 
that he fliouldfufftrdeath and rife againe : be laid in the grave, Dj«t.i8.i^, 
but not fee corruption.. Thachefliouldbethe great Dodlour of Jfj|ff/J.,'*^' 
the Church, a Prieft after the order of Mekhifedech : the King of 2.^^' ' ' 
Kings, and Lord ot Lords, whom God would fet upon his holy 
hill of Sion. His death and relurredion, Kingdome and Prieft- 
hood was prefigured by the Sacrifices and Serpent, the Pried hood 
of %Aaron and Kingdom of Ifratl, But of thefe things more fully 
in the new Covenant. 

This Covenant was made in Chrifl: the promifcd Mejfiahy in 
and through whom the faithfull obtained the bleffings ptomifed i, 
but accordmg to the adminiftration of this Covenant Mofes\\i&% 
theMcdiatour : and herewith in this fxpreflion is embellifhed 
above the former. The Law was ordained by Angels in the band 
ofaMcdiatour,^<j/.g.i9.th3tis,by the labour and miniftery of ^^^^.85,46, 
Mofes : which though fomc dciifet of,is yet corfir med froi) this, *^"'^"/' ^^g 

• that. 

1 2$ Ap^rticttlar explication of the Covenant aod mdde with IjrMh 

that Chrift rcferves himfclfc to be a Mcdiatour of a better Tcfta- 
mcnt.H^^.S.d.Therc i% but one Mcdiatour true andfpirituall,yfi7. 
Chrift: but i1^<?/^/ was a Mcdiatour only typicall. The Mediation 
whereby men are truly and effcdually united unto Chrift, cannot 
falluponany perfon wboisnot endued with infinite power and 
vertuc,who is not God as well as man i but the Mediation of J/*- 
fis was of this ufe,to fhc w what was the true manner of worfhip- 
ping Godjbut did not infpire force and power to follow it, nor 
reconcile men to God, but propound tnofc things, whence it 
might cafily appcare, that there is need of another recon- 

0^<7/J/asanIfracliteand partofthat people with whom God 
made the Covenant, was comprehended under the one part confe- 
derate : but as he undertook the fundlion of Mediatour impofcd 
upon him of God, he was not now fimply an Ifraelitc, but a Me- 
diatour interceding betwixt God and the people Iftael, that he 
might be a more illuftrious type of Chx'iSkiCMoJes was called in as 
a Mediatour on both parts ; On Gods, when he called him up to 
receive the Law and all that meflage which God fent unto the 
people: on the peoples, when they defired him to receive the 
Law, and they would doc it. Further, never was 
more neer untoGod,to whom for this end he is faid to appear face 
Dcut,$,f,i7. to face. Recalled Abrah^mft\zn6):t\xt Mofes was Gods favourite. 
Againc, no man either in love, knowledge, authority fo neere the 
people, which makes them idolize him unto this day. Adofes thus 
conftitutcd a Mediatour, did firft as a Mediatour prevaile with 
God for the fufpending of his juftice, that it (hould not breakc 
out upon the people for their failing in higheft degrees in morall 
obedience* Secondly, with the people he prevailed to bind thcoi 
Exod.14.4, in Covenant unto God, and make profeflion of that obedience 
^*^' which the Lord did require and call for. Thirdly, he was never 

denied any thing from God, which was for the good of that peo- 
ple, though God denied fome of bis rcqucfts for himfclf: but 
I5cut.9.i8, what was nccdfuU for the good of that people, fpecially fpiri- 
s9, zo,ti. €uall and cternall, that was procured by the blond and mediation 
andio.i©. of Chrift bleffed for ever. 

Ez:k.xtf.8. '^^^ ^^^ w^s given to one Nation, whom God did chufc to 

Mal,i47,i*9, 4)C his peculiar people,yc»7. Ifrael, with whom God entred into 
ip. Covenant, and it t!ecamc his. Be Jhmetb his fVerdmto Jacob: h*f 


And what Mdfes brought to the farther ex^rejfur^,^c, * 129 

fiatHtes and hh judgement J Unta Ifrael : He hath not dealt fi "^ilh any 
motion t and as fir hit judgement j thej have not kftovfne ^^^w.Thcrcfore 
they have not knownc the Judgements, becaufc God did not 
make them manifcft unto them: as we fay, a place isfallofdark- 
ncflfe; becaufc the Sunnc doth not enlighten it with his beames: 
Not that God is the efficient caufe of their darkncfle, but that he 
doth not hinder or remove the caufe of their ignorance,or he doth 
not fliinc upon them by the revelation of his Word. That the 
earth is lightfomc, this it oweth to the Sunne : but that it is dark- 
fome^to it felfc : God is the Authour of all good, the caufe of out? 
faith, but ignorance and infidelity arc of our felvcs. And thcfe 
words, He hath not dealt (o, doe import a mcere negation, and not 
afimilitude : they deny the thing it felfe, and not the manner of Pral.7<5.«. 
the thing alone, as might be proved by many inftances: but this Rom. 5.*, 
may plentifully fuffice, that in the whole Scripture, we (hall ne- 
ver find this phrafe to note a negation of the manner of the things 
biita negation of the thing it fdfe. So that this is the meaning of 
the Prophet, He hath not dealt (0 ^ith any lotion, that is, he bath 
not revealed his Statutes and Judgements unto them. 

This Covenant God made not only with the Fathers, whom 
he brought out of the Land of Egypt, but with their poftcrity, 
feftand this daf all ofjou he fire the Lord jour (jod : yowr Captainej Deut. ag. i o^ 
of joHr tribes, yoptr ildersandjour Officers, ^ith all the men of Ifrael, >l*i»» 
jottT little ones t your Ww«, and thyfiranger that is in thy eampe, from 
the hevfer of thy "^ood, unto the drawer of thj^ater : That thoufhoHU 
deH enter into Covenant ^hich the Lord thy ^edmaketh^ith thee this 
day : Neither ^ithyou only doe 2 make this Covenant y and this Oath : 
hut with him thatfiandeth here with us this day, before the Lord our \ ' 

god, andalfo with him that is not here with us this day. And that it 
might be the better eftablifhcd , he gave fpeciall charge and 
commandement, that the words which he bad fpoken by Mo^ 
fes and the Prophets, Qiould be publikely read, often inculcated, 
and expounded unto them : and that all his vlfitations of this 
people, whether in mercy whilft they obeyed his voice, or in 
judgement for their difbbedience, fhould be regiftred to remain 
upon record as fo many ruled cafes and prcfidents , and publi- ^^j* ^'^5'% 
(bed and rchearfed unto their children , that they might learnc pfai.78,'l,Vi8. 
to fct their hope in God, and not forget bis Commandcments. 
But this Covenant wasfo made with the Jcwes^that if any ftran- 

S gcr 

130 A^rtimlar exflication of the Co'vemnt Gedmak with ifrael^ 

gcr amongft tbcfDjOr ncerc ad joynin^ Heathen did turne unto the 
Exod.1a.48. Lord, he was Dot to be cxclu led. fVhen a firmger fball fojenrtie 
1 6 **^* ^ ^' ^^^^ ^^^ and will keep the T^affeevtr to the Lord, let all hU males be 
circumcij'ed, and then let him come neere^ and keef it : and he fhall be as 
one that t6 borne in the Land: for no uneircftmcifed perfin /haU eatc 

The good things promifcd in this Covenant are tcmporall 

orfpirituall; butthctemporallastypes offpirituall. Firft God 

prcraifed to give them the Land of Canaan for their inheritance, 

and therein length ofdayes, riches, and honour,vi(5iory over their 

^ enemies, prote(3"ion and peace. Ifje Jhall diligently keep aUthefe 

.ut.11.s2, Commandements which I command you , to doe them , to love the 

aad i.'s \c Lord your CJod, to rva/k^in aU hii voayes^ and to cleave unto himz 

Then will the Lord drive out alt thefe nations jrom be fire you, and ye 

Jhall poffe^e greater nations and mightier then your felves. Everyplace 

Deur.,4.1,5 8. yy hereon thefolej of your feet Jhall tread, JhaU be yours : from the wil- 

ande.iSji^, derm j^e and Lebanon, fiom the river, the river Euphrates, even unto 

she mmoFi fea , Jhallyour coafls be. There (hall no man be able to 

Jiand beforejou: forthe Lor^your Qodfhal{ lay thefeareofyoft, and 

the dread of you upon all the Land that ye Jhall tread upon, as he hath 

faid. Thou Jhalt keep thtrefore hli Statutes and hU Commandements^ 

which I command thee this day, th^fit may goe veil with thee, andwith 

'4'4., • thy children after thee, and that thou ?:aaiFi prolong thy dayes upon the 

and ^jj, earth, p^hichthe Lord thy Cjod giveth thee for ever. And itfljalL be, 

aad 5.|. when the Lord thy Qod Jhall have brought thee into the Landtfihich he 

jware unto thy Fathers, to iy4braham, to I(?.ac, and to Jacob, to give 

A?:ut,9,ip^ii, ffjee great and goodly Cities which thou buildedfl not^ andhoufes jull 

of all good thifigs, which thou filledfi not, and wels digged, which thof^, 

diggedfi not, Vtne-yards, anci OlivC'trees, which thou plantedfi not, 

d^c, fVherefore it Jhall came to pajfe, if ye hearken unto thefe judges 

D;ut.7,js,i ?, ments, and keep and doe them : That the Lord thy god fh^ll keep t*»f^ 

^■4.» * J' ffjcg fhe (Covenant and the mercy which he/ware unto thy Fathers: And 

he will love thee, andblejfe thee, and mnltiply thee : he will alfo blejfe 

the fruit of thy wombe, and the fruit of thy Land, thy Corne, and thy 

Wine^ and thine oile, the increafi of thy kine, andthe ftackl ofthyjheeps 

in the Landwhickhe fware unto thy fathers to give thee. Thou (halt 

b^ble^edalfove all people, andthere Jhall not be male or female barren 

osmongH you, or amongyour cattell, ^An^ the Lord will take away 

ft^m thie dlfichitejfe^ and will pm none of th& evill difeafes ofSgypt^ 


andwhdt Mrfes hreught to the further exfreffure^ti'c, 131 

C^hich thou k»owefi) upott thee: 6ut mil lay them upon all them that 

hate thee. The Lord thy God bringeth thee into a good Land, a Land Deut.8/7,8,f, 

ef l^rookes of water . of fomtaUes, anddepths that faring out ofthe &u.i43if- -.. 

v^ies.a»dhilj,a Land ofvrheat and barley, ^nd Vines and Fig-trees ^ 

andTomegranates, a Land ofOile, live and Honey, A Land rohen- 

in thou jhait eat bread voithoutfcarane^e^thou Jhalt not lacke any thin^ 

init : alandvohofefiones areiron, and out of viihofe hiis thou maifi 

diggebrajfe. The Lord hath vouched thee this day to be his peculiar p^y^^jg ,^ 

people, Oi he hath prontifed theei and that, thou jhouldeft keep all his ,-^ 

(^ommandements : And to make thee high above aU nations which he 

hath m^de^ inpraife andinname,aYidin honotir, and that thou maieft he DniM8.i>:, 

an holy people unto the Lord thy God. 04 he hathfpoken, &c. 

Secondly ,The Lord promited to chufea place to caufe bis name 
to dwell there, and fet bis Tabernacle amongft them and walke 
witb thctn. Butwhenyou iroeoverjordane, and dwell inthe Land LfV'*^4»5j^* 
which the Lord jour Qod giveth you to inherit, rvhen he giveth yo& reft 7>8,9ii i . 
from aUyour enemiei roundabout, fo that ye dvnell infafetj : Thenfhall , ^ "& I's'fi*' ' * 
there be a place "^hieh the Lerdyour ^odjhallchoofe to caufe his name 
t-o dwell there ^ thither Jhall ye bring all that I command you- ,AndI is, 
VeiSJit my Tabernacie amongfl jou^ andmy foule Jhall not abhorreyoux 
And I will walks an^^ongyou ^ andwillbs your God, and ye /hall be my 
people. For the Lord hath chofen Sion, he hath deftreditfor hii habu^ Pfal.i ? j.i ^ 
tation-.Thisiimyreftfor ever ^ here Willi dweU ^ for I have defired 14, 

Thirdly, Free fbrgivencOe of finnes \s likcwife promifed ifi 
this Govenant, Thisisimplyed in that he promifeth to be their 
God : for if hebe theirs, he will be favourable to their iniquities, 
andremetnbcr their finncs no more. And fomuch is exprefled, 
when upon repentance and turning unto him, he^hath proclai-- 
med himfelfe ready to receive them into favour. If from thence q^^^j . ,^ 
thou jhalt fe^ks. the Lord thy CJod, thoufhalt fndhim, if thou feeke * ' 9i • 

him with all thine hearty and withc^M thyfoule, Andit fhalleome to Dcuc.?d,i » ?, 
pajfe^ when all the fe things fhall came upon thee, the bleffing^ and the 
curfcy which I have fet before thee^ andthou Jhalt call them to mind 
among all the nations whither the Lord thy God hath driven thee^ And 
fhalt returne unto the Lord thy Cjod^ andjhalt obey his voice according 
to all that I command thee this day, thou and thy children : That then 
the Lord thy Cjod will turne thy Captivity y and have compaffion upon 
thsCj mUwillreturne and gather thee from t^l nations, fVhenthy pea*- 

S 2 pit 

I King, 8.3 3, 


Man as capable 
is a (inner-, as 
he aftualiy re- 
cation a Bt;Uc> 

Math.J9 J7« aSjiS- 


132 J particular explicatiort 0/ the Covenant God made mth Ffrael^ 

pie I/rael be [mitten dowxehefore the enemj^ hecanfe they hunje jthned 
Hgatnji thee : andfhall tnrne agoiine unto thee^ and confe^e thy Name^ 
and pray, and make fupplication unto thee in this houfe xThen heare 
thoti in heaven y ani forgive the finne 0f thy people Ifrael^ And bring 
them a^aine unto the L^nd, Moreover, the Lord made himfii^ 
knownctobetbe Gad, that pardoncth iniquity, tranfgrcflioB, 
and ficinc, when hs gave this Covenant unto his people. But of 
this before. 

Fourthly, Eternalllife is promifed in the Covenant : for God 
is not the God of the dead, but of the living : and therefore the 
faithfull J w wcs, which have God for their God doe live ft ill, not 
in earth, but in heaven. The life which is promifed to them 
that keeps the Law, is eternal'l ; but in this Covenant life is pro- 
mifed to them that keepe the Com manJemcnts. Not only long 
life and good dayes, in the Land of CanaAn, but eternalllife is 
affurcd by the promife to them that keepe Covenant, as eternall 
death and deftruclion is comprehended undc;: cbccurfe denounced 
againft them tt^at breake the Covenant. Expreflfe msntion of 
the King iomc of Heaven perhaps is not found in the Old Tcfta- 
mcnt; but eternall life is comprehended under the fermesof life 
aadbklTing, as eternall death under the tcarm-s of death and the 
Curfe, Eternall life in heaven, efernall death in hell, the Law 
notetb, though it doe not exprcff^ly name them. Which things 
unkfiT? they had been comaionly knownc in the dayes of our Sa- 
viour, the penitent Thiefe about to die, had not thought of a 
Kingdome, nor the Lord promif::d Paradice to him, when he 
asked a pl^cc in the Kingdo-Tieof thi M^fdih. 

But all th cfe promifes were madecffrc grace and of free love , 
acComplilTied. Speake not thou inthine heart, after th;itthe Lord 
thy Cjodhath caji them out from before thee., J<*P^X^ For my righteouf' 
nejfe the Lord hath brought me in to pojfejfe this Land ; bat for the vic^ 
kfdne^e ofthefe nations, the Lord doth drive them out from before thee. 
Not for therighjeoufm^e, or for the uprightne^e of thine heart, doest 
thougoe topoffejfe their Land : but for the wlekednefe ofthefe Nations 
the Lord thy Goti doth drive them out from before thee, and that he 
may performe the rvordrvhich the Lordfcvare unto thy Fathers, Abra- 
ham, Ifaak^ ani Jacob, Vnderfiand therfore, that the Lord thy 
Cjodgiveth thee not this good Lani, to pojfe^e it, for thy righteoufnes^ 
for thou art a flifc' necked people. True it is the promi f^ runnc up- 



and what Mofts brought to the further exprej[ure,&c. 1 2 5 

on this condition, If ye obey my 'voice and doe my Command- 
ments. But conditions are of two forcs,antecedent or confequent. 
Antecedent, when the con^dition is the caufe of the thing proini- 
(edor given, as in all civill coccrads of Juftice, where one 
thing is given for another. Confequent, when the condition 
is annexed to the promife as a qualificatiotj in the Subjed, or an 
adjund, that muft attend the thing promised. And in this latter 
fence, obedience to the Commandments, was a condition of the 
promife ; not a caufe why the citing promiied was vouchfafed,buc 
a qualification in the iubjed capable, or a confequence of fuch greac 
mercy freely conferred. 

Of them thatflip afide and tranfgreflfe the Covenant, God cal- 
lethforand commandeth repent»ance, that is, it is his will and 
command, that they be thinke themfelves of their evill doings, 
confeffe their iniquities, and turne unto the Lord, The frtquent 
and earneft exhortations of the Prophets made to backfliding and 
rebellious Ifrael, that l"he fhould acknowledge her wickednefTe, 
and rcturneunto the Lord, is a full Commentary of that which j^j. . ^ - 
God required of them in this Covenant, in cafe they fliould turne ^Y^^^^^' 
away from the holy Commandment. The Lord protefteth by Ezck 18.27, »8 
his Prophet E^ekjel, that he hath no pleafure in the death of him Ei^k. 1 8 jf, 
that dteth; but rather that he fbould repent and live : and the fame I *• 3j 3 j.i 1, 
for iubftance he made knowne to Ifrael in the Covtn .nt which he *** 
ftroke with them^y?. that if they tranfgrdle and goe aftray^he doth 
admit, will accept and approve, nay command their unfamed re- 
pentance, and comming home unto the tord, that they might 
live. This queftion, why will ye die, ye houfe of Jfr^el I is put 
forth to the people in Covenant, and not indifferently to all and 
evay man living : It is manifeftly ipoken of the houfe of Ifrael, 
whom God hadfpared, notwithftanding their manifold and great 
provocations, to whom he not only gave fpace of repentance, but 
ufed meanes to brin^g them to repentance, by fending Prophets 
unto them to admoniih them of their fins, to denounce the judge- 
ments of God againft them tor their impenitency, and earneftly to- 
exhort them to caft away their tranfgreHlons, that they might live. 
God then doth approve, and command thercturne of iiis pecple 
that have gone atlray , he waiteth for their amendment, ulcth 
meanes to bring them to the knowledge of themfelves, is not wai- 
ting to them in any thing that in /utiice or promile he ought to doe 
' S 3 for 

134 A fartictdar ex flicationof the Covenant God made with Ijrael 

for them : but yet it is not his will efFe<5lually to bring every man 
to repentance, whom he doth command to repent. The Com- 
mandment o[ God (liews what is our, duty, but not what God 
will worke in every man : the commandment lieth upon them 
that be obftinate and rebellious, but they have not g-race to will 
their converfion or antendment. Nevertheleffe, we muft not 
thinke, dther that God doth diflemble, or that he is the authour 
©f mans impenitency; for 'mans corruption^ pravity and wilful- 
neffe is the caufe oF hisgoing on in evill ; and his impotency, is not 
a meere infirniity, which he doth bewaile, but a ftubborneffe, which 
he doth f ofte'r and cheriLh by all means. 

The condition of this Cavenant (in the fence afore-faid) is faith 
in the promifed Mefliah, which is implied in the promile, / will 
he thy (ji?^, and commanded in the precept built upon it, Thon 
Jhalt have me to be thy God» For God is not the God of Ifrad, 
but in and through the Mcdiatour, neither can Ifrael take God to 
be their God, but by faith in the Mefliah. In the Prophets we 
meet with no exhortations more common then thete, Trttfi in 
the Lord, commit thy felfi unto the Lord, rowlethy burden upon 
him, leane ufon the Lord : buc wh^t the Prophets exhort unco, 
that is commanded in this expreilure of the Covenant : and truft 
in the Lord man a (inner canno:, unlcife it be in and through a Me- 
diatour. Ifrael is commanded to feek the Lord, and walk before 

„, ^ ^ , ,,. n him in all well-pleafing. Bat without 

Heb 11,6,7. ^aodaddit^pofioltu, nonJum r-^/v •• ^ m- 1 ^ Ji r /- j n 
venifefidem, Gal.j.z,. ^uJmdtWDeipo ff^'th^t ^ ^rnfoJftatetofUafe Crod For 
fulm fub legk lujiodia detinebatur, idal'o "^ ^"'^^ commeth to God, mnft believe 
Jpeifat,kil. fides Apof oh eo hcoefi evarge that God is, and that he is the rervarder 
Ikafontu mifericordix Tei, Rorr. ?.29. in of them that diligently feeke hinu» We 
ChifiifiUj Mediator u fangum dedaratio, cannot feeke God , nor pray unto him 

^:i^'^^i§:^^::L;i;z:: withoutf^th, fortofeekGod is to crud 

eadempyoYrwratione, qua lohzn. ajcbat^i. i" him. But all men will confeiie the 

«/««, John 7.^9. Jer-u-n34' & ?'.j3, Ifraelites were by Covenant bound to 

34. q^ieeemparate tantamdicuntur, nonau- feeke God, and pray unto him. As 

'^^^^^yill'^;^"''^'^''' ^ Barak, Sampfon, Jepthah, 

^ * ) ■ David and Samuel, through faith fub- 

dued Kingdomes, wrought righteoufneffe, obtained promifes, 

&c. So the faithfull and true Kraelice by faith walked with God, 

and became heire of the righceoufnefle, which is by faith. As God 

isonewhofliall/uftifiethe circumcilion by faith, and the uncir- 


and jsfh4f Mofes brottght to the further exprejfwe,d^c , 135 

ciimcifion through faith ; without queftion in the Covenant of 
Grace he taught the Circumcifion to feek juftification by faith, 
and not by the works oFthe Law. Neverthckffe herein God cal- 
led for, and his Ifrael was bound to yeeiJ obedience to all his 
Commandements. Strid, exad, perfcv^l obsdience the Lord doth 
require, fo that the leaft failing Bouft bs acknowledged to be a fin t 
unifbrme and fincere obedience is fo required, that without it x 
there can be no Salvation. Perfedl obedif nee is commanded, that 
if a man will truft in his works to be juftified thereby, he muft ei- ^ 
ther bring that which is every way compiieat, or be caft in judge- 
ment. Sincere obedience, though iraperfed is approved, that the ^ 
impetfeftion of their beft works being covered, and their tranf- 
grcflions gracioufly pardoned, they might be accepted by faith 
in Chrift, who is the end of the Law, as righteous unto cternali 
life. This diftindion was formerly propounded, but now is more 
largely fo be confirmed. 

The Law requires pcrfed and exad; obedience:for fccret faults, 
even thoughts arifing from corrupt nature, before they attained 
full confent, are therein condemned : and he that irufteth in his Roni-7«7* 
works, if he continue not in every thing that is written in the 
bookoftheLawtodoethem, he isaccurfed; But to them that ,^**^* 
beinCovenanttheLaw was given with fuch moderation, that 
fincereobediencewasacceptcd of them, though attended with .. 
many imperfedions,as is cleare by that of the Ffalmift, who can ^ ''^'^ *^* ^* 
undcrftandhiserrours, cleanfs thou me from fccret fauUs, keep 
back thy fervant alfo from prcfumptuous finnes, let them not have 
dominion over me: thenlhail I be upright,and'l {hall be innocent 
from the great tranfgreilion. The godly Governours and people 
of Ifrael were well acquainted with the meaning of the Law,and 
what obedience (hould be accepted at their hands : And whea 
they promifcd, and bound themfelvss by O^th to walk in 2II the iKin.s?«j. - 
Statutesjudgementf, and Ordmanccs of the Lord, or of the Law *, 
of Mofes, they did neither pervert the fenfe of the Law, xior pro- isiJh!'io.2a, 
mife pundually to fulfill the Law in every jot and title. Therefore 50,51. 
they underttood the tenour of the Law as it was given unto them, 
to admit of upright, unfarincd and true obedicrice, the imperfeiSi- 
on that cleaveth unto their beft: works being gracioufly pardoned. 
I havefworne^andlmliperforme it, that I rpi// kf^pe tky rl^hHoHS^. 
judgements. Did the Pf ophet think hiffifslf able punduallytofol- 

I j5 Ap^rtkuUr exp!ica$m of the Co'venant G»dmAdc with Jjrael, 

fill the Law ? How will that ftand with his Vtyftv^Snter not in- 
PCal. i4f.te to judgement with thj firvafif ; for in thy jight {hiUt no man living 
be jHftijied, No, but he knew fincere and willing obedience , 
which be proaiifed and v^ould perfornae, ftiould be taken in 
good part. And this is further apparent by the prayers of the faith- 
rfal.iS.ijii. full, Jnd^e me, O Lord, for I have xvalkedin mineiMtegritj. Remem* 
Ifahggj. ber hovf I have rvalksci before thee in truth and tvith a ferfeSi heart. 

Neb!. 5,9, and have done that tphich is good in thy Jtghe. It never came into the 
1)40.94!^' heart of thefe Worthies to conceit, they had been able to juftt^e 
Jer.ji^ji. themfclvcs before the barrc of Gods jufticc in any particular adi- 
on, great or fmall, as if it had been without all defcd or ftainc, be- 
ing tried in the rigour of jufticc ; nor could their integrity ought 
avaiie them, if no obedience did find accepfancc with God, but 
t Kin,i j. 2f. that which is every way compkat. it is faid c^jojtah, that he turm 
fted to the Lord rvith aUhis heart and with dl his foul^and with Ml his 
mighty accordingto all the Layv of Aiofes ; that he declined not to the 
% J. right hand^ or to the left: Of *!> avid, that he kept the Commander 
mentsofgodyandhisStatfttes : that he kept the Commandements of 
' .).' *'!' Cjod, and followed him with all his heart, to doe that only which was 
I Kinelijly.' right in his eyes: rhit he did that which was right in the fight of the 
Lord, and turned not afide from anj thing that he commanded him all 
I King, it.4|. the dayes of his life,fave only in the matter ofXJf'iah the Hittite : and 
ofjehojhaphatjth^t he turned not afide from doing that which was right 
in the eyes of the Lord: O? Afa, that his heart was perfe6i before the 
iChro.ij.jz, j^gy^ all his dayes: Of Afa and the people, that thej fought the 
Lord with all their heart, and all their foule. From thcfepaflfagcs 
wc cannot prove either that thefe fervants of God did, or that it 
is poflible for men in this life to fulfill the Law cxadly, or that the 
Law is given with fuch moderation, as that the imperfe<ftion$ 
which did cleave unto thefc,and the beft fervants of God,wcrc no 
finnes : bccaufe in phrafc of Scripture the words will not bears 
that weight, it may be confuted by Text it fclfe, fctting down fe- 
vcrall impcrfedions even in them, who arc faid not to have turned 
afide from the Commandement5,and it is dircftly contrary to di» 
vers other pafTiges of holy writ. But thence we may foundly 
gather, that tlic Law as it was given to Ifrael, doth admit and 
. allow of fincere and unpartiall obedience, though it be impcrfeft 
and anfwcr not to that exaflnefTe which is required. 

lbdQV/otdSi*2)oe this and live, muSk not be interpreted, as if 


^ . I _... » — 

andrchat Mofes k$ttgk toi;he further ex^reffurCft^c, 13 7 

they did promiie life upon a condition of pcrfcd obedience, and 
iPor works done in fuch cxadncfle as is required: but they mud: 
be expounded Bvangch*caliy,defcribing the fubjeft capable of life 
eternalljHot the caufc why life and falvation is conferred : and by 
doing fincere, uniformc, unpartiall obedience, not cxad fulfilling 
of the Law in every title is to be underftood. Doethif andlii^e, 
what is U more then this. If ye mil ehej mj voict, and doe my C^ffi' 
mandemetJtStyeJhallhe to me a peculiar tre/$fHre. ^/ejfed if the man Pfal.Tttvi, 
thatfeareth the Lord, anddeli^hteth ^eatly in -his Commandements, 
Blefedare they that keep judgement > and he that dothrighteonfne^e at P^*'''° '?• 
tdl times » Blefedare the undeflled in the way, v>hoypalk^in the Law of pr t ,,. , j- 
the Lord. 'Blefedare they that keep his tefiimonies, and that feek^him *. ' ' 
mth the mhde heart. Who fo looketh into the perfeH lat» of liberty^ Tatii,x.4j, 
And continueth therein, he being not aforgetfuU hearer, but a doer of 
the vforke,this tnanjhall be b'le^edinhus deed. To them who bjpati- Rom. 1,7. 
€fit continuance in ri>eil-doing,feeke for glory, and honour, ettrnallHfei 
which pafTages arc to be underftood of (incere and upright wai- 
ting, and {hew who arc jullified, and to whom the promifcs of 
life pertainc, buf not why they are/uftificd. And in like manner 
thzto( the ApcMcy The d^rs of the Law are juflified,msy be ex- R6m.M|» 
j)oundcdEvangehcaUy, not of them that fulfill the Law, which 
ihould be juftified by their works, but of them that foundly obey, 
who arc juftified of grace by faith, not for their works. And 
hence it appeares what works the Apoftleoppofcth to faith in the 
matter of juftincation : not only peifsd works done by the 
ftrength of nature, of which fort there be none at all : but works 
commanded in the Law as it was given to T frael/uch as Abraham 
and l^^'Z'/'^ walked in after they were efiedually called, fuch as 
"without whofe prefcnce faith it fclf could not be exiftent, fuch as 
are neceflary in the pcrfon juftified : thcfe works arc oppofcd to 
faith, in the matter of juftijication, not that faith can be without 
them, but becaufc they cannot be caufcs together with faith in 
Juftification. And of neccITlty, if faith be oppofite to works ex* 
aflly perfcft, it mufl: be oppofite to them that arc imperfed; and 
ftainedin part, that be impurely pure: becaufe the Covenant of 
Grace calleth for perfeflicn, though it accept fincerity, and in all 
reifon perfed rigbteoufneflc lliould rather be accepted for righte- 
oufncfTe unto lifc,than that which is imperfcd and falleth fliort of 
that which is required. 

■ ' T For 

1 5 8 A ^Articular e xflicAtkn ofth Coven Ant God made mth Ifrael, 


The Lord did 
thinke ic goud 
to fet forth the 
ftate of mino. 
ricy in fuch 
kind of attires 
& habiliments 
as might beft 
fuii with th< 
hnGe of mi. 
noiity: and To 
to teach and 
(lotbe his 
Church with 
types and Ce- 
which iS a 
kind oi Imaged 
rifj ajad there- 
fore of the two 
the Jewel! had 
more liberty in 
that kindjthen 
Chrifiians in 
eimes of tbe 

For the better adminiftration of this ftatc and nattonall Cove- 
nant, it pkafcd God to oRlaine futablc Ordinances For the teach- 
ing and applying of this Covenant,/*://. ofMiniftery and Pricft- 
hood. The firft of thefe the ApolUc openeth, fctting down the 
ftate of the Gentile and Jew before Ghrift came, compared both 
together, and how both ftood in comparifon to the Church after 
Chiiftjinrcgardof this Ordinance of teaching. As the Gentile 
before Chrift was a man conftrained to live without a (heltcr: the 
Jew at the fame titne is better provided for : for he bad the Law 
taught to cover his head in a ftormc , that it be not too violent. 
But we after Chi ift dwell in well- grounded, yea, feiled roome^ 
that wc need not (o fcarc the blowing, beating, or flowing in of 
the Sea, raine, or wind, for wc have Hhe Ordinances of the Go* 
fpcll. The Gentiles before Chrift ran wild like beggarly bruits 
without all fchooling ; the Jew a great deale better for the time 
being, he had a Sc^oolc-aIa[ler to teach and nourture hiin, even, 
the Law to bring hini onto Chrift. But happy Chriftians after 
Chrift living in the Univcriity of the Church under the free Tu- 
tors of new Ordinances. The Schoolemafterfhip of Mofex was 
a good Ordinance for the body of the people under Covenaht 
with God, as we find this calling necdfull and profitable in a 
Comaion-wealCjthough infcriour to the honour and worth of an 
Univerfiry. There was not a man of thetn undifcovcnanted who 
tock not benefit feme way or other by this pedagogic. Tor fome 
were kept thereby from notorious evils, as children that Icamc 
little at Schoole, get good in thi?, that they are kept from fhrcwd 
lurncs. Others get much ability of knowledge, though they ne- 
ver looked at Chrift ; as fome at Schoole learn to write and read, 
caft account and make a bond, though they never intend any bet- 
ter ufe of their learning. But the fpirituall Jew got fome true 
meafirrc of grace to Salvation, though they reached not to that 
pitch and meafure which is attaineable under the Ordinances of 
the New Teftament; as in fome good Grammar Schooles thofc 
grounds of learning may be obtained, whereby men may befer- 
viceable to the Church or Common- weale in fome meafure, 
though they come not to that ripencffe and maturity, which may 
be gotten in the Univcrfity. 

For the manncrofthis pedagogic under -<!/<?/?/, we are not to 
ConceiifC:i that he taught bis S^boJiiers in things too hard for 


Mtdpphat Mofes brought to the further exfre^ure^s. 


and 4, 1 $, 

their capacity and pradife only to fet them to others to askc : for 
it is the part of a bad matter to fet his Schollars too hard a taskc, 
that they might runnc to their fellowcs to make exercifes, this is 
the way to non^ proficiency. But LMofes in the Ceremoniall 
Ordinances did point out Chrift, and fo as a good Schoolei-m after 
direftcd unto him ; and by the wing unto the J ewes their weak- 
ncfle and. inability, convincing them of finnc, terrifying their 
4:onrciences, he did drive them unto Chrift, and informed them 
how to walke being in Chrift, that they might inherite the pro- 
mife. Thus the Law cntrcd that finne might abound, it dilcovc- 
rcd finne, wrought wrath, wounded, terrified and killed, and 
withaJi rcycalcd the remed/To be had, not in the Law, but in 
Chrift, that the diftrcifed might not reft in the Law, but feek un- 
to Chrift,and live. In a Schoolewc muft have rods to keepre- 
fradory boyes in awe, and idle boyes to their bookes, according 
to the common Proverbe, ^ rod in a Schook U drtAjesinfea^n, 
This was found with Mofa in his Schoole, and ufed asoccafion 
was offered. The Ceremonies were as an hand-writing againft 
them, a? they witnefTcd their unclcancneflejor bound tl^cm to the 
debt of the Law: and a curfewas denounced againft them that 
ihould not continue in all things that was written in the books 
ofthcLawtodoethem. Schoole-mafter« muft have Apples and 
toycs to traine up boyes of better and fofter natures, who be won 
with a Nut and loft with the fticU : This the Schoole of the Law 
wanted not in the hand oiMofes, as the outward temporall blef- 
fings of this life plentifully fpokentoo, and diftributed by the 
handof-^^y^i in his Booke: The Jewes were as Infants and 
little children that are much pleafed with rattles and other toycs: 
and Mofes the rather to winnc and keepc them in obedience,' 
doth make large promifes of corporall bleflings and an earthly 
inheritance, as did befit the ftatc and condition of that people. 
But if thefe prevaile not , he hath his Ferula and gentle rod, 
which is the commination of temporall calamities and judge- 
ments to be infliAed upon tranfgreffours. It is expedient a 
Schoole- raafter have fome other pradifes bcfidcs Rods and Nnts 
to breake their wils, and make them corrigible and teachable, 
tradable and gentle, which the Law provided for aboundantljr, 
having to doc vyith a ftiftc-ncckcd people, and ftubborn Schollars. 
Three kinds ofimpofitioBs-^tf/*?/ propounded unto his Schollars 
tobcarc. T a Firft, 

Col, 1.14. 
The Ceremo- 
nies are vinble 
words preach- 
ing Chrift,and 
they preach 
guili alfoand 
Wrath belon- 
ging unto us, 
by confe<]uent 
Vd to the Jew 
dtrcflly. Cerf, 
monies as they 
arc a meerc 
carnall kind of 
inftrufting, do 
witncfTe a- 
gainfi us. 

X4<^ Apartkuhr: explication of the Covenant Godmak withlfraet^ 

Firft, in the psdagogic of the Law he teftrained them froa» 
fame free creatures^whcreunto they had ftrange naturall ddircsjas 
meats and drinks; making ibmc uncleane : as mothers lay Apples 
before the eyes of their children^ which yet they muft not touch 
upon paine of a frowne, chiding or whipping, to breakc thcic 
wilSjand trainc them up in obedience. 

Secondly, He laid before them fomc other indifierencies,' 
which if they did adventure to ufe, they mart undcrgoc fuch and 
fach hardftiip as was not worth the while: their in;oyment 
not- worth the paimcnt, as we rcadc Lcvit. i y . in many waQiings- 
and purifications. 

Thirdly, He prefcribcd fuch duties about the free creatures^ 
which were dangerous, painfull and coftly for the prcfcnt, if it 
were pofliblc to bow their uncircumcifed hearts: wherein hc' 
prevailcd,and they profited aboundantly. In all which he in» 
creafed theie homage to God, more than at the firft in the Cove- 
nant pf works with Adam^oi in any former maniWtation of this 
Covenant. And in thcfc rcfpcds the Law might weilbc called a- 
burden unfupportable,which neither the Jcwcs,nop their Fathers- 
^^'^^ were able tobearc. - ■ 

A good Schoolemafter will not fcornc to teach rudiments t© 
lefTcr boyes, every letter and fy liable :fo Mofes^nA his fucceffors- 
taught all the rudiments and legall precepts to ail- the Jewes, 
wherein though feme ftickc as their furthcfl: perfedion, yet fome 
1 . Went further to higher dcgices,and all learned by them fome par- 

tiall obedience to draw on them and theirs fomc partiall blef«. 
QoI;;2^.s, (Ings.. Ofthis fort were thefe, 7'(9«s"^ »o/, r^7?»f?/. Itbefeemes^ 
anableSchoolemaftcrfofarreas he hath ability and authority to 
teach his Schollars Grecke, Hebrc^, Logickc, principles of high «^ 
cr learning, efpecially when an univeifity is not at hand : fo Mo* 
fes in this pedagogic did rife to teach higher things to the fpiritu- 
all ifrae), asthe blood of Chrift folded up in th? blood of the fa-^ 
crifiee, for the purgingof their hearts from dead workes, and the 
mortification of fiafuii corruption in their burnt o3-erings, that fo- 
they might dilcovcr how they were delivered from the eternaU 
Cisrfcofthe Law. Now when his fpirituall Schollars felt the 
bondage of the Law, and came to leamc the remedy, the very 
thing learned was their motive and reward, that they did not fo 
saiichnced rodsoc. nats, that iSj, the promifs ©ftemporall blcf- 

and what Mofesbrettght to the further ex fre^urej^c^ 141 

fings, or denunciation of temporall judgements, and the wanted 
focn learning was a fmart rod to beate tbensu 

LMofes alfo brought in the Frieft-hood asaictled ordinance 
for that prefent, which for the perfons were to fuccecd him ; The 
things which they had proper were two. Firft to offer Sacrifices 
for the people and thereby to cleanfe them from the breach of Cs- 
remoniali commands put upon them by CMofes- to tefliiie tkeir 
homage. But the blood of thofefacniicts, wasatipcof Chrifts ^ q,8^i^' 
blood our true and unchangeable high Pricft, whereby the con- 4.^92*3. 
fcicnce v& purged from the gailt of linnc, and from all failings in 
the Icaft and higheft degree of morall obedience^ And though 
thecamalljew fawit not in their facrifiees, yet the ipirituall, 
which brought a right fence of finne and fitting difpofition, both 
fa w it and reached pardon in thefc facrificcs by faith in the blood 
of Chrift tipified by them. And hence we fee in what rcfpsd, the ca'' 
Law is faid to be weake and unable to give life, to purge the con- Heb.8.7. & 5s* 
fcicnce, or pacifie the wrath of God:becaufe it was not the ^l\ 
blood of Bulls or Goat<, but of Chrift, the immaculate Lamb of 
God, who thorough the eterndl Spirits offered uphimCclfe a fa# 
crifice to the Father, that did purge the confcience, and bring in 
etcrnall redemption, which was not fhed but tipified under that 
Gorenant, though the fpiriruall feed by faith laid hold upon it, 
and were partakers of the benefits thereof. 

Secondly, It was the efl-ed,of this ordinance to q&j up pray-- 
crs to God for the people upon their Incenfe. To runnc into eve- 
ry particular in this kind were infinite* 

ThccScft ofthis Covenant^ that it bringeth forth children, 
but in fome kind of bondage, prcfTed and kept under with fervi- 
tudc. For the heirefa long as ha is nn^er Tutors and govermptrs dif^. ^^ 
fereth mtfrom afervantithoHghhe he Lord of all. The J ^wes were "*•>«'*'* 
children and hcires,.but tutored and kept under with many Cere- 
moniall ordinances and obfervat ions as appendices to the Law, 
expedient for that time and ftate. B^at there is a-twofold fervi* 
tude ; one to damnation, which fhuts the fonnes of fueh difpofi-. 
tionoutofthe Kingdomeof Heaven, which w?.« figured by the: 
bondage of ^^f/ and Hagav. This the Covenant doth not be- 
get in it felfc, but in tkmthat rejedcd Chrift the fouleof the 
Law, an.^ trufted in their workcs to be juft ificd thereby . The o- 
ikr.of fonnes^ whkb are held under the ncurture ef the La w and, 

T 3. ■ legaili. 

1^1 AfirticuUr expl$ca$m of the Covenant, (jrc 

- Icgall rites, but reft not in thcai,but by them are led unto Cbrift • 
which abide ft ill in the houfc, and partake of the dignity of fons 
though under Tutours j and this fervitudc is an cfFcd of the Cove- 
nant thus ad miniftred. 

Under this Covenant the natprall (scd of aAhr/iham bore the 
face of the Church and ft ate, and God had promifediabundanceof 
temporals, and of fpirituall a fcantling : But all under the outward 
adminiftration of the Covenant, were not in like manner parta- 
kers of the bleflings promifed in Covenant. For fome had their 
part in the temporallblelllngs only, and the outward ordinances; 
others were partakers of the fpirituall blcfifings promifed. But 
whatfoever good thing any of them enjoyed either temporal] or 
fj)irituall, it was conferred upon them freely according to the 
Covenant of Grace, and notfcr the dignity of their workcs. It 
istrtic, the promife is conditional!, ihheyobey, they fihallreapc 
the good things of the Land : but obedience was not a caufall con- 
dition, why they ftiould inherit, but confequent, what they muft 
doe when they fticuld inherit the Land. God would not that 
his people ihould live difTolutely in the promifed Land : but he 
gave them not that inheritance for their righteoufnefle, Certaine 
it is alfo, that God did reward partiall obedience with tcmporall 
blellings, as he fpared fome upon their temporary humiliation 
and fained repentance:and he permitted fome obftinate and rebel- 
lious to abide in the promifed Land,and take roote and profper for 
a feafon : but this he did of his free bounty ,that he might perfbrmc 
the Oath which he fware unto the Fathers. So that herein there . 
appeares no intexture of the Covenant of workcs with the Cove- 
nant of Grace, nor any moderation of the Law to the ftrength 
and power of nature for the obtaining of out ward blclTings. But 
rather that God of his aboundant goodneif^ is pleafed freely to 
conferrc outward blcfliags promifed j in Covenant upon fome 
that did not cleave unto him unfainedly, that he might make good 
his promife unto the fpirituall feed, which byword and oath he 
had confirmed unto the Fathers. In this expreflion of the Cove* 
nant it pleafed God to add unto the former,another feal for con- 
firmation of their faith, fc. the Paffj-over which was a tipe of 
Chrift, the immaculate LambeofGod, which takcth away the 
finncsofthc worldj ourtruc Paflc-over, who was facrificed for 
ii5y as well as a feale of their deliverance from the bondage of E- 

of the Cd'vemm that God mAde with David, 145 

/rypr. And the celebration of the Pafleover, was as a grateful! 
remembrance of their moft powetfuU and gracious deliverance 
from the fiery fornace, and confequently ot their pofieflion of that 
good Land, which the Lord had prorailed to give them : fo was it 
a teftimony of their faith in the bloud of Chrift, whereby they were 
fet free from the powers ot darknefle, and the curfe of the LaWjand 
reftored into fpirituall liberty, being made hcires of the kingdoms 
of heaven. And from all this we may fee, wherein this expref- 
fionofthe Covenant doth exceed the former, and wherein it dif- 
fers from, and fals iliort ot the new Covenant ; of which in the 
latter end of the next Chapter. 

Chap* IX. 
of the CovenAnt that God made with David, 

T His Covenant of Grace was further manifefted to D ^1//^, ta 
whom the Lord doth moft aboundamly and familiarly make 
knowne the riches of his free-grace a nd love. And it thii Lord 
?fe<?;wj>?«fra/«?f« .? aSam.y.i^^ Oras 5^^»/«/ readeth it^and 
that after the manner of men, O L(5rd 

God, that is, thou dealeft familiarly ..... r r \ - 

with me as a man dealeth with man^ Amam: tdfjecm^m conruttudmem Urmm 
wicniiic, aa « " t,„n. «t.r.^,;rlprl reuhomtyxum: (t) ac H armcw cum amto ate' 

I Cfcr.».l7.I7. And thou haft provided >^^^ seh.ngier. «i.. adeiucit, Chald. N'M 

for me according to the manner or men ^-^^ EtUd hie agendi medm convenient efi 
concerning this excellency , O Lord fiiyshominum,<\«cumamicQ> 
Cod or thou haft provided for. me colioqui&'familiaritcT animi fu: fentextiam 
this excellency, according to che man- <^eprmere.sept. .ji^nh.'i^&'i^ dvQ^^. 
ner of. men. I lee , yor 1 proviuc i^j^fr^i^thmQiumamcQ, 
tor : for the Hebrews, when they have •« 
not compound verbes, doe ufe fimple m _ .,..., 
theirftead, Pifc. c^ afbexerismefecmdHmrauonemhomwts (t) 
hnmrnam Unoad^ banc exceRentUm. Bngl. according to the: 
mannerofhighdegfeeorgrcatdignity. Sept. ^' ^^-/cA« ^.., 0.^. 

144 of the Covetmnt thdt G<d made with David, 

Hab.T. I i. Deut. J4.4. Sept. Gih. Joh.t 8. tlic Authour of this Covenant is theLord 
30,^7. Ifa.z6.4. iSam, i.z, Ka!. 18, ^. God,theGoclof Ifrael,theGod that hath 
& «8. I. 8c aSaro. «j.z,g». Sept. ots^j^. bound himfelfc in Covenant unto Ifrael, 
aSam.a?.}. Sepc.9vW.aI Tr\c<W 2 Sam. ^^q ^Q^h watch ovet them, walk in the 

8l;t5 r^ir;r«>I/'^l' %/!:"''' ^j^ia amongft them, is their {hieldand 
ii9'i»- Theroc>iofS^lv<itu>n, bepttf,v77A»T. 1-1, iR -r rjc -ru 

^:$v!S ffaviexas. ■ buckier,and ftrong Tower otdercnce.The 

rocke of Ifrael, the cverlafting rocke, 
that is, the mighty, ftable, and immutable foundation and de- 
fence of the faichfull, who flieunto him, and truft in him. So 
God is called, the Rock of their Salvation, D^/^?. 32. 15, Pftlm. 
95.1. Sept.rtTToeeai^THf^etuT^, the rocke of their ftrengthj^PyS/. 

€2.7,8. P/S/.3I.3. //S.IJ.IO. Sept. o&ioiriii^on^£^'ai(jj^, Pf^lm, 
71.3. P/S/.31.5. Sept. iti ^ov 'l^i^^cuTi'^Wi the rock of my heart, 
P{aLj2,i6. Sept. the God of my heart : and befides him there' is 
none other, 7/2.44.8. a rock of refuge or aifiance, P/2/.p4. 22. 
Sept. y^'Jtt^eiiv^jv.'p'jyhjJiP fil,i%,'^. Sept. i2o!i3^'/^«.Rock and Re- 
deemer are put together, Pfalm. 19.1$, Rocke and Salvation, 

This Covenant was made in Chrift, andChrift is more clearly 

manifefted in this breaking forth of tht Covenant, then in any of 

the former. Asfirft, that he was God and man in one perfon; 

f^faLiicr. theSonofZ)^z//(^, who thouldcomeofhis loynes, and yet Da- 

Mat.2t<,4%,4f. w<!^/Lord. The Lord (aid unto my Lord, fit ^thou on mj right 

Aa.x.34. handy untill I make thine enemies my fiot-jioolcu Then in refpe(^ 

ofhis humiliation and glorification, his fuftcjrings and exiltatibn. 

rral.i6. 1 o. ThoH VPtlt not leave my (oul in grave, nor fuff'er t hiae holy one to 

^ *■* **7* fee corruption. Thou haft m^dc him for a little infsriour to the 

pra.8.6.& 12,1 eAngelf^ fc. as concerning his lutferings : Thou haft crowned him 

Heb,».739, '^^ith glory avd honour. Sit thou on my right hand, untill I make thine enemies thy fiot'ftoole, Alfoin rcTpec^ of his Offices, that 

he fhould be both King and Prieft j a King co rule and governe his 

rial. 1. 5,6,7^ eled:, to bridle and lubdue his enemies ; 1 ^''ill declare the decree, 

Heb.1.5. A^. -the Lord hath faid unto me, thou art my Son : 1 ^illfet my Kin^ 

v\ \ ^'^ ^' ^V^ ^y ^°h ^^^^ ofSyon. Rule thou in the mldft of thi-.e enemies, 

A Prieft after the order of Afekhifedech, confirmed by oath, an* 

, , iioint^dwichtheoyleof gladndTe. The Lord hath frvofn-and^iU 

Hcb. <J. & 7. tiot'fspent^ thou art a Prieflrfir ever after the order of Afelchl^ 

j^.pf,45. 7, fedecL God, even thy God hath annointed thee With the oyle of 


of the Covenmt that God made with David, |a j 

glainefs above thy fi&owsy that is, above all Chriftians, who are 
thy fellows, conforts and partners in the annoinring. To offer 
Up himlelfe once for all a fweetfmelling Sacrifice unto the Father, 
for the fins of his people. Sacrifice and burnt-offering thou p(ai,40.7 «. 
^ohM not have, but mine eare hafi thou boared, or digged o- Esod,i*j.S.' 
pen : that is, thou haft made me obedient to thy voice : or mine 
eare haft thou boared, as thy fervant for ever. The Septuagint 
to make the fence plainer, fay, but a body haft thou fitted to me, 
or prepared me : meaning that his body was ordained and fitted 
tobe a Sacrifice for the fins of the world, when other legall Sacri- ^^i, la j i©, 
fices were refufed as unprofitable. Loelcome, or am come,/c«7. 
into the world, togive my felf a Sacrifice for fin. In the volume, HefMoio. 
or role of thjbook^ it is "ieritten of me, that IJhoulddoe thy '^ill j JohA j 8, 
hj the Vffhich ^ill ^e are/aȣhified, even by the offering of the bv Pfal.2,8. 
dy ofjefut once* In refped: of his kingdome, power, glory, dig- 
nity, dominion and rule or government. Asks of me, ^^^ i ^ili ^***»7*«8,u, 
givetbee the Heathen fir thine inheritance, and the uttermoSi 
farts of the earth fir thy fofeffion, Hejhall have dominion frorru ^"9' ?"*» 
Seato Sea, and from the River unto the ends of the Land. <iy€i i7ti ' 

Kings Jhalliiporfiiip him, all Nations JhaU doe him fervice. Hit 
feed fbaH be for ever, andhis throne as the Sun be fire me* As the 
Moon itfhallbeeftablijhedfirever : And as a faith fiUl witneffe jf^ -, , , « b 
in heaven. Hisfeedwilll eflablijh fir ever ; that is, Chriftians i.i«,pf.j2.2jl 
borne of God, which are called Chrifts feed and children,as Chrift 
is called the everlafting Father. Thou hafl afc ended up on high, if3.9,tf,p(a,6», 
thou hafl led captivity captive, thou hafi taken gifts fir men, that x8, Eph.4.8,f« 
is, thou haft given and diftributed gifts among men, which 
are the Minifters of the Gofpell , given for the good of the 
Church. . 

This Covenant the Lord made of his rich mercy and grace, feiSam^lVs. 
which he confirmed by Oath, My mercy I will not makefiufirate Thou hafi told 
fromrvithhim, nor dealefalfly againflmyfaithfullneffe. I will thugoodne/e 
not profane my Covenant, nor alter that which is gone out of my tmto tiy fer- 
lips, Oncehavel frvorne by my holinefe, if I lie unto David, ""^^if^^^'l^'r 
Oncehavelfworne, as God fpake once, Pfal, that is, un- ^a'aa^tny nur* 
changeably .• for an oath cannot be revoked, there is no danger of eie/baU bemtb 
inconftancy . D avidhimidie was a type, and did beare the per- bim,p[,i iuu. 
fon of Chrift, and many things fpoken oi' David, were more pro- ^^^ Lord [ware 
perly fulfilled in Chrift the perfon typified, then in David: as, ""Jf^fpJIi';^ 

V Aff 

J a5 Qfthc CO'uenant that God made with David, 

Mr God, my God, why hafi thou f&rfak^n me. They parted mj 
>?a6 27.46 , garments among them:, and for my coat they cafi lots. They pier^ 
P J i 1. , 9. ^^^ hands and my fset. He that eM bread at my tsible. hath lift 
pr.4.1.9.. ]oh. fip the heel agamstme^ 

ig.i8.pf6p. The things promired in this Covenant particularly, above 
ai.jobas.iS, thofe that were mentioned in the former breakings forth there- 
*9' of, are 

i Sarri.7.9. I • That God would be with him, whetherfocver he went, and 
pfal.8p.iz,a|. make his way profperous, and cut offail his enemiesfrom before 
bisface, that he might make him a great Name, like to the name 
ot the great men upon earth. And thus the Lord delivered him 
from tfc hand o[ Sanl, and all his enemies, who did oppofe him 
Pfal 4..J,4i ^^^^ ^^ ilioald not raigne, O ye (ons of men, how long -will ye tarn 
my glory intojhame? How long mill ye love vanity, andfeek^ af" 
terleefing?Selah, Knorv y^, that the Lord hath rfonder filly fe^ 
pjiratedto himfelfthe man that is godly : th^ Lord willheare whett 
/ call upon him. 
% Svsa, 7,10. 2. That he would appoint a place for his people Ifraeljand plant 
3^111,5.5. it, that they might dwell in a place of their owne, and move no 
i on-to.$fe ^-yQ^Q^ nor be dilquieted any more by wicked people, as in former 
times. And (0 Godgave Ifraelrefi fom all their enemies roti^d 
About , and fetled them in peace and quietne^e by the hand of 
aSam.7.ia,i] 5. Thatwhenthedaies of David were fulfilled, and he fhall 
fleepe with his Fathers, he would fet up his feed after him, which 
fliould proceed out of his body, and he fhould build an houfe or 
3 Klng.5 <?. Templefor theNameof theLordGodof Ifrael. Ipurpofe (faith 
1 so Solomon) to build an houfe nnto the Name of the Lord my God, 
which ts called ^^ ^^^ Lord ff>ake unto David my Father, faying. Thy San^ 
aahoulecfreit, r^hom Iveillfet Upon thy throne for thee, he fhall build an houfe 
ic\ilo s8,*2. *^'^-° '^/ Name. And at the dedication of the Temple he maketh 
a C7hr.o.(5.4 1, ipention of this promife : The Lor df aid unto David my Father^ 
and the Lords fvhsreas it was in thine heart to build an houfe unto my Name, 
feat or habit:!, t hou did fl well, that thou wash (0 minded : Neverthelefl thou 
pr68^^^^**'*^ J^^^^ ^^^ ^^^^4 ihe houfe, hup thy (on that jh all come out of thy 
1 kin 8,1*8, loyns, he Jhall build the houfe unto the Lord. And the Lord 
i^.ao. hath made good the word, which he jpakf* J have buili 
thee an houfe te dwell in ^ an-, habimtion for thes PQ Sibids m 
i,,Kin>8.S5, for ev^r» ' " ' 

cfths Cavemm that G^dmade with David, 


3 S2,7.I4.P&. 

lufiin infiitm^ 

differ. uit. 

Pf. 80.85. Pfa. 

And if thcti 
hearken aV»ta 
aU that I com- 

4. HepromifethtobeaFachertoD^z//^^ feed, and take him 
forhis^on. Heflidlcallufonme^ thou art my Father j, my God, 
therockjjf my falvation. And, I will m<ihe him my firfi-horn, 
higher then the Kings of the earth j thac is, the Prince and chief e 
of the Kings, the moft glorious and famous of all Kir3gs. As 
Chrift is called the firft begotten of every creature^ not that he was 
created before all other creatures , but becaufe he is the Lord, 
Prince and head of every creature, and hath dominion over all 
creatures : and fo the heire of all things-* as heire, is lometimes 

_ put for Lord or owner, and ^ro kd,rede gerere, is, pro Domiyso 
gerere, Haredes emm veteres pro D ominis appeiUhdnt, 

5 . That his houfe (hould be eftablifhed and his Kingdome for e- 
ver before the Lord, even his throne (hould be eftabliflied for ever. 
JJisfeedwill I maks to endure for ever., and his throne as the 
dates of Heaven. His feed fhdl endnre for ever, and his throne 
fhall he as the Sun before me, Hejhall be eftablijhedfor evermore 
M the Moon, as afaithfill witnefe in the heaven : that is, his 
Kingdome (ball be perpetuall and glorious. For although the 
Moone waxeth and waineth and feemeth fometimes to be gone,yet J^^/|'^» ^J" , ^ 

' it is continually renewed, and foftable: which is a fit refemblance rfirme^hojfe 
of the Church, which hath not alwaies one face or appearance in &c» * 

the world, though it be perpetuall. And though for the iins of 
the people and Davids houle, the ftate of his Kingdome and houfe Pi'.8«. 50,51, 
decayed, yet God referved ftill a.root, till he had accomplilhed this S hi J« 

promi(e in Chrill. 

d. That his houfe (hould be as the Morning light, when the Sun 
arifeth, the morning I fay without clouds, and as the grade of the 
earth with cleare (hining after raine : that is, it (liall (hine with all 
light of glory^nd profperity, and flourilh or be green perpetually, poov7''i v-viii 
as the herbes and gralTe which is rcfrelhed with feafonable rain and Tatisfie with 

Thefe gracious and free prom ifes God made to David and to 
his hoafe, and to the whole Kmgdomc of Krael, not for their 
righteoufnefle, but ofhis manifold and great mercy. And as he 
promifed them without con(ideration of thtir defert, fo of his rich 
grace and love undefervcdihe made them good. Vor Davids houfe 
Was not fuch as it ought to be before God,they kept not promife & "'""'^^"» 
Covenant: but the Lord was mercifull and gracious, he did not ^ **'"»*l"y« 
forget his truth, norfuffer his mercies to faile. // his children Pil 85.30,^1^1 a 

y 2 forfaks! 

Her ^iftuals. I 

will Die; ljf,hc-sf 

brcsd, Pfal.ig. 
28. 1 he Lord 
is, giv'cnme 
comfort, joy, 
profperity after 

1 48 of the Covenmt that God mudi mt h David, 

for(ake mj Lar^^ and walke net in wj judgements ^ ifthej breake 
z Sim. 7, 14, my fl-atHtes^ndhje^e not mj Co mm an dements : Thenwi/i I vijtf 
Kins 1 1. *i their tranfgrejfion with the rod,and their ini<juitj with firoak^s ; 
li i«3 53' Hj ^**^ ^y ^^"-^i^S ki»dfiefe '^ill I not mks from him, neither will I 
} 6, falfifie my truth. True it is, the Lord did corred the po&erity of 
p fal.i 3 ». « 1 3 David for their finne with moderate corre«Sion,and for their pro- 
**• fit, that they might be partakers of holinefle : But even when 
it did not bud or come on according to that which feemed to be 
promifed, the Lord was moft f aithmll in his promifes : for it was 
I King.ii-jp. their finne that kept them downe. And for this ( faith the Lord 
to Solomon) I willajfiiU: the honfe of D avid, hnt not for ever t 
for the whole fpiricuall kingdome was reftored in the Meffiah. 
Ufa!. 1 32.17* twill make the home of David to bud, 1 have ordained a I am^e 
* ^' for mine annointed : that is, I will make the Kingdome and pow- 
1 Kjng,! 5,4. ^^ ^^ encreafe. For D avids fake did the Lord his God give him a 
light in Jeruralem,and fet up his fon after him, and eftablilhed Je- 
aKin?.8.i9, ruialem. Tet the Lord would not defiroj fftdah, for D avid hli 
fervants /akft as he had promifed him, to give him a light, and ta 
his children f^r ever. Great deliverance giveth he unto his Kiiig 
pfal«»8,5i. (he is the magnifieroffalvations unto his King ) andjhewethmer' 

cy unto his annointed,to David and to his feed for ever, 
Pfalijicifi. 7. That the Priefts fiiould becloathcd with falvation, and the 

Saints with joyfullnefTe : that is, the miniftration of the Prielfs 
(hould be profitable and faving to the people, which {hould bean 
ornament to them,as a garment of honour, and the people {hould 
fing cheerefully. The falvation of the petfon only is not here 
meant, but the confervation of the miniftery ; as if it ftiould be 
f aid, I will caufe that the miniftery of the Priefts be fafe, that ic 
(hall not be troubled with ungodly men, nor defiled with the filth 
of crrour : and that it (hall be eft eiluall in the minds of the godly, 
and many by the blefling of this miniftery may obtaine eternall 
happinefte. It may alfo be applied to the private falvation ot the 
Pritfts, because they ftiould be defended and protected froma- 
bove, and adorned with bleflings of all kind. Great and pretiou* 
are the promifes which God hath given to Ilrael in this Covenant: 
as that God by vifible teftimonies of his prefence would be pleafed 
to dwell amongft them,and not forfake them, that he would heare 
their prayers, when they prayed before him towards his holy 
Temple J that the Church and politic of Ifrael ftiould continue, 


of the Cd'i/emmthai God made with David, 149 

drat it fliould be eff"e<^u3ll, and the people bkfled with reft, peace, * Sam,2 j.y. 
joy and bleflings of all fores Ipirituall and temporall. Roia.ii.ia. 

: This Covenant that God made with P^t/zW is everlafting, that Q^aT'^*'^* 
is unchangeable; becaufc the gifts and calling of God fS without tSam^t*^'- 
rtpentance. His word fliall be eftablifhed For ever in Heaven : Sept. *fc7?i^.L, 
and though the courfe of the promife be interrupted for a time, it P^al- 5.4. 
(hall bud,and fpring, and bring forth fruit. 7!o.erf.<y\m(^} 

■ It isalfo a well ordered Covenant in all things, fitly marfhal- Jfa'f*^^'*^*^' 
led, difpofed or fet forth as an army in comely order, orderly ad- Sepj* ^'toTma- 
direHedjpreparedjfetledjfurnirhed, dirededjfirmc and fure : that is, aoi pi. j 7 g. ig, 
the good things promifed were all prepared and in readineffe, and i'ia i.i j ». 1 7, 
(liould be performed in comely order, and fit fealon. But the or- J"<Jg'»o.a2, 
dering of this moft defired and laving Covenant, was m the power ^^^' '•*•'* , 
andpleafureofGod, both in retpedt of his houfe, theKingdome, f^To.'e^zt!^, 
and the whole Church oi: Chrift, who had faithfully promifed, im^'^ji, Lcv.i! 
and would effedually make good in his own time, whatfoever he 7^8,1 »* Sept, 
had fpoken. srn^aavuffj, Al, 

And it is a fure Covenant faithfully to be kept and obferved : a ^'^^'/2«'^»^' 
Covenant that God doth remember, taketh heed unto, and will Sc^u^hiiud. 
make good for his mercy fake. For the Lord is faithfull, and will <mi^» Aqum'.' 
not deny himfelf e, though we be inconftant, unfaithfuil and apt to Trafi-m^iv. 
ftartafide. ' Synu'35.0^. 

The condition of this Covenant is,that they (hould walke in the Sloi 1 *iL 
wayes of the Lord, and keepe his watch ; take heed to the charge zXi la.caji. 
of the Lord their God, and keepe his ftacutes and his Commande- i Kiag.a.3,4/ 
ments, and his judgements, and his teftimonies j to walke before > King,}.6. 
the Lord in truth, with all their foules. The Lord our god be with ' ^^^g-^'S7> 
US, as he tvas wirh our Fathers that he fir fahe ^ fiotjKor leave ui: , ^u ^ o ' 
That he way bow our hearts unto mm, that we may walks >» aU j wiU cftabljflj 
his wajeSi -and keepe his CommandementSy and his St^tutes^ and bis Kingdorae 
his Law eSi which he commanded our Fathers. Particularly, 'He forever, if be 
^at rtileth over men, that is, the Ifraelites, mvisi he juft, ruling in ^"^"vo«r to 
theAarcofGod. And thus k is obievwcd of David, ThiZ he fid '^^^ ^""""^ , 
facob and Ijrael according to the tntegrttj of hts heart, and gui- ^,? 
ded, or led them by the difcretion of his hands ; that is, with moft ^31,78.71, 
prudentand difcreeteadminiftration managed he them, This was i^fal.ioi.ijt. 
that which D^iiy/f^ promifed, Iwillfing of mercy and judgement ^<>^'e nonim- ■ 
to thee, O Lord, Vei/l Jfing : I wilt doe rifely in theyerfiBwaj, ^^^minihnt 
•h, when mlt thou come unto me. The Priefts they muftiaftly y^^j, 

U 3 and 

I50 of tht Covenant that God made with David, 

rfala^z.^. and hoUly adminifter their office. Let the Priefls be cbathed 
V^ith righteoufnejfe : The Prophet fpeakes not fo much of the 
righteoufnefTe of their perfons, but of their office: thefirft isa 
great ornament oi the miniftery, the other more neceflary in re- 
iped of the body of the Church; fc* that they fullnll their mini- 
ftexy, teaching found and incorrupt dodrine, exhorting, admoni- 

. tiling , comforting, facriiicing, and performing all other offices and 

iervices which the Lord commanded. The whole body of the 
people, they fhould walke in holinefle, fing of the praifes'of God, 
and give up themrelves unto God as an holy people, zealous of 
good works. 

As for the execution of this Covenant ; Firft, D avid did fight 
the warres of God, and the Lord was with him, and did profper 
him,untill his enemies wereiubdued, and the people had reft and 
peace from them that were round about them. 

2. He prepared a place for theArkeof the Lord atjcrufalem, 
andfet it there. David prepared a place fir the tiy^rke of the 
Lordyiind pitched fir it a tent : And he gathered all Jfrael toge- 
ther to bring up the Arhe of the Lord unto i^is place which he had 
ordained fir it. Remember U^ avid, and all hisajJiiBions ; how 

he ftvore unto God^ and vowed a vow unto the miahty God of 
fj ] s / J 


3 . He fet the courfes of the Pricfts in their offices, and the Le- 
vitesin their watches, for to praife and minifter before the Priefts 
every day, and the Porters by their courfes at every gate. The 
o^ce of the Levites )^ai under the hand of the fonne of Aaron ^ fir 
theftrvice of the houfe of the Lord in the courts, andchambers 
and in the purifying of holy things, and in the "^orke ofthefervice 
of the houfe of God,^c. So David and the Captaines of the Ar» 
wyfeparatedfir the minifierj, the fonnes of Afaph, and Heman, 
Andjedmhun, who fhould Jing prophecies with Harpes, withYi' 
ols, and with Cymbals. He appointed alfo divifions of 'Porters of 
the chiefi men, having t^he charge among their brethren, to ferve 
in the houfe of the Lord» And of the Levites, Abijah Vca4 over 
the treafures of the houfe of God, and overthetreafuresofthe 
dedicate things^ And Shelomith and his brethren were over att 

vtrAi^' -^-^etreafiires of the dedicate things, "^hich D avid the Kin ^^ and 

the chiefi Fathers, the Captuines over thou funds, and hundreds 
iixmdthe Capuines of the t/€rm-j had dedicated. 

I Chro,i7.2» 
1 Chio. t5»aj» 



/inxia animi 

> C'hron 8,14. 
and Z9aZ%, 

I Chi on, 24 I, 



of the Covemnt that God made with David, 



4. He made preparation for the houfe ofGod, exhorted the 
Princes,and encouraged his fonne Solomon unto the work.- / huve * ^^"°* *^- ' ^ 
prepared with all my power fir the houfe of my God, gold fir vef^ ^ Chro fo^i*,* 
felsofgold,aKdfilverfsrthemoffilver,Scc, Moreover, Becanfe • ^ «• 
i have delight in the houfe of mj God, I have ef mine ownegeld 

and fiver, which I have given to the houfe of my God, befdeaU 
that I have prepared fir the houfe of the Sanctuary* ^nd the 
Princes of the families gave fir th^fervice of the houfe of Gad, 
five thoufandtnlents of gold, and ten thou (and pieces, tcQ. oAnd 
they with whompyetiom fiones were fund, gave them to thetrea^ 
fure of the houfe of the Lord. And the people rejojced ^hen thej 
cffered willingly ; for they offered willingly unto the. Lord ^ith 4 

ft heart. 

5. God gave Solomon a large heart for wifedome and qndec- 
ftandingjto goe in and out before the people. Behold, I have done 
accordin(rto thy Words ^ loe J have given thee a^^ife andanun^ 
derBanding heart, (0 that there hath been none Hk£ thee be for a 
thee, neither after theejhall arife the like unto tiyee.. 

■ 6. The Lord magnified Soto?7mn^\n dignity, in the fight of all 
Ifrael, and gave him fo glorious a Kingdome, as no King had be- 
'fbre him in Ifrael. And the King gave filver and gold at Jeru- 
pUm as ftsnes, and gave Cedar trees m the Wild figge trees, 
that are aboundantly in the plaine. So King Solomon excelled 
all the Kings of the earth, in riches and Wifedome. And.allthe 
Kings of the earth (ought the prefence of Solomon, to hear e his 
Wifedome that God had'put in his. heart. And they brought every, 
man his prefent. <tAnd he reigned over all the Kings from the rir 
ver, even unto the Land of the Phillfiines, and to the border ef 

7. Solomon bmkthit Temple, upon the Mount Moiiah, the 
place appointed and appropriated by the Lord, according to the 
pattcrne fliewed unto him by his father D<2'z;^'^. So Solomon be- 
gan to build the houfe of the Lord in Jerufalem., in Mount U\€o-- 
riah, which had been declared unto D avid his Father, in the place, 
that David prepared in the threJhingfiQore of Oman thejebufte,. 

8. Alfo he dedicated the houffeof God^blefled the people, prai- 
fed God tor his goodnelTe, prayed > unto the Lord that his eye& 
might be open towards this houie day and night, even toward. 
this placejWhereof the Lord had (aid^ that he would put his name- 

I King.fii a; 

2 Si 
t Chron.s.y, 

I if 

i Cbro.2p.a5:, 

1 Chron, ij i ^• 


ver. i.6, 
I c:bron.s8. 

S King.6.i, 

2 (7hron,5, r^^i 

I J J of the Covenant that Gcdmade mth David, 

there, that he wonld hearken unto the prayer, which his fervants 
pray in that place. This prayer of SoUmon the Lord anfwCrcd firft 

t C^xoa,7» I »> hy tigncs of acceptation ifor when he had made an end of prajinjt^^fn 

came dorpftefrom Heavetty and confumedthe hnrnt offering and the fd* 

erijices: and the glory of the Lord pled the houfe, fo that the Priejfs 

could not enter into the houfe of the Lord, hcaufe the glory of the Lord 

chron,7.ii had filled the Lords houfe ^ ^nd then the Lord appeared to Solomon 

iti»^. * ' hy night t and faidto him^ I have heard thj prayer ^ and have chofen 
this place for tfty felfe to be OM honfe of Sacrifice^ t/€nd I have novf 
chofen and fanciified this houfey that my Name may he there for even 
and mine eyeSi and mine heart Jhall he there perpetually, ^yindifthou 

Vsrf,i7 1 8. mlttvalke before me, as 1) avid thy Father walked, to doe according^ 
unto all that I have ecmmanded thee 5 and fhalt ohferve my Statutes 
and my Judgements, Thenrvilll efiablijh the throne of thy Kingdomt 
according eu I made the Covenant voith David thy Father, f^ing. 
Thou fhalt not want a man to be ruler in Jfrael, 

Hitherto things fucceedcd profpcrouHy, the King going be- 
fore, the people followed with ;oy and cheerfulncflc, and the 
blefling ofGod accompanied them. But when they turned £- 
fide, and forfooke the ftatutes and commandements, which the 
Lord had fet before them, and went and ferved other Gods, and 
wordiippcd them, then the Lord afflided the houfe o^David, and 
the houfe which he had fandiHed for his name, he caQ: out of his 
fight, and made it a Provetbe and a common talke among all peo- 
ple, and an aftonifhmcnt to every one that pafled by. 

In this Covenant therefore the mternail efficacy and outward 
adffliniftration is to be diftinguiflied : or fome things are abfolute- 
ly promised, or if upon condition fb as God will make good the 
condition ; others are conditionally promifed, fo as they take not 
€&:&, bccaufethe condition was not made good. In the firft 
fence, God promifed a Sonne to David, who fhould (it upon his 
throne, and build an houfe unto the Lord God oi Jfrael \ He pro- 
mifed alfo to eftablifti his throne for ever : but that tooke not e£. 
fed in Solomon, but in Chrift, who came of the loy nes of Z> avid, 
and in whofe hand the fpirituall Kingdomc was eQabliObed for 

Pfal,8(j.f. ever- more. 1 will eHablifh thy feed for ever •, and I will buUd thy throne ff-om generation to generation. If you feeke for corporall fuc* 

ceflioninthc ftockof^^iz'*^, it failed together with the King- 
dome : but this eternity is to be found in Chrift, who builded a 


of tht C^tnm that Ged made wHh David, 1 53 

Kingdomc, ibat (hall never fade; an heavenly and fpirituall King- 
dome, which flhall notceafe, before things that are in Heaven 
doe perifh and vani{h away, riiatis, never | not earthly and cor- 
porsll, which is Tub jefl: to change and alteration. In this fertce iSam.xj,j, . 
!D<it/i^ faith, This was all his Salvation, and all his de/ire, al- 
though he made it not to bud, that is, he refted in this alon c,that 
God would effect and make good his promifc jnot for their rights- 
oufnefle, ((6t D^vidj houfc was not fuchas it ought, I;ept dot 
Covenant with God) but for his great names fake. Jn the fecond 
fence many things were promiled, which never tookceffv;*5l",and 
yet God is f aithfuU and true, becaulc the condition was broken,, 
To the fpirituall houfe of *David, fo to fpeake, was promifcd par- 
don of finne, adoption, comfort, joy, and an heavenly mheri- 
tance ; all this was made good, for God freely called them by his 
Spirit, and by his power kept them by faith unto Salvatiorib 
Though the houfc of 'JDavleiM the Kmgdome and government 
in /Jrael, yet God prefcrvedhis poftcrity untiil Chrift came, in 
whom the throne of David was cftablifhed for ever : for this was 
dbfbiutely promifed. But the temporall glory oiiyavids houfc, 
and the peace of /^'^g'/ was changed, becaufe they changed the 
Ordinances, neglcded the charge, and brake the Commande- 
incntsofGod. Ifhhfonnes forfAkemy Lam, andvfalke not in my Pfal.grt.ji jji 
jud^etfients: If they prop h<ine my fluH tiles ^ and ks^p not fSiy Comman- 
dement s\ The-/tri>ill I vifit his tranfgrejpons with the rod, and his Jht 
mtkf courses. If ye iurue away , andforfj^ myjiatutes and my Com- 2 Chron.y. i^^ 
tnatf dements ^ which I have fet before you, andjhall goe andferve other *<>»*' a* i» 
gods and rvorjhip them. Then vfiVI I plucky them up oat of my Lai^d 
7*hich I have given tbem, and this Honfe ^''hich I have fantlifed for 
my Name, mlllcaji ont of my fight, andrvillmakeit to tea P rover he 
and a common talk^ among all people, ^nd this Houfervhich is moFi 
high, Jhali h an a^ionijhment to every one thatpa£eth by it, fo that he 
Piidlfay^ why hath the Lord done thm to this Land and to this Hoftfe ? 
And tkeyfhaU anfvoer, l^ecaufe they for fooke the L^rd <jod of their i^4- 
thers, rfhichhrcttght them out cfthe Landof Sgjpt, and have taken Sep. eivn^J,- 
honld on other gods, and have worfdpped them,<md/erved them, there- ^^vl^ ^•^^' 
fore hitthheirotiohtalhhiseviU upon them. U^^f/j- heart was not 
perfcd'wrchtheLordinthc matter of t^n^^, and for that caufc 
the fword of God never departed from his houfe. When Sola- 
mm waxed ol(^, and gave his heart to pkafure, his oatlandiiTi 

X wives 

154 of the Covenant thdt God mAdewith David. 

■■- i ■ ■— » -. i..i ., I -^■ — — -■■ _ ■ — -■■ -■■■-■ — _, ^ ., _ ■ — -- ■-■—»■■■ ■ — i — Ill-Ill— ^— M^.^^^ 

wives inticcd him to Idolatry : and the Lord rent ten tribes from 
the houfc oi David. In aftc r times the houfc o/iDfividUW away, 
more and more, the Priefts negkdled the charge of God, and the 
people grew prophane, obllinate, impenitent : and then the Lord 
abhorred his people, was wroth with his heritage, and gave his 
glory unto the enemies hand. JerufaUm was laid waft and dc- 
Iblatc, the Temple burnt with fire, the Princes led captive and. 
made tributary, the aged were defpifed, the young men made 
flaves and bond men, maidens de floured, and children dafhed a- 
gainft the wallcs. They were flaine with the fword, burnt up 
v^ith famine, languiibed through opprefTion, mifery and forrowj. 
had in contempt and derifion daily, but there was none to pittic 
or comfort them»Neverthelcfre,the promife of God was firmc and. 
fiire to all the feed,in refpedl of the things abfolutcly promifcd, for 
the infidelity of man cannot make the faith of God of none efFedr. 
Hence we Icarne , two things are to be ccnfidcred in the 
Covenant, i. The perfons in Covenant according to the cx- 
ternaii adminiftration , or according to the cffeduall purpofe 
and intcrnall adminiftration, 2. The good things promifcd 
not only temporall, but fpiritnall. For they are either fuch as arc 
abfolutcly necelTary to fslvaticn, or fuch as concerne the welfare . 
ofaChriftian, his peace, joy, chearfull and conftant walking 
with God without offjnce, and fuch like. To the firft fort, the 
promifes of the Covenant are made fincerely, but conditionally, . 
If they doe well they (ball be accepted ; if they confent and obey, 
they (hall inherit the good things of the Land. To the other be-- 
ing cfi\;dually called, aU other promifes ar^ made abfolutely, or 
at IcaU fhall abfolutcly be made good,bec3ufe God will.give them 
to doc Vv^hathe requircth. Eft-edtuall calling is not of him that, 
willeth, nor of him that runneth, butofGod thatftiewcth mer-' 
cy. 1 1 is wrought freely, efFfli^ually, certainly, but when, where 
and as the Lord will, not conditionally, nor according to pro- 
roifeto thisorthat perfon. God promifeth he will preferve his 
Church, and uphold the feed of Z)*?':/^^.- but to this or that perfon 
God hath not promifcd, that he {hall be brought home, or gathe- 
red to the flock. The Covenant made prefuppoieth man called, 
and taking hold of the Covenant, it doth not promifc that he (hall 
b? cffedually wrought upon, and powcrfiiUy drawnc to lay hould 
jipon tbcptomif?. Faith is ^hc gift of jGcd, , which Ae giv«th as 

'•"""'■" . he.. 

of the Covemm that God made with David, 


hs pleafeth *. but to the believer he affarcth all other ncceffary good 
things, with continuance in faith, according to his free Cove- 

Of good things fpirituall there be two forts , as was faid ^ 
focne abfolutely ncceffary, as faith, Tcpentance, pardon of finne, 
pcrfeverancc,eternali life, and thefe are ail moft certainly prorai- 
fsd, and aflfurediy conferred. And though Juftification and eter» 
nail life be eonditionall, promifcd unto and lb beftowed upon the 
unfaincd bekevcr : yet may they be called abfolute, becatife God 
giveth to the man in Covenant every thing neceifary to Salvati- 
on, Other things are good in thcmfelves and profitable, as joy 
and chearfulneffe of heart, deliverance from fcandaious and rc- 
proacbfuU evils, wounding corfcience, and grieving the Spirit. 
And thefe are not promifed, nor evermore beftowed upon ttic 
faithfaJl. "David may be an inftance hereof; He was not prefer- 
vcd from finne- waft ing confcicnce, and ft aining the foul, but was 
recovered from the danger thereof. To repent ofthelinne, and to 
be pardoned of free grace, was neccfTary to Salvation, God there- 
fore vouchfafcd this fure mercy unto him. To be kept from fai- 
Hngwa$notoftbatneceflity,God therefore fuQered him to fall 
to cure pride of heart, make him know himfelf, and magnific the 
riches of his grace in his recovery. 

This is evident from this, that in the Covenant as the Lord 
promifed mercy, which he performed, fo he threatned judge- 
ment, and deftrudion againft them that diddifobey, if they perfi- 
fted obftinate and would not returne. And therefore both in 
ftiewing mercy, and infli(fliog puniHinjent, the Lord dealt ac- , 
cording to promife. Sometimes when the houfe of ZJ^iz/i*^ fin- 
ned, the Lord fparcd them, but then he gave them hearts to hum- 
ble themfelves, and fi the j'udgement was prevented. Thm fiith 
the Lordt Te have firfaken mcy therefore have lalfo left you in the jChroiu lii, 
hands of Shijhakt Then the Trincei of Ifraely and the Kin^ hnmbled ? i^iJi^' ^ 
themfelves, and fiid. The Lord iijtifi. And when the Lordfaw, that Sept.w^^'^^^ 
they ht4ml>led themfelves, the tvordof the Lord came to Shemaiah^faym ^^y^ ' 
i»^,They have humbled themfelves, therefore ImU not deBroy them, 
hut 1 mil fend them deliverance fhortly, and my Verath Jhallnot be poH* 
red out upon Jerufalem by the hand of ShiJhaJ^ Never thelejfe they Jhall 
be hlsfervants : fo Jhall they know my fervice, and the fervice of the vcrC i i} 
Kings of themk Andbecanfehehnmbled himfelf, the ^rath of the 

X a L9rd 

X ? ^ Oftht CQVinMt that God made mth Ifuel, 

J[^rJmrnedjrotiihim,th4thewoHUnotdsflrojl»m altogether, ^nd 
aifo it} fHdah tke things prospered. Sometimes the Lord poured his 
wrath upon Judahand J erufalem, according as he threatncd, but 
be let tbem goe on in the ftubbomneflfe of their hearts, ootiil they 
bad fiU^cI up the meafure of their iniquity ,and till there was oo rc- 
aiedy. So bs gave them into the enemies hand, and fuifcred his. 
^amc to be ppliuted amongft the HeaLnep, when he had trycd by 
ailmpanes to bring them home, but they would not replant. The 
Kingdome of B avid was for ever eftablifiicdjand God prcferved z 
Cburch and people unto himrelfc, according to his good pleafure^ 
ior this W3.S abfolutcly willed and foretold, but pertorm^il accor- 
ding to promife oi free grace and love. Thus God is ferious in al! 
his Promiles and Commandements, according as he is plcafed to . 
give tbcm : and cff^iflually brings to psfl? his own purpofe of 
grace, according to that which be hath promifed, With this 
pil^omiitf they prciT^ the Lord in their captivity, fVhy dpftthoafar^ 
Lata, -f . 20. 2 1, ^^^ ^ ^^^ ^^^^^ and for fake m fi loifg tim^ ? Tuva thou m unto thee, 

yi^!^^ ^** Q Lgrdf «^ ^fjhall be turned : renew otir daps 04 of old: Turns ^t» 

Pui.80,4. Q, Cjq4^ or refiare m^ to ^if,fr0mfirroT^ to joy, fivm captivity to /*- 

pfnl. 1 26.13!, kcrtj: c^fifs thy. face tofbine, that is^to be iighta^chca? full, comfc^ta*! 

Kal i.?. gc ; a^ ,^9 j^^Lfee^^veda. 

Chap. X. 

^fthc Coven mt that God made with ifratl , after 

the Babylon;^. Caftnnty, 

WHcn the ppQplc pf Ifrael was alnipft clear«« deft^oyed and; 
wafted in the Babylonian Captivity, th§ Lord by many 
■ %mpieproroifesdidafrurc^thathe wpiild dcliuei" theiijout of'tbe^^ 
" "^ %nd,s pf their enemies,3nd bring thcra again into theisown land,. 
^ . ht up the tokens of hjs prcience gmongft them* and delight in 
Ocn?^!]!' ^^^^ ^^ ^°^ ^^^"^ §°*^^* Comfort y^, comfort ya my peopk, f4tk 
your God> fj^ea^ks ye comfort^My ^^ ^riifalem , Oftd cry mta her,th«^ 
Ber '^arf^e is ofcomplifijed, th^P hr imqmty ^f^^aed,] fey Jk% k^k^ 
xe^ceivedofthfiLorddo.iihkforallherfipms: that is, fkc hath been 
jer j«.ia p^i?niibc4«nough and more then enough for her tranfgr«liions. 
aad i 7.iS. ^ihMii^M -^^^ ^(l.cfim "^khprn^ hand* md hk ^m: wM. rait 
' : '^~ " " " fi^ 

After the B aby lorn jhCApivity. i^j 

for i»w ' licMdy hii reimrdii '^ith him, a^d his vforkj^efote mrrtj. He Revel. 1 8. 6. 
Jiaff fifd hi^ fiockjike a/hfepherd, he jhafl gather the Lambes^ith hii Ifai.4«».io>»'«i 
^mcy^^dcarry them into his bofome. and Jhall gently kade thofe that 
Are with young, Fearemt thou worme Jacob ^ and ye men of Ifraeli I^2i.4»' i4>- 
Imllheb theefdithths Lord.andthy Redeemer the holy Oneof IfraeL *'* *^* 
£ehffld, J vfill fiMke thee a new {harpe thejhing injirument having 
Ueth : thou Ihalt threjh the mountaines , and beat them j mail ^ and 
Jhaltmak^ the hits M chafe. Thou Jhalt fanne them, and the tdit-d Rey,i7.T4^ 
fiall carry them avDay, and the yfhirlwindfhallfcatter them.: and thou 211019.17. 
Jh^f rem£C in the Lord, &nd Jhalt glory in the holy One of Ifraek ^^ "'' '^* 
when thefoore and needy feekjfiater , and there u none, a^d their tongue 
failethfor thirfl, I the Lord will he are thsm, I the Cjod of Ifr&elmU verf. i Sj, 
not forfaki then'U. I mil open rivers in high -places, -and fountaijies in- 15* 

the midft of the vallies : I yvillmake the wilder nejfe A poole of water, 
^d th drie Land jprings of water. But now thi^ faith the Lord 
that created thee. O 'j-acob, andhe that formed thee^O Ifrael,Fe^e not- iraii^j. 1^3^^^' 
for I have redeemed thee, I have called thee by thy name, thou art mine, 
when ihofi paffefi through the waters, I will be with thee-^ and through. 
theriv^*'^)^^^7/^'*^^^^^^'^^^fi^'^^^^^ ' ^^^^ thou walk^fl through tha^ 
fire, thoufiolt not be burnt, neither Jhall the fame kindle upon the,. 
J^or lam the Lord thy God, the Holy One ef/frael, thy Saviour : I 
mvff Egypt for thy ranfeme, Ethiopia and Scba for thee. Remember IC^^i.^^iz^, 
thefe,0 Jacob and Ifrael, for thou art my fervant: I have formed *^**J>. 
thee: thouartwy fervant, Ifrael i thou Jhalt notbe forgotten of me, 
1 have blotted out, as a, thy rranfgrefftons, and as a cloud, 
thyfinnes: returne unto me, for I have redeemedthee. Sing, O ye heOr-. 
venSifor the Lord hath done icjhoot ye lowr parts of the t^tht. breal^' 
forth into (ingingye mountaines ; (? Forrefi ande^ery tree therein: for 
the Lord hath redeemed facob, and glorified hlmfelfe in IfroiL Thus, 
faiththe Lord thy Redeemer, andhe that formed theeiram the womhe, ; T€rf.*^ 

lamtheLordthatmak^^h a/lthingSythatfiretchaih forth. the /jeii%>en£t 
iikQV0,thatfftreadetk ahead iSe earth bymy jelfe. That fiujiratet^, -54^ 

^e tokens of the li^irs, and maketh diviners mady that turmrh wifimm,, 
ba£Ji;m>d^andw4keiJi their knowledge foolijh : That co^nfirmeth th&^ 
i^Qrdofhi4firv4nt,andperformeth the counfefl of his meffengers, tka3s 
f^tht<)'hKHfM(^n, Thpu.jhalt Ire inhabited, and t/> the Cities oflUiUhj, 
XefhallheSUkyOndlwill raife uptke decayed places tlkrmf, Th^t- 
faith to the deep, 'Be drie^ and I will drie up thy rivers. That: fmki of 

' ' ; kpi^^^herd^attd4kiillierfflr?ffe all my pltafurff^, even^f^y- ifjj ^ ^^ 3.^,^ 

158 of the C^vemm that Gddmadewhh ifrael. 

injl Jernfalem, ThoHjhiltbebmli, andta the Temple, Thyfottndatioii 

Ifai.4j.i43if. fxAllbeUtd, Thmft^th the LordX^s labour of Egypt^andmerchandife 
of Ethiopia, n-id of the Saham, mm offiamrs Jhall come over untu 
theeyandthej/f^^ll he thine, thej fhM come after thee^ in chaines they 
Jh^U come over : and thej (hall fall d'jwae nnto thee, they jhdl make {up* 
plication nnto thee,fajin^y Surely (jod is in thee^ and there is noneelje, 
vcr« 17, there is no Qad. Ifrael /h£l htfaved in the Lord with an everlaflifnf 
Salvation) J eJhMl not be ajhxmed, n jr confounded world without end, 

Ifai,4^,|j4. Hearken untome^ Ohoufioff-acobyaniallthe remnAnt of the houfe- 
of Ifrael, which are borne bj me from the belly, which are carriedfrom 
the womhe. And even to your old age I am he, and even to hoare haires 
will I carry y OH : I have mads, andlwillheare, even I will carry and 
vei:f.S3. will deliver you, I will bring neere my rlghteoufhejfe : it /ball not be 
farre off,ayidmy Salvation f jail not tarry: and I will place Salvation in 

'. . „ Sionfsr I/raelmydorj. Goe je forth of Babylon t flee ye from thf 

l,nAldeanwtth avoice off nging, declare ye, tell this^ utter It events 
the end of the earth : fayyeyThe Lord hath redeemed his (ervant lacob. 
And they thirfiednot when he led them through thedeferts, hecaufed 
the neater $ to flow out of the rock^for them : he clave the rockalfot and 
the waters gufhed out » Thcpromifcs tothispurpofeareveryminy, 
and bccanfe it was anhard matter to psrfwadc the faint and droo- 
ping fpirk broken with long and grievous calamities, the Lord is 
plcafsTa to confirme his promifes bsf fuadry arguments , fomc 
whereof we will here repeat, becaufe the ample promifes of their 
returnc, and the repairc of the City, and Temple , doth give 
fomc light what Covenant the Lord made Vi^ith them aftct 
their returnc. 

Firft, God promifeth to deliver them, becaufe they had been 

If3i.45.j^4, beloved of him of old time. / ^m the Lordthy god, the holy One of 
1 fit Ifraeli thy Saviour; I gave Bgypt for thy ranfome, Ethiopia andSeba 

Ifai#46.|,4, for thee * Since thouy^aft precious in my fights thou hafi been honoura* 
blcy and I have loved thee : therefore will I give men for thee, and peo- 
ple for thy life, Feare not, for I am with thee : I will bring thy feed 
from the Saflj and gather thee from the fVeSi, I will fay to the North, 
Qiveup I and to the South, Keepe not backj bring my fonnes from 
farre, and my daughters from the ends of the earth. Even every one 
that is called by my Name: for I have created him for my glory , I hofVe 
formed him^ yea^ I have made hinzj, 

Secondlyi The Lord hath not fold them for price or gain^' 


after the BabylomjhCa^ti'vity, - Ijp 

therefore be migbt rcdeemc them without n:ioncy,a^jr««%»^8'^4^, ^ . 
■putonthyflrength, O Zion.fnt enthy i>emtifi// garments, O leruja- f^ll^^^'hr/^* 
iem the holy City; for henceforth there flmtl no more ccme into thee the ^Yimvm% 
f^ficireumcifedand the UHcleane, Shake thyfelfe from the dpi fi : arife, 
findjtt dorvn.O ferufalem: loofe thy feife from the bandsofthynecke^O 
cAftive dattghter of Z ion: For thpu faith the Lord, Te have fold jour 
felvei fornought : andyfjhall he redeemed without money, . 

Thirdly, By former experience be doth affure them of their fu- ^r.^ 
ture return into their own place. For thui faith the Lord God, My ' ' 
teotle went downe aforetime i^o E ^y ft, to fojourne there, and the Af- . ^ 

fyrian oppre^ed them without cmfe. Now therefore what have I here^ 
faith the Lor di that my people is tahn away for nought^ they that 
rule over them make them to howle, faith the Lord^ and my Name con-' 
tinnally is bla^hemed, T her ef ore mj people Jball know my Name: there- 
fore they Jhall h^orff in that day , th^t J am he- that doth Jpeake, 
ISeholdit is /. . 

Fcurthly,ThisQiallbe to the Lord for a' name and glory. For ifaf.Ag.j,; 
wi»e own fake, even for mine own fa^e^ will I doe it : for how ffioald and 42, g^. 
myName be.polltited ^ and. I will not give mj glory unto another, I 
mllcaufs the Captivity of Judah, and the Captivity oflfraelto return , 
and mil build them oi at thefirfi, And / will cleanfe them from all jer. ; j. t^T,9\ 
their iniquity, "thereby they have fnned, and "thereby they havetranf- E2ek.36.23j 
^refedagainli me. zAnd itfhaUbe unto me a. Name of '"joy, a praife^ *S. 
and an honour be fire, all the nations of the earth , that Jhall heare 
atl the good that I doe unto them : and they Jhatl ^jire and trem' 
ble for all the goodnejfe, and fir all the pro ferity that J procure 
UKto it, ^c. 

Fifthly, That they might not fiint through the long and great 
cslamity which went before deliverance, the Prophet in the 
Name of the Lord, fetteth before them the glory and dignity of 
the Mefliah which followed his humiliation, B-ehold, my fervanp 
Jhall deale prudently , he fhaUhe exalted and extolled^ and be very li'ai.?a.! j^u. 
hij^. As many were afioniedat thee ( hii vifage Vcas fo marred more. 
than any man, and hl^fsrme more then the fonnes of men) fofhallhe. 
f^rinkle many nations, the Kings Jhall [hut their mouths at him: for tJjat 
Vchich had not been told ^em, Jhall they fee, and that Which they had- 
not heard, Jhall they confidef. Another Prophet direding the faith- 
ful! how to behave thcmfelvcs in that long and grievous Captivi- 
ty, j^»7. to wait paticBtly Jor the accompliiliment of the. Prcmife^ 

bccaufs . 

1 60 oft he Cc^enam that Cod mak mth jfrael. 

bccaufc the vifion would fpcakc in its appomtcd fcafon, and not 
licj he doth unfold the Dodrine of free J unification by faith in 
Cbriftmorcplainely then formerly it had been cxprcffed in the 
Hab.2.4, ^3 w ci'LAi^fef, adding, 'Sehdd, his /?»/ "^hkh U lifted ti^^ is not npm 

right i» him : hut the jnfl J7jaff live hy bis faith. Whence the 
Apoftle inferretb, that we are juftified by free grace, and not by 
GaL^.^r," the works of the Law m the fight of God. In the Ofiginalft 
it is, Thejufl fhall live in his faith but that particle is oft very well 
^ rendred by * Of or By: and it is all one whether v/e reade it. The 

nDeut.6.j, pf; jhdllive bj , of or in faith, the fenfe being, The juft fliall live 
Mani X40, ^j^g ijpg y^ gv^cc here, and of glory hereafter in or by faith. That 
Rom",i°*i7? vihich the Prophet fpcaketh in gcnerall of all the Promifes of 
Gal.j.ii. ' God, that the godly might certainly and constantly hold , in 
Heb.1b.38, what thing they ought to reft in the midft of aHftormcs an<f 
Deur.31.21. tcmpefis, and whence they may live fccurcly in the diftreflfcs of 
pfal'*8'^* death, that the Apoftie doth fpccially interpret of Juftificstion 
Aa^iyTs, and life eternall, which we cbtaine by f*!th. The Prophet and 
Pfai* I g. JO* Apoflle both fpwke of a lively faith, which is eCduall to bring 
Matrh. 1 7.11, forth good works : but we detain life eternall by faith, and doc 
E^hila^,! I. jjy works. To live here is to obtaine life or glory, not to leads 
our life according to the Law, or rale of righteoufncfle: ts the 
drift off he Prophet, and Expofit ion c f the Apoft le, oppcfing the^ 
life which is by f^ith, to that which is by the works of the^Liw, 
wbichcouldnot be, if to live by faith hr.d been to dirc<5t out 
life according to the Law- Though then the righteous man 
muft cxercifc hirofclfc in rightecurnc{r^, yet he is juftified and 
livcth, that is^ obtaineth life eternall by faith, and not by the 
works of faith. 
Jei.14.6 7 Now'the Lord, the (koog Redeemer of his people, according 

and ^*»4* ^^^^ word of his Prophets, brought back their Captivity with, joy in his tioic appointed, planted them in their own Land, 
iJij7» brought them into the bond of his Cevcnant, and fct up his Ta- 

bernacle amongft them. fvhe» the- Lord (faith the PfaimiftJ:' 
Pfal,ij5i,z, brought bachjhe C Of tivity ofZion, We '^ere liketi:em that dreame, 
7 hen "^m our mouth fiu'ed Voith laughter, and op:r tongue ^ith Jinging: 
then faidthey amonffFi the Heathen, The Lord hath done great things 
for therrtj. And the Vxox>hzt Zachary , As fir theealfi, hythe blood 
Zech.p. II, of thy Covenant, I have feftt firth thy prifomerj oast of the pit, \>i>hereiH 
f^ no Vi>ater« By this gr^t, fpeciail, late and new bielHng, the 


dfiertheSahykniflrCapwity, j^^ 

Lord did bind bis Ifracl unto him more ftrongly then htt-ctoforeo 
Behold^ the d^yes come ^ faith the Lord, that theyjhall m more fay, The ter.»».7 « ^ 
Lerdlivethy Vifhich koft^ht Hp the children of Ifrael out of the Land of and r^.M^f ft 
£^pt, ButttheLordlivethy^hichhoughtup, and "^hich led the 
feed of the houfe of Ifrael out of the North Countrey, andfromktl 
Comtriei "thither I had driven themt affd they JhaU dwell in their own 
Ldnd, In rcfped of this late and new blefling vouchfafcd, the 
Covenant that God made with his people now brought back 
and planted in their own Land, may be called New? but in rc- 
fped of the Author, matter, forme, endjefFeds, and meancs of ad- 
luiniftration, teaching and applying, it was one with the former^ 
Neverthclcife, the Covenant which God made with his inhere 
tance upon their delivery from the North Countrey, did exceed 
the former which he had made with their Fathers, when he 
brought them out of Egypt, in divers refpcds. 

Firft, the Mcdiatour in and through whom this Covenant was 
snade or promifed, is more plainly revealed, both in rcfped oFhiis ^ 

pcrfon, humiliation, rcfiirredion, place of his birth, time of his 
comming, kingly office, and manifeft tokens whereby he (hould 
be knownc , then in the former expreflions. 'Behold, the dajes 
comet faith the Lord, that J will raife unto *J)avid a righteom branch, jer . aj.'j ^^,' 
4nd a King (hail raigne and proffer ^ and Jhall execute judgement and si.i4ti f« 
4ind JHJiice in the earfh. In hii dayes- Jadah jhall be favedt and If- Ifai«4<^2, 
raeljhalldrfiellfa^lji and this is his name, \Hereby he Jhall be called, '^^'^^' ?r** 
The Lordoftr righteoftfneffe. Surely he hath borne our griefis, and irai,5|,4e 
carried our forr oaves : yet Tve didefleeme himjiricken, fmitten of God, 
andaffii^ed: but he"^as bounded fir our tranfgreffions, he ^arbrui^ 
fed for our inicjuittet : the chafi/ement of our peace ^as upon him, and 
Vfith hisftripes W<? are healed : yet it pleafed the Lord to bruife him, he ^cr, | qI 

hath put him togriefe: When thou fhalt make his (onl m offering for fn, 
■he Jhall fee his feed, he Jhall prolong his dayes , and the pleafkre of 
the Lordjhdl froffitr in his hand. Hefhdlfee the travell of his foul, ver, i r*. 

and Jhall befansfied : hf his knowledge Jhall my righteonsfervantju- 
flife many : jvr he (hall leare their imcjmties, *JSut thou, *Bethlehem Mich.5.». 
Sphramh, though thou be little among the thoufands of fudah, yet out Mitth.a,5, ^ 
nfthee (hall he come Jvrth unto me, that is to be ruler in Ifrael : Whofe 
goings forth have been frem of old, from ezvrlajiing, Setjenty Weekes Dan.p«24. 
■are determihedupm thy people, and upon thy holy C^ty, to fnifh tjip 
4r4nfgre£lon,andumakeanend0ffinneSjaHd to thak£ rmnciliatien 

r ' fir 

1^2 of the. Covenant that Ced made with Jjrael, 

for irnqtiitji and to htng incverlajihg righttoufne^e, md ufeaU up 
the 'vifion andfrophcjie, and to anoint the mofi holy. Rejojce gnatly^O 
%ccb.Jo9? dmghter efZion, Jhoutt O daughter of prtifahm : behold, thj Kw£ 

commeth mto thee : he ujf^Ji, and having Salvation^ lordj^and riding 
ftfonan J^e^andftponaColtthefoaleefan A^e, In the Proroifc 
of this Covenant, thefc and the hke defcriptions we have of the 
promifed Meffiah, by whom the Salvation of the Chinrch is 
wrought, and in whom all the Pfomifes of God are cftabliflied. 

Secondly jSpiritaall benefits and the graces of the Spirit were. 
more plentifully bsftowed upon the Church, under thisCovc- 
^ mntjthcn formerly. For thus the promife runneth,/ W*7/y^f»»wr 

l€i.i4. i7« ^^^ ufornhem for good, and J "^ill bring them againe to thiiLand.and 
I^illbmld them, and- not full them downe, and I "^Ptll plant thentyOnd- 
not plftckjhetn up. And I '^illgive them an heart to kntm me, that I 
am the Lord, and thejjhall be my people, and I ^ill be their ^od: for 
they Jhallreturne unto we^ith their ^hole heart. Then fftall ye call 
ftpon me, andye fhall goe and pray unto me, and I '^ill hearken unto you. 
Icy* 10. 1 i i\ . - ^^dye Jhalljeeke me and find me^ ^henye Jhallfearch for me '^ith all 
your heart. And I Will caufe him to dratvneere, and he fhall approach 
unto me I for'^hoisthUthat engaged hii heasrt to approach unto me, 
Tcr"? ar, faith the Lord I They Jhall come With'^'eeping, and Vpithfupplicatiom 
Jer. 3 u9* ' * ^^^^ ^ ^^^^^ them : I Veill caufe them to "^alke by the. rivers of'^aten, 
ht afiraight way rvherein they fhall not fiumbU,for I am a Father to 
Jfrael, and Sphraim is myfirfi horn: Therefore theyfhaU come andjing 
ya, 14. iff fj^g height of Z ion, and they fhall flow together to thegoodnejfe of the 
Lord, for wheat, and for wine, and for oile, and for the young of the 
fiock^, and of the herd: andtheirpftle (ball he oi a watered garden, 
and they Jhall not forroY)) any more at all. I willpoure water upon him 
^ai.44.° js4a?» thatii thirfiy, and fiouds upon the dry ground .• / willpoure my Spirit 
ftpon thy feed, and my bleffmg upon thy off- firing :. And they fhall 
fpringup as amongthe gra^e, Oi the willow es by the water-courfei. 
One fhall fay^ lam the Lords : and another fhall call himfelfe by the 
name of Jacob : and another Jhall (hbfcribe with his hand unto the 
Lord, and furname himfelfe by the name oflfraeh 

Thirdly^ in the very tcnour and adminiftration of the Covenant 
it felfe it did excelJ. For this Covenant after it once began, did 
continue without interruption , untill it was pcrfedcd by the 
Igew Teftament properly fo called^ whereas the former Covenant 
jipasijioken or did cxpire,.For during the tiracof the Babyioni^ 


after the Bahylom^ Capivity, 16^ 

Captivity, neither fftdah nor Ifraeihsid either wandering Taber- 
nacle or ftanding Temple: But in this Covenant, God did fo at Jcr.aj.^,^/ 
kl Zeruhbabel in the building of tbeTemple,that he brought forth 
the head ftone thereof with Qioutings, crying, Grace, Grace '^^^^•^7* 
unto it ; He laid the foundation of the houfejand his hands alfo fini- ^^^ ^' ■ 
(hed it : and the Lord fo preferved it, that it continued untill CJirift 
taking our nature upon him, came and dwelt amongft his people. 
I ^illjhakj^ all Nations, and the defer e of all Nations fhaB come, rr «^ , 

andl^ill fin this houfe^ith glory, (iith the Lord of HoBs, The " S-».7A9- 
filver is mine, and the gold is mine, faith the Lord ofHojis. The 
glory of this latter hQufejhaU, be greater then of the firmer, faith 
theLordofHofis: andin this place \^i/l I give peace, faith the 
LordofHofts. And fowecommonly find the promife of calling 
the Gentiles , and bringing them into the meep-fold of Jefus 
Chrift, is commonly annexed to this Covenant. O Lord, my Mi*'«9. ] j 
firength and my firtrejfe, andmyrefiige in the day of aff,iUion : 
TheXjentiles Jhall come unto thee from the ends of the earth, and jer, 22,2 s 
jhall fay, fkrely our Fathers have inherited lies, vanity, and ' ' li * 
things "therein there is no profit. Behold I VpHI gather them out 
ofaU Countries, "Whether I have driven them in mine anger, and 
inmyfirj, andingreat^rath, and I^illbringthemagaine into '^"'^•"•J7,i8, 
thi^ place, and I W*// caufe them to dwell faftly : And they Jhall E^g. -q ' **, 
be my people, and I^i/l be their God, And I ^ill give them one ♦»,45. Lam^'* 
heart, and one Vfay, that they may fiare me fir ever, fir the good *». Thyoui' 
fifthem, and of their children after them. And I ^ill makf an 'J'^ifucnt b 
everlafting Covenant ^ith them, that I "^ill not tnrne away ^'"S^tcr of 
from them to doe them good : but I^illput my fiare into their ed°fa*^*n ^ 
hearts, that they Jhdl not depart fiom me. And in thefe refpedts, adde to giv "^'^ 
this Covenant which percaincd to the old Teftament might be cal- thee to be car- 
led an inchoatton of the new : becaufe the old ordinances diftilling "^^^ ^^3y,/ciU 
grace in fome meafure into the whole Covenant, were to continue, ^^'^^^ ^^P^ ft'lc 
untill Chrift (hoold be incarnate,and ered a new^Tabernacle,which coiimr"'° ^'^ ? 
fhould ftand and continue for ever : when a new people fhould be prefcnc Optif 
added to the Lord, and the old ordinances, becaule of their weak- vity. ' 

neffe, being taken downc, a new forme fliould be fet up, to abide 

And from all this, we may briefly obferve in what accidents^ 

the old and new Teftament differ one from another, when for 

Cubftancethey be one and the fame. I'hey both flow from the 

■ ' '" Ya ~'^ ^ free-grace 

I ^4 <5/ ^^^ Covemm that God made with ifraeL 

f ree-^race and mercy of God looking at poore finners in Jefus 
Heb t Chrift. They have boch one common macter •. the obedience of 

Aa./,V9, ^aith required, and life everlafting, and all fecondary good things 
Ephiili^J promifed by the imputation of the righteoufneffe of faith, and free 
adoption in JefusChrift. They have both one objed: Jeius Chrift^ 
who being promifed to the Fathers in propheticall Scriptures, God 
hath in due time exhibited under the Gofpel. They have both one 
.generallend, viz» the praifeofthe glorious grace of God in Jcfus 
Chrift. Both Covenants are ftruck with man-kind, as inveftcd ki 
one and the fame reall and formall coniidcration, whither before 
or after Chrift,-:;/^. with (inners, and thofe which worke not, but 
beleeve in him that juftifieth the ungodly. In both the fame fpirit 
iealed up the truth of the Covenants to all under Covenant : for 
feeing the adoption, and inheritance in fome meafure beloi^ed to 
the Fathers in the old Teftament, the earneft of that inheritance 
cannot be denied them. But the new Covenant doth in many 
things out-ftrip the old, which do nothing derogate from their fub- 
ftantiall and reall unity and agreement. 

Firft, In the old Teftament the Lord did proclaime himfelf to 

be mercifulland gracious, (low to anger, aboundant in goodneffe 

and truth, which he confirmed by great and wonderfull delivcraa- 

ces of his people out of Egypt and Babylon : but yet at firft he 

gave his Law with fignes of Majefty, glory and terrour, yea of 

. anger and dilpleafure againft iin and wickcdneffe. But the new 

Bxsd^ 19, \ &. Teftament was given with manifeft tokens of love, favour and free 

Heo.fZji^stia ipercy, Gcd being reconciled in the Son of his love, and therein 

sin * Gor.5. ' he hath revealed bis fuperaboundant and tranfcendent love> mei^^jg - 

' ^^: ■ iy,i&»- and long-fuftering, as Ihall be (hewed hereafter. 

Secondly, In the old Teftament Chrift was knowne to be the 

feed of the woman, the feleded feed of Abraham, his bloud and. 

'^fV- death typified in Mofes, his perfon and office, humiliation and 

/^" refurre&ofl fore-told by the Prophets ,, but aU thele were more 

3g|h.ui*,i|. obfcure arid darke to the Jewes ; but m the new Teftament 

p»pm,t.4.0al. Jig J5 openly manifefted to be the Son of God, made unto us of God 

S?ipf*Cp.3.iQ ^j{yom>rightcoufnes,fanftifiC3tion and redemption,_to whom the 

promife was made,and by whofe love & authority, as the greatTe- 

fta.tor of heaven,they are all made,put forth, ratified & eftabliQjed» 

, . Thirdly, The commandments ofthe old Teftament were many 

Cyl»V/uM« ot-tfe^acarnall, ftandinginceremQmallpbrcrvanccSj and contai- 

After the Ba^yhm(h Captivity , j 5 ^ 

giing an hand-writing againft them : and the promifes were many 
corporall, as of an earthly inheritance, lo that by them their faith 
was to alcend up to fpirituall and heavenly things, and the fpiri- 
mall promifes were obfcure, in number fewer, and fuch as were 
hrre off. But the commandments oi the new Covenant are fpi- 
rituall, and the promifes (pirituall, plainly revealed, nigh at hand, Mat.^.i^;^ 
ratified by the comroing of Chrift, particular: earthly things are 
promifed as an additament to them that (eek the Kingdoms of hea- 
ven, and included in the fpirituall. 

Fourthly, Mofes was the Mediatour of the old Teftament, a G^^-S-^^' 
typicall, imperfed:' Mediatour, as not a right middle perfon ; a 
Mediatour in refpe(ft of the outward ad miniilration, and that by ^^.p.ij.&s. 
the power and vertuc of Chrift, but the force of that Covenant ^' '^''^^ 
had foundation in Chrift, and it was in and through Chrift, that 
the federates were partakers of the good things promifed. But. 
Chrift the Mediatour of the new Covenant, a true and perfe(fl Me- 
diatour, a right middle perfon between Giod and man • who hath 
revealed the Gofpel, fatisfied revenging juftice, brought in ever- 
lafting righteoufnefle : who alone is able to remove the guilt of 
fin from the confcience, repaire the loft image of God in his peo- 
ple, bo w their hearts to walk in obedience,and procure acceptance, 
to their fervice. 

Fifthly, The old Teftament was confirmed with the bloud of Uth.^.iS^if^ 
beafts, becaufe the typicall Mediatour was notTeftator,and fo was *°' Hcb.p, 14, 
not to die : but in the new TTcftament the true and perfed Media- ^^'^•^^'*^' 
tour, was alfo the Teftator, and fo the Covenant was confirmed by. 
his precious bloud. 

, Sixthly, TheLawwaswrittenintablesof ftone,yetfoasitwas Exod. 51,18^ 
engraven in the tables of the heart, though not in thac pknty and Deut,© 10. 
abundance that afterward : for under the old Teftament God Daujo.6jiij^, 
would have both letter and fpirit, butmoreletcer and lefTe ipirit. '^* 

But theGolpel is written in the flefhie tables of the heart, yet foas 5, .?^*/HJb sT 
it is committed to writing s for in the new Teftament the Lord * * id * 
would have both letter and fpirit, but more Ipirit and lelTe letter 
shen in the old Teftament. 

Seventhly, The old Covenant was made with one feledled Na- 
tion, though Profelites, if any offered themfelve?, might not be 
excluded ; but in the new Covenant, the world inoppofition to Mit.ig.igj,,, 
the Jewifh Nations, all Nations, people and languages are taken D.m.7,1-8^ 
l^t« federates, ' ' T Y 3, Eighcli-;- 

i66 of truth and Vfrightnejf^^, 

Eighthly, The Law was weake, unable to gi ve life, to purge 
.H€'b8'.7.& the confcience, to paciiie the wrath of God, and therefore to be 
%i{, ' ' ' abrogated, when Chrift was come, whereunto it pointed, and 
the new ordinances were fet up and eftabliOied : but the Gofpel 
Eph.j.8.Rom. containeth the unfearchable riches ot God, is the power of God 
1.16. Mit,a6. to Salvation, to continue for ever, and the blood of the new Te- 
£8.« Heb.9, 14, lament doth expiate fin, purge the confcience, and fpeak better 
ij»& iz.a4. things then the bloud of (v^^^/. 

Ninthly, The federates under the old Covenant are compared 
unto an heire under age, needing a Guardian, Tutour or Schoole- 
mafter, little differing from a fervant, fubjec^ to the bondage of 
Gal,4.i,s,3,4. ^he Ceremoniall Law, and (ervitude of fpirit, becauCethe curfe of 
a.4.i|,i4»^ the Law was more feverely prefled, and the bloud of Chrift, 
whereby freedome was purchaied more covertly and fparingly re* 
vealed : but the federates under the new are growne up unto 3 
ripeageinJefusChrift, freed from the bondage of Ceremoniall 
ordinances, endued with holy liberty, partakers of the fpirit of a- 
doption, whereby they cry Abba Father. But of the priviledges of 
the federates under the new Covenant, and the excellency of that 
Covenant in the Chapters following. 


Chap, XL 

of Truth and V^rightneffcj, 

T hath often been faid, that God accepteth true , unf ained and 
upright obedience, and when the fervants of God intreat mercy, 
wc find they alleadge the truth, uprightneffe, and integrity of 
their hearts, to fliew they were rightly qualified to make a faith- 
full plea for mercy : therefore ( I conceive ) it will not be out of 
place here to (hew what Truth and Uprightnefle is, and then pro- 
ceed to the doftrine of the new Covenant. 
Gen.j4.49. Truth the Septuagint renders righteoufnefle : for upright- 

8^^'iffll.^'^^^ nefTe and integrity they put truth : and for the paths of judge- 
Ifa.4< igfprj ment, they have it, the paths of truth. And in this fence to doe! truth, foh.^,21. is, not to doc perverfly, to doe right, juftice, 
integrity, as to dcale perverfly or unjuftly, Ifi.i6,io» they iranf- 
iace, not CO doe truth. In Like manner, lies or falfe-hood^ d^cic 

of Truth and rfrightmjfc^, j^y 

andfraudthcy tranflaceinjufticc;, as a faire-wimefle, is in them', 

a witneffe of injuftice, or an unjuft witneffe, they fweare falfely,iSj ^^^ »7.4.Deu; 

theyfweareunjuftly : the Prophets prophecy falfe things, unjuCt '^-^f^cyit.'i^ 

things they render it : afalfeballance, isa deceitful! ballance, or j^,,.^ 
uniuftballancej orballanceoHrij'uftice. Andinjullice is oppofed Aj^'osS.,. 
to truth,, and iniquity or unrighteoufnefle pat for faliiiood or de- Hor.,2,7'.' 
eeic: theMammonof iniquity, that is, deceitful! riches, isfeta- ^"^-s^jH- 
gainft the true treafurcj which will not deceive. Iniquity Vcasnot ^f,^;**** 
fimd in his mouth, (aith the Prophet, that is, guile or deceit. The ' ~^'-'»*- 
deceitful!, the Septuagint tranflates, the unrighteous and guileful! 
man, P/al.^S . i . So that thefe f oure. Truth, Uprightnefle, Righ- 
teoufnefle and Integrity, doe fignific the fame tbing-for lubftance, j.- , 
andmoilcertaineitis, they be io conjoyned, that where one is, '''^* * 

the other cannot be wanting. But though the thing be one for Tub- 
ftance, thatisfignifiedbyalltheie, and they be fometimes ufed in* 
differently, yet they note formal! and diliindl conceits, and fo may 
Truth implieth or prefuppofeth thefe things j 

1. knowledge of Gods will. Truth of judgement goethbefore ^ 
truthofhearc;. for corrupt dodrine is as fowre leaven, that lea* ^^^•**^*'** 
veneth the whole maflfe,. maketh the whole to favour of it. 

2. Soundneffeorfolidityingrace, oppofite to thofe fuperficiall 
and {hallow-planted graces, that may be found in temporary 
Chriftians, enduring but for a time. This is truth in the reines or pfai.5 j.<5, 
inward parts,- which feafoneth the heart throughout, and makes 

it true, whereas the heart of the temporary is falfe and unfoand ; 
becaufe his graces are fuperficially or fleightly rooted. 

3. Sincerity or godly fimplicity without fraud, craft or guilci 
where the in- fide and out-fide are one, the heart and mouth equal! 
and welLconfenting. Truth is an ingenuous life without deceit 
anddiftimulation, J?/?^^/.4.i5. HolinefTeoftruthistrueorfincerc 
holineife, £/»^^/.4.24,Tukeepe the truth, 7/2.26.2. is to im- 
brace true piety and true vertue without hypocrifie, without lying, 
orperfidioufnefre. ToferveGodintruth, foJh.2J{.i^.iSanj.i2i 

14. istoferveGodunfainedly, from the heart, according tcr his » King.av*. 
will. To walke in the truth, ?o^.3.3,4. is to walke fincerely or 
in godly iimplicity.- For truth is ingenuous, void of fimulation. 
Andinthis^fencefomeunderftand that of the Apoftie, Love rc' 
foy^f^ in the truth , that is, love lincerely or in truck re;byceth » Cor* 1 j,5» 


J.58 of Truth And ffri^htnejfc^. 

with them that rcjoy cc. Truth is oppofed to ly irig and falfhood, 
Eph.4,2f, and to empty {hadows and rites: and thus it may be applied to 
Johr,4.a|,t4» thispurpofe, as noting a plaine fimplicity contrary to lying and 
emptie fkews. To ftayupon God in truth, 7/2. 10.20. is unfai* 
inedly, and not in word to ftay upon him. To preach Chrift in 
truth, P hil. 1 . 1 8 . is fincerely to preach him : A true heart is fingle, 
^^.1.^6. relolved notinlbme things, but in all to walk with 
God, or as the Lord hath appointed. Thus a true Chriftian hath 
but one mind, one intention, one delight, one face, one tongue ; 
he is all but one man, all the powers of the Coule goe but one 

4. Purity, orclearefliininginnocency inall things, free from 
the mixtureofleaven in manners or do(5trine. The Apoftle P^t^;^ 
apet.3.ii writeth to the difperfed Jewes, to ftirre up their pure minds: 
what is that, but minds furniOied and feafoned with an holy pet'*. 
Phil, 1.5^10. fpicuity of truth. Pattl prayeth for the Philippiafis, that they 
might abound in all knowledge and in all judgement, that they 
might be able to difcerne things that differ, that they might be 
fincere. And the fame Apoftle teftifieth to the CorinthUns^hQ 
a ^or.i i.i* ^as afraid of them, left their mind Qiould be corrupted from the 
fimplicity that is in Chrift. The word ufed by the Apoftle in all 
three places fignifi.eth properly fomething tried by the light of the 
Sunne. And it is a Metaphor ( as feme luppofc ) taken from jhe 
cuftome of the Eagle, whole manner is ( if we may bekeve thofe 
that write the naturall ftory ) to bring her young out of the neft 
before they be full fledge, and to hold them forth againft the full 
fight of the Sun; the fight whereof thole of them that can with 
open eye endure, (lie retaineth and bringeth up as her owne ; the 
reft that cannot brooke it, andwinke at it, (he reje(fleth and ca- 
ftethorfas abaftardlybrood. Others thinke it rather taken from 
the ufuall pradife of Chap-men in the view and choice of their 
wares. . A wife wary Chap-man thachath to doe with a deceitfull 
Merchant, Draper or other, one that keepeth his wares in ob(curc 
places, where the defeds of them cannot lo eafily be difcerned, or 
hathfalfe lights, that may helpe to give a counterfeit gloffe to 
them, he will take no ware of him upon his word, but he will firft 
diligently view it, tofTe it and turneitco and fro, over and over, 
try how it is in themidft,as well as at both ends, bring it forth 
tnco the light, hold up his cloth againft the SuOj fee if he can efpic 


of Truth and Vfrighine^€^, .. 169 

anyidefeaordefaukinitjbekno.wethhemayeafilyelfebe oyer- corz.i7 
reached. The like muft be our praftife in all matters ok faith and * ^V 

manners : and this is to walk in the truths when we have our con- 
verfation honeft, and hold the truth of Dodrine purely, as we 
may endure the tryall of the light, Thusthe Apoftlejoyneth fin- ^^^ g, 
cerity and truth; together, as one and the fame, or as the fpeciall ^ ^^^\'^ ^^ 
and generall, fincerity being a branch of truth. This is our comfort, 
that in fimplicity and fincerity of God, that is, godly fmcerity we 
have had our converfation. . , , r 

5. Firmeneffeandconftancyineveryholyduty of our generall 
ocperfonall calling, of piety or righteoufneffe. - A faithfull Spi- 
rit is ftedfaft with God : the ground of declining is lacke of truth. 
Thek heart was not right "Heith him^, neither SK> ere theyfiedfaftin pfii^yg^g. 
hi^ Covenant. If the heart be not true, what fliew foever a man pfai. 78.37. 
makes, he is but like an Apple, rotten at the coare, or as an houfe 
built upon the fand, the one of which, though beautifull, will 
foon putrifie,the other,though fairly fet,will quickly fal. A man may 
Have many worthy gif ts,but if he want fmcerity ,upon a fudden may 
be taken from him, both that which he hath,and that which he fee- 
meth to h^e,& his end be as the fig-tree,which making only a (hew 
Wfth leaves, having no fruit, bemg curfed, loft even thofe alfo, 
and withenfd away by degrees, being good for nothing but the 
fire ^Tor asaftomackill affedcd with choller, though never lo 
wholelome meats be received into it, yet it cannot hold them, but 
is provoked : fo where there is this obftruftion of the foul, the 
wilfull love of any finfuU coutfe, or fubordination of grace to boi- 
fterous, diftempered, earthly paffions, pleafures or profits, what- 
foever grace is received into the heart, it Will not let it reft, but 
maketh the foul caft it up upon all occafions. Truth and foundnefle 
is the preferver of grace received: an honeft and found heart is as 
a veflfel wellclofedjit will keep and hold theliquour of grace that is 
powred into it. The courfe of a true Chriftian is permanent, and 
continuethuntotheend. . ,' \ u 1, . 

This truth or finceritie, is the girdle, whereby all other gra- 
ces are tied clofe unto us. So the Apoftle in the defcription E,ph,5.T4.^ 
of the fpirituall armour, calleth it the girdle of truth. And 
therefore here alfo that is true of all men, which we fay of 
children in the Pioverbe, Vngirt, mklelt. This girdle hath 
theieufes. „ ^. n 

lyo of Truth and f^^rfghtmf^^, 

Tirft, Itdothadorne us : for this was the nfe oF the ftudded 
belt, which the Souldiers did weare to hide the gaping of the joynts-: 
of their armour, which would have been unfecmly : and nothing 
doth more adorne a foule, beautifie our aftions, or raife admira* 
tion in them, then finccrity j as our Saviour commending NathM" 
»if/, gave this fpeech of him, B^ehoU, 4 trtte Ifraelite m^honu 

Joh.1.47. there is no guile. 

Secondly, A girdle doth tic other clothes about us, which o- 
therwife the winds would blow abroad , and would hang buc 
l&ofe upon us : fo this girdle of truth doth containe and hold toge- 
thet all other graces, wherewith the foulc is arraied, and unleflc 
truth doe keepe them together, in time all of them- will be blowne 
away with the wind of temptation. That grace which was noc 
kait together with honefty ot heart, came to nothing in the end^ 
asappeares in the Parable. The body, when, the foule is once 
gone, may notlong (lay above ground^ it mull: needs be buried^ 
The hypocrites graces are but the body of grace^ they want the 
foul and life, which is (incerity, and we cannot thinke they ftiould 
long endure. An unfoundhorfe, that hath fomefecrethuk,may, 
carry as good a fhe w as the foundeft, and at firft for a mile or two,; 
travcll as frellily and cheerfully as thebeft, but at length, he tires, 
and rbe ws what he is : (o it is with an unfound Chrift ian,notwith^ 
(landing all his fhev/s, fair beginnings, and hopefull entrances,, he 
continuech not. 

Thirdly, A girdle trufling up-the loins moderateIy,-doth ftreng- 
then xman, a^ girdle is put for ftrength and ornament, 7/2.25.10, 
forintheloines isthefeatof ftrengthandmight, and with a, gir- 
dle the loines are girded ; whence are thefe phrafes, / ft?*"// fireng- 
then himVcith thjt girdis, lia..22.2j, Jusiicejhall he the girdle of 
hisloy}jes^l( He girdeth their loynes ^ith a girdle, J$)b 
12.18. and loofeth the girdle of the firongy Job 12.21. She gir-' 
dethtipherlojnes^'^lthflreiagth, Prov.31.17. And the exhorta- 
tion fo often ufed. Girdnp thy lojnes, Jer. 1 .1 7. Job.g 8.3 . & 4c. 
J, 2 King.4*29,& 2King.9..L, So this grace addcth great ftrength 
to the inner man, as we may fee in J^o^, who when God feemed, 
and men did fight againft him, when heaven and earth Teemed, to 
cpnfpire againll him, yet this did ftick by him, Vntid I die 3. 1 }fstiM 

Job i7. J. never tsike arvaj mine innocency jrom my felje, 

fourthly, In the Eafterne Countries, where sbey wergacaiftQ-^ 


of Truth And Ffrightrnffc^^ j-j 

tned to weare long garments down to the ancles, theyufedto gird 
them clofe unto their body, when they had any journey, combate Exod.ii»ir* 
©r labour in hand, Icaft they Hiould be an impediment unto them. 
So they were commanded to eat the Pafleover with their loines 
girded, becaufe they had a journey to goe, and Elias girded up i King. 1 8-46* 
his loines, and ran before Ahab, And fo to have loynes girt, is 
to be fitted and prepared for any fervice, travell or conflid ; Let Joh.ij.4. 
yDur loynei he girded aboHt, and jour lights htirning. Gird up I-uk.i7.8, 
the loynes of joHr mind, and be (oher, Girdthj felfi and bind on Luk,i».|^,}r. 
thyfaudales. Thus Chriftians girded with truth, are in readinede Aa.u«?* 
for any fpirituall duty, and to encounter with whatfoever adver- 
lary power (hall with-ftand them in the courfe of godlinefle. Per- 
ad venture at the firft putting on,this garment may feem fomewhat 
ftraight, nothing eafie to weare i but he that is accuftomed to 
goe girded, flaallfindfucheafeinit, fuch comfort by it, that he 
can never be well without it, never at eafe, untill it be put on. 
Truth of heart is bleffed of God with increafe of grace. This is it 
which maketh the leaft portion of grace to thrive in the hands of 
Gods children. Their faithfulncde in a little, brings them to be Lu^-^^-s^?* 
owners of a great deale, and to be rulers over much. This brought 
ilicha plentirullblefling upon the fmall beginnings of Nathaniel^ 
£0 whom Chrift, becaufe of his truth in the inward affeftions, pro« 
mifcd an enlarged meafure of cnlightning, and that he fliould fee 
greater things. This brought fuch a comfortable encreafe upon 
the dicmiefaiowlcdge of the Eunuch and C<?r»^/<«/ 4 they wor- _, 
ihipped God in truth of heart, according to the meafure of under- J'°"****'^»?^' 
{landing they had received, and in them the promife was accom- 
plifliedjTtf him that hath fhall be given yand hejhali have in aboun-^ 
dance : they were led further into that great myfterie of godlinefle^ 
an Evangelift being fent of God to the one, and both an Angell 
and an Apoftle to the othec. A true hearted Chdftian is 
carefuU to get , tharie to keepe , and warie to husband, what 
grace hee hath received , and how fliould hee not then en- 
creafe from one meafure to another ? Not that a fecond grace 
is given for the right ule of the firft , but that the conditi- 
on of grace is fuch, that one drawes another, and for a firft 
given a latter is freely beftowed alio, in which continuation 
of grace, the right ufe of grace proceeding fi:om it, is con- 
tained, ' - - - -" 

Z 2 Sincerity 

lya of truth and V^righmffc^, 

Sincerity is ftrengthencd of God tobs a mcancs of comfort to a 
tnans fuule in his grcateft diftrcfies. Wlien Hezekjah was arreftcd 
with the fentence of death by the mouth of the Prophct,herc was 
his comfort, and that which imboldened him to looks death in 
Ifa. 58. 5. the face with more courage yO Lord thou k»omfi ^ ct rcmcm- , 
Jer. 18. |« ber now (for herein I dare appeale to thy Majeftie) that I have 

walk£d before thee in truth. He had done many worthy things in 
the abohllimcnt of Idolatry, and in the reftitntion cf the true 
wordiip, but in noneofthefefimplytooke he content, but in the 
(incerity of his heart and aff^dion in performing of them. So Faul 
in the mid ft of all his forrowcs, this is his rejoycing, not (imply 
that he had preached, that he had planted Churches, wrought 
miracles, con vcned fin ners, made Satan to fall do wnc from Hea- 
ven like lightening : but that in fimplicity and godly fincerity he 
a Cor, I. I J. bad hjsconvcrfation in the world. '';;/ 

This puts a kind ofhcroicall ipirit , and Lyon-likeboldncfre irif. 
to the children of God in the greateft try alls. Hereupon T^td 
1 Ccr. 4' I. ^^g rcfolute not to paffe for mans judgement. Faith depends up- 
on the meerc grace of God, and his free promife : but the truer 
any mans heart is unto God, the more bold and confident is he of 
the Lords Support and comfort, which alone adds undaqnted 
courage in all temptations, j!!^-. 

^ cih o^' 10 The fervice of a found Chriftian is very acceptable to Gtfd^'fee 

jg ,Q *^o it in outward (hew never (o meane and fimple. Are not thine ejes^ 

Joh,4. z|,»i. {(dhhjeremis) f/pon the truth- If fervants be obedient to their 
Cfl. J, zz. MaftersinfinglcnefTc: of heart, they (hall receive their reward of 
£phef. 6. 5 ,8, {j^e Lord. A cup of cold water given to a Prophet in finglcneflfc 
Pf ?*' ^* ^\ ^^ heart, lliall noc be forgotten. The Lord is nigh to all that call 
Biiit^V'u ' aponhimintruth J hewillheare their prayers, anfwer their dc- 
'* fircF, guard and protcd their perfons, Not the moft eloquent 
prayer, and beft fet forth in words i but the fupplication that is 
breathed from an honcft and true heart finds beft acceptation. Ma- 
ny a<3ions other wife fervent enough, for want of this finccrity 
are but froth, and vanifhthen when we Hand moft in need of 
comfort : but the meaneft worke performed in truth of hcart,(balt 
not go unrewarded. As in the naturall body, the cafe of the found 
finger is better then of the blindifti eye : fo in the family of God,f 
it is more comfort to be a faithful! doors- keeper, thcq an unfaith-, 

of Truth and Vfrigkmff^^, 173 

finccrely and truly with men,ahd is not willing to decci-ve any in 
word or deed,carry ing hirofaf in all holy fimplicity towards God, 
ashcliveth honcQly amongft his Neighbours, and that not m 
onething, but inall, and is therefore in the Ongmall Text called 
a man of hitbfulneff; ; he (hall abound in bleflings of all forts,with 
plenty f^farre as is expedient, with good eftimation, with kind 
friends, with fpifittiall graces, &c. / . . ^ , _ , . 
The more fincerity, the more aftinity with God : tor truth is 
tnc^retie, and hath an uniting power in it. The tree and found Pral,75.a7,48. 
Chriftian is the Lords ncere neighbour : fo much the neerer, as 
the wicked are farre ofif: for GQ<i will draw nigh to them, that 
draw nigh unto him in truth. God is the God of truth, P/^A? 1.5. J^j^'^-f;. 
Chrift istru h,yoki4.5. fhe fpirit is the fpiritct truth, foh.i^, •''=•» 
1 7 Truth is one rpeciail branch of that Image of God according. Ephef.4.4?,i4* 
to which man ivas madd And the greater meafure of truth in the » cor«|.iS. 
inward parts , the mclre dre we ( to fpeake with the Apoftlc) 
changed into the Image of God. And the more we referable 
God and have communion with him, the more is our afiSnity 
with him. Satan ever did, and ft ill oppofeth fincerity by perfe- 
cutions , bpprobries , and reproaches , as' of pride , hypocrifie, 
i5ifltmulatron,fpeci3lly when God affiiacti his people, ph. i:6^^ 
But the more Satan oppofeth truth and fimplicity, the more 
JliDuld wcbc in love with it : for Satan would not loade \i with 
dif 'races if it were not excellent. Satan labours to foiffein the 
leaven of bypocrifie in our dally courfe , that by little and little 
he might pick the good feedof righteoufaciTe out of cur hearts, 
but our care muftbetodifappoint him. Hereout reiiftance is to- 
hold us to our ownc, and pray to God to rebuke b im. 

And here to prevent snilbking we muft diilinguirh the de- 
grees of foundnefle and fimplicity, and the nature ofit. In nature: 
the found nes of the goily is true, but in degree weake and im« 
perk(ft, and thctforc now and then through frailtie and weakc- 
ncffe in the performance of good-duties they iookc more at man 
then at God, and propound indirca meanes when they fliould eye 
bis glory only. But as we fay of other (innes, fo of hypocrify, it 
is cither raigningi or not. In the hearts of true Chriftians there 

fiaybchypocrifie, but not raigning hypocrific. Z)4wWwhenhc 
id Bleffedufse. inwhofe fpirit there is no guiie, did take himfclfc pfal,ja.ii 
' Z 3, tardis^ 

174 of Truth and Vfrighm^c^, 

tardic in this cvill : and Bradford with others ot thofc moft hdy 
Marty rs, doe much feeke pardon of hypocridc and carnall gofpd- 
ling. But finnc that raigncth not, muft not difcouragc : and if 
we have an unfaincd purpofe againft it, if we grieve for it, if wc 
fceke forllrcngth againft iu it rcigneth not. 

The cffcd or evidence of a found heart is, that being well in- 
formed iti the truth of God, he doth heartily rcfignc himfelfe to 
... be guided and dircdlcd by the Lord, in all things. As*P^«/pray- 

^ '*' '^ cth in behalfe of the Philippiaut, that they might approve thi^gj thaf 

are excsllettt^ that they might bejincere^ and mthout o fence tilt the day 
cfChrifi, And it is noted ofS^ra^that he prepared his heart tofeekl 

:EEi:a7.i«, the Lav? of the Lord^ and to doe it i and to teathin Tfrael, Statutes 

andjudgements. And from this generall fpring diycrs particu- 

FirftjTruth breeds an hatred of all falfc and corrupt opinions in 
Dodlrine:becaufc found a^edions require good judgement and 
true underftanding, and if the underftanding that fhould guide 
and governe the inferiour powers be perverted with errour, the 

%o. silzu heart muft needs move out of order. Follj isjef to him that id defii^ 
tfite ofVcifedome, hut a man ofttndtrflanding roalketh uprightly ^ or di- 
refteth himfelfe ftraitc in walking : He can never (hoote ftraight, 
that takes his aime contrary. The voice of a true heart foundcih 

pCal.ti^.iij, thus in D/fW-j/, Ihatevaine thoughts^ but thy Law doe Hove. / tf- 

«|8, fieeme all thy Precepts cencernitig all things to be right, but I hate eve* 


Secondly, Ithathindeteftation all falfc and devifed worfliip,' 
whichis nothing but lying pompe and vanity, Ephraim compaf' 

flef.ii»i2. feth me about with lles^ and the houft of Jfrael mth deceit. Truth 

feeke tieerenes and acquaintance with God : but in devifed wor- 

. (hip no comfort or profit is to be found : rather the heart is rcmo- 

Iftao'i/' '^^^ ^^^^ ^^^ » Vi^^n men draw nigh to him with their 

Thirdly, It worketh an univcrfali hatred of all finne,that is, of 
iccret as well as open finnes, of Icffcr finnes as well as of greater c- 
vils, of fuch finnes as whercunto we have {pcciall inticements by 
feme particular content or profit, which they fceme to promifc, 
as well as of thofo which afford neither gainc, credir, nor pka- 
luro. A true heart hath a coflant purpofe in no one thing, willingly 
to finnc againd God^but rather to indeavour the uttermoft in eve* 

of Truth and rfrightnfes^, 17? 

ry good way of Gods commandcmcnts. And as he ftands rcfdved 

aeainft 2U finnc in gcncrall, both fimply confidercd, and in rdpcft 

ofaUoccurrcnccs,whcrcby he mightbcalliircdorcopclled there- 

onto J fo in fpcciall againft the fmnc to which he finds himlfcirc 

moft inclincd.or where- with he hath at any time been overtaken. 

Incline not my heartto^njcviUthtn^. tofr^aifemtkedworkesmth i^^^-Mi.^ 


Fourthly, It is Joyned with a readincfle of mind to acknow- 
ledge and lay open every finne as foone as it is knowne to be finnc ; 
and a gladneffe to have the confcience ranfacked and tipped up* 
that whatfoever is finhril may be found out. Z>4t.ij^ fpake it out 
of experience, when he pronounced the man blcjfed, in whofc Pi-i^^^^ 
fpirit there is no guile : Now this was a branch of that Ipirituall 
guile, that he once thought to hdpc himfclfc in evill doing, 
ly holding his tongue ; as who would fay he would forget 
it, and pafle it over: but he was never well, till he was dc- 
Itvered of that falfc trick, and fell to the down-right acknow- 
ledgement of his fmnc j be never had comfort till he bad con- 
fcffed againft himfelfe his wickednefl^r. This he writes for a 
«attemc, and gives his Pfalme a title accordingly 5 To give in- 
ftruaion ; and this experience taught him to intrcat the Lord to 
piy into him, as fearing himfelfe that he fhould deak fomcwhat pf,i _ . 
over-favourably with himfelfe. Try me. O Lord, andkffowmwe ^ 5' ^■ 

heart: trove me, and k»orp my thstighti, and confider if there be mj waj 
cfmckednejfeivme: and to profeflfc himfelfe not only wiHing to 
beare, but dcfirous to be reprehended, if he ftiould ftep awry. Let 
fh righteous finite w^, itJMlbe a kindnej^t : and let htm refrwe me, " "» '^ ^ 
it fhall be m excellent ojle.whiek fhdi not breaks my head: for yet my 
trayer alfijhall be in their cakmitie^, or, by how much he fball^ doc 
that the more, by how much they fhall reprove me the more di- 
ligently, by fo much I (hall pray the more fervently for them. 
When a man lovis not thole meanes which tend to the difcovcry 
sfhis heart and life, and to the finding out of his fecret finnesi or 
rcprchcnfions whether pubiike or private, or fcrious and eamcft 
conf eflion of fin before God, there is great caule t© fuiped that all 
is not found within. » , t. 

Fifthly , Truth dealeth not only agamft' this or that branch 
of corruption, which fhootcth out to our difgrace or trouble, 
b^t agaiaft the sootk felfe. As in TmI we fee, the Lawof 

176 of truth and Vfrighmffc^, 

cnW which did dvvcil within him, was his principall matter 

. Sixthly, It zealoufiy contcndcth for the mafntainance of Gods 
H jf,n.ia. P^'^^ worfliip and fcrvice. J-udab rukth '^tih the Lord, and is faith » 
^//^/^ ^tfW;' C?^?. 7^i!i««^rctaincththepurewor{bipGf God, 
whofe f^rviceis pcrfedtirccdome, and the trueft dominion : for 
he that fe):veth the Lord purely, hath rule over Satan and hisov;n 
unruly lufts. 

Seventhly, In all (ervice the true Chriftian drives to approve 
E b 6,1 ^^^ \iZ'3Cit unto God, and to performe it as in his prefencc, to the 

I Cor. »4.i J. S^ory of bis n^me. H^prayeth with the Spirit, ob?y cth from the 
Rom.5.17. heart, hearcs with reverence, fpcakes as in the fight of Gcd, and 
aCor.1,17. doth all things with life and power. 

Eighthly^ In all conditions or eftates of life, in all dealings fs- 
cret or open, publike or private, at home or abroadj he will carry 
himfclf as becomes the Gofpell, andfti^dy. t&be harmelcfle, un- 
-blameable, and without rebuke before God and man.. Doe all 
PhiUi.iji things without mHrntHrings and difptitw^s : That ye may he blames' 
lefe, and harm/ejfe, the Sonnes of god "Without rehuke. Thus a Chri» 
Eph.^.^,7. flian fervant >vill (hew all diligence in his Mafters buiinefle, r^ 
Col.3.2 1,8|. well abfent as prefent, froward or courteous; and all i^ithfulnefTe jn things committed to his charge, even to the lead pinnc,though 
Din.6.4, jjg might doe other wife with fccrecy and fecurity from men; and 

that wilHngly,of confcience, and not for hope of credit or gaine. 
And not fo only, but he will reverence his Mafter, and in heart be 
that unto him, which he feemeth to be in carriage, and that be- 
hind his back which he is before his face. A Chriftian man will 
befimple, plaine, and juft in all his dealings, inoffenfive in matters 
of Religion, loving and courteous in all his behaviour, and what 
he would feeme to be towards others in their prefcnce, that he is 
inwardly,and in their abfcnce. 

Ninthly, True grace is permanent, and found Chriftians arc 
conftant in their courfc, not flirinking in temptation, not dar- 
ting afide like a broken bow. An hypocrite is wavering in rc- 
fpedt of occurrences.halting and divided in refpeft of ob/edls ; in 
fubjedion to inordinate paffionSjpowerlefle in the performance 
of holy duties, wife to hide and cover finne, glorious in empty 
(hcwes of Religion, apt for advantage to fwallow lefler finnes 
without draining, fiippery in earthly dealings, aiming at wrong 


of Truth and- Vfrightneff^^, 


ends in the profeflion of the truth, indulgent to his beloved and 
darling (inncs, defirous to fecmc religious, though he much ncg- 
leffc the power of godlinefle. But the true Chriftian is unlike him 
in all thefe rcfpeds : He is found and conftant, a matter of his af- 
fcftions, a bungler to colour or guild over finne, defirous to be 
good, and in every thing anfwerable to his profeflion, faithful! in 
his place, plaine in his dealings, innocent and harmelefT", as be»^ 
comes the child of God; the fame man at home and abroad, 
within and without, openly and in fecret , in thought and dif- 
courfe. This is that truth and fincerity which the Lord ac- 
ccpteth, and the godly ftrive after, and obtaine in fome mea- 

There be three words in the Original! tranflated Right or 
Upright, The firft comes of a root that fignifieth to be right or 
profper, or todireft, ^f^/<?yiii.^. and 10.10. and it is tranflated 
Uprightncflfe, Equitie, Induftry, and Profit : of the Sepuagmt 
Valour or fortitude, -i^w. Swiftneireorfpeed.f'fc/.2.2i.and4.4. 
2X\i%.\\,Sfih,%,%, But it is not to be referred to the aft of the 
mind or heart, but to fome externall work or deed, which is fo 
cunningly polidied and skilfully contrived , that nothing can 
morebadcfiredin it, or juftly be thought wanting. Tbefecond 
word comes of a root that (ignifieth before or in prefence,as Vrov, 
/i^.z^ ^ Let thine eye^ lids look_*ftraighth fire thee, Trov.'$,il, For 
tfjeVcayejofmanare ^ be fire the eyes of the Lord. Sec C^^^. 2 5.21. 
And it is tranflated right, equity and uprightncfle. Prov. 8. p. 
They are ri^ht to them that find knowledge, Sep, ^amav or ^amcc, 
Theod/iv^^<^. Sym. ^M^irJui^ or '^f^iy^iduir^a, i^i, ittterp. hKom [^^t- 
Xtxtv^Kom ^ Amos i^tio. They knovii not to doe right. Sept, Ivomtiov, 
Jfai.^xf.i^. Equity cannot enter. Sept, <^ I '^^^^"m. Ifai. 30.10. *Prtf- 
■phefie not ftnto hs right things. Ifai, 16. 1 o. Itt the Land of uprightne^e 
he'^illdealeunjfifi/y.'LXX,^^^^^^*7fai.$j,2, Each one "talking 
in his uprightnejfe, or before him. 2 Sam , 1 5: . 3 . Thy matters are 
good and right, LXX. ^'^><''^'^o'» The third word comes of a root 
thatfignifiethtogoeftrait, Prw.15.2l. i Sam. 6, 1 2, Pfal ^.S.ov 
to divcAf Prov. ^,6, And this is the moft ufuall and common: 
ThusGod is faid to be upright : Thou mofl upright dofi Vceigh the 
pathofthefHfi,Ifai.i6,j, To Jhervthat the Lord u upright, P fa/, 
9^,^%. The ^ordofthe Lordii uprightnefe. Eccl.i 2.lo.Pfal.^^.^^ 
Hit fudgementi /ire right, or ftrait. 2\Q/;.$>.i 3, Tfal. 1 19.128,1 37. 

A a ^o4 

Sw^ Targ. 


^v, Aq, CiT 



1^3 of Truth and Vfrightmffc^, 

qod made man Hprigh. SccL'j.i^ and they that walk according 
iKing.z2.4j. to the word, though they have their infirmities , are faid to be 
tipright. Pfal.'^i.l,Trov, 2^.10, It is divctlly rcndrcd by the 
lt/9«?. Greckc lnterprct«rs,moft commonly right or upright. Pfal.y. ii, 

hAvi and 19,9, Jfai,/{O.^..LMic.t,y , Prov.i 1,6, and 12.6, Prov.S.^' 

i&o?. ^u(^. }o& 1. 1, Prev.^.^z. Prov.lj,20kNumk 2^.10, Pure, ^e^ 

«r»/.£u©-. S3i' Goodjor what doth pleafc. Z)^»M2.28, and 6.x8. and 

r/^'l^T' ^ ^^ ^- Trucjor unblameable, foi, 2.3. and i .8 fo6 8 .6, and 4 1 J- 
a^fcpij.* 3^'^ 17.8. Holy, Deut.i 2.4. //<? //?4^ dire^eth his vpay aright, Mk, 

tt^Tii . 7.2. PrQv.1^,11. and 15.8. Prov* 2.7. Valiant or couragious, 

a}^^Qr* ^wv. 15.19. Holinefl''3,'2)f//;.p.5, RighteoufnelTe and fimplicity, 

^,'^'^^\ ' I CAro».29.i7. and Truth, /yQ/.4 5. 1 p. And every where true and 
^LS]^» upright, or upright and pcrfcA, and truth, upright nsffe, and in- 
W9-. * tegrity,'Z)^^/.p.5. i SAmA2.2i^lob 1.1,2. Pfa/.^^,!, i Ki.^,6^ 
^,ala^^cov. zxc joy ncd together as in fubftancc noting the fame thing. So that 
KA^dL^aviv uprightnclTj cannot bs taken negatively for the want of unrigh- 
j'rA,cua(TUiii. teoufneflfs only, but pofidvely for truth, and righteoufnefT^, or ra- 
ai^!f/A ther that which is equivalent to both. For ihcGrecke ftraightj 
evjjiimu -^»% 3« 4» 5. the Syriac Interpreter ufeth a word that fignifieth 

equall, polifned, fmoothed,mads even or pure,comming of a root 
that is to polifli or make fmooth, as Ma/tm in Ttculio and David 
dtTomii in his Di(3:ionary teach. And Firrarius turneth the 
word pure, fincere, plaine, which anfwereth to that of tJfe Pro- 
phet, 7^'^/.4o.4, In Luke 8. 1 5 . for a good and honefl, it hath the 
fame wordjas if it was a polifned heart, made even and fmooth % 
or if you will, a found heart, intirc and wellGonflimtedjand ict in 
frame, asaraongft the Arabicks, the root is to heaie, or reftorc 
whole or intirc. Upright or ftrait is oppofed to crooked and 
oblique : biit to this prefent purpofe, That is upright which doth . 
anfwer to the rule of the divine Law, concerning the love of God 
and our Neighbour. An upright man is he who by fnth working 
by love doth fludy to conforme himfelfe to the Law in all duties 
ofholineffe, (bbriety,jufl:ice,or mercy. An upright man is he, 
who doth not writhe or bend himfelfe, nor (as we f3y)fervethc 
time or humours of men, but God and his confcience, chough no- 
thing forbids hiiu, who ferves God and his confciencc,to ferva the 
time, when it may be done without detriment to the glory of 
God or to his conlcicnce. A ftraight way is ihorteft betwixt 
itie poira:s*Now the WorApCGgd diredeth the (hortcft and next 

oj Trruhmd Ffrigkne^€^, 17P 

way to Heaven s and the man that walkes in that patb,doth walk 
uprightly. And here it may be noted, that to doe what is right 1 Joh. j.u. 
sn the fight ofthe Lord, and what isplcafingin his fight, are for JoM -to. 
fubftanceoneand the fame, and (b « tranflatcd by thsSeventie. ' Ther4.i/ 
The Scriptures mention an uprightnefle of heart, and uprightneifa fl^^} *•*' ^ 
of hfe and converfation. U prightneffe of heart is an holy confor- j^.y^^ ^ * \'^ ' 
mity of heart and foule to the good will and pleafure of God. Thus and I'x. Ij . * 
WC i^c^ii^godfaveth the upright in hearty Pfaijy, 10, The ungod- andij.iS, 
Jy (hoot privily at the upright in heart. Pfal. 1 1,2. Shont for joy ^nd aup. 
^lye that are upright in heart, Pfai, 3 3 . 1 1 • <9 continue thy rtghteouf- Z,^' "»*'' * *• 
mffe to the upright in heart, PfaL$6.lo. AUthe upright in heart Jhall , ^iao^l'^J' 
X^ory. 'PfaL6^,lo,'D oe goody LordiUnto them that be goed: and jChiro.U.i'f* 
to them that are upright in their hearts, Pfal 125.4. (jood and upright 
u the Lord, ^fal. 25.8, His will is the moft certaine rule of equity 
and rcSitude : and our hearts are then upright , when they (land 
in an holy conformity to the good pleafure of God. This is fomc- 
times exprcM by the phrafe of preparing the heart to fceke God, i Ghron.f ^.j; 
6r lifting up the heart in the wayes of God. And herein is implied, i Gb5:on.i7.$! 
I . An holy diipofition of mind,will and affcdionsjbending them- 
ielves xa the good pleafure of God, approving, a3«fting,exercifing 
readily whatfocvcr he requircth. I know alfo,my God, that thou 
trycft the heart, and haft pleafure in uprightnefle. As for ms in a Chr, ip.iy J 
the uprightnefle of mine heart, I have willingly offered all thefc 
things, a. A godly fervency of heart, which maketh that in 
choofing and embracing good things, it: is equally more rcmiife 
or (?cry and ftrong, as the goodneffb ofthe things be greater or 
leffe, of greater or leiTc neceflity and importance. Thus an up- 
right heart hath rcfpeft to every Commandemcnt,but his greateft 
care is about the weightic matters of the Law, holinelTe and ju* 
ftice : and the more excellent the duty, the more circumfpccfl and 
forward is he in the performance of it. The upright love thee, ot 
they love thee in uprightncife. Cant, i .4.that is,with a ftrong and 
vehement lovc,which is without diffiraulation or guile. Therfors- 
(iuih David) lejieeme all thy precepts concerning all things to bs 
right y find I hate ever J falfe vs>aj. Pfal, up. 128, J. An upright 
mind in all purpofes and aftions doth aime dircftly at the right 
marke,and propofe the true end by juft and approved meanest A 
riglit end never hath a crooked rule leading unto it : and a right 
beart doth neither look awry^nor gee by a crooked rule. Thus it is 

Aa a faid 

i8o ofTrnthmdv^rightm^c^, 

feidot£«ir4, that he had prepared his heart to feeke the Law of 

Ezra 7.10, jj^g Lord, and to doe it,, and to teach in I frael Statutes and judge- 

A<a,8.iia ' ments *.. And on the contrary, when Simon CMagtu would have 

bought the gifts ot the holy Ghoil with mony , Pet£r rebukes hioa, 

faying, Thy heart is not right in the jight of God, 

Uprightnefle of life, is a converfation, way, or courfe of life a*- 
greeable to the word of God in that calling or vocation, wteein 
Efat.57. 14,' Q^^ ^^^^ ^Xnc^A us. Thus it is faid of D avid. That he "(talked 
Pro^T^^* ^*^^ (7oi^"» truth and uprightneffe of heart. And hr. that VPal^ 
Vtoag^o kffh in his ufrightne^Cy fiareth the Lor4. He that is upright in 
Ifj. z6,j. the ^ay, is an ahhomination to the wicked^ The rvaj ofthejufi is 

ffprightnejfe. He that ipeaketh uprightne(fe Jhali dwell with the. 
everlaBing hurning. This is expreffed by the phrale of going 
with a right foot. GaL2.i^. of ordering our fteps aright, Prov> 
/^,26 and making even pathes for our feet, Heb. 12.13. Upright- 
ncffe is an univerlail.and conftant cleaving to the Lord, notwith- 
ftanding all occurrences that might divert or turne us out of the 
. way. JU the upright- in heart fball 0ow it, or, (hall follow. 

it^-JS«»4jif* j^-^ . that is, they ftiall cleave to the Lord, and goe after him 
continually, and never forfake him., although they endure^ many 
and great evils, for his names lake. An upright heart is an heart 
Pfal 04 I fi^^*^ and eftabliflied in refped of the objed^ or maine bufineffe, 

pral'.78. 1 7. oppofite to a double, divided mind, waveringbet ween two diffe- 
Jamr.«.7.* rentob/eas,. unliable, inconftant, turned with every blaft, relol-r 
ving now this , anon that, one thing to day,, another to morrow^^ 
this in one company, that in another. And the pathes of upright- 
nefle are contrary toall crooked wayes, which leade untp death. 
pro.21.8i Doegocd, Lord, unto thofe that be good, and to them that are 

Prov.i, I J5I J« . upright in their hearts. As fir (itch as turne afide unto their crdo». 
PfaUj.4.,s., j^dwaies, the Lord Jhall leade them firth . with the yverkers of 
iniquity. We may take the defcription of an upright: man from 
the Pfalmiftjn other words, He hath cieane hands and a pure 
?f4iH.4» ^^^^^^ .,a»dhath not lift up his fo^nlunto vanity. A pure heart is 
the foundation of an holy life, and words and works, as it were the 

building fetled upon it. 

Uprightnefleischieflycommanded,moft highly efteemed. and 

' principally commended in the Saints* For this caule Ifrael was 
called fe/hurun, 1)^/^^32.15. & 33.5,26. 7/5.44.2; becaufc up- 
jightneffe is the thing, which God requireth in every trwe Ifraelite, 
' God. 

of Truth md Vfrigkn^ez^. l8i 

God that trieth che hearts of all' the fons o^ men, taketh pleafure in^ ^ 
uprightnefTe.The froward and unftable are abomination to his high- , chro.a^. 17, 
liesjbut fuch as are upright in their way are hisdelight.The offerings 
of an upright heart are free and voluntary ,whichGodgracioufly ten- 
drethj&lovingly acceptetb.T'^f iS'^^r/^c^ of the wicked is an aboml' Prov. 1 5.8, 
fiation to the LorS:bm thefrajer of the upright khis- Might-. God ^°^^'^* 
will not cafi of the ufrightyttor le^ve his fonlin adwerfity. IfthoH Ptai.if.*!,- 
wertVttre andufrightifurely now he would awake fir thee, and make 
the hahitation of thy righteoufnejfefro^eront, God will make ic 
known that he doth regard the upright,& though for a time they be 
in affliaion,they (hall not be foriaken,orlef l. defohte. Mar^e the ^ ^^^-17*37^ 
end of the upright, fir the end of that man is peace. The wicked 
may flourifti foi a time like the Bay-tree , but fuddenly they fnali. 
wither. The upright may be kept underior a time, but he (hall 
bud and bloflom© apace in his feafon, and his profperity ftiall en- 
dure. The upright fiall dwell in the Land^and the perfiB Jhall Vtova.ii\* 
remaineinit. The righteous JhalUnherit the Landy and dwe IL'^f 3.1^7.7 9. 
therein fir ever. The Tabernacle of the upright fiallftoftrijh.. Frov.i4,ii. 
The word of the Lord doth alwaies good to them that walke up- 
rightly, /^*V^4 a»7. God doUi pronounce all good to them that 
live according to his Commandmentss ; inftrudions willfinke is- 
to fuch hearts, the promifescheare.and revive them j by, the do. 
arines they are made wife, they increafe in wifdome,, they grow- pfal.^ j. i, . 
from one meafure of grace and eomfort to another. God is good 
to lfr-ael,even to them that be of an upright heart; and the word 
of God doth fpeake mercie, peace, quickning, and doe good to , 
the upright in heart. The integrity ofths upright /hall (guide and) prov. j uf: 
freferve thenu j that is, (hall, procure good diredion from the 
jLord, both for his fervice, andfor their own happinefle^, and make 
them tradable to follow it. Contrary to this is the condition o£ 
the crooked and unftable, who are not led by the word , but over- 
ruled by their lufts, and therefore milled by them to their undoing, 
> For thus ftandeth theoppplition : the integrity, of the upright {hail 
guide them in the way, and fo preferve them : but the.froward- 
neffc of the wicked wilUeepe them from the way, and fo deftroy Ih.^.^ 
them. Thepathoftheuprighiis even, ftrait, plaine,. lightfome, ll^*'^"^ 
good, the next and (horteft cut to heaven that can be. I will teach ^-Mi-ioc 
joH ( faith SAmuel ) the good and the right way : And the Saints. 
pray, Let thy go«dSpirh bring me into the Land of uprightnep^ 
' Aa ^^ P^^^' 

1 8 2 of truth and Vfrightneffcj . 

that is, an even and plaine Land, where my feet (hould not ftum- 
.,, ble. Teach me thy rvay, O Lord, and leade me in a plain path 

a7.11. (away ofuprightnefTc) that my fiot tread not afide, that I doe 
flothing unjuftly, to the difhonour of thy_ name, or offence of 
mine adverfaries. God is both the Sun and Shield of the upright s 
their buckler of defence and comfort in this life, their crowne and 
glory in the li^ to come. God (aveth the upright in heart. He is 
P ov **°* A Buckler to them that reatke uprightly. They may pray with 
Pfal.zf.t'i. confidence, Let integrity and uprightne^e preferve me, fir I 
Pfal.125.4f hope in thy word. Doe good, O Lord, to them that be good, to 
PCal, them that be upright in heart. Light ii firvne fir the righteout, 
and joy fir the upright in heart. Comfort is referved and laid up 
in ftore for them, though hidden for the prefent, as feed in the 
ground which will fpring and ripen. This life is the feed time of 
an upright man, theharveftofhiscomfortfhallbeinheaven : ne- 
vertheleilefome portion of that heavenly treafure the Lord doth 
rial.3^,10. impart unto him on earth. Therefore the upright ire called upon 
again and againe to rejoyce in the Lord, at all times, in all condi- 
tions, to re/oyce heartily before him. Shout for joy all ye that are 
,Pfal.3».ii, upright in heart : praifeii comely for the upright : All the up' 
Pfal li'io right in heart Jhall glory* Vnto the upright there arifeth light t'» 
prali I ii.*! darkneffe, fciL God gracious, mercifull and dghteous is his'light, 
joy andfalvation, or it arifeth, from God, mercifull, gracious and 
piov.j.p. righteous, asfomeinterpretic. ThefecretoftheLordis with the 
upright J that is, his fecret and hidden wifdome of attaining true 
happinefle. They are of the Lords privy Councell, his intimate 
pfal.iy.1. and familiar friends, whom he will inftrud in the way that they 
Pf 1 140.1^, fhould choofe. They (hall abide in the Mouncaine of his holineffe, 
Ifa.3j.i4, 1^, gj^jj dwell in his prefence for evermore. The upright fhall dwell 
* • with the everlafting burning, and not be confumed. The Lord will 
aftonilTi them with feares, that give themfel ves to all manner of 
finne and wickedneffe : but as for them that bve and follow up- 
rightnefle, he communicatcth himfelfe gracioufly and familiarly 
unto them. He ftiles himfelfe a confuming fir^, leaft his Majeftie 
and power fhould be contemned : but whofoever draw nigh unto 
him with a true and unfained defire to pleafe him in all things, they 
Wal, n z. »i (hall fcele by the eff eds, that his prefence is moft fweet and aimi- 
able. Neither doth the blefling of God reach to the upright'only, 
but to their pofterity. The generation of the upright lliall be 


of Truth and jy^nghtrnffc^. ^83 

bl effed. But as for the crooked and perverfe , it is not Co with 
them : for their fins are uncovered, Thefioward is an abhomina- 
tiori to the Lordy their hope /ha/l perijh; they Jhall be cut offronu 
the earth, the J fhaU h mkenin their own naughtine^e.andtheir end 
Jhall he aecpirfed. 

The effefts of uprightnefife are many, bat fpecially thefe, 
I. An heavenly difpofition of heart, whereby we are affected ta 
love all good, and hate allevill truly a<:cording to the nature and 
degree thereof, andtohaverefped: univerfally, not equally to e- 
very Commandment. The high "^ay of the upright is to depart Frov.i^, j^; 
fom evill t that is, to depart From evill is the cafe- way of the up- 
right, in which they walke rightly, fitly, fecurely or in great faf^- 
ty. The uprightntfleot DaviA is thus defcribed, that he did ac- » King.9.4, 
cording to all that the Lord commanded him, and kept his Sta- 
tutes and his Judgements : that he did that which was right in the « King,! 5, j^ 
eyes of the Lord, and turned not afide from any thing that he com- 
manded him all the daies of his life. Thus the uprightneflc of Za^ ^^^' ' •^» 
charif2in<iEU^(iyediy They walked in all the commandements 
and ordinances, of the Lord blameleffe. An honeft heart mainly 
defires to pleafe God in matters ofjuftice and judgement, the great 
and weighty matters of the Law ; for God defires mercy and not ^^'^■^' , 
facrifice, and the knowledge of God m©rc then burnt offerings s * * * ^'*** 
andintheduticsof his particular calling, becaufe every tree mufb 
bcare his owne fruit, and every man attend to his proper charge s. 
and in fuch duties, as in refped of time and place be of greater im- 
portance, becaufe he rauft not be wanting to the opportunity s; 
but he takes care withall to be faithfdl in every circumftance,. pin, 
hoofe and naile., Thefethingsopightye to have done. Ihtu^n^t 
mans aflurance and refolutionis this, Then jhcili I mt be confiun- Mat.aj: 15,14^ 
ded, "^hen Ihaverejpe^ to all thy commandment s^ : I have re-^6. 
jrai>iedmy pet from every eviU^^ay^ that I may ks^pe thy ^ord». verf.ios* 
for they doe nothing with an upright -heart, th^t give therafelves 
liberty to tranfgreffe any one command ment. Jfa man Jhall keepe jxia^io^ 
the ^ hole Law y^fcil, in outward and externall adions, and y£t 
offendinone point, willingly and of indulgence, foas by the Co- 
venant of grace he (hali 'be held a tranfgre flour, he is guilty of, alL 
Of frailty and weakneiTe a man may,and the mofi; holy doth break 
every commandment, and is guilty of none, foas it fhall be imr 
piited unto him i Buthe thathabituallyjWiilipgly, onfetpurpoie,^ 
^ "" "■ ' ' ' "^ '" ' "" ibal3i 

TiZ^ ^ " of Truth And rfnghm^<LJ* 


fliaUdUpencewithhimlclfemthetranfgrellion ot any one com- 
mandment, or any branch thereof, he is a trefpaffer, he (hall be ac- 
counted guilty. 

%. To beuprightis to ftand, as it were in Gods prefence, as one 
^ , of the words doth fignifie, 7/2. $7. 2. as was (hewed before, / 
\ Cor.'a.**?/* havefet the Lordnlwaies before me, Pfal.i5.8. So David pro- 
& 4.1.& 7.IZ. tefteth his uprightnefle, fir aU his judgements "^ere befireme: 
Pfal^i8,iz,x?. and I did not ^Ht away hU Statutes fiont me. I "^ as al(o upright 
Pfal. I i9.i<5s. yg^y.g }jifff^ and I kept myfelp from mine iniquity, ^nd I have 
.kept thy precepts, and thy teBimonies : for all my ^aies are before 
Job I ja j,i ^. thee. Thusfo^ proveth himlelf to be no hypocrite, as his friends 
imagined; Though hefiayme, yet^ill Itrufi in him: but 1 ^id 
trove mine owne ^aies before him. He al(o fhall be my (alvation: 
for an hypocrite Jhail not com? before him. And feeing he Wal- 
iieth as under the eye, and in the (ight of the Almighty, therefore 
in (bme meafure he is alike in all pUces and companies, be- 
caufe heremembreth well, that God is prefent in every place, 
and doth behold and difcerne all his adions , yea his fecret ima- 

3. ThethirdetfeAof uprightnefle is hatred ©fall finne, of our 
bolbme, delightfull, profitable (ins, of fecret (ins, of the (ins of 
our inclination, cuftome, education, what(oever, but moifc in 
our felves then in others ; and love oi good, fpecially the belt and 
chiefeftgood, in others, as in our felves. Homebred (in is molt 
hateful! , becaofc moft hurtfull to the loulc , pernicious to 
our State, dilhonourable to God. And it is a good token -of a 
plaine and down-right heart, when a man is willing to fee, ready 
£o acknowledge, andean with_eagerne(re of affedion (et againft 
his owne (inne, rather then againtt the (ins of other men. For the 
love of (in is abandoned, the heart is framed to felf-deniall, which 
it hath not by nadure, but by grace : and (inne will have no plea- 
fure to lodge in that heart, where it is thus purfued. But true 
goodnelTe is lovely in all men, becaufe it proceeds from God, con- 
fbrmeth a man after the image of God, and inableth to the obe- 
dience of his commandment : and whofe heart is right with 
God, he cannot but rejoyce to fee his name glori(ied by whom- 

4. Delight in the molt high at all times, in all condfllbnSjprof- 
ferity and adver(ity,eyiU report and good report, making God 


of Truth and Vfrightneffc^, ,j g ^ 

theftayofourfoules, when opprefling trouble lieth heavie upon 
us, and walking before him in humility, meekenefTe and feare, 
.when all things profper according to our hearts defire, and readily 
performing our vo wes which we made in the day of our calamity i , , 
This is a notable eflfed qi uprightneffe. Thus fob confirmeth his j°^ *^J ^^' 
uprightneife, in adverfity he called upon God, and waited upon and It/'o. 
his aide: inprofperity heremembred his change, efchewed evill, 
flood in awe oi God, (hewed mercy to the poore, fatherleffe and 
widdow, comforted them that were in diftreffe : in both eftates 
,God was his delight and his portion. It is a double and crooked 
heart that ftarts alide, and varieth in obedience according to out- 
ward conditions, that goeth forward or backward, on this (ide, ' 
and on that,as occafion requireth ; that praifet i mercy in his need, 
but commendeth fparing and nearenelle, when he waflieth his 
pathes in butter : The upright is rcfolved of his way, and doth 
breake through all lets and barrs whatfoever may be caft before 
him in his journey. <iy4 wicked mAn hardeneth his face .- but as Pfo^-****?* 
for the uf right he direEbeth his Way. As the ungodly man is ob- 
stinate in evill, foisthe upright conftant in piety, and will not be 
removed from it. I have enclinedmfheart to performe thy Sm- 
tmes y aJrvay, even unto the end. Hold thou me up, and L P"'*i>'"*j'*7 
jhaU be (aje, and I 'Will have ref^eEi ftnto thy Statutes coH' 

5 . Refpeft of Gods approbation more then the applaufe of men, 
retting well contented that we are allowed of him, though dile- 
fteemed in the world , is a good fignc of an even and poliftied 
heart. A good heart regardeth not much, what men thinke or -. 
fay, fo God be well pleated. Ipaffe little to be judged of mans ^ Thtftz.4^ 
judgement, yea I judge not my felfe* As "We "Were allotved of God 
to be put in truB With the Go^el, even (o ^e fpeake, net as plea-- 
jing men, but God who tryeth our hearts* Let the World f awne 
orfrowne, fpeake faire or revile, be quiet or perfecute, all is one, 
a faithfull man will goe forward in his good courfe, neither ftar- 
tipg afide, nor turning backe. For the heart that is well dircdled, 
feekcth heaven and not earth ; the favour of God, not the faire 
countenance of men ; reft in the world to come, not peace in this 
vale of mifery : and thus mmding his home prepared in heaven, he 
goeth on his race, not regarding how little his fervice is efteemed 
by earthly men. 

B b ^. An 

x35 of truth and rfrightneffc^. 

6. An honeft heart is no iefle careful! to reiutne praiie for §ra- 
Ifa.ji.i^ ces and good things received, then to beg fupply of what is wan- 
ting. This is the ftudy of the upright ( and it becomes them 
well) in which they diligently apply themleives, to fet forth 
the goodnefle, power, mercy, and rich grace of God vouchfafed 
unto them. 

7. To the upright man the hardeft things are eafie : be- 
caufe they are induftrious and chearefull in the workes they 
take in hand, according to the Lords appointment. The way 

pto.iJi?^t QJthefothfuU^anhedgeofthornes: but the way of the upright 
is made plain, 

8. The down-right GhriftianiscarefuU to fhunne all appearan- 
ces, occafions, and provocations unto finj willing to lufFcr admo- 

J©b ji.i* nition and rebuke, and conftant- in the ufe of all means,, that he. 
Hal.141 4jT» might grow in grace. 

T he means whereby truth and uprightneffe may be attained and 
ftrengthened are ; 

I .Conftant and confcionable dependance upon the preaching of 

I Pet 2.1* the word, effeduallreceiving and found feeding upon it. Xfefire 

thefinceremilk^ofthevoQrdrimhtheApoUk, He cals the Word . 

fincere milke,, a milke without deceit : It is in it feife truth, ha- 

Tkii 14,4, ^^^§> ^'^^ ^^^ of truth for the Auchour, Chrift Jefus the truth for 

thewitnefle, the Spirit of truth for the compofer of it : and it 

worketh truth in the hearts of them that heare and receive it kindly. 

It is mightylto the purging out of that leaven of fraud, which is 

within us, and to the transforming of us into the image of God^ 

if it be kindly planted and foundiy rooted in the heart and conlci- 

loh.i7.J7^ cnce. Santiifiethemyviththy trmh, thy word fi truth'. This is 

^ that which begets faith, and faith is that which purifieth the hearty 

How came theRomanes to that heartineflfe and lincerity of obe- 

- dience^ which Paul commends fo much, was it not by that forme 

Rom» . 7* of holy Doftrine which was delivered? Or as we readc it fome- 

times, unto which they were delivered i wherein the truth of 

God is compared unto a mould into which they were caft, and by 

which they were tranfpofed into a new forme, enabled to walke 

lincerely and without halting before the Lord^, The mind muft 

be truly informed, or the heart can never move aright. But there 

is no meanes to come to the knowledge of the truth, but by the 

;w,Qrd of God, wbi^h is che Word of ttuthj and GofpeU ot falva- 

oj Truth md J^frigkneffc^, 187 

tion. It is truly faid, the heart can never be fincere, till it be hum- 
bled and broken, and brought to abatement and deniall of it feUe s 
and what means hath God ordained fo efFeduall, as his word to 
worke this humiliation oHpirit? Is not this the hammer which 
breakeththeftone? Is not this that which pricketh the heart, and Aa.».j7. 
makcth it to melt, and fometimes wringech teares from the eyes aK>n5«»*'«9« 
of them that heare it ? Beiides , what hope that ever any mans 
difeafe of a falfe heart (hould be cured, untill he be brought to the 
fight of ki Who (eeks for health, till he kno w himfelfe to be dif- 
eafed ? And (hall ever any man be brought to the underftanding of 
fais defed in this, untill he hath been made to fee it by the word ? 
What health is to the body,that truth and uprightnes is to the foul s 
now bodily health arifeth from the feed, is preferved by found and 
good dief.But the word of truth is the wholfome food,wherby the 
(oul is nourillied. The word is a word of uprightnefle or reditude, 
and when it is well learned,and throughly digefted,{afe lodged,and jam i,»o: ] 
clofe applied, it dochfeafon and regulate the heart and aftedions, 
and change them into the nature of it. If we bind our crooked 
aftedions clofe to the word of truth, they will become ftrait, a- 
greeable unto the word, wHereunto they are bowed. And the 
lame word truly embraced, doth enflame the heart with a fer- 
vent defire to walke with God in all duties of holineffe and righ- 


2. Thornic cares, vaine plcafures, finfull delights muft be ftoc-. 
ked up and digged out of the heart. Weeds will grow of them- 
felvds, ifthe roots be not plucked up, good corne requireth tillage 
and fowin^ both, perverlencffe is naturall to man corrupt and fin- 
full, and will encreafe of it ielfc : butuprightneffe will not prof- 
per, if the fallow ground of the heart be not ploughed, and the 
rpotes of worldlineffe and voluptuoufnefle killed m them. 
Ifthe world be our trealure, our heart cannot be true and' 
upright with God, fbr where our treafure is^ there willonr 

3. A third meancs is to poffefle our hearts with this, ancf to 
have itever in our thoughts, that in all things, efpeciaily in mat- 
ters of Religion, we have to doe with God, and are ever m his ♦ 
fight and prefence. In our common daily duties to labour thus to 
performc them with our heart, as in the fight of God, to his glo- 
• ric, is a ready way to get this grace of truth deeply rooted. It tf 

;8S Of/Trmh anlypightnel^cj. 

the very maine ground of all hypocilie, that this one thing is not 
duly thought on. Men forget him that feeth in fecret, whofe 
eyes are as a flame of fire, wherewith he pierceth further then the 
outward face : and hereupon they are not to imagine, that when 
i^ey have carried the matter fmoothly and fairly before men, all 
is well. The world either applauds them, or accufeth them not, 
and hereupon they flatter themielves, as if nothing more were to 
be looked after. Let us then remember this, if we would be true 

gro^.j »i^ and fincere in our hearts ; The rvaies of man are before the eyes of 
the Lord, and he pondreth all h^ paths* This kept the Ghurch 
and people of God of old in their fincerity, and prcferved them 
Irom dealing faliely concerning his Covenant ; they thought with 

Kal,44*x7*»i*; ihemfelves, Ifwe doe thus and thus, fliallnotGod (earch it out ^ 
forheknoweththefecretsofthe heart. And this confidcration 
moved Paul to faithfulnefle in his Minifterie ; PVe make mt tjier" 

*' ^y^^?h^7p-, 4chandi-z.e ofthevcerdybut as ofJinceritj,bHt as ofGod^fpeak^we in 
{^hrifi. See what things goe together, doing a matter in fincerity, 
and; doing it, as in the fight of God. 

4. Society and fellowlhip with the faithfuU is a figne of up- 
rightneffe, and a meanes of continuance and encreafe therein. 
For he that fetteth his heart upon heaven , will be carefull 
to dr^w on and encourage his companion in the fame way, 
Goales laid together kindle each other , and preferve heate the 
longer : So it is with the faithfuU linked together in holy com- 

5, It is good to call our felves to a frequent reckoning touching 
,. our carriages, binding our f elves to an examination of them. He 

thathathalervant, of whofe fidelity he makcth fome doubt, and 
whom he defires, if it might be, to reclaime, both for the good of 
the party, and for his owne particular alfo, that he may be ufefull 
to him, he will not let him run on too long before he call him to 
anaccQunt J heconfidersihat to be the next way to make him 
carelefie and fecure. If he exped: ever and anon to be reckoned- 
with, it will caufe him fo much the more carefully to looke unto 
his bufinefle. It is fo in this cafe. The word of God telleth thee, 
that thou haft with thee a. falfe, coo(ening, deceitful! heart : an 
heart that will beguile thee to thine utter ruine ; it is ever ready to 
pratflife with Satan the profefled enemie of thy foule, to worka 
.s^ifehiefea^ainft the? 8 Wguidft E^oureforme this heart, that it: 


of Truth and Ffrightneft 

might become ufefull and ferviccable for thee, in t6c great and 
important bufmcfTc of Salvationjbe fure to call it often to account. 
It will be good to reckon with it once a day, to fee what hath 
palled it, to examine what thooghts have been framed in it, what 
purpofes, what intents, what ads have been done, as cfFeds and 
fruits of thefe inward purpofes : furely this tying of thy feife te 
fuch an often furvey, and looking back upon thy^heart, will kccpc 
it in fo much the more awe; and when it is once accuftomcd to 
the fweetnciic which will be felt, when it can give account of 
care and ofobedience, and to the fmart and puniflimcnt which. 
loUoweth the remembrance of failing in holy duties, it cannot 
but be kept in fo much the better tunc. 

Andtofindeoutthe better the guile of our fpirit, and croo* 
kedneffe of afcdion, Firft confider what ignorance, vanitic, foUy^ 
infidelity doth Ibll remainc in the n)ind5what ftubbornncfTe in the 
willj benummedneffe in the confeiencc, difordcr in the affidi- 
ens: how apt we arc to uidcrvalus the true treafure, loofe our 
felves in bafe delights, abufc things lawful! in exceffe rhow lavifli 
andrafli incur fpceches, dull and drcfTe in holy performances^^ 
petti(h and impatient if a little croffed, &c. 

Secondly, Confider how carekfls we arc ofthefpirituall adi-^ 
on, in thofe things we perf orme, as in prayer, hearing the words 
receiving the SacramcntSj giving almes,&c. to the fpiritual, 
performance of thcfv' and fuch like duties is required a preparation 
and heavenly difpofition offoule befitting fuch adions, and the 
MajeftiepfGodwith whom we have to dcale; as in confeflion 
offinne is required griefe, (liame, humility : in fDppiication rc«- 
Ycrencc, devotion, fpirituall emptinefib, whereby thehcart is ta- 
ken off the creature, and driven out of our felves. But who doth 
not lightly pafTsovcr thefe duties? which is no better then the 
wiping ofthe out- fide of the difti, not looking to that; within» 
Boe we not ruiii upon prayer without premeditation, ^ivc our 
hearts liberty to rove about, forgetting with whom we have to 
doe ? are we not pcrfundory in craving Gods blefling upon our 
mcatc at ordinary rricales,. and in giving tbankcs when we ace re«^^ 
frefhed? &c. 

Th irdly, Markc tltat inrcfiftancc oFfinnc, wc arc more forriCj . 
and dcale more againlt this or that branch of Corruption, which 
api)iareth to o«r difgracc^ then againft the body of death it felfcj. 
V • ■- -- ----- B..b 5., ana.) 


190 of 'Truth md Ffrightmjfc^,. 

andagainll that (inne wb;reuato wearc notfo much enclincd, 
more then againft others no US? dangeroas, whcrcunto we arc 

Fouithly, Confider the cou-fe of our afl^dtons, and wc fliiU 
fee how unfound wcarc towards God and our Brethren. If a 
thing touch our C:hss, our blood will quickly be in our nailes :If 
a man know this or that a miiT: by us,!t is very grievous,the fhame 
of it much upbraias us : but things that ©:fcnd God, and which 
we know he fe-th amiffi in us, we can kt thefe palTe nothing af- 
feded. A figne our love to him is not fo found, our fearc of him, 
anddefir^ofpraife with him, not founfaincd. Wc ftiouldbc a^ 
foamed to be found often in the fame fault before men: but we 
commit and confeflc the fame finncs daily before God, and are 
not confounded in our {elves. If we fpeake but an hafty or unad- 
vifed word in the prefence of fome grave atid godly man, that 
might be to our difgrace, our thoughts trouble us : but the oiencc 
againft God is iigh tly paflfed over. We are circumfped to avoid 
the breach of psnall lawes, not fo carefull to watch again!! the 
committing of (inne againft God, We confefT- finnc before God, 
and feeme to aggravate it : but being q jeftioned by men, we turn? 
the faire fide outward, and make the oi ft of it. 

Xaftly, Let usobfervc how frequently our anions arc corrup- 
ted. Jn leaving finnc many tim" we leave it not becaufc we hate 
it as finne, but it bath often broak'^ out to our reproach j our 
iriends perfwadc us to breakeitofi; it will be forouc credit and 
advantage. We confcfiT: our owne iinnes,aot defiring to give glo- 
ty to ©od, and gaine a teftimony of a found heart : but bccaufe 
worldly wifdome doth tell us. It is bcfttotell our owne tale, oc 
it were double folly to makedaintie of that all the world know- 
cth ; It will not be for our credit to leffen our fault, whsn it is ful- 
ly knownc ; we (hall loofs the eft imation of gOod men if we feck 
to hide, cxcufe, or make light of our offences. Our promifes of 
amendment, when wc have been overtaken with finne to our dit 
grace, have not proceeded from due confideration, nor had due 
execution accordingly. In the profeflion ot religion we have oft 
aimed at fiaiftcr ends, as praife ofmen, gainc, or the like, Thus- 
in taking up good duties, as orders in our family, wc often looke" 
notfo much at the conicicnce of Gods Commandcment, as at 
this, The eyes of men are upon us, all the world will cry fliamc,- 


of Truth and V^rightmff^^, ipi 

iffoch things be ncgkaed altogether. Our performance of pri- 
vate duties is ferre more dull, fpperficiall, and fldght, then that 
which is done in the fight and company ot others. The prefencc 
of men doth oft rsftraine from many haftie finfuU fpeeches and un- 
warrantable adions, which we take liberty to fpcake and doc be-r 
fort- the face of the moft high, and are not afhamed. Our rebukes 
are carnall, rather becaufs cur minds are crofied, then that God 
is dishonoured. Oar obedience is partiall, this- we doe, another 
thing nolcffe maieriall we pafle over without regard: and wc 
mcane well many times^and are fervent in a good thing,notmccr* 
lyforfinifterrefpeds, and yet not only, nor refalutely for Gods 
Coromandement, but more for other confiderations then that s 
And therefore in fuch cafes and tryails, wc are fcund to be others, 
if we examine !t,then we would be. We bears with faults in him 
tha^ is ferviccable to our humour, againft another notfo pica- 
fing in our eye, we are hot and fiery. Sometimes we undertake 
to dcale for ibme that fpeakc to us, but doe it without any heartic 
weU-wifning to him, fometimes not fticking to f^y to oui? 
friend, I rauft fpeake to you for fafhion, but doe as you pkafe. Wc 
vifit lick ones, but not ftirring up the bowels of mercy ^ we fpeakc 
a ereat many phrafesofGOurfCjOurConfcicnce telling us it is other- 
wife We make a fcmblance of reverence ,but how fa rre it is from 
the heart this may teftifi^-j that we can (abfent from the parties) 
i3ferhc«rnamcsproverbiallyi breaks jeftsonthem, admit finifter 
fofpitions. Wc can fasakc faire to mens faces, when warrcis m 
the heart -and when we hate the perfon, takcon as^ifwc fought 
the difeace of his finne So in fruitsof love, wc^ can doc 
this paFtie good fomctimes, but it is to keep another under, who 
elfe would fprout forth fo farre, that his (hade would dimme out 
lights • as likcwif^ I will doe for fuch an one, they know good be- 
haviour they will doe their homage, fuch an one will thanke mc 
foritjamfurcit will not be given cleanc away : He is able to doe 
mea good turns againe, &c. In worksof mercy we arenot dif* 
crcet, free, compaffionate, forward :wc feldome confider the 
neceffities of others, ftandaloofe, if any man.will ft eppc before 
m in the worke, pretend ignorance , and arc glad to hang the 
burden upon othct mens flaoulders, that be Icffc able to bear© 

'sixthly, Ate we ha.vcdiicovered and found out tlw crooked- 1 

1^2, of Truth and Vprigkn^cj* 

ncffcandunfoundncffeof our heart and life, we mud take up our 
fclvesfor halting, bewails it with fliameand forrow, ftirre up 
our ieives to more uprightp^'flre and finccrity,. and fly unto God by 
hearty prayer to be eft abli 'hed and confirmed. Though there may 
bcfomc rcliques of hypocrifie in a good man, yet the nature of 
halting is,it will goe quite out oi th3 way ifit be not healed, ^ni 
Lleb.iJ.ij;< fffakeflrai£ht fieps Hfito your feet f leafl that which U halting hetnrnei 
ofitofthervaj. Ah, the frowardnefTe of my heart, how crooked 
have my wayes been in the fight of the Lord ? I have regarded 
vanity, doted upon tranfitory plcafiires and profits, undervalued 
the true treafurc. The ftreamcs ofmine affc(^ions have been dri- 
ven with fuUfaile to that which is little worth ; but cbbe to what 
they (hould covet above mcafure. My whole foule, all that is 
within me, fhoold have looked continually upon God, and my 
convcrfation diredlcd towards him : but my thoughtSjdcfireSjaffe- 
flionSjWords and actions have looked ordinarily, very of ten, ano- 
ther way .How farre am I from that truth which God requires in 
the in ward parts? what a malfe of wicked fraud and decei: is heaped 
and piled up within me ? what rottenneife doth lodge ftill in my 
brcaft ? what am I but a {hop of lies and vanities ? Eaficr it is a 
great dcalc to know the number of my haires, then the running 
motions of my heart and affedlions. Oh, the blind corner?, the fe- 
crct turnings and windings,the clofc lurking hoks chat are therc= 
in : upon examination I have found a world of falfliood in my 
foul, more then ever I fufpedled or imagined. My cogitations arc 
^ vainc, if not wicked and ungodly, mine aflPscflions unfound, mine 
aimes indired, ray courfe oi^lifQ palpably grofli in diflimulation 
before God> and towards men. If the members of my body were 
crooked and deformed ; my mouth, face, eyes drawne awry oc 
fquint; if one part did fwell, another wither and pine away j I 
ftiouldefteemcitanheavycroflc. But thediftemper of the foule 
is much more dangerous, as the fafety of the foule is more preci- 
ous then of the body . If in a journey I chance to ftrike out of the 
way,or fetch compafle about, when I might have gone a {hortcB 
cut, how am I grieved at my ignorance,that I knew not, or neg- 
ligence, that I enquired not the right way in time ? But in the 
courfe of Chriftianity I have turned afide, and ftcpped out of the 
right path to my great lofle and pre judice. Did I ftand convince! 
before men for feme notorious coozencr or deceiver, I could not 


andhovf Gedhathrevealedhimfelfthent^^ ipj 

but take it gri^voufly : but many times I have played faft and 
loofc in the prcfcnce of the all-feeing God, pretending his fcr- 
▼icc,whcn I have done mine own will i offering hioi the body^ 
when the foule hath been let looic after vanity. / have tos long 
pandered And gofte aftraj like a lefijhtef, hut now I "^iU keep the tefiim 
monies of my god: For the (^^ommandtment « a lamf, and the LatP « 
ifght^ andrefroofii ofinfirn^i^n are the "^aj of life. The CommaB* 
dements leadediredly to that life, which defervet the name of 
life, cternall life. The Traveller takes the next way to his Jour- 
ney c$ cod s No wife man will willingly ftep one foot out of the 
way to Heaven. If our limmes be crooked, we omit nothing 
fbac ActorExercifecan doe to fet them ftrait: and (hall not I 
take care to rei3:i6e my foul,and bring it into right order ? Deceit 
andfalDioodisthelmageofSatan, who abode not in thetrutb» 
mod unmeet to be borne by him that is by adoption the fonneof 
God. The charge of God is, "Beje holy, for 1 4m hoij ; he ye fer^^, 
myoitr heavenly Father ufer^El : and hereby may we ajifure ouc 
hearts that we are the children of God,if we be true, as he is true. 
Truth is the J mage of God (lamped upon their hearts whom the 
Lord hath called to be his peculiar people. What foundnefie is to 
the body, that is (incerity to the fosile : a grace of (ingular excel« 
Icncy, and excellent ufe, pleafing to God, and profitable to manj 
Wife men delight in found and faithfull friends : the Lord takes 
pleafure in them that be true hearted to his glory. A found body 
is fit for labour : a trae heart is ready prepared for any fervico 
that God requires. The way is not tedious to men, they halt not. 
initjbut through weaknefifc and imperfeiftion: O my foule, the 
way of life would be moft pleafant and delightfull, cro£fes ealie to 
be borne, the comforts of grace moft fweet and admirable, were 
it not that corrupt humours caufingdiftempers, did dill breed in 
thee. Earthly defires, vain delights, unruly lufts are great impd, 
diments to the quicke and eafie difpatch of the Chriftian Pilgri- 
mage. Sincerity is the girdle of the mind to truife up tbefe» 
{lengthen our loynes, and tie the heart to the work comman- 
ded. We buy girdles for the body, and if coftly ones we keepc 
them charily ; I will feck to Heaven for this girdle of grace,for it 
is woven there, no (hop can ferve me with it but that only. O 
Lord, thou that delighted in the Hmple and true hearted that 
deavcunfainedly untg thy teiltmonies, create in me a true heart 

C c ani 

oftkM^ tiliammt^r Cmenami 

and fincerefriTit^that without guile I may ftick unto thy tefti- 
momcs, and -dpc what is acceptable in thy fight. Naturally I am 
fulloffaUKo.odandgu)le, oh thou that art the God of truth, who 
at the firft didft create mc after thine Image, make me every day 
more and more like unto thy felf in true holineflc and righfcouf- 
ntdc.Thenihaillbetrue indeed, when Chrift the giver oftruth 
dwelkth in my heart : Lord ftrengthcn my faith, that being knit 
unto Chrift the way, the truth, and the life more and more, I may 
partake of his fulneffi, grace for grace. 

In mnihm Un- 
giiU pene id n(h 
vum eUcitur^ 
^usdalii: fuc* 
(edit i ui noviu 
rex, n9iiH4 ma- 
§ept, ti^^Q-* 
^q» ^ Tbeod. 


Foiljo efi iffe 
facit nova car- 
mina Virg.Ec' 
d, (i.) megm 
Cff miranda, 

of the j^ew TeUament or Covenant, and horn God 
*^ ' hAthnvededhimfilftherein^ 

IN Scriptures Nerp is put for admirable, unufuall, not before 
heard of; as fer. 31.22. The Lord hath created a mn> thing m the 
emtk Ifai 4 2.9. Behold, the firmer thwgs are come to pafe, andner» 
tkingi doe I decUre. Jfii.^%.6, I have Jhewed thee new things. Av\A 
fur nccejOCiry, noble, iilaftriou?, excellent to admiration or aftc- 
niibmcnt ; as new dodrine, Mark i .27 is wondcrfull, excellent 
dodrmc ; a new Commandemcntj^fl^. 13.34' ^hat is, a neccflary- 
and excellent Commandemcnt ; new wine,^^f/^.2d.29.that is, 
wincjwhich by reafon of its excellency is hsd in admirarion. And 
fc we rcade, a new NamCj^^f .2.17. l/ai62.2.2nd my new name, 
if^z/.5.i2.andancwfong3T/^/.33 I. (which by fome is inter- 
preted an txcellenc fong) and a new woik, or a new thing, Ifai, 
43.1 ^i^ehold, I WiH doe a ntyy thing. The Apoftle foh» faith, / 
^ritemnew Commmdement unto yon, i Joh.ztj. but that hinders 
not the former interpretation of the word new* bccaufe it is ufuall 
with that ApoftlCjto ufe the fame word in divers manners. That 
is faid to be new aifo, which is another or divers from that which 
was before Chril^ came into the world, or which was granted to 
no former age of the worli,but to thefs laft times only : as 2 Cor^ 
S . 1 7. If^t wan he in ChriflM ii a new creature: eld things are pajfed 
sttvuvf, heholddl things are made new^ And fo a new fong, is a iong> 
wbertin tiic name ot God is celebrated for fome new and admira- 
ble tesfil of dfiUverance by the comming of Chrift 5 as i/4.42. io„ 

l aj. n.ij.jnw 

^},.,Bmi it* t pM 

md hm God hath revealed kfmfelffherem, igf 

Sittg HHto the-Lordet rtewjong, and hufraife from the end of-tkee^rtbi 
7fal,g6.l* O fingunto the Lord a new jong^ fing ftftto the- Uord all 
the earth. Rev. % .9. ^»d they fiing a nerv fo»g , faying, Thou^^rt Wor- 
thy to take the bo oiie. Rev* 14. %. ^nd they fung asit^^^ereaner* 
fing be fire the throne^ and i'e fire the feurehaiis. Though now and 
then that is called a new fong, whcmn the name of God is cele- 
brated for fomc new benefit of deliverance at what time focvcr- 
vouchfafcd j as Pfal./^o. 5 . And he hathput a new fing in nsyntofit^, 
tvenft^feto eurGod, Againe,that is new, which is perpctuall, 
ftiallncvcr waxold,cr vanifia away; HebM* 1 3. -^^ that he faith, ^A- 
new Covenant M hath made the§rfi old, Noi» thatyphich tshcofj^k^ 
andWaxeth «ld is ready to vanijhaway* And in this fence may thjfe, 
of the Apoftlc, I fohn 2. 8. well be undcrftood, ^gaine, ^ 
new Commandcment 1 Verite nmo yau^ Which thing i^ true in him, 

In the Covenant qF grace God protnifcth to put a new fpi- 
ritinto bispjsQple. ^«<?i^ii.ip, notnew^or the matter, not for 
the inward forme or kind, but the frame and failiion i a new fpi- Ezck.! 8.» i, 
rit renewed in qualities, not changed in fubftance. And fo the 
fiiitbfull arcfaid to put on the new man, which after God is crea- 
ted in holincjOfe and rigbteoufncfle, Ephef.j!^.i4t^ C^l- ^,10, And /» 
Chrift neither Ci^CH^cif^f"* availeth any things nor^ tmcfreumeifimt 
hut a newcreaturf^ Gal 6 I J . that is, a new man refined, reformed, Ep^«*« « f • 
and renewed by God in Chrift J cfus. And it m»y be,thc renew- 
ed foulc is called the new man,or new creaturc,bccaufc it is noble,, 
beautilfull, freib and vigorous, never to wither or decay with age. 
And whatfoevcr we mud underftand by the new heavens and 
the new earth promifed, Ifai,6$,ij. and ^6. 22* Revel,%i,i\ 
the title new fecmcth to import the admirable excellcncie and 
continuance thereof, never to alter or decay, but to remaine be- 
fore the Lord, 

In all thcfe refpedJs the Covenant of Grace is fitly called 
the new Covenant or Teftament, Jer. 31.31. H^^. 8.8. iCor, 3 ,61 
for it is divers from that which ©od made with the Fathers be- 
fore Chrift, moft neceffary and excellent, never to wax old, or to 
decay. By it a new lighted the doftrine oftheGofpcIiftiined'to. 
the world, it bad new worfhip, new adoration, » new forme of 
the Church, new witnefles , new tables-,- new Sacraments and^ 
Ordinances, and;tb€fqn)6vefctOLbeiabr(^cd©rdii&0Qiicd, ncveri 

Cc a to 

of the Hew Tisiamem^r Covmmt^ 

to wax old. He^.8. ! jvand it was cftabliflicd after d new tuanncr, 
by thebloud of the Mediatour. 1 1 is called a Covenant of peace, 
an Cfcrlafting Covcnantjwhich (hall not be removed i the Cover 
nant of my peace, jp^f^ 3^.27. and 34.25. //^.5 4. 10. and 5S.J, 
Helf, 1 3. io. IfM,6 1 .8. It is called a Covenant and a rcflamcnt. A 
Covenant in rcfped of the manner of agreement ; a Teflament in 

Hekfl^i^i refpedof the manner of confirming. A Covenant in refpedl of 
God ; a TeftamentinrefpcftofChrift, who being appointed of 
the Father Lord and Prince, with full poiTeflion of all things ne- 
c&l&ry to Salvation , died as Teflatour , and confirmed by his 
death the teftamentary promife before made, of obtaining the 
eternatl inheritance by the remiilion of finnes. John: the BaptiSi 
by the light of preaching was greater then the Prophets, that had 
gone before him t but properly he was not a Minifter of the new 
Teftament,as it differed from the old : wherefore a middle place 

M«^tth.ii.iu is rightly aflisned to himj being the forerunner of Chrift to pre- 
pare the way before him. From the birth of Chrift, the things 
foretold in the old Teftament pertaining to the conftitution of 
the new, began to be fulfilled 1 and that firft by his comming in 
the fk(h, afterwards by hisadminiflration, and then by bis deaths: 
b}! who^ death the oldTeftament was abolifhed, and the new 
did fucceed in the roome thereof. The old Teftament was aboli-* 
iicd by thedeath of Chrift in right, but not in ad". For before 
the promulgation of that innovation by the found of the Gofpell, 
they amongft the Jcwes that did belecve in Chrift were true hs» 
lee vers, though they were zealous ibr the Law : bat after the do» 

&d,io;2.s, ftrinc of grace was fufficiently publiftjcd , ^hey that obSbinately 
did: cleave to the (hadowes and Ceremonies of the Law, did re- 

Hebi? 19 |«d the promife and Covenant in Chrift. So that properly the 
^ * beginning of the new Covenant is robe fetched from that time, 

wherein Chrift hath fulfilled all things,which were fiiadowed of 
him in the Law, or foretold in the Prophets, that is, after that 
Chrift was corporally afcended into Heaven, and had fent downe 
the holy Spirit in the vifible fhape of fiery tongues upon his Apo- 
itleSjat thefolemnsfeaft of Pentecoft ; For the famme of the 
GofpeltornewTeftamentis this, that the Ceremonial! Law is 
^cafeda and the ufc of the Law (whereby we were kept in boa* 
^ge until! faith> was revealed}; abdiihed : and that Chrift being: 
sifeady crud^ed^deadaburied, and received into Um&i^^miCRon^ 

?^-ij r >BKii..'-". ' .. ' .j.-;'i 

AwdhdwGodhathi^fveakd-himfdftkrem. j^m 

of dnncs in his bioud is clearly, plainly and openly propounded, 
oSfstcd and given to all them that by true and lively faith doe be- 
Iceve that he is Chrift the Lord and Saviour, and that tlie Spirit cf 
Adoption is fent into their hearts, who by firme afHance and con- 
^dcncc doc reft in the Redeemer, that being taught of God they 
ftand not in need of the legail pedagogic. Surely , that dodrine 
concerning faith in Chrift, cannot ftridly be called the ©ofpeli^ 
which did take place, thcMofaicall worfliipasyctinforce, and 
that by the approbation cf Chrift, thofc things not being fullfiUed 
as yet, which vvcrs preached in the Gofpell. For theGofpell isa 
sncflfage of good^tidings or things paft, which affeft the heart 
with (ingular joy and chearefulneifc. And as the old Covenant 
was not promulgated without great pompe upon Mount Sinai, 
the people of Ifrael hearing and beholding, and fwearing unto it, 
JE^*tf^.i^.i8. and 20. fo it was meet that the New Tcftamcnt, 
fliould be publifhed on a folemnc fet day, in the alfsmbly almoft 
of all Nations, with great fplenclour and glory, as it was on th@ 
haft day of Pentecoft, Atid before that time the do6^rine conccr-- 
5?ing faith was of that fort, that men were rather called to the fu- 
ture Kingdoms of Gcd, then commanded to reft in the prefent 
ftate of things. John the Bapglfi put over his hearers to Chrift,, 
706.1.26,27. Z/«% 3.15. Marki.jy^, Mattk^.tiyit, Chrift 
invites' men to the Kingdoms of Hcaven,that is, the Evangclicall 
Government of the Chufch,as future at hand, but not yet prefcnt,. 
iMatth.^. 17. Mof^kj. .15, Nay, after he was rifcn from the dead, 
«Uhough he profeifs openly and plajniy to his Difciplcs,that all 
power was given unto h^'m in Heaven and earth,snd he command 
them to preach the Gofpeli to every creature , CMatth. i%. 18; ip. 
yet he gives them a charge to tairy at Jerufalcm, to waitc for thq 
accomplishment ofthe promife concerning the folemnc fending 
of t&choly Ghoft, and $0 be endued with power from abovc,Z»;5 
14.4P, as if they were de(igned before,but then to be inaugurated, 
and by extraordinary gifts, mwy hearing and beholding, openly 
to be approved. The dsycs immediately following the death 
and refurrctflion of Chrift, were the day es of. the Churches wi-^ 
dowhood,whercin (he fate (for a while) deftitute and comfort- 
Ie0e, and barren, having neither power tobeare,n6r to bring forth 
ehitdren^ But within ten dayes after Chrift, the Lord, the.Bride- 
g;€®ine of the Churchy had; afccnded from earth to Heaven in 

ipS of iht ^^^ Tefidmem or Cmemnty 

glojy^tbefetolj?; Ghoft qamc downs upon the Apoftlcs in vifibic 
5iapp»in token that Chrifts Church was now betrothed unto him, 
and hadrccej^d ftVength to conceive and bring forth, and breafts 
repleniflacd with plenty of Milk to nourifla and feed her children. 
This was as the Solemnization of the Marriage, and then did the 
barren begin to re Joyce, that {he (hould be the naother of ifsany 
children. From this time properly the NewTeftaoicnt Cooke 
its beginning. 

The nature of this Teflamcnt {^nds principally in three 
things. I. Inthekinde of Dodrinc, plaine, full, and mcerly 
Evangclicall. 2. In freedomc from the curfe of the Law, 
and frecdome from Legail Rites. 3. In the amplitude and 
enlargement of the new Church , throughout all Nations of 
the world. 

It may be dbfcribcd , the free Covenant which God of his 
rich grace in J efus Chr ift incarnate, crucified, dead, buried, raifed 
up to life, and afcendcd into Heaven hath made and plainly revea- 
led unto the woild of Jew and Gentile, promifing to be their 
God and Father by right of Redemption, and Chrilt to be their 
§aviour; topardontheirfinne, heale their nature, adopt them to 
t)Q his Sonnes, protedt them £ om all cvili that may hurt, furnifli 
them with all needful! good things fpintuall and temporall, and 
crown them with everlafting glory in the world to come, if they 
repent of their iniquities, bclceve in Chrift and through or by 
Chrift in him, and walk btfbre him in fincere, conftant and con- 
fcionable obedience : which he dctb inwardly fealcby the wit- 
ijeffe of the holy Spirit, who is the earneft of their inheritance, 
in the h?aj:ts of the faithfull j and ratifie and confirme by outward 
fcale$univerfall, plain,eaiie, and perpctuall. 

The Author of this Covenant is God in J efiis Chrift : for none 

<;an piakc thefepromifes but God, oone can make them good but 

Kis Highnefle. Therefore the Lord doth evermore challenge this 

Jer.3i.Sj|i^ unto himfel^ that he is,thc maker of the Covenant: And as it is 

%^iU' callcd.oijc Covenant inrefpedl of the conditions required, Zech. 

% iji . Spit, is called the Lords Covenant, bccanfe he hath made, 

^nd; will cft^blifh it. If ye cAnkreakjny Covenamofthe dajf^ ^dmy 

Jer.55. ao,i r, C^jjenjiHiqfthcmght^ &c. Then^ may ^fi. my. Covenant be. broken. 

^^^D-aijii^my^ fervent, Chrift, alfo as Mediatouris both tb^ foun- 


4nd horv God hath revmltd himfdfthmin, fgp 

thcr Lord and King, advanced at the right handofGod to gi¥e 
repentance and remiilion of finncs unto IfracI, Snd as TdtatOtiir Heb.9.1^; 
he hath confirmed the Covenant by his death. But of this in the 
next Chapters. ^ ... 

God is both the Author ofthis Covenant, and one partic con- 
federate. Fatbers,we know, feldome frame Indenturcs,thcrcby to 
bind themf«^Jves what they will doe for their children, if they 
will be obedient, but by right of Fatherhood they challenge of 
them their bed fervice : Lords and great perfbnages feldome in- 
dent with their free fervants what preferment they {hall expeft 
after fomc terme of fervice and attendance, but if they look for 
reward, they rnuft ftand ?t their courtefie. But our Lord andMa- 
ftcr,to whom we owe our feives by right of Creation, who rtiight 
take advantage againft us for former difobedience, is content to 
undertake and indent with us, and by Indenfure to bind himfelf 
to beftow great things and incomprehenfiblc upon us, if we will 
accept his kindne/rs and bind our fdves unto him in willing and 
fincere obedience. 

If you demand a reafon ofthis dealing, none can be given, but 
the mcere grace and rich mercy and love of God. Thm faith thg Ezek^j^. zil 
LordCjody Idos not thi^ fir jour fakfs, O houfe of Ifraely bm for 
mm holy Names fake. J ^iUcaufejotitofa^eunderthe rod, and I 
Vci/l bring yon into the hand of the Covenant , &c. And ye Jhall kftorp c^ fc r© »7* 
that lam the Lord, Vchen Ifja/l bring joh into the Land cflfrael, Sec. * 

And there ye Jhall remember your Voayej, and all your doings, "therein . j^ 

yofi have been defied, and je fkall Jothe your feives in your oronfght, 4J. 

■for all your evils that jou have committed. An^ ye jhall knowthat 
J am the Lord, Vnhen I have bought Voith you fir my Names fake, not 
according to your kicked ^ayes, not according to your corruft doings^ 
Man can doe nothing of himfelf to procure his fpirituall good. In 
rpirituall things it fareth with him much what as with a child 
new borne into the world, which being naked can neither pro- 
vide cloathcs, nor being provided and laid by him, can put ihenj 
on : for man deftitute of all fpirituall goodncfTsjCan neither move 
to hclpc himfelf, antill it be ftcelybeftowed, nor manage and 
wield -it wcllj^when it is of grace vouchfafed, without direction 
and afliftance from God. And there is as little worth or dignity 
in man to move God to promife him help, as there is ability its 
man to procure help. There is nothing in man to move God to 


im of the Nep^ tefdmem w cavmm^ 

(hew mercy, bi2fi only mifcry, which might be an occaHon, but 
can be no caufe, either why mercy is promifed, or falTation gr ao« 
ted» If man had not Fallen from grace and i^ate of ]nnocency,God 
had never fcnt his Sonne to redeemc him, nor fhewed mercy rea- 
ching to the pardon and covering of his iniqaity : If he had not 
, loft himfelf, thrift had never come to find and reftorc him ; if he 
had not wounded himfelf, he had not been healed and repaired of 
grace. Man then is a fubjcd on whom God bcftowcs grace, and 
in whom he works it ; and his mifcry an occafipn that the Lord 
took of manifefting his mercy in fuccouring and lifting him up 
out of that diftrefle : but the free grace and love of God is the folc 
eaufe of what the Lord hath promifed in this new Covenant, and 
doth give according to promife. 

And though the old and new Covenant be of the fame nature, 
and from the fame fountainc, yet the new Covenant is preferred 
above the old, as farre as Sunne-ligbt before Torch light, in this, 
that God who makes the Covenant hath more fully manifcfted 
the riches ofhis grace and fupcraboundant love in Jefus Cbrift^ 
the brightncflc of his glory and engraven forme of his perfon,to 
the federates of the new Teftament. In the old Covenant the 
Lord had made it knowne, that he was mercifull and gracious, 
flow to angcr,aboundant in goodnefTs : But in the new Covenanc 
he doth moft familiarly reveale himfelf to be the God and Father 
of our Lord J cfus, and in him the Father of the faithful! : which 
moft fweet and pleafant name doth breathe out unfpeakable love 
and tendcrncflfc. 

Again, though the ancient federates had fome knowledge of 
Gods Attributes, as an introduflion to the Covenant of Grace^ 
yet they never knew that tr anfcendency of Gods love, which is 
brought to light in the new, mentioned in thefe and fuch like 

a lol!.|. f • parages of Scripture % Behold^ ^hdt moHMer of love the Father batk 
heBffmdvfon tef, that ^ejhould be called the Sonnei of Qod. god f$ 

lots. 1^6^ loved the ^orld» that he gave his only begotten Sonne : that "^hofiever 
keleeve^ in him fJhotiU not ferijh^hm have everlafiing life, Be^a^ 

E®m J. I & rednot hk own Sonne ^ but delivered him upfirfuaS: hajv Jhall he not 
^ith him peelj give m all iioings, Who Vpill have ail men tobefavedg 

aTim|«.4»f. dnd to come ftnto the knowledge of the truth. For there U one Qodt 
gind oneLMediatoHr betweene god and man, the man ChriFi Jeftu* 
Jbeythaticektofttetch this fpeech of the Apoiile to the fui> 


md horp God hath revealed himfelftherein, 201 

theft,-do€y4Lt confefle it is fpoken of the times of the Gofpell : 
and that appear etb~-e57iclently by thereafon of the Apoftle, con- 
firming that faying, tjiat God will that all men be favcdjfrom this, 
that God is tj:i^^od of sU men by Cavenant, and Chrift the Me- 
diatour of all men in Covenant, and by the Gofpell, the Word of 
truth, the laving truth of God was brought uMto'all in Covenant. 
Befides, in the old Tdhment the Dodrine of the Trinity of psr- 
fons in the unity of the God- head was more obfcurely taught i 
but in the nt'vv Teftsment we ate clearciy and molt comfortably 
aflaredj that the Father, Son, and holy Ghoft do fweetly confpirc 
to per fed the Salvation of the FaitbfuJij and confirms unto them 
'the promifes of the Covenant ; There he three that hearerecord in 
Heaven, the Father, the WofA, and the holy Ghofi, andthefe three are ^ J^^^^-J'?* 
one. Cjoe ye therefore and teach all Nations ^ bapiz^ng them into the , 

Name of the Father, and of the Sonne, and of the holy qhoft. If in ^^^^^'^'^^'^f 
the mouth of two or three witnefles every word muft ftand: 
why (hould a Chrillian queftion or doubj of thQ promifes of mer- 
cy made in the Covenant, sflfured unto biro by the Father, Sonne 
and holy GboO:. God the Father promifcth, that in his only be- 
gotten Sonne, he will be a merciful! Father to all Beiisvcrs,tbat he 
will give him to them for a Redeemer, accept his fatisfa<5lion for 
them, give them his Spirit, and beflow upon them righteoufnefle 
and falvation. The Sonne doth promifc*, that he will be Redee- 
mer of the faithful!, by dodrine,merir, and efficacy ; that he will 
deliver them from the power of Satan, bring them into perpetual! 
favour with God, waOi them from all the filthineff^ of their fins, 
and be unto them, as he is made of the Father, Wifedomc, 
Rightcoufnefic, San^iBcation and Redemption. The holy Ghoft 
doth promife, that being redeemed by the bloud of Chrift, by the 
prefence of his grace, he will cleanfe them from all inherent finne, 
and repaire the Image of God in them : leade them into all truth 
and holinelTe, inable them to cry, i^hba Father, feale them for the 
Lords, and abide with them by his grace and comfort as an ear- 
neft of the inheritance, until! the redemption of the purchafed 

This Covenant was flricken with all Nations, or the world 
in oppofition to the Jewifh Nation : fornow the promife made 
to Abraham was fulfilled. In thee Jhall all 2{jtions of the earth be ^^^'i-^* 
b/ejfed : now the prophecies touching the calling of the Gentiles, 1:31.4445, 

D d and 

202 of the New I'e^Ament or Covenant J 

and bringing them to the Sheep-fold of Chrift, were accompli- 

Matth. 18L1 9, (hed : now the Apoftles were lent fcrth to preach the Gofpell to 

Mar.16.13. g^gry creature : and God gave fuch ablefling unto the Word,that 

cT'd*^* by their preaching a great part of the habitable world was con- 

Aft'Vo/iil' verted unto the faith. Now upon the gentiles ^as powre^iouta/fi the 

gift of the holy Cfhoftf Chrifi having broken down the partition ^aU be» 

Eph*t« »4j* J» nvixt Jew and gentile 3 and ahlijhed in hid -fiejh the enmity ^ even the 

law of CommandementSi contained in Ordinances, fir to make in himm 

felfi oftwaine, one new numt (0 making peace. 

The Covenant of promife was firft made with Adam and his 
pofterity ; not with him as the common parent of all mankind,and 
fo with every man that (lioald come of his loincs howfaever in all 
generations : but with ^Adam as a beleevcr, and his pofterity un- 
till by wilful! departure from the faith they lliould difcovenant 
themfclves and thofe that did proceed from them. In like man- 
ner it was made with the Patriarchs, withi^M^, and his pofteri- 
ty : then with Abraham and his family ; afterwards with one fc- 
ieAed Nation s but under the Gofpell all Nations arc brought in- 
to the bond of the Covenant. All nations, I fay, but not every 
one in every nation, nor every nation in all periods of that time. 
For many nations have lived, we know, for a long time in infi- 
delity, without the Gofpell, without God in the world, aliens 
from the Common-wealth of Iftael, and ftrangcrs from the Co- 
-, ^ venant of Grace. And we find the Apoftles to make a manifeft 

difference betwixt the people of God and unbelievers, fb that all 
in their dayes were not admitted into Covenant, though the Go- 
fpell was preached unto them. For they that be in Covenant arc 
in phrafe of Scripture the people of God, that is, fuch with 
whom God hath contraded Covenant, and who in like manner 
have fworne unto the words of the Covenant, God ftipulating, 
and they accepting the condition. God as an abfblute Soveraigne 
hath right and authority over all men : but in a certainc and pe* 
culiarreafon they are called his people, who receive his Com- 
mandement, and acknowledge him to be their Lord and Saviour. 
And thefe be of two forts ; for God doth make his Covenant 
with fome externally ,caUing them by his Word,and fealing them 
by his Sacraments, and they by profcftion of faith and receiving 
ofthe Sacraments oblige themfelves to the condition required; 
and thus all members of the vjQblc Church be io Covenanr. 



dndhovf Gfidhath reveaUd himfdftherein, 203 

With others God doth make his Covenant effcftually, writing 
his Law in their hearts by his holy Spirit, and they freely and 
fi^om the heart give up theenfelves unto the Lord, in all things 
to be ruled and guided by him. And thus God hath contrafted 
Covenant with the faithfull only. The firft fore are the people of R.oi«.*'*8, 
God outwardly or openly, having all things cxternall and pertai- 
ning to the outward adminiftration. The fecond are the people 
of God inward or infecret, whom certainly and diftinftly the 
Lord only knoweth. Experience hath confirmed it, that in the 
dayes of the Gofpell, the Church of Chrift hath fometimcs been 
fhut up within narrower boands and limits, fometimes it hath 
fpread it feife over the face of the earth more glorioully, and fo 
much was plentifully foretold in the Scripttsrcs,tbat fuch as iUed 
in the times of that great apoftafie and falling from the faith, 
might not be oflcnded at it. What the ftate of Gods Church (hall 
be in theie latter daycs,time will manifeft more certainly then wc 
can yet define % but fome Divines are of opinion that the bounds 
thereof (hall extend further, and the glory thereof be greater then 
ever heretofore. And this is not improbable: for V^hen the Apoc.ii.i«, 
feventh Angel fiunded, there '^ere great voices in heaven, faying. The 
Kingdomes of this ^orld, are become the Kingdomes of our Lord and 
of his ChriB, andheJhaU raigne fir ever and ever ; which accordeth 
with that of Z> aniel, Behold^ one like the Son of man, came VPtth the -q^^.^ j . I ,^ 
cloudsof heaven, and came to the Ancient of dayes f and they hroaght 
him neere be fire him : ^y^nd there Vpas given unto him dominion and 
glory, and a Kingdome, that aU people, nationri and languages fhould 
ferve him: hii dominion ii an everlaSling dominion, "^hich Jhallnot 
pafe away, and his kingdome that '^hichJhaHnot be defiroyed. 

Chap. I L 

ChriJf the Mediaiour of the New Tefiament for tvhom 
he died and refe agdnc^. 

CHrift Jefus incarnate is the Mediatour of the new Tefta- 
Bient,areaH Mediatour, a fit middle perfon betwixt God 
and man: aMediatonrandTcfliatour both, who hath confirmed 
the Tcftament with his bloud* But feeing the Covenant is 

Dd 2 made 


Chrifi the Mediatour of the Netv TeBamm 

€ MoU 
cap. »8 Sg^a. 

^e[f. ad Epifi. 
IVorft. part. 
Secunda nccejf, 

Synod, dedar. 
jent^ rem on/}* 
circa Art.SeSt. 
it moTte Chri- 

cap, 4. Corvin, 
Se£f»^. & cap. 

Exam. Cmf. 


oiadc in Chrift, and Chrift died in foms fore for theai that be un- 
der the Covenant, it will not bs out of place firlitoQisw for 
whom Chrift died and rofc again, and then how Chrift is the 
Mediatour of the New Teftaaient, and what is the exaltation 
and Prerogative of the new above the old Covenant in that 

Touching the firft there be two main opinions of Divines. 
The firft fort hold, that he died for all and every man with a pur- 
pofetofave. But in the explication of their Tenent they adde. 
I. That Chrift died for all men confidered in the common lapfe 
or fall, but not as obftinate, impenitent, or unbelievers. Chrift 
died not, fay they, for Cam and fudas, as fuch, or as they fhould 
perifb, nor for e!^^^^and Peter as faithfull, in refpeft of the im- 
petration ofSalvation: but without difference for them confi- 
dered in the common ftate and condition of the fall and fin. 2. That 
Chrift died for all men in refpsd of the impetration of Salvation, 
butthsappljcatior? thereof is proper to believers, 3.ThatChri(l 
died not to bring ^.11 or any maoaiSually to Salvation, and make 
them partakers of right coufaelTc; and life 5 but topurcbafe falva- 
bilitie and reconciliation fo farre, sstba: God might and would, 
fahajpftkia, deale with them upon termes of a better Covenant, 
which might well ftand allthough ic jfhould be applied to no 
man , no man (hould be reconciled or laved by Chrift , (§od 
fhould have no Church on earth, or Saint be crowned with 
glory in heaven.' 4. That Chcift hath purcbafed falvabilitic 
for ail men , but faith and regeneration he hath merited for 
none : becauib God is bound to give that which Chrift hath 
merited of Kim, ?1 hough it be not dcfired or craved. Exam.Cen' 
fur. Cap, 8 . frf^ . p 5 . C^ Cap."]. pa£. $y & Refponf, adfpecPtl, 1 1 . 1 o 7, 
Other po itionrthey hold, which bang not together, nor agree 
with that which hath been mentionedjas that God neither would, 
nor could by right condemns any man for the fiDoe oiAdam^ and 
thatOriginallfinne fo called, is properly neither finne, nor pu- 
nirhmsnt : And then if Chrift died for mankind in the common 
lapfe,hc died for them that never had finned, nor dcferved punifh- 
ment. Againe thsy teach that all Infants, whether of believing 
orlnfideil parents, dying without aftuall finncs committed in 
their, ownc perfon, arcreftord into the favour of God, regenera- 
ted and f^vcd : and that becaufe God hath taken all inankind inta 


ferwhomhedkdandrofeagainc^. 205 

the grace of reconciliation, and entred into a Covenant of grace Arm. Refp. ai 
with Mam and all his pofterity. Bat then Chrift died for all a^iArui^.i^, 
mankind in refpcd of impctration and application both s and by 
his death hath adlually reconciled all mankinde unto God, meri- 
ted aduall regeneration for them, and purchafcd Salvation, ifafi. 
tcr they be poflcffors of thefc fpirituall bleflings, they doe not fall 
from them and (hake them offby impenitcncy and infidelity. For 
tXdam and Eve excepted, mankind cannot be confidered in the j^^i^^ i^ -p^^j,^ 
common lapfe, but as infants only. Further they affirme, that In- pag 4. 
fants hate refufed grace in their parents, grandfathers, anceftors, 
by which aft they have deferved to be forfaken of God : which^ 
how it can (land with their generall pofitiori, or that laft menti- 
oned, I cannot conceive. Laftly, they teach, that Chrift died 
for the impenitent and unbelievers if or thus they reafon, If Chrift 
died for all whom he came to fave, and came to fave unbelievers, 
as his words are, I came not to judge, but to fave, then he died 
for unbelievers. How they accord thefe things, I cannot finde; 
but if we take things as they lay them downe, it will plainely 
follow, that Chrift died for all mankind in rcfped of impetrati* 
on only, and that he died for them in refpeft of impetration 
and application bothjthat he hath not aftually reconciled them 
unto God, and that he hath purcbafsd aftuall reconciliation 5 that 
he died not for the impenitent or unbelievers in rcfped of impc- 
tration, and that in refpeft of impctration only, he died only for 
fuch. And all this can hardly be reconciled with that they have 
in their Scrip, Synod, deelar.fent ,Rem,cirea Art,^ (jrMm hme irnpe* 
trataeflfeccatori^fts qmtenpts in commftnilapfHs &peccatiftatft alijft^ 
feccatisj excepta fola impemtentia^confiderantur, c^c. Stent fdelihttSs, 
quatalibus, frn^Hs impetrata grMtaproprie obtin^jt, itainfidelibn^ 
C^ rebillibm, qua talibi^s, gratia impetrata mn eli, ^c^e^pag, 312, 
The fccond lortof Divines diftinguifti the fufficicncy and effici- 
ency of Chrifts death. In refped: of the worth and greatneffe of 
the price he died for all men : becaufe it was fufficient for the re- 
demption of every man in the world,if they did rcpentand believe: 
and God might without impeachment of juftice have ottered Sal- 
vation to every man in the world upon that condition if it had 
been hispleafure. In the efficicncy> as every man, or any man 
hath fruit by the death of Gbrift, fo Chrift died for him,' But this 
is not of one kind: fome fruit is common to every mani fat as 

Ddg Chrift 

205 Chrift the Uediamr of the New TeBament 

Chrift is Lord of all things in heaven and earth, even the earthly 
blcfllngs which infidels in;oy, may be tcarmed fruits of Chrifts 

death. Others proper to the members of the vifible Church and 
common to them, as to be called by the word, injoy the Ordi- 
nances of grace, live under the Covenant, partake of fome gra- 
ces that come from Chrift, which through their fault be not fa- 
ving s and in this fence Chrift died for all that be under the Cove- 
nant. But other fruits of Chrifts death according to the will of 
God and intention of Chrift as Mcdiatour,bs peculiar to the ftieep 
of Chrift, his brethren, them that be given unto him of the Fa- 
ther, as faith unfaincd, regeneration, pardon of finne, adoption, 
&c. and fo they hold, Chrift died efficiently for his people on- 
ly in this fence, namely, fo as to bring them cffjdually to faith, 
grace and glory. 

Now let us come to examine what the Scriptures teach in this 
Hcb.».9. particular. The Apoftle writeth expreffdy, that by the grace of 

©od Chrift tafted of death for all men or diftributively for every 
man. Some referre this to the futficiency of Chrifts death : but all 
men, cannot be referred to man-kinde confidered in the common 
mafle or lapfe : for the words muft be underftood of the|dcath of 
Chrift as it was fuffered in time, and not as it was decreed of God, 
and of men confidered as at that time. But at what time Chrift 
fufiered, mankind could not be confidered as in the tranfgrcffion 
ofourfirft Parents. Thejewes were of opinion, that Chrift the 
Mcfliah was promifcd a Saviour to them only. How,to impetratc 
Salvation ? No, but to be applied as in Covenant. Now to bcatc 
downe their pride, the Apoftle faith, Chrift tafted of death for 
all,fc. both Jew and Gentile, who ft ood i»rclat ion by virtue of 
the Covenant, -as the Jewcs did. So that the Apoftle fpeakes of 
the application of Chrifts death, which is not abfolutely common 
to all and every man in the world :and by every man is msant,eve- 
ry man who nearetb, receiveth, and is partaker of the fruit and 
benefit of Chrifts death oS^^red in the word of reconciliation : e- 
Tery man who is under the new Covenant,as it is propounded of 
God in the Gofpell and accepted of them. But every man under 
the new Covenant, as he is under the Covenant, is partaker of 
the fruit & benefit of Chrifts death. That the paiTige is to be under- 
ftood of them that apply and pofleffe the fruit of his death, is ma- 
aifeft by divers teafons from the verfcs precedent and fubfequent- 


far whom he died and rofe againt^. 207 

The world to come, vcrfe 5 . may well be that all, or every man for 
whom Chrift taftcd death : but that world to come is that happy 
agc,which the Prophets did foretell fliould begin at the comming 
of Chrift, whofe accompliflinient or fulfilling we cxped as yet. Btxa an not. 
They for whom Chrift died are in the fame Chapter defcribcd to '" Heb.s.5, 
be one, that is, of the fame nature and fpirituail condition with ^em«.wMaU 
Chrift, to be his brethren, fuch astruft in God, the children of '"^^tfonit 
God given unto J efusChrift,thc generation or pofterity of Chrift, ifa.5j!to! ' 
as the Prophet fpeakcth, whom Chrift tooke by the hand and lif- fle*b.2,x6. 
ted up from their fall, the feed of Abraham, But thefe things a- 
gree to them only that pcflcfla the fruits and benefits of Cbrift,for 
whom he died by way of application. If the maintainers ofuni- 
verfall redemption confider their ownc grounds, it will be hard 
to fit this Text to their purpofe : or rather from them the former 
expo fition may be confirmed. For either by all men, they muft 
undcrftand mankind in the common lapfe, as fallen in -«rfrtl^w, and 
then Chrift by his death hath reftorcd them into the favour of God, 
they ftand a&ually reconciled, they be regenerated, and if they 
die before by adiuall finnc committed in their ownc perfon they 
fall from that eftate, arc undoubtedly laved : or they muft undcr- 
ftand all men confidcred as obftinate, impenitent, rebellious, un- 
believers. And then Chrift died for all,and every man as obftinate, 
impenitent and unbelievers : which I cannot find that any of them 
hath or dare affirmc : or by all men they muft underftand all belee- 
vcrs, who apply and poffcflc the benefits of Chrifts death, which; 
is that weaffirme. They fay (how truly I difpute not) his do- 
minion over all men, that they arc bound to obey him, and live 
unto him, is grounded upon his dying for every one. But if that 
be granted, is it not neccflary that his death (hould be applied to 
every one in fome fort, at leaft made knowne unto them in the 
Wbrdoflife? For men are boundtoobey and live unto Chrift, as 
they will grant, not bccaufe he hath impetrated righteoufncfle and 
falvabilitie,but bccaufe he hath entred into Covenant with them,, 
made knowne unto them the way of life, imparted unto them his 
bleHings, and they have accepted of the condition , and received 
bim to be their Saviour. 

And thefe words, By the grace of God, I (hould tbinke, im« 
poet more to them, then that velleity or common mercy, or genc- 
lali aftcftign of doing good^ wjiieh t/frmh» and Cervin^ make 

2o8 Chrifi theUediat&ur of the New TeHamem 

mturall, and ( as they teach ) God beareth towards them that 
he haceth, Cor'i'/«.i«-4^o/«>.c<a/^.a9.*S'^(^.3. which was the caufe 
why he gave Chrift to die for all men : even that free-grace and 
love, whereby he quickens them that were dead in trefpaffes, and 
{aveth them that believe, Ephef,2.%, As for the particle All ox e- 
veryope, examples are nfuail in Scripture where it is ufed with fit 
limitation,though neither all. precifelyjoor themoft part be figni- 
fied, and that confcfied by all {ides. But what need paralell places 
to prove it may be, when the circumftances ot the text fhew it 
muft be limited, and they that mofc prefle univeriall redemption 
are enforced to acknowledge a limicadon in this matter. 

Icisobjeded, that the holy Ghoftipeaketh generally in the be- 
Hefe« 6. ginning of the Chapter, what is man ? But how to frame any 

* '-' reafon from thofe words todifprove the former limitation I fee 

not. For this word man defignes the nature of man in generall, 
but with relation to the perfon of Chrift,and is fpoken of the nature 
of man, as to be unite^to the perfon of Chrift,and alleadged by the 
Apcftle to p; ove,that the world to come, is put in fub/edion unto 
him as man. And if it be extended further then to Chrift as man, it 
muft bereftrainedunto thefaithfull, to whom that which folio w- 
eth may be applied by communication and fellowiliip with Chrift. 
Againe, it is objedted, thatChrifts dominion over all is groun- 
ded on his death : but if that be granted , it is not neceffary his 
Heb 2 6 death fhould be (imply for all men. For the Apoftle (peaks of 

Phil'i.?!^' Chrifts dominion, not only over all men, but over all things, the 
Joh^j.jj. Angels themfelves not excepted : but it was not requifite, Chrift 

Mat. Si 27, fliould die for all things, even for the Angels, as they themfelves 
confeffe. His power extendeth it felfe unto all creatures, to whom 
he can command obedience at his pleafure, and uoktfe they per- 
formeit, inflicfl punifliment. For he is made Lord of the world, 
and all power is given unto him in heaven and^arth. Chrift hath 
Soveraignty over all things, and doth rule over all men, thefaith- 
full to life,the unfaithf ull to death, CorvinAn Molm^caf. 1 2. § 26. 
This dominionof Chrift ftands well with reafon, is confonant to 
the Scripture,but was not purchafed by his death (imply for them. 
Laftly, ItWillbefaid, theApoftle threatncth punilhment for 
not receiving or retaining Chrift, and exhorteth to care of it,which 
argueth generall purchafe, or elfe fuch exhortations and threat- 
nipgs would be Without force. Touching the thing it felfe, it it 

for whom he died anst rofe againc^, 209 

fi;eely acknowledged that the fufficiencie of Chrifts death and 
greataeflfeofthe price was fuch, that God might falva jtiBitia, 
not only invite all man -kind to come unto Chrift, but alio bring 
them unto faith and falvation by him, if it had feemed good unto 
him in his infinite wirdorae s and the efficiencie of it fo great, that 
God doth ferioufly invite many that live in the vifible Church to 
come unto Chrift and beftow many fpirituallgtfts and graces up- 
on them, by their own fault unavaleable, to whom he doth not 
give grace to repent and believe unfainediy . But exhortations and 
threatniflgs argue not that generail purchafe in queftion. For the 
obftinate and rebellious , they whofe eyes are clofed and hearts 
hardened, leaft feeing they (hould fee, or hearing they ihould 
heare, and be converted j even they are exhorted to repent, and 
threatned for their impenitencie : but I have not found, that the 
purchafe was made ablolutely for all (uch as fuch. For fome re- 
bellious, I can beleeve that Chrift hath purchafed not falvabilitie 
alone, but faith, regeneration, pardon and falvation, becaufe ic 
is written of Chrift, That he is afcendsd on high, and hath ted 
captivity captive, andhath received gifts fir meHy yea fir the rfi* Pfal.5l.i8^' ^ 
helliom alfiy that the Lord God might dweU among them^ : Or as 4^ *''""* ^f' 
Pi/c^f^r renders it, thou haft led captive the rebellious, that thef"JJj^^^^^f^^^ 
might dwell with the Lord God. But the maintainers of univer- tent em Ui 
fall redemption have not undertaken as yet to proove gene- •Deo, 
rail purchafe for all and every obftinate, rebellious and treacherous 
revolter from the Lord. I n this place the objection is more vaine : 
for the Apoftle might well fpeakeof the application and poflcffion 
ofthe fruits of Chrifts death, when he exhorteth them that had 
heard and received the word of truth, to retainc and keepe that 
which they had heard. Exhortations and threatnings both are 
ihfefull to them who have not received the truth : for God is plea- 
fed by fuch means to worke what he doth exhort inen unto : and 
to them who have received the truth , and doe pofifefle the bene-!- 
fits of Chrifts death, that they might continue and perfcvere. And 
may we not argue more probably, that feeing they are exhorted to 
take heed to the things they had heard, therefore falvation had been 
■preached unto them, and in (bme fort received by them. God (9 joh.|. 1^,17; 
loved the ^orld ( as we rcade in the Evangelift ) that he gave hit 
only begotten finite, that ^hefoever believed in him, Jhonld not 
ferijhi bnt haveeverUBinglifi, ForGodftntnothisSonntin-' 

Bi te 


Chrifi the Mediatour of the New TeHmtnt 


The psrticle 
Who, is note, 
ver diftribu* 
tive of the Tub- 
jcd to which 
Itis attributed. 
See Revel, a. x; 
%6, aCor.j.i^. 

ZPcM totm ter- 
r« vficabitur, 
Vt 1 Joh.s.x. 
Rupert^Tttit, in 
Job. Mmdum 
Jan^ qmmdi' 
lexit Deitf, hu- 
mammgei ui 

tfti vivos (3* 
uortaosi msrm 
fuoi,Ccil. qui 
Vint : vivoi,qui 
in iSum,^ve ex 
Iudiiit,five ex 
tufi eranf. 

to the Vo or Id to condmn the "^orUibnt that the "dporldthrfiughhim 
might be Javed. Andjlcame not to judge the ^or!d,but to/ave the 
VvorUMere the motive from which the gift of Chrift is derived is 
common love.The word ^or/^ cannot 6e taken for the elc(5l only : 
for then it will be as if it had bin faidjGod fo loved the eled,that he 
gave his only Sonne,thai; whofoever of them believed in him fliould 
not periOi. The world that Chrift came to fave, was thac 
world into which he came; and that comprehended both beleevcrs 
and unbelievers : and in the lame place,it is divided into them that 
(hall be faved, and them thac fliallbe damned : and there iho«l4 
benoforceofrealoninginthe latter place, if the world did no; 
comprehend unbelievers under it. Thus thefc paffages are urged 
for univeriall redemption. But the principall texts ijpeake plainly 
ofthedaies of grace, when God fent his Sonne into the world, 
and when according to the prophcfies and promifes made before, 
the Gentiles were to be called to the faich, added to the Churchi 
and received into Covenant. And the world is taken communif 
ter & i/tde finite , for the world , as it is oppofed to the Jcwifli 
Nation alone, not HniverfaUterfroftngHlia, for every man in the 
world of what time or age foever, or ofthis time in fpeciall. The 
fence then is, In the fulne^e of time , God manifefted fo great love 
unco the world of Jew and Gentile, not of the Jew alone, That 
he gave hii ordj begotten Sonne, and in the Minillery of the Gof^ 
pel, ferioufly invited them to beleeve, and entered into Covenant 
to beftow life and happinefle upon condition of their unfaincd faith 
on Jefus Chrift. As God loved //r^^/, whom he chofe to be hi« 
peculiar people under the old Teftament : fo in the times of grace 
he extended his love to the world of Jew and Gentile. And as a- 
mongft the Jews God manifefted fo much love to the body of that 
Nation, as to enter into Covenant with them, atid vouchfafe unto 
them the meanes of grace, butuntofomehe (hewed more fpeci«« 
all love, fo as to call them effedually, and make them hcires of 
falvation : In like manner in the lafi times or daies of the new 
Teftament God manifefted fo much love to the world, as it is op*, 
pofed to the Jewifti Nation, as that in the miniftery of the Gof- 
pell he entreated them to be reconciled, and entered into a Cove- 
nant of peace with them i but unto fome he bare and manifefted 
more peculiar love, in that he called them effedually, and made 
ihem hcjrcs of lift, Nevcrtkleje, wheg thefe Texts be expouo- 

~ ded 

f&r whom he died and rofe agMncJ, m 

ded of the daies of grace, or times of the new Tcftament, we tnuft 
not conceive, that all men now called Gentiles, were in former a- 
gesofthe Church utterly caft off, and /hut out of Covenant, or 
that the gift of Chrift 10 Jew and Gentile is fo reftrained to the 
daicsot grace, as that he was not given to the faithfull, whether 
Jew or Gentile, in all ages : but that the tranfcendent love of God 
m giving his Sonne to die, and in him receiving the world of Jew 
and Gentile into the new Covenant is peculiar (fpecially after the 
diftinftionof Jew and Gentile ) to the times of the Gofpel. This 
might eafily be confirmecl, both for the fiibftance of matter, and 
the fence of thefc paflages, out of their writings that be the ftiffeft 
maintainers of the point in hand. See Vorfi, Parafc caf, ^.& j, 
CorvAnmiol. cap. II, § 33. Exam, ceitfur.CAp, 8. Forfi, cU 
t>eomt. addilfnt.!. Now then let us compare their pofitioni 
and thofe texts togecher,and fee whether they confcnt ordiflent one 
from another., 

Firft, The love wherewith God fo loved man fallen, as to give 
his Sonne to die ( Ifpeake according to their opinion) is com- 
mon to all men; anincompleatewillandafteftion, whereby God 
loved them as men ; or a volition and intention of being reconci- 
led. But the love mentioned in this text is a love fpeciall to fome 
ages and Come men, not common to every man in all ages. Ic 
was a fpeciall love, whereby the Lord loved the Jewes as his pecu- 
liar treafure, above all Nations of the earth, in the time of the Law, 
xyfMt.f 6. & 10.14. 8c 26.6. &32.8. T.Sam.y.iS' 1 King,S» 
53. P^/.33.i2. & 100.3. & 143.5. Anditisa Ipeciall love, 
not common to all ages, much lefle to every man in every age, 
whereby the Lord hath loved the world of the Gentiles, in the 
daies of the Gofpell, to take them for his people. And this love 
is true love, though many pervert the grace of God to their ©wne 

Secondly, The world for which Chrift died was man-kind con- 
fidered as fallen in Jdam ; for unbeliefc f olloweth the death of 
Chrift, cannot be precedent to it. But here the world compre- 
hends unbeieevers and impenitent in refpeA of their prefent ftate^ 
and cot fuch only as may fall into unbelief and impenitencie t even 
fuch impenitent and obftinate, as the Scripture faith, could not 
believe, 7 o/>. 1 2.3^. 

Thirdly, The world for which Chrift died, (as they teach) 

Eel docb 

zi% Ckrijl the Mediatottr of the New TeBament 

doth comprehend every particular man, of what eftateor condi- 
tion foever, in what age of the world foever. But the world in 
the text doth not comprehend all men of all ages, nor every man 
of any age yet pafled, but the world as it is fet againft the Jewifh 
Nation only ; not comprehending every particular man of the 
Tewcs or Gentiles, but fo many, and fo confidered, as they give 
reafon of that oppofition. Looke in what refpe(5ls God is faid to 
have cholen the Jewesto be his peculiar people in the time of the 
Law, but now in times of the Gofpell to love the world in oppofi- 
tion to that peculiar favour at that time manifefted to them alone, 
in that fence is the world of Jew and Gentile to be underftood, and 
fo many comprehended under it. 

Fourthly, They fay, Chrift died for the world in rcfped^f im- 
petration or acquifition of righteoufnefle, not of the applicacioii of 
his death. But^s world which God fo loved, was called by the 
Gofpeilj and dia enter into Covenant with God , and God with 
them : The world which Chrift came to fave was a world in Co- 
venant, and whercunto he preached peace .• and fo the death of 

Chrift was applied unto them by the word and Sacramjnts , and, 
received by them in reCpcd: of: faith temporary andprofeflion. Fpc. 
when God enters into Covenant with a people, and they accept- 
the conditions, and give up their names unto God, they doe in a. 
fort apply the death of Chrift unto themfelves ; and poiTpfle fome 
fruits and benefits thereof. And therefore, ^ther tJiefe paflages 
rhuft be interpreted ofGods giving Chrift to die for the world lu 
a fpeciall manner, or from them it may undeniably be concluded, 
that he died not for all man-kind. For that which in fpeciall love 
was given in peculiar manner to the world of Jew and Gentile in 
/ the times of the new Teft a men t, that is not the efFe(fl. of common 

love, given to all and every man in ail ages j but God of h\s. fpe- 
ciall love to the world of Jew and Gentile in the daies of the nevv^ 
Xeftament gave Chrift to die for them : therefore of common love 
he did not give him to die for all man-kind of every age and con- 
dition. And feeing God loved fome, and but fome, according 
to the t me fence of thefe pkces, fo as to give Chrift to die, that 
^hofoever believeth in himJhoHld not fsrijb, &C. Yea fome Con- 
fidered for the prefentin the ftatc of impenitency, unbelief and 
Dsut.9.Q.St|a obftinacy, and (it may be) given up unto a reprobate fence, 
28, * ' whereas hecaftoff many Nationsin foimsr ages, much more par- 

' "" - ^ ticular 

fer.r^hom he died and rofe a^amz^, ai 2 

ticular perfons, who never proceeded Co farre, continued To long 
in theiefins as this world had done, muft we not of neceffity ac- y^^'*^'** 
knowledge fome free eledion or choice according to the good ira^^!°g°'& 
pleafure of God ? Certainly, it cannot be concluded hencej that 6^1%/ 
Chrift did equally lay down his life for all men without exception, Ezck. i6j. 
topurchafefor them aduall reconciliation on Gods part. It is 
here objecfled, that this world doth comprehend many impenitent 
and unbelievers, thatlhall not be faved, and it Chrift died for Synod defenf, 
one that (hall not be laved, it followeth a pari, that he died br Z^''' ^moK/f, 
all. And it is true,as many be externally in Covenant, and have "^^-^'''•*f*^- 
all out ward things common with tbe faithful], who be not true 
members of Jefus Chrift : fo alio this world oppofed to the Jew- 
ifti Nation, called of God, and admitted into Covenant, doth 
comprehend many, which in deed and truth be not lively mem- 
bers of Jefus Chrift. In like manner many, indeed wicked men 
and ungodly, living in the vifible Church, and under the externall 
Covenant , are called the chofcn of God, the people of God, 
Saints by calling, and fo Chrift died for them, efficiently, and by 
\V3Ly of application , as they be within the Covenant made in 
Chrift, and doe partake of thofe fruits and benefits of his deaths 
which of themfelves tend to falvation, but are perverted of them 
to deftrudion through their owne default. But others compre- 
hended under the world, be faithfull indeed, living members of 
Jefus Chrift, fealedby the Spirit i and for thefe Chrift died efti^ 
ciently in a peculiar manner, fell, to bring them to life and hap- 
pincfle,asalready they are called fa vingly and effedually to faith 
and repentance. 

The argument a pari is of no weight, manifeftly confuted both 
by Scripture and experience it felfe. For to many that perifh is 
the word of Salvation fent, they receiv« it, proftfle it, rejpyce in. 
it, live under the Ordinances of grace, be partakers of fundry 
jraces of the Spirit; all which be fpeiciall fruits of Chrifts death, 
ipeciall to fome, not common to all men : and in which refpedls 
Chrift is faid to die for them. But to affirme the (acne things .of 
every particular the world, is to offend againft common 
fence. If Chrift had died tor one wicked man that periHied, be- 
caufe he had been wicked, or for that reafon, there had been lome 
truth in the argument : but fome fruits of Chrifts death are im- 
parted to fome althou'gl;^ they be wicked, not becaufe they are wic- 

Ee 3^ kedj, 

* 14 ChriH the Mtdiaieur of the NerP Tefiament 

ked, or for that reafon. Befides, it is one thing to fay, Chrill died 
for fome that perifh, as they partake the fruits of his death m 
chemfelves belonging to Salvation, which is granted, another to 
fay, Chrift died for all men, confidered as fallen according to the 
will of God, and intention of Chrift as Mcdiatour, with full por- 
pofe to purchafe for them adluall reconciliation on Gods' 
part, which is, that they contend for. So that this ob/e<flion. 
will be of no force, untill it can be proved, that impretation is ap- 
plication, they be in Covenant, who be not, nor never were in Co- 
venant ; they have the Gofpell, who never heard of the Gofpell ; 
they have received the promifc of Salvation, who are rejefted and 
caftorfofGod, as aliens from the Covenant J Chrift is amongft 
them, who never had poliible meanes imaginable to come to the 
knowledge of the truth ; and they are cnlightned, and have tafted 
of the good word of God, and of the powers of the life to come, 
who all their life long have lived in ignorance and infidelity , and 

i Cor f 14 I T "°^ ^^^^^ ^^^^ ^^^^^ ^^ * Chrift. 

■' ** '' Wetkmjftelgt ( faith ?4«/j thatif one died fir aR, then "^ert 
all dead. And that he died fir aU, that they ^hieh live Jbonld not 
hence fir ^ live unto themfelves , hnt unto him ^hich died fir 
themy utidrofe againe. Here the Apoftle faith expreflely, Chrift 
died for all (imply meant, in refpe(fl of the impetration of a new 
Covenant, and (alvation according to that Covenant ; common 
mifery is concluded from this, that Chrift died for all men:/r. 
that all were dead: which is univcrfally true of every man. And 
upon this ground he exhorts men to live unto Chrift, /c#7. that 
See Ejlium in ^^"^ ^^'^ ^^^ *ll J^^"* S°^^ learned Divines not partiall ref erre 
»Cou5.i4, this to thegreatnefTeof the price and dignity of Chrifts death, 
P3g.585. * which was lufficient for the redemption of man-kind, if they did 
repent and believe : but the Apoftle rather fpeaks of Chrifts death 
for all in re%>eft of application, event, or effcd : for all not (im- 
ply, bup^or all to whom the fruit and benefit of Chrifts death is iCor. offered in the Gofpel, and received by faith. Thus Vorllim, 
h^j^^^'f^' Chrifi died, and was raifcd up for all men in generall, if wc con- 
iBudquoghic (i^erthe amplitude of divine grace offered in Chrift : but in re- 
lum! ' "*''"*' ^Pe*^ of the event or effed both arc done for all the cleft and be- 
lievers only. And in this latter fence that phrafc is u(ed of the A- 
poftle in this place. And this the circumftances of the text will 
plainly enforce. For he fpeaks of the deaths of Chrift, not as it 


— . — — - . ' I ' " II i ^ni ii 

fer wh0m he died and r»fe againe^. a tj 

ivas purpofcd and decreed of God, but as it was adually furred 
by Chrift, when the farrc greatcft pait of the world, was for prc- 
fcntjftate drowned in Infidelity and Idolatry, wherein they had 
continued a long time, being re jeded and caft off of God. The 
end of Chrifts death and rcfurrediion there named by the Apoftlc, 
ftiewcthit is to be meant of the fruit and application, that they 
which live, (hould not henceforth live unto themfehes , but to 
him which died for them, that is, that by force of that communi- 
on which they have with him their head, being dead unto finnCj 
they (hould live unto righteourncflc. But that can agree unto 
none, who are not partakers of the fruits of Chrift ; none are fit- 
ted by gtace to live unto Chrift, but they that have put on Cbrifi 
by faith. 'X\\2X AS. for whom Chrift died, is that world, which 
God in Chrift hath reconciled unto himfelfe, not imputing their 
fins, T^r.ip. whereby is meant the world of Jew and Gentile, of 
which we have fpoken before in the fore-cited placcs,which muft 
have the fame meaning ; and cannot be affirmed of the world 
univerl^lly accordmg to that prefent ftat^ wherein it ftood, when 
Chrift fuffcrcd. 

How then doth the Apoftlc conclude common mifery from 
i^\Sy}f one died for allythen^ere cifli dead? It may well be undcr- 
ftood, of death unto the world and rinne,and not of death in finoc, 
as if he had faid, if Chrift died for all, then all that arc his,are dead 
to finne and to the world. The words and fcope of the Apoftlc 
do both agree well to this, interpretation. It hath been alieadged, 
that the words fpcakc of a death paiTcd j not p/cfsi>t, as euf 
trannatioa ftiewcib , and fo could tK)t be unded? ood of death 
unto fin. But r«rlifii*J upon that very word noterh, that he un- f^^, m 
derftandeth ail Chriftiacs in which the cfticacie of Chrifts death * Cor.j ri y» 
(bcwcth forth it fclf,3S they alfo by the cxatnple of Chrift arc dead ****^ 
tofiriaadthefleftj. CGnferJK*/».^.2, &c. i Fef.^,\\ Some fco^ 
Ufhly underftand this of the guilt of death, that the fenfc {hould 
bfjbccaufe Chrift is dead for all awn, hence it is truly gathered, 
that all men arc guilty of d;5ath> which is refuted in the verfc fol- 
lowing. IhisisVorSUmhis ccnfure of that interpretation. As 
for the words, feeing they fpeakc of the death of Chf/p^^i^ed 
in the time paft, it was requifttc thcfc that mtreat of ^^^^rdtkttf Cf 
^n in them that be Chrifts, (hould be put in the time p^alfo. 
And fo the words doe more confirme, then weaken the inter- 
gfiCtation. * It 

215 ChriB the Medidtmr of the Netv teftamem 

It is further obj 3(3:cd, that it will not agree with the argu* 
incntof the Apoftls, who by Chrifts death for all, could not 
prove all to be dead to Cm, nor £o much as all the Elc<fl, or all at 
Corinth, Andthedriftof the place is to prove, not that all men 
(imply are dead to finne, for that is notorioufly falfe, and was nei- 
ther taught , nor confirmed by any Pen-man of holy Writ ; 
nor that all the Ele^S;, or all at Corinth are dead to fin ; for he 
fpeaketh to the Church or faithfull in Corinth, not to the place, 
or inhabitants univerfally : but that the faithfull, who had belie* 
vcd in Chrift, as himfcif and the converted Corinthians had done, 
and did for the prcfent, were dead to fin, which he ftronglycon- 
firmeth from the communion they have with Chrift in his death 
and refurrc(5lion,thatis, that Chrift died for them in eflfedk and 
eventjthat the vcrtue and efficacy of his death did (hew forth it 

If the other Interpretation be admitted, the confcqucncc is 
good ?hu$, Chrift died for all believers,, therefore all men by 
natureare dead in fin : fortheftate of believers before converfion 
is the fame with the others : and if they by the merit, power 
and efficacy of Chrifts death be delivered from the guilt and do- 
minion of (in, who fo is not fct free by the death of Chrift from 
the power of fin, muft needs be dead therein. Arguments not 
much unlike We have, l ^^r. 15. a i. As in Ad^m all die^ fi in 
ChriJiJhalUIlh made alive, Intheficft part allfimply,in the latter 
all with limitation, fciL that be in Chrift muft be underftood. 
See ^^^ Rom.'i . 1 8. and 1 1 .3 2. But of that there is no need to make 
many words, becaufe the former interpretation is moft natural!. 
The I j.verle they fay , need not be reftrained, bccaufe all ate bound 
to live unto Chrift. Whether all men be fimply bound to live un- 
to Chrift, bccaufe he fimply died for them, though his death had 
never been fignificd unto them,I will leave to another place : But 
the difcourfc of the Apoftle is of them, for whom Chrift died, and 
who believe in him, and in whom the efficacy of Chrifts death 
dothexcrcifcitfilf. They that are dead with Chrift fliould lite 

They obje(3; moreover, that reconciliation is predicated of the 

vMf.1^ whole wo'rld, which is reconciled thus farre through Chrift, that 

God will not deale with man as he might have done, to caft him 

away utterly without hope, To as he hath the Angels that finned, 


— — ' .d ■' . . 

for whom he dUd an^ rofe againc^. 


bat fac will accept of him upon termss fitting, according to a new 

Covenant. In which fenfe a Father is reconciled to his Son a ^^^'^^^'^'*MoU 

Maftcr to his Servant, when he fs content upon repentance fub- ''*i"'*'§'55. 
miffion and amendment to receive him into favour. Upon this 
Text they would build a two-fold reconciliation, one gcncrall fas 
fomc exprcffe It) another fpcciall j onz not an aauail taking away 
offins,nGtaau3llrcmirrionof fins, not Juftification, nofaduall 
redemption of thefeor thcfe, bu^an impctration of rcm'fiion Tu- 
ftification, and redemption, whereby God may, his jufticc not 
hindhng, remit fins to tifen tranfgreflburs , which doth imolv 
another mefflber^to wir,reconciliation, juftiffcation and rcdenin- 
non^etrnW. Terkin. §. 33:, p^^. 7^. ^r a reconcilcablc- 
nefl^, whereby men might be delivered from the captivity of fin 
ortheneceflity of thraldomc andreconciliation, whereby they 
arc delivered ftQmcz^tWny.VofHiJi,PeUgimMi,.y part i thefJ 
Others call it an aauall reconciliation on Gods parr,and an'aiftuaU 
reconciliation whereby it comes to pafib, thataii finnersdo aau- 
ally pIeafeGod^^,ma«/Sr.^^p.8./;^^.5P. Vorfi. ia 1 C<,r,K.i%. 
and 1^2.2 Chriftfufficicntly and efficiently doth expiate the 
fins ot all, and reconcile the world to God, ^HmtuminipCoed that 
is, as much as pcrtainesto the execution of his office laid upon 
feim by his heavenly Father. Wbat diftin^ion they make of re- 
conciliation, and aduall reconciliation, or rcconcilcablcncffc and 
aauall reconciliation, thefamemay be made of redemption, re- 
miffionoffinsjuftificatjon, and adoption, regeneration and fan- 
aification,fothatwsm3ydiftingui{hof themalfo, that there is 
an aauall redemption and redcmption.aauall remiifion of fins and 

if^f fr 'f -fi ^.^^^^t*?^" '"^ iuftification, aauallfanaifica- 
tion and fanaiftcation. The terme aauall remiflion or reconci- 
liation being fet agamft reconciliation, as the diftina member, 
doth require, that reconciliation potentiall be usderftood, which 
may be called reconcileablenc IT:. And then Cbrift hath not ob- 
ained of the Father by his death, that hofcould remit fins, but 
that he ha h power to remit them : he hath not obtained re- 

tn^^lJ '^TT^u'^^T ^^^""^^^ ^« hath not merited 

m.n mrph?h"^^ ^"^ might pardon fin, as wellasthat 

fwan might be pardoned or reconciled; and notwithftanding any 

1^^ redemption 

3i8 chnfttheMediMour oftkNewTeHament 

redemption that Chrift hath purchafcd, every man migfit perifb^ 
and be condeiimcd forever. But if rceonciliation potentiall or a 
poflibility of remiflion only be purchafed by the death of Chriftj 
how is this made aduall by application? If it be aiflaali and cfFedU- 
all,why is it not apply ed and given to every man ? will not God 
give to every man, that which Chrift hath merited and purcbaisd 
for every man ? The merit of reconciliation by Chrift, and the 
application thereof muft be diftinguifhed : but for whomfoever 
ctcrnall redemption is purchafcd, for them he hath obtained grace 
and glory, and upon them be will adually confcrrc that grace 
and mercy, fanftifying them to be a peculiar people tohimfclfc. 
H#^.9.i2.cJ^4/f^. 1.21.^^^.4.14. Application is as ncccflary an 
c&d of redemption or reconciliation purchafed, as burning is of 
fire 5 and there can be no redemption , but of neccflity it muft 
briwg application, both in rcfpedlof Gods jufticc,and Ghriftf fa- 
crifkc. Z)4».p.24. H^^.io.10,14. Therefore there is but one re- 
conciliation, and that aduall and effeduall, though it may be uni- 
verfallypropofedintheGofpelh and that particular aduall recon- 
ciliation is none other but that very fame, which God m^koru 
and impetratorif hath propofcd by the death of Chrift. As for the 
prcfent Text alleadgcd, reconciliation is not predicated of the 
whole world, taking the world for every man in the world, nor 
reconciliation put for rcconcileablenefle. For it is manifeftthe 
Apoftie fpcaks of the world as it was to be confidercd in the timci 
when Chrift fuffered, or after, when in rcfpeft of prefent ftatc 
the farre greater part were impenitent, if not obdurate finners,ali- 
cns from the common-wealth of IfracJ, without God in the 
world : and I defire to fee that Text of Scripture, where God is 
faid to reconcile unto himfelfe the whole world of impenitent 
Eph.a. 13; ^nd obdurate finners,a£ fuch ; or where we ftiall find, that all fuch 
Rora.3.8, 17. be brought under a new Covenant. It is alio as plaine, that he 
Gal, 3.16. fpeakes of the furrogation of the Gentiles in the place of the 
Eph,a.3,4. Jcwes, and is to be underftood of the world oppofed to the Jew- 
ifh Nation. That world concerning whom the Lord bad fpo- 
Genii«.5; ken before to JkaJtam, faying, JnthyfeedJhaU all the Nation j of 
and 18.18. the earth hhle^ed: That world, which the Prophets foretold 
Tnd ii^*7 i8 ^''"Icl be added to the Church, and given to the Mefliah ; This 
Ifai.i rcjio. worlds I (ay, which God hath proajiied to bleflc, and adde to the 
J8fai.7i./8,* Kingdoms of the Mcffiah, he hath reconciled unto himfclfcs 


fw whom he died and refe agamc^, ztp 

to wit, as they arc bleffcd in ty^&rahami feed, adually and e& 

This is the Privilcdgc of the New Teftamcnt, that God was synod. «Wys- ' 
in Chrift reconciling; the world unto himfelfc, as is moft apparent pra. 
in the words next following, and hath committed unto us the i^i hoe loco pef 
word of reconciliation, and by the fcntence it felf; God was in "^f^^^*"^^^ 
Chrift, Butwhacisproperto the times of the New Teftament ad^w^lZi 
cannot be attributed to every man in the world, even thofe that reconciUationk 
fate in darkncfle and the (hadow of death, before the light did pertmt^ 
fhine upon them. The reconciliation here mentioned is a^tuaU, 
efl&(f^uall, particular rcconciliation,purchafed by Chrift, publi^ed 
by the Apoftics to the world of Jsw and Gentles, and received MmtumchtU 
by them in the Covenant of grace. For it is explained by^ the fii/abordina* 
non-impDtation, or remifl^on of finncs, (at Icaft as one part or turgratT^di- 
branch of reconciliation) which is a tranfient a<a'j conferred in iemonu gene- 
timff,and inferrcth a change of ftace and condition in the partic ju- ^JfordtnT/^ 
ftified or reooncilcd, and of other reconciliation betwixt God and hujm medu 
man the Scripture fpeakcth not. And it is to beobfervcd, that Sccn9n$nim 
the Apoftls faith not, Chrift hath purchafed that God isrecon- utyettamfin 
cileablcjor aftually reconciled on his part, as if before he were ir- ^/^T' -^^^j' 
reconcileable : but God was in Chrift reconciling the world un- rJlaj^fiiiiT 
to himfclf, where the world is the fubjedt or matter of reconcilia= nofiri mifenri 
lion,which is changed in refpcc^ of ftatc or condition, now recci- pofet. sregma: 
ved into adluall favour, whereas heretofore it lay under wrath. In P'»^«y4- 
anothcr place the Apoftk pats reconciliation by the death of the ^<""'5'^»»o« 
Sonne of God, and juftification by Chrifts bloud fof the fame : 
■where juftification cannot be taken for poflibility of juftificar 
tion, but for aduall juftification by faith m the bloud of Chrift, 
wherewith Salvation is joyned^whereby we are acquitted from 
the guilt and punirhment of finfic : and fo the jaftified or recon- 
ciled are oppofcd to finners, ungodly and enemies. In rcfpeft of ^"''^j®- 
our antecedent ftate, we were enemies, when ^„ -._^ ,,, _ . ... 

reconcikd.0 God. by the death rfhisS^n : ;:irS>'.ri/^£':^fei:^f 
but by reconciliation we are received into iiiant,ciaudi aiabttianrjMnth,u.i, e/b- 
grace,and of enemies made friends and fbns. mnt^s,quiprmjni/erevmitahant Infoio 
Inthcfepaflages we cannot find icconcilia- /^^'■»/''''^^J''070^Joii.9.»7./cpro{ii,^Bi 
tion put for rcconcilcablcncfl>, norprcdica- Jmm»df,^£.mih,i6,6, vitgo.quc 
tedofalltheworld nor all the enemies ^^^:^:t^:i::]:ii;:::::^% 
Gpdj nor m any other Scripture.For though chripdi/cipuius, Matth,,c.3. ^difiU 

.Ff2 all / ^ 

2 20 Chri/i the Medidtffur of the New Testament 

puiM chrifti, quieum reii^uit. ]oh,6,64 all were cnemics before rcconciIiation,yc£ all 
Sic contra ft ft infacns Uieru nsdefcri' cncmics are not reconciled, bat they that be 
bitur.quaiUjuturaefi^ nm qaaiununc converted to the faith. Thus wc are taught 
i/f.Bphc[.3,zojta Christ oveUicuntur, i^ ^^e word of truth, to diftingaifti the 

Job. 1 1, y,. Tarn, exercit. 1. 1 . Job.}. :. Without God, from the ftate of the Gentiles 
1^1. reconciled. But nor* in Chriji Jefin, je ^h& 

fmetimes "^erejarre ojf^ are made nigh dj the bloudofC hrifi,8co And 
that he might reconcile hoth unto G«dinene body by the cro^e, k^vin^ 
Jlaine the enmity thereby* Sph, 2 . 1 3 , 1 5, ^ndyou that VfereJSmetimej 
alienated^ and enemies in your minds y by "kicked Vcorksyyet noyp are re^ 
c<j»«/ie<^, C«?/. I .f^ . No w, yc^'/i the Mcfliah being exhibited, they 
are reconciled ,.and their (ins pardoned, the promife of mercy per- 
taining to them, ss well as to the Jcwes, when formerly ab" 
alienaii a feeder e fromi^lonnm, they were not reconciled. And 
when in the precedent verfe he faith, that itp/eafed the Father bj 
him, (fciLQhn^) to reconcile all things unto himfetfiy "Whether they 
be things in heaven, or things in earth ; he fpeaks of aduall reconci- 
liation, not rcconcileablenclTe, and all things muft be limited, as 
that fignification of the word, and fcope of the place doth necct- 
iarily require. The fentence is divcrfly intcrpretcd,fome think it 
not abfurd to extend it fimply to all things without exception, 
but efpecially to reafonable creatures, Angels and men. Others 
think it muft neceflarily bcredrained to creatures of a certainc 
kind, and interpret it of Angels and men reconciled one to ano* 
thcr, who w«re formerly fcparated by mans difobedience. Others 
rcftraine it to the faithfull in heaven and earth, and expound it of 
¥or^*iii the Church and men in Covenant, who arc received into favour 

^ch ^*Ei3h. ^"^ reconciled by the deathof Cj^rift laid hold on by faith* But to 
5.30. ' * interpret it fimply ofall men penitent, impenitent^ believers, in- 
fidels, obftinatCjfeparated from God by their evill works, fsdi- 
redly contrary to the Text, and hath fcarce a fccond Author. No 
man is to be excluded from feeking the benefi c of reconciliation : 
but from the benefit it felf the Apofile excludes them that be not 
In Covenant, and in the ftate of grace, to whom only this fpiritu- 
all ble^ing doth pertaine. And in the fame manner this and the 
like words are to be limited inother places. ^;^ 1.3 2. 
And this they muft not deny, if they would be at one with them- 
fsjyes 5. for they fay all ffl?n are under a new Covenant j and^ re* 


for whom he died and ro[e a^ams^, 22 1 

cetvcd into favour, and that pardon of fin is promifed unto all that 
fliall continue in that Covenant, and not tranfgrcfle againft it. 
eyfrm,reI}e».adJrl. 13,14. fo that to confummate happmcfib 
there is need of continuance cnly intheftate, which evermore 
hath cffeifluali communication cor/oyned. And reftitution into 
the ftate of grace, and aduall reconciliation, if they be net one 
thing, they be jnfeparable. And this doth tskeaway theotjedi- 
on which they raifc from the words following, AtiA hath cotH' verf.ig, 
mittedftntdm theVcord of reconciliatioM, ^otv therefore VPe hefeech io. 

joH,\NC ^Tsyy cu f ft Clrijisjiuid, lie je reconei/ed to God, Fornot 
to fay, the Apoftlc fpeakcs to the Corinthians at that time belce- 
vers, and in the ftate of perfons reconciled r hath not God com- 
mitted the word cf reconciliation to the Minifters, who are to 
befeech mankind adualiy reftored into gracc> and admitt<dinto 
the new Covcnant,to be reconciled ? The word of reconciliation 
iiBofufe, both to them that be not rcftored into grace, that they 
might be called,and to them that be reconciled,, that they might 
continue and be builded forward. 

Thatpsfljgeof the Apoftle, l ^0^.2.1,8, Tfanji wm JTnney We- 
have an Advocate ^ith the Father y Jefm Chrifl the righteous, tyfnd 
he 14 the propitiation fir ourfinne : and mt fir onrs only, but alfi fir the 
/»wi 0//^* W/io/f Wer/i^, is like to the former, as all men confefle, 
and hath the fame anfwer.. For as Chrift is our Advocate by of^ 
ficc to plead our caufe,and defend us agairft the accufation of all 
cur enemies, fo is he our propitiation : But Chrift is not the Ad- 
vocate of every man (imply, but of his people. And as he is the 
propitiation cf the belecving Jcwes,fo he is of the whole world: ' ^°^ 4»ta 
but he is the projntiation of the beleeving J ewes, in that God is 
propitious untothem in Chrift, and not propitiableorreconcilc- 
ableonly. He k their propitiation through faith in his bloud. 
Kom. 3.25. by whom their (innes are covered, not covcrable, and ^^"^ '** ^''*- ^• 
expiated and done away ,not cxpiable only. Therefore the Apo- V'^^^^-^^'g 
ftle fpeakcs of the application of Chrifts death, and by the whole ir^^flb,^ ' ^* 
worid,man.kind in common confidered asunder the falicannot Autordevccat, 
be underftood, but the whole world of the Gentiles now called Gentj.i.c >» 
tothefaith,and admitted into Covenant. Thus ForfltHshmklf, ^«M«'y^-^-4. 
though in his common places upon this Gbaptcr,h€ would under- ^^'^j ^^'^'^ ^ 
ftand thcfe words,as if Chrift fufficicntly and efficiently cjuanttim * ^ * 
mfivf^ the propitiation for the (innes ofall mankind: yet in 

Ff 3 his 


Tory? r»i John 

Chrili the Med'mmr of the New Tejiamem 

Scrip. Syn.pag. 

See Chemnitz 
liar, Evang. 
cap. 8, ^od 
gaudium erit 

his paraphfafSj hsgivcth this fence of the Text; Where fore let 
liimconfiderj that the Lordjsfas is the propitiation forger finSj 
a? who hath purchafed full rctnifHoa of thsm all for us : Arid not 
only for us, who at this time cnri)race his do6lrinc, but for all men 
of the whole world, as many as by faith receive orappehend the 
bleifing of the Gofpeil ol&red unto them. In this fence the world 
is taken, as they themfslves confeffe, Rotn.i 1,1 2,1$, Their f4llU 
the riches of the rpmrldt and their cajiing of the reconciliation of the 
war/4j that is, of the Gentiles converted to the faith, which did 
make a great part of the world,and before convcrfion were world- 
ly and profane men. The rejection of the Jeweswasan occa- 
lien, by which the Gentiles, hitherto without that gratious 
communication, wss made rich, and being converted to the faith, 
did returne into favour with God, And the fame argument they 
bring out of the former Text to confute the diftinftionof Chrifts 
death eff^dually for feme, fufficiently for all, bccaufe then the ad- 
verfative particle, doth Icofe his cmphafis, iithe Apoftles words 
be thus underftood, Chrift died cff.dually for us, and not only fp, 
but fufficiently for the finncs of the whole world, doth confirmc 
the other interpretationjfor theadverfative (hould loofeit weight, 
if the fentence be thus refolved, Chrift is our propitiation by faith, 
in whom God is adually reconciled, and not only fo, but he is 
reconcilcablc to the whole world that lieth not in infidelity* 

The maintainers of univcrfall redemption thiAke it may ftrong- 
ly be proved by this reafon,Ali men arc bound to belceve in Chrift: 
but Chrift died for all men, that are bound to believe in him ; 
which fome propound in this forme j Every man is bound to be- 
leevc, that Chrift died for him : but whatfoevcr a man is bound to 
beleeve that is true z therefore be died for every man. But if by 
beleeving in Chrift they underftand nothing butbare aflfenting tQ 
this propofition , that Chrift died for all men, and for nac ^s a 
man, for the impctration of righteoufnefle quant nm in fe, or to 
purchafc the gtace of the Father and pardon of finnes, no man is 
bound to beleeve it, becaufe it is not revealed in Scripture, much 
kfle made knowne to every man in the world by meanes fuflScient^ 
Everyman called, whether he hearken to^od calling ornotj 
is bound to beleeve that Chrift is offh-ed unto him as a Saviour, fo 
as if he beleeve he (hall be favcd : but that Chrift died for him in 
particular for the impctration of rightepufncfle, and for every par- 

for whom he died and refe agamc^. 22 ? 

ticular man in the world, that he is not bound to bclecve, bccaufc 
it is not found in Scripture, nor can he beleeve it, according to 
their grounds that urge this argument, neither can fuch perfwa- 
(ion be the ground of juftifying faith. I fay every man in the world 
good or bad cannot beiecve it, as they teach: For either they 
beconftdered as in the common MafTe, as all Infants, and then 
they be aflually rcftored into grace j or as impenitent and unbc- 
leeverSj fallen from the Covenant thcmfelvcs, (or as Arminitts 
addeth, in their parents) and then Chrift died not for them as 
foch. If they be admitted into Covenant, and continue therein, Smpt. Rem, 
Chrift died for them in rcfpeA of application : if they be fallen ^dverf.coiu 
from that ftate by impenitency, obftinacy, rebellion, Chrift died "^^' *""'•*• 
not for them as fuch : If they be caft off, and not fo much as out- 
wardly jcalled, how can they beleeve that Chrift died for them, 
ipecially, whenby tranfgreffion they have departed from that 
Covenant, and fallen from that ftate unto which (they fay) they 
Were admitted. Neither can this perfwafion be the ground of 
faith juftifying, for many ungodly men are pafwaded that Chrift 
died for all mankind, that neither will, nor can, nor ought as 
fuch, to beleeve m Chrift, or reft upon him for Salvation : and 
many beleeve it not,that beleeve truly in Chrift,and know they be-> 
leeve and that they ought to beleeve. If by beleeving in Chrift be 
meant faith juftify ing, the propofiticn may be granted with two 
limitations. Pirft, that under this terme they be not comprehen- 
ded, who never heard of Chrift, or had poffible, at leaft proba- 
ble meanes to come to the knowledge of ChriJO, or were admit- 
ted intoCovcnant. So Vorjiit^ fecmes to limitit, unkfle ( faith 
b^) Chrift had died for all that arc tailed, in vaine fhould they all 
be commanded to bslecve in him. The Auth<njYS of the Synod.. 
€Af de Eletiion. A Law not giveii, or when it cannot be on- , , 

derftood , doth not bind: Wbofoever is bound to bekcve in j^Ljent \az, 
Cfirift, muft have the rule of new life, which is the Covenant \ \i%» 
which was purchaied by the blood of tbc Mediatour, as they di^ Now repugr.att 
pote. And thca he which is not in Covenant, nor ever had the ^« 
tulcof new life,how (ho«ld be be bound to beleeve m Chrift ? The 
fccond caution is, that he that gocth on in an evill way, and ma- 
kcth a paftime of finne, i,s not called immediately to beleeve in 
Chrift, nor hath received grace fufficicnt as fuch a man, to reft 
upon him foe Salvation. Before they will or csa come unto Chrift, 


114 Chrllithe MedUtmr of the Hew l^efiament 

it muR; be othcrwifc with them, they muft be prepared of God, 
whodraweth mentoCbrift, but firft (as they fay)drawcs them 
to mind their foules ferioufly. A wicked man living within the 
pals of the Charch is bound to bclccve, as to repent and ccafe from 
symiUl* ubi ^is ^^^^^ w^y 5 ^^^ ^^^ ncgle^: of one duty doth not exempt a man 
supuarg. JO. ftom another :but fo long as he goethon in an cvill courfe, be 
jrm.privJifp. cannot lay hould on the promifes of mercy, nor embrace Chrift 
dcfJe. 25 his only Saviour, The hungry, thirfty and burdened, not they 

v/hich wallow in iniquity are invited to conie unto Chiift, that 
they might be cafed and refrcOicd. They are called to beleeve in 
Chrift for pardon, not that they are already the children of God, 
and reftoted into favour* A thirfty and weary man as fuch, can 
no more belecvethat he is the child of God, then a wounded man 
as wounded can that he is cured ; or the man ftung with t'ne fiery 
Serpent, that he was hcaled,bcfore he looked up to the brafcn Ser- 
pent. Tbirft is oppofed to water, and wearincfle to refreshing. 
A man muft believe before he can be in the ftate of grace,and know 
he doth bcleevc, before he can beleeve that he is the child of God, 
neither of which can be affirmed of the weary as (imply fuch .Thus 
then I grant all men are bound to beleeve in Chrift : but thence it 
will not follow, that Chrift divd for all men equally, topurchafe 
f or them adluali reconciliation on Gods part^ end with full and 
compleatc will and purpofc €fHAntuin infe to fave them : but only 
that Chrift died for them as an all-fufficient and efficient Saviour, 
fo that in the Covenant of grace falvation might be and is tende- 
red unto them upon condition of true repentance and faith unfai- 
ned. Tor they to whom the Gofpell is preached, and by whom 
it is profefted, are bound to beleeve what is cflF?red in the Gofpell, 
as it is cSircd there in, viz^ if they hunger and thirft, deny them- 
selves, and be wearie of their finncs. Bat it is one thing to deny 
our workes , and relie upon the free mercy of God in Chrift, 
another to beleeve that Chrift died for our redemption in par- 
ticular. Whofoevcr is bound to beleeve hath Cbrift as an all- 
fufficient and efficient Saviour, in and through whom Salvation 
might be obtamed, and undoubtedly (hall be obtained by him, 
if he renounce his owne works, and flie to the fole mercy cf God 
in Chrift, astbeobjedl of faith, in order of nature before either 
thea(flof faithj or propofall of the commandement to beleeve: 
He hath alfo the rule of new life, and is admitted into the Cove- 

for whim he died an^ roje again^^. 


nant according to the externall admimftration, wherein Chrift is 
offei:edasarufficieBt and efficient Mediatour, fo that pardon of 
fin, Adoption and eternall happineffe fhall redound to all and every 
one oy his death, ifthey doe believe: and as a Mediatour by me- 
rit arid faving efficacy to reconcile them aiftually unto God that be 
in Covenant efFe(^ually. 

The word of truth is the foundation of faith, in nature before 
it, true as it is prom ifed, not made true by faith : but that faith 
cannot be given to the promife, unlelTe the thing promifed be tru- 
ly exiftent, and made good before faith, is ftrange in Divinity. 
One thing is true, becaufe it is promi(ed s mother , becaufe it is 
fore-told, another , becaufe it is (imply declared. Thofe things 
which are true as related, thofe things have been whether we be- 
lieve them or not : and thofe things which arc fore-told as true^ 
thofe in like manner Ihall come to pafle, whether we believe, oc 
believe not. But thofe things which are true as proinifed, it is no? 
neceffary that they be, unlefle we believe. For the narration and Jm.pfivM^* 
predidion is absolute, but the promife conditional!, requiring tUf.^i, 
taith in the hearer. There is this mutuall re(ped betwixt the pro- 
mife and (lipulation, that the proD;iire is as an argument which 
God ufcth, that he might obtaine of man what he requireth, and 
the performance of the thing required is a condition without 
which man cannot obtaine the promife of God. But leaviflg fur- 
ther difpute of this matter, faith in Chrift and the commanomcnc 
to believe in him hatha fubjed word true in it felfe, not made true 
by faith, whereupon it is builded, as true, firme and certaine, as ^ 

any ground of faith in Chrift can be delired or conceived. There 
is one adt of faith, whereby we believe that (ins are pardonable: 
this '^ builded upon this ground, that Chrift is an all-lufficient and 
efficient Saviour, in whofe name Salvation is freely offered, by 
faith to be received. There is another ad of faith, whereby we 
reft upon Chrift for falvation : this is grounded upon thcfc and 
(uch like j>romifes, (^eme unta^me all j0 that Ubonrt and be hea- 
vieUden^ andl^ihrefrePjjoHt HeCy every one that thirFte^y 
come ye to^he "Waters, Let him that is a thir^, come ttnto me and 
drinke, Thcreis a third, whereby we believe that our (ins arc al- 
ready pardoned i and this is grounded upon thefe and luch like. He 
that believeth Jhail he faved» 

Jtisobjeded, if Chrift died not for all mcti, then a man may 

Gg doubt} 


226 Chrtfi the MtdUtour of the Ntp Te^^meM 

doubt, whether he diauld believe or no I : But tbat fcrupie is not 
jfemoved by the contrary perfwafion, xhat Chrift died tor all man- 
kind in the common laple : for (6 Chrift died for many men, that 
neither can nor ought as fuch to believe : and he that queftioneth 
whether he fhould believe, doth it in refpedof former tranfgref- 
lions, abufe of grace, negled of the meanes, and confcience of 
his owne unworthinefle, in which cafe it affords fmail comfort, 
and leffc refolucion toinforme him that Chrifi: died for all men HA 
firiners> but not as impenitent or unbelievers. But the dired way 
and courfe to comfort the diftrefled and doubting foule in that per- 
plexity, is toinforme him that his iins are pardonable, becaate in 
Chrift forgiveneflfe is offered unto him ; that he is parcicularly caU 
led being hungry, thirftie burdened, finding himltlfe dcftitute 
both of grace and comfort, to come unto Chnft for them both s 
and being gracioufly invited, he is without further difpute or de- 
lay to caft his foule upon the promifes of mercy and come unto 
Chrift, that he might be ref reihed. But they are in ▼aine com- 
manded to believe, it Chrift died not for them, becaufe they can- 
not believe. Is it then in vaine, that the obftinate and rebellious 
are commanded and invited to believe, who as fuch cannot believe? 
Was it in vaine, that God commanded Pharoah to let Ifrael goe ? 
that our Saviour would have gathered Jerufalcm, when this things 
cbncerniing her peacf , were hid from her eyes ? Might not men 
argue by the fame rtafon, that it was in vaine for God to intreat-e 
and perfwade them to Relieve, when he did fore-know tiiat by 
fuch invitation they would not be allured to come unto him ? And 
ifthey cannot believe, it is not through the unreafonableneffe ot 
ablurdity of the thing commanded, which doth excufe, nor iitt^* 
potency of weakncfle, as if they would believe, but cannot, whicht 
is to be pitied ; but impotency of wilfulnefle and prarc affeftion, 
the more unable to believe, the more wilfull to ref u(e, which is in- 
ekcuiablc. And though I cannot fay, God hath given to every 
man to believe if he wili ; Yet fure, God is not wanting to any 
man in that which either in juftice or promife he is bound to givet 
and did men deny themfelves, nourifti the motions of Gods Spi^ 
rit, and earneftly defire to believe, without queftion they fhould 
find the Lord gracious. If men believe it is of grace, not only that 
whereby they are inabled to believe,but whereby they are dilcerned 

§oqi o^h^r fJi?A "if chey beli?ve npf,icis of chcmfelvesjof their own 

-(^.■■fj-..^- - ■ ■-.•^y;- ■- - ; - - prayity; 

aftd kem Gffdhatb revealed himfelftkerem, ^xj 

pravity ; and they be not farther ivom believingj then from deflre 
to believe. 

It is objcfted further, that Chrift as ha died- to impeerace remid 
fion of fins for me in particular, is the objed of juftifying faith. 
The mercy of God reaching to the pardon of fin in and through 
Jefus Chriftis the objed of faith juftifying, as it is proffered unco 
us in the word of life: but it is one thing to believe that mercy is to 
be had through the death of Chriftjand that it is offered unto us in 
theGofpell, and wt called to imbrace it, another to believe that 
Chrift according to the compleatc and full will of God, hath laid 
downe his life for us in particular CO purchafe for us both grace and 
glory. Proportionable to the perfwafion a man hath of Gods wil- 
lingnelle to be m^rcif ull, is his perfwafion of the fufficiency of 
Chrifts fatisfadion : and proportionable to his perfwafion chac 
God is mercif uU to him in the pardon of his fin, is hiis perfwafion 
that Chrift died for him in particular. Juftifying faith is not with-* 
outanapprehenfioriof mercy in Chrift to be obtained, but im- 
plieth not an apprehenfion of mercy reaching to the pardon of fin 
already obtained. It is not without an application of recum^ 
bency, reliance, or imbracing, which prcfuppofeth the offer of 
mercy,inand through Jcfus Chrift to be reeeived,but the applicati- 
on of particular perlWafion,that Chwft died for me in particular,as 
well as for any other, or hath purchafed for me grace and glory ,is ^<"v''»'''»^'»'« 
not required in juftifying faith. Some have affirmed, that faith ^^^*^9*Sta,t^ 
whereby I believe that Chrift died for me, is the foundation of 
faith whereby I believe in Chrift : but I (hould defire better proof 
than their bare word for it, feeing the Scripture makes the merci- 
fullofFer of falvacion in Chrift to the burdened, hungry and thir- 
fty, the ground of this affiancf, and that perfwafion (according 
to their pofitions ) may be in good and bad, them that never (hall 
bejuftified, neither wilt, nor can reft upon Chrift for lalvation. 
To believe that Chrift is' an all-fiiificicnt Saviour, and that lalva- 
tion is offered to me in his name, is Icffe then to believe in Chrift 
for remiffion of fins ; and in order of na Are goeth before it. But 
to Relieve that according to the purpofe of God Chrift is my Re* 
deemer, who hath purchafed for me in particular grace and remif- 
fionoffins and ecernall redemption, and hath adually reconciled 
me unto God, this is the conlequent of refting upon Chrift for lal- 
vation, and cannot be believed according to the Scripnire,unlefle a 

G g 2 man 

% \% Chrip tkMedUtom of the AVu? TeHdment 

mapdoe firft believe in Chrift:;;and according as men reft upoa 
Chrifl fiiperficiaUy or fcundly with a foveraigne and well-rooted 
atfiance, (b they the other. For when we reade in Scrip- 
ture,, that Chrift tafted of death for every man, Beh, 2 .9. died for 
all, 1 Cor. 5. 15. is the reconciliation for the fins of the whole 
■world, I f oh. 2.1, fhcdhisbloud for many, ><^<«^, 26.2 S. gave his 
lifefortheranfomeofmanyj/lif^f. 20, 28. Mar, 10.^$. purcha- 
fed the Church by his bloody (t^(5?.2o.28. Ephef.$.2$, gave him- 
felfe f or us all, Ttt,2.i^, Rom 8 32. for his people, Mat. 1,21, 
^orhis fheepe, po/;. 10.15. for them that were g^iven unto him of 
the Father, fo/j.17 9,i>>. Inthefeandfuchlikepafiages, b^zAUy 
thtf^'orld. Many and Vs are meant men in Covenant, partakers 
of the benefits of Chrift, redeemed from all iniquity, and purified 
unco him as a peculiar people, delivered from this prefent evill 
world, Gat.i.\. that they might live unto God, a^^r.j.ij. Pe^ 
r^r faitb to the Jewes that crucified Chrift, Vnto yon firB, God-^ 
hai/ingraifed Hf his Soyinejefm^ fent hitr} Pb ble^e jou, in tur^.^ 
ning ayvaj every one of you fromyoHrfinnes. But he fpake to theia 
who were in Covenant, the children of the Prophets, and of the' 
Covenant ; and. as they were in Covenant, fo God laifed 4i|> 
Chrift for them, whichcannot be referred to the impetratipn o^ 
righteoufnefiCe,. but the application of Chrifts death in fome fort. 
Othcrwife, if it be obferved, that the Apoltle fpeaks of the Jews 
according to the prefent ftate, when Chrift was incarnate* or a- 
^ually raifedfrom the dead, I thinke the greateft Patrons of uni^ 
verfall Sddemption will not afiirme, that Chnft died for every maq^ 
good and bad, believer or Infidell, obftinate and rebellious, to pur*, 
chafe for them aduall reconciliation on Gods part, according tO\ 
that ftate wherein they ftood, when Chrift came into the world, oz 
was raifed from the dead. 

Once againe, it is objedcd, that if this prq)ofition, Chrift died 
for all men be not the ground of particular affiance, it canliave no 
ground at all> neither promife of mercy abfolute nor conditionall, 
generall nor fpeciall, Bil: already is hath- been fhewcd, that bare, 
afientorbeliefthat Chrift died for all men cannot be the ground, 
muchl^Se the only ground of juftifying faith, and it may further be, 
i^ade evident by thefe reafons. 

Ficft,, That is-the foundation of faith, whereupon particular af- 
i*3??.k^5?^9?i§l5i3!^^iately ground^ Biicnomans particular. 
7c- ~ ^ ~~ '^ ~" ^ ' aifijince 

ffr whom he died and ro[e a^ainc^, 220 

affiance on Ghrift for falvacion, can be grouaded on Jiis generall 
belief, that C^irift died for all men ; becaufethis nocwithftanding 
it may be>heisnot allowed, he cannot reft upon Chrift. for fal- 

Againe, That is the ground of faith, which doth fully and fa- 
tisfyingly anfwer to thisqueftion, why doe you, and how know 
you that you are alio wed to reft upon Chrift for falvation ? But 
the bare beliefe of this propofition, that Chrift died for all men, 
tofave,c^^. is not a latisfying and full anfwer to this Queftion. 

Againe, I'his categoricall propofition, Chrift died for all menj, 
ftieweth what is done, whether men believe or not, but doth not 
warrant every man as fuch to reft upon Chrift, nor promiie upon 
condition of faith, what cannot be obtained without beliete in^ 
Chrift. The ground of particular affiance is fome word or pro- 
mife made to man not yet believing, whereby he is allured that as 
ifuchheis allowed to believe, and that believing he ihall receive the 
free forgiveneffe of his offences ; which promiie is in order of na- 
ture betore faith, tendered to him that beleeveth not, holding 
fprth free remiiTion upon condition of faith, and is made good ta 
Jh-Wnthat beleeveth* Whatforaefpeakeof a conditionall piomife 
made to beleevers, I cannot comprehend : for if the perlon muft 
be a beleever, before the promife be offered unto him, then faiths 
muft hang in the aire,, and not be built upon the word, neither can • 
faith be the condition required in the promife, but foraewhat elfe ; 
for a conditionall promilej the condition being fulfilled,is conditio- 
nall no longer, bucabfolute ; the condition, being^ performed,, the 
thing promifed is applied.and.poflefled^^ and not barely, promiled; 
upon condition. . n-i «•.!'•/ h\ i" •. i^ •<.*'*• j\ ^ ' :; 

What hath been anfv«?ered to former paflages of Scripture, doth 
open the true meaning of another, much urged in this matter. God; 
cur Saviour '^iS h^ve ail nun to he faved, ^Jtdje come unto. the oTioj.: *6 
k»orvledge6f the trM^... For there is one God, and one LMedia-^^ 
tour betweeMGpd and. men y the man ChriSi Jefnj r^ho mve 
himfelji aranfimefirall, to be tefiified in due time.. But ex^^,; 
in thisplace doth not fignifie univerfally every man, in every age. 
and condition ; but AU oppoled to the J?ws only, all indefinitely,, 
and that ia the times of the newTeftamenc, of which the Apoftle 
fpeaketh. For thofe -«4/if whonvGod willeth to be. faved, he wil- 
jietii£ha?they CQttie to. the knowledge of the tmth, /«/.. the. faying 

2 JO chrifl theMediatdureftkNmTeBamefH 

truth of God, he vouchfafeth the Gofpell unto theur, and word 
of reconciliation. ButtheWordofrecoHciliacionwas not vouch- 
feted to every Nation undtr heaven in every age, much leffe to 
every man j Nor to all Nations in any age , fpecially fince 
the diftinAion of Jew and Gentile, before the times gf the 

It will be replied, that God was ready to have communicated 
the Gofpell unto them, if they had ufed well what they had recei- 
ved ; but abufing what he had given, it was juft to with-hold fur- 
ther meanesfrom them. Buc this anfwer will in ho fort fit this 
place, becaufe the Lords willing that all men be faved, and the a- 

3. rirQ.2.7. <ftuall communication of the Gofpell unto all men are plainly con- 
joyned, and fo is thrifts aduall giving of himfelfe a ranfome for 
all, both in this and other paflages of Scripture. Befides, it is 

iCor,^i9,*© moftevident thofe^//, which in this place are meant, are fuch as* 
had fearfully abufed the common grace received, and with-hcy 
the truth of God in unrighteoufneffe, and for which many of theni 
were given up unto a reprobate fence. Of thefe the Apoftle fpea- 
kingofthe times of grace, faith, God'^illeth that they Jhould 
come to the kjtowledge of^e truth, not that he willeth to vouch- 
fafe the Gofpell unto them, if they fliould ufe the common gra» 
- ces well, ( for they had fearefully abufed them already ) but a- 
dually to vouchfafe the word of reconciliation notwithftanding 
fuch their abufe. 
verir, Thofe all whom God willeth to be faved, are they that have 

God to be their God, and Chrift to be their Mediatour : but all 

Iloiii,j.»9. men in every age have not God for their God. Is he. the God of 
the f ewes gn/y ? Is he not of the Gentiles alfi ? Tes, of the Gen- 
tiles al(o f But of the World of Jew and Gentile he is the God, in 
times of the new Teftament,and not of the old. The place is much 

Roai, like that of the fame Apoftle, for God hath concluded them all' 
inunbeliefe, that he might have mercy upon all, that is, not upon 
the Jewsalone, but all beleevers, both Jewes and Gentiles, be* 
cauic there is neither Jew nor Greek, bond nor free, male nor fe^ 
male ; but in Chrift j efus they are all one. This was meant of the 
dales offalvation,ana the acceptable yeare which was f ore-prophc- 
{ied,2 (7er.d.2.and began from the alcenfion of Chrift to receive ge- 
nerall execution, ^^113.46,47. when according to promife all 
Ibould be caught of God, f 0^6.4) » and Chrift would draw all 


for whcm he diedmd rcfe Against . 231 

men unto him, fo/?. 12.32. Thus Jrmjmu^ himCdfe, the place Arm-inUtk- 
mtrcats of the amplitude of grace exhibited in Chrift under the . 
newTeftament ; and concludes his anlwer thus, that through- 
out all ages God hath willed that all men feverally (hould come to 
the knowledge.of the truth, and be laved, as they are comprehend, 
ded in the Covenantof God, but not as they are fallen from it in 
themfelves or their parents. 

Itisobieded, That God willeth that all they fliould be faved,. 
for whom we are to pray » But we muft pray for all men. But 
the Apoftles argument is otherwife, that we muft pray for all men^ 
becaufe God willeth that all Iliould be faved, that is, Gods will 
it is, that the Gericiles {hould be called, and added unto the 
Church, thcGofpcU foould be preached amongft all Nations r 
therefore now pray ye for all men, fpecially for Kings, becaufe 
by thegoodafft^dlionof Kings to Gods Church, the Church of 
God is like to profper farre betterthen by the convcrfion of meanc 
perfons. Butitno wayfolloweth, that God willeth their falva*- 
tion, becaute we pray for their falvation. The child prayeth for 
the Fathers health and recovery, when God willeth he fliall die. 
If God (hould leave us to our owne defires, peradventure we 
ftjould didire, riot only that all that now live, but that all that e^ 
ver lived might have'been converted and laved r yea, that the An^ 
gels thai fell might have been kept from (in, of having (inned 
might have been brought to repentance and faved. To delire that: 
every one that nowliveth might be faved> with fubmiHion to the 
ivill of God, is no incongruity. But we cannot inferre thereuport, . 
that it is the will of God toTave ever^^, man now living in the 
world, or to grant them meanesfutiicient to come to the know- 
ledge of the truth. Neither will it follow, that we muft pray tor 
every man in the world, in every age, knowneand unknowne un- 
to us, luch as we never heard ©f by relation, becaufe we muft pray. 
io^ Allm€n\ for then all muft comprehend even thofe that finne. 
finsunto death amongft the reft, unlefife we beleeveth^t there are. 
no-fuch (inners in the world : and he had need be of a ftrong^ 
.faith, and have fome extraordinary revelation that beleeveth^ 

Then are we to pray for all and every Infidell, obftinate,. rebel- " 
iious perfon, even the whole Kingdoms of Antichrift, that ttiey 
Slight cotue to thcknowle4'g€ of the crath : but he miii be a m an 


2^1 Chrifithe Mediatour of the New Tefiamem 

of ftrong faith chat can believe that God will give his Gofpell to c- 
veryof thefe in particular, that they might come to the faving 
knowledge of the truth. 

' The diftindlion of antecedent and confequent willahath no place 
in this matter, becaufe fuch are to be underliood as have moft cgre- 
giouflyabufed the common grace of God received. Moreover, wc 
ftiall never find in Scripture, that the faithfull ever made fuch 
prayers : butasGodhachfignifiedhis will and pleafurc concer- 
ning the calling and gathering of his people, Jews or Gentiles, (a 
they have prayed, as we m ay pray for the fulnelTc of the Gentiles, 
and calling of the Jews, wherein We doe not exclude any, though 
Aa. ^l\ X. ard ^^ know God hath mercy on whom he will have mercy, and 
"' ' gives the grace of repentance, and to repent alfo, to whom 

he pleafe, the habicuall grace ferving for the one , and the a- 
ftuall and effeftaall motion of Gods Spirit being rcquifite to 
the other. - 

Some pleadc further. The mcancs to this end, that men may 
have part in Chrift,arc unlimited, the word written, ?«/>, 20. 31. 
andpreached,^^.3.a4,25,26,27. yea,a command to preach to 
every creaturc,yl^<«r,^i 6.1$. which 7aul undcrftood, and there- 
fore warned every man, and taught every man, Co/.i. 18. to re- 
pent,t^^.i7.30.andtobclcevc,if<?«».i.5. But if ail thisbegran- 
ted, nothing will follow which is not freely granted. For as oq 
the one fide no man will affirm that Chrift died to this cnd,namc-» 
ly to procure forgivencffe of finne and Salvation to all and every 
onCjWhether they beleeve or no ; fo on the other fide, none will 
deny, but that he died to this end, that falvation and rcmiflion of 
finnes Qiould redound to all and every one, in cafe they Ihould be- 
leeve and repent. For this depends upon the fufficiencie of that 
price, which Chrift paid to God his Father for the redemption 
of the world. No man denieth, but God made a Covenant with 
^^0iM fallen and his pofterity, as now with the faithfiill and 
their feed : that all mankind had continued in this Covenant, if 
they had not difcovenantcd themfclves and their pofterity • that 
no man is deprived of the bencffits of Chrifts death, but throngh 
his own finne and corruption : that God is not the caufe efficient 
or deficient of any mans infidelity, but man himfelf: That men 
are ferioufiy invited to repent in the Miniftcry of the Word, and 
that the promife of Salvation is faithfuU and true, fo that he that 


for whom he died and rofe agamc^, 2^3 

belecveth (hall never pcrifli. Thefe things be not qucftioncd, nor 
whether foDc effeds or benefits of Cbrilts death be common to 
all men, but whether he died equally for all men,to purchafe aftu- 
all reconciliation for them on Gods part, and fet all Infants in ths 
atauallftateoffaivation, but to procure faith and belicfc for no 
man, fo that he had obtained the full, immediate end of his 
death, though no nian had ever bcleeved on him, or been faved by 
him. But that which is afllimed in this argument is apparently 
falfe,as it is applyed. The Covenant of grace is revealed to foraCj 
no man being (hut forth by name, but if he repent and bclecvc hs 
(hall be faved : but many thoufands never heard of, never had 
probable mcanes to come to the knowledge of the Covenant. 
The commandement to preach the Gofpeil to every creature, was 
given to the Apoftles in the dayes of grace, upon the publication 
of which Covenant, they which formerly ferved dumbc idols, 
were bound to repent and beleevc : but that coramandement was 
peculiar to the Apoftles, not given till after the refurrejftion of 
Chri(V,after fucb commandement the Apoftles were injoyncd to 
tarry for a time in Jerufalem, nor could they poflibly difpcrfc 
themfelves in a moment into every part of the world, norths 
V/orld take notice of any fuch commandement given unto them, 
or ofthedo^flrine revealed by them. Before that time the Lord 
fufFwrcd the Gentiles for a long time to walk in the vanity of their 
minds, without the light of his truth: and fince that time divers 
nations have been caft off^ left to themfelves, as aliens from the 
Covenant, and deprived of all meancs to come to the knowledge 
of God in Chrift, And if there were any force in this reafon,The 
meanes of grace be unlimited, and command given to preach to 
every creature, therefore Chrift died for all men: This muftbe 
of greater weight. The meanes of grace be not vouchfafed unto 
all and every man : therefore Chrift died not for all and every 
man. For if meanes neceffary to Salvation be not propounded, if 
they be not,nor ever were called to the faith by the ordinary and 
only eff«:duall meanes ordained of God to bring men thereunto, 
we fpeakc of ourfelves, and not according to Scripture, if we 
affi*.'me,God gave Chrift to die for their redemption. 

Amongft many cffeds of Chrifts death reckoned up in this ar» 
gument, this is the moft generall, and'all the reft depend upon it : 
and if the meanes be not vouchfafed to all, none of the reft can be 

H h common 

^54 ' O^rif/ the Mediatmr of the New TeBament 

common to every one. It is a rcceitcd principle amongft them, 
that as God loved the world, and Chrift gave himlclfe a ranfome 
for all men, or is the propitiation for the (ins of the whole world 
fo God willed that the Gofpell concerning Chrift fliouldbcpub- 
liflicd to all men in the world. Cervin, in lMoL cap, 3 1 ,ytf<5?, 33, 
If then the Gofpell be not publiflied, or God willed not that the 
Gofpell (hould be publiflied to all and every man in the world, 
Chrift died not for. all and every man. ^dam and Noah having 
received the Covenant, were bound to teach their children,and fo 
fucccflively in all ages : Tfil.'jZ, which had it been obfcrvcd, 
none had failed to have the fame published unto him. If this be 
applied to the prcfcnt purpofc, they muft teach only, that Chrift 
died for all and every man, if they that be in Covcnant,iliiall care- 
ftilly obferve the charge and commandemcnt of God. And by 
the fame reafon they may conclude, that God gave his Sonne to 
dic,and that with plenary purpofe, that no man fttould ever Hnne 
by ignorance, infirmity,! ropcnitency,unbclicfe, or any particular 
tranlgrcflion : that God purpofcd to give to every man the plen- 
tiful! and cC'duall meanes of grace, and that every man Hiould 
jftually apply the death of Chrift. For if every man fucccflively 
bad obeyed the commandement given to Adam, and ftlfiUed that 
charge, the dodrine of falvation had been publilbed to every man, 
every man had been borne and lived in Covenant, every man had 
anally apply ed the death of Chrift unto himfelfc, every man had 
enjoyed all the Ordinances of God : y ea,there had been no impe- 
nitent peifon, I might addc, properly no (inner but ^damandi 
Eve, Then they coald not fay,Chrift came to favjc the world,un- 
der which infidels muft be comprehended, or that he prayed for 
his perfecutours and unbeleevcrs, nor that he came to favc his 
_ people from their finncs : for if this charge had been obeyed^ 
there bad been no Infidell,nor perfccutoor, nor finner amongft his 
pcoi^c, bat only our firft Parents. And by the fame evafion,thcy 
may hold that Chrift died for all and every man,whcn he died for 
no man living, or that ever livcd,but AdMtonly. But this is no- 
thing to prove, that fince many Nations have ncgkdcd their 
charge, and being fallen frem God have received from him a Bill 
of divorce, a commandement hath been given notwithftanding 
5H3tohis fcrvants in all ages,to publifli thedo^rine of ialvation un- 
to every creature amongft aU Nations* 

for whom he died dndrofe againc^. 235 

Addm and NomH were in Corenant, is there the fame reafon 
of them and their pofterity continuing in the faitb| that there 
is of tbeo) that be Grangers to the Covenant , (hut up in 
darkneiTe, and never heard the found of the Gcfpell for many go; 
nerations together ? 

It feemeth futiicient to Princes ( fay they ) to publiHi their 
Lawes in fbaie places, at Ibme times, though they concerne all, 
are for their good, and take hold of them, if they benotebferved, 
leaving it to Parents to teach their children, and every one to en- 
quire tor his own good* 

In thiscomparifon there be divers things unlike, diters that 
cannot be fitted to the purpofe, unlefTe it be in a fenie contra- 
ry. For they fay,Lawes once fu^ciently publiQied bind and ftand 
in force, though unknowne, or fcarcdy podible to be known by 
ibme particular men now living in fome remote parts of the do* 
minions: Andtheplaine dired rcdditionis. That God having 
made a Covenant of grace with Ad^n and his pofterity, all and 
every man is bound to belceve in Chrift, and walke in obedience, 
though he be ignorant of his duty , never received ability to do it, 
never had meanes poflible to come to the knowledge of Chrid : 
yea,though he be caft ofi^and left to the hardne^e of his heart. 
God hath commanded Parents to teach their children. Who , 
doubts of that l But the qusftion is, whether God hath vouehfa- 
fed fufficient means of grace to every man, which is not hereby 
proved, becaufe God, when he gave his Covenant, injoyned Pa- 
rents to teach their children. We grant the Lord is wanting in 
nothing, which either he promifed, or in his eternall wifdome 
and jufticcfaw meet to be done, and that fuch as be deprived of 
the means of grace be )\My deprived. But we fay, as experience 
conHrmeth,that fufficient meanes of grace hath not been affi)rded 
to every man living (ince the fall oi Adam, 

In the comparifon there be many things unlike. For common- 
wealth are one body politick, in which it is held fufficicnt to 
publiCh Lawes in fome knownc places, and at fome times, gran«> 
ting fpace and meanes that all may learne them if they will. 
But we fpeakc of fuch as never were fo much as in the outward 
ibciety of the Church, nor adjoyning to them ; that never heard 
of the Covenant of grace, they, nor many of their Anceftours,noc 
of a people or fociety profefling the true Religion. So that whcre- 

Hh 2 as 

2.^6 Chrifi the MedUtour efthe Niiv 'T04ment 

asthereaibnisofthcnieancs o^ lupernaturall knowledge vouch- 
fefed to them that never heard of the Covenant, or lived nigh 
unto them that enjoyed the word oFreconciliation, the compari- 
fonJs of naen in Covenant, who cannot want poffiblc meanes to 
knowthemainaqd fundamental! points of the Covenant. Old 
Lawes, they fay, not in ufe , yet in force, fcarce pofliblc to be 
knownc, do bind : But the queftion is, of many dodrincs in ufe, 
which muft nccrflarily be known^cr a man cannot be in the num- 
ber of the faitfull fo much as in externaiifbciecy. 

There is not a prohibition to preach or write to any,(fay they)- 
unleffe it was to puniih fome fpeciall finne, as when ChtiftMth, 
CaH not. -pear ks hefir.c fmney or fpme others were to be fcrved 
firftjas'Chriftfaidtothe woman of Canaan, lamnotfent, httt ta 
the laBJheepe of the hmfeof Ifrasl^ j and Panl, AB.i^, It '^as medm 
jIullthM the QpSfellJhould. he fiy^i preached unto jou : And it -Was 
thus when the %iritiorbade J'^^/ to goe into dne place, and 
commanded him to goe mto another* We might aske unto 
which of thetwocaies they will refcrrc that of our Saviour, 
Into the Vpay efthe Santarimnes enter je not, LMatth. 1 0.5 . mdyTarrj 
p at fsrfifiikfjg, untillye be endued y&kh power from en High. Lukfi 
'Z/^f^9* during which time, and before the Apoftles could dilperfc 
'themfelves,many millions might depart this life, who never en- 
joyed raeanesfuflicient to bring them to the knowledge of God 
u\ Chrift. And if God have charged hisfervants, not to cafi: 
pearles before fwine, and prohibited them for a time to preac!j 
the Word oftheKiogdome to fbme people, and in fome places 
becaufe it is his pleafure to fcrve others firft, why fhould we not 
likewife think, that God in juftice bath deprived many nations 
and people ofallpoffiblemcanes, whereby they (hould come td 
the knowledge of the truth? Let us fee how well this fitteth the 
matter in hand, The meanes of grace be unlimited, but in two- 
cafes there was a prohibition to write, and what is this, but in 
plain termes to confclfc, that the meanes of grace in ^11 ages and' 
times, in refpcdtof pll plsces and perfons have not been unlimi- 
ted? Befides, when no man muft take this office of preaching 
upon him, but he that is called thereunto of God, and no 
man can fliew that he hath bcene called to preach the Go- 
Jj)ell to every creature, why may not thi& be called aprobx-- 

: The laft refuge is, That any man might have had the Word,^ 
iifing that little well that God gave. How (hould he have had 
it^ By ordinary tncanes, or extraoidinary revelation. Senicare 
bold to affirmc,fee ihould have had it after an extraordinary man- 
per.^ Others Ipcake of I know r.ot what poflibility by traffique, 
and the like: both forts utter Grange things, and it is reafon we 
(hould require better proofes then bare affirmations. To him that 
hath Jh^ll be gi-ven, is a proverbiali fpecch, whereby our Saviour 
fignifietb, that ihey whole enlightened by the Gofpellj and ufc 
well the liipernaturall gifts they have received, (hall be enrich- 
ed with an happy encreafe. And that the contemners of the 
Gofpell and gtace bellowed upon ihem, (hall have that taken 
from thettj which ihey feemcd to have. But that men unrcgenc- 
,rate can of themfclves ufe their naturall gifts in an acceptable 
manner, or that God will bellow fupernaturall, upon them that 
afc their naturall gifts minm «?^/c, as Arminmi fpeakes,is neither 
found in the Text, nor confirmed from any circuraftance ofir» 
J wice we (ind the pa(fige ufed, Mmh, 13 .12, and i'S-ig^! In th® 
fir(l it is manifeil', cur Saviour fpeakes ofthem that enjoyed the 
Gofpell :" in the lecond, of ihoft that ufed their Talent,^, whereby 
gifts not naturall, but fupernaturall are meant t bccaufe the Lord 
doth freely bejflow eternalljife immediately upon them that ufs 
theirTalcnt well, which they will not fay, he doth upon them 
who ufc their naturall gifts wimti male. In both places our Savi- 
our fbewes^ how God dealeth with his,giving them,a tafte of his 
goodheflcj wheiby they third after the augmentation of his grace: 
the more earneilly, when he doth not afled the hearts of all meti- 
in that manner. And if naturall gifts (which they call common, 
gracejbeunderftoodjthen for the abiife of this light oc grace,, 
God dothnct only with- hold from menthe ilipefwatiirali meancs, 
of grac9, but takes from them their naturall gi^s which they hads. 
For fo the Text runneth,, ^W j^ow him that hath nat^ezien. that. 
V^ich he had, or feemed to have, fiall be mken away. And then I , 
would demand, whether Chrift died for them that fo abufed their 
mrarall gifts as (ivd^y or no ? If he did, then he died for many, to . 
whom he \ouchfafeth not mcanes fufficient to bring them to ftl- 
vatloHjor faith in. him. If he died not for them, then he dlt^. 
Slot fc*- the f arre greateft part of the world, in all ages, in refpe«3j 
of the i)rcfent ftatc wherein they ftand as men. And here is to be 

Eh 3-, j^nfidersdl 

»38 ChriHtheMdUtottref th\Newtefiimte»t 


confidered, that in Scripture you (hall not Hnd, that God gare 
Chrift to dis for any nation, people, or world to whom he fcnt 
not the word of reconciliation; nor is any people ornationcaft 
o^and rejedcd for their impiety,kf t without the means of grace, 
given over to the vanity of tneit mindes, without God in the 
world,cver faid to be redeemed by the bloud of Chrift, or recon-^ 
ciled unto God. 

In many places we reade that Chrift died for them that fhall, or 
may perifh, for reprobates and caft-awaies, i Pet. *. i . There jh^Z 
he falfe teachers among joH^ "^ho frivUj jhall bring in dumnabU 
herefiesy even denying the Lord that btught themt and bring up- 
on themfetvesfwift defirti Etiony Rom. 1 4< 1 5 • I> efiroj not hittt^ 
"^Pith thj meat fir "^hom Chriii died, I C#r.8.i i. And through 
thy knowledge /hall the ^eake brother ferijh fir ^hom Chrift 
died, Of how much (crer Pftnijhment fttfpofe ye, Jhall 
he be thought "^or^yi Vf^ho hath troden under fiot the Sonne of 
God, and hath countedthe hloud of the Covenant therewith he 
Veas (anCiifiedy an unholy thing, and hath done dejpite unto the 
Spirit of Grace. From which paflages they argue thus. He that 
died for the cled and reprobate, for them that peri(h and perifti 
not, he died for all men. But Chrift died for the eled: and repro- 
bate, for them that perifli and perifli not. The Propofition they 
take for granted, but it is apparently captious. For he that died 
for all the eleft, and all the reprobate, for all that (hall be faved, 
and all that perilh, died for all men : but to die for the eleA and 
fome reprobate, is not to die for all men, but for fome only. And 
if they meane it in the firft fence, the paflages of Scripture will not 
prove what they affirme; if in the fecond, it fals ihort of the que- 
ftion. But fuppofc they argue thus, fome denied the Lord that 
bought them, and thereby brought upon themfelves fwift deftru- 
ftion : therefore Chrift did not buy the eleft only, to lave them: 
If they dilpute thus, they conclude not the queftion in hand, they 
put more in the conclusion then is in the antecedent, and if they 
cannot (hew, that there is the fame reafon of all reprobates, they 
rouft confeffe it makes much againft them : for the thing to be 
proved is, that Chrift died equally for all and every man; and it 
is one thing to die for the reprobate in fome fenfe, and to die foe 
them with an intention and purpofe to favc them : and if Chrift 
died for fome and but fome that pcri(h in a manner not common 


for vohm he died and rofe again^. 

to all and every man, it is manifeft, he died not equally for all 
men. ^ ' 

Let usconfiderthc Texts themfclrcs, 3 Tet.t.i. Scmt dtnicd 
the Lordthathught them. How? in refpeft of the impetration of 
righteoufncfrc, or in refpcaofthe application of it? Let the Text 
fpcakeforiticlfc. Thefefalfe teachers lived in the Church, en- 
joyed the Ordinances ofGod,profcfrcd the faith, had known^thtf 
way oftruth,and efcaped the pollutions of the world through the 
knowledge of the Lord and Saviour Jcfus Ghrift. iP^fi.aflt. 
they had turned from the holy Commandcment delivered onto 
tliem, and it had happened unto them according to the true Pro- 

^a4^afhcdtoher^allowmg in the mire. Therefore the death of 

^it'^H 'P^rl ""^?;^P'' ^"<?^^«^y were partakers of the 
fruits and benefits thcreofbyfomc kindof faith. They thatmoft 
urge this place,^c thus interpret it. Thus the Authors ofthe Sj> 
fn>dd.def.Stnt,Remonfi,,trc,Ar^^^^^^^ is mofl evidently 

andmvmcibly manifcft,^that thofe falfc teachers, of whom T^/^V 
fpcakes, were truly bought of the Lord >fas thclinow- 
Icdgcof whom they had efcaped the pollutions of the world: or 
if thou hadft rather, that God the Father by the bloud of his only 
begotten S^nne had truly bought them, and by his Spirit truly r^ 
generated them. Vorlittu m like manner upon this place • iirft he 
faith It IS indifferent whether thou rcfen-e this- word /./.^a/ to ^^'/-^"VP" 
Chrift,or to God the Father. For both God the Fat^^^^^^^^ 
every where to have redeemed us, and Ghrift tohave bou-ht or 
redeemed us to Gbi: and thenhe fends us to thcfe pla^sf^S 
J0.28. if^r^ao. ^?A j.rT. i?.^.i.5. Moreplainly i^ he com^ 
following, It IS demanded faith he, how the LordVay be faTd 
ohaveboughttl^m,whodeny him. For this fcemes contrary ' - 
thofe places of Scripture, in which it is affirmed, that the faith- 

SLt"eTbv^AT^^ ?"^^^^ ofChrift'conKL 

redeemed by Cbr,ft^^ ,0. j8.^;4.5.23,and that the faithful do 

.W?hnfTh7n '^' ^^"''^- ' >^-^- ' ^^^^^^ anfwcr(faith he) , 
truly beleeye. Therefore they think? thefc places and fuch like 
are to be taken not according to the truth ofthe thi^g but accl 

«mf Sit S"'' ?' °P^"T/ ? ^^" ^^^^»^« tt'^fe Apoftates 
proftflc the faith foratime,,andfofeemc bothtothemfclves, and : 





pro emere, Ad, 

X5.IO- fie fpe- 
cialis, emere 
pro acquirere 
visijfim ufurpum 
tur. Apo.3.18. 
3, Sam. 7 1 aj' 

Chnft ths Mcdiatdur of the NemTeHament 

to others judging in charity, tobe trusbelecvcrs, when in deed 
they are nothing lefle. But it ftemes more fitnpie, if we fay, that 
fomewho after fail away, foratims doe truly bcleeve i which 
Chrift doth therefore call Temporaries, Oliath, 13.21. And then 
concludcsjto take away the fbew of repugnarjcy, which feemes 
to be bstwixc this and the former places. We moft hold, that 
Chrift in afi and very deed is the redeemer of the faithful!, as long 
as they be fuch : although in power, yea and in will he be the 
Saviour of the whole world, Toletpafle other things which 
psrtainenot to this queftion, it is plaine the Apoftlc fpeakes of 
them for whom Chrill died in aft, event or application, in which 
fencetheyconfeflshcdiednot for all msn, but the faithfull only 
ssfuch. And as thcfe falfe teachers were called into the Cove- 
nant, accepted the condition, beleeved in Chrift, for a time rc- 
joyced in him, and brought forth feme fruitc, lo we confcfle they 
were bought by ths blood of Chrift, becaufc all thefe were fruits 
of Chrifts death, whereofthey were made partakers. As in the 
Parable,the Lord is faid to remit to his fervant a thoufand Talents, 
when he dcfired him, fc. inchoately or upon condition, which 
was not confirmed, becaufe he did not forgive his fellow fervant : 
£0 the falfe Prophets are bought by the blood of Chrift, (c. in a fort, 
as they beleeved in Chrift, but not fincerely and unfainedly. Wc 
reade of fome Apoftatcs, that they had been enlightened, andta- 
ftedofthe heavenly gift,andbeen partakersof the holy Spirit, who 
afterwards did revolt from the faith. To thefe men, their finnes 
were remitted in a fort in this world, and in a fort they were 
bought by the blood of Chrift, but inchoately only, and as they 
taftcd the word of life. Had they eaten the word of life, that is^ 
had they foundly and truly beleeved in Chrift, they had received 
perfedl and confummate remiflion of finnes, both in this world 
and in the world to come ; they had been perfedly redeemed and 
reconciled unto God : but becaufe they did not eate, taftcd only, 
they received not perfedl remiOion, they ^cre not pstfcAly re- 
deemed. To this tafte anfwereth the So we that is wafticd, and re*« 
turneth againe to the wallowing in the mire : waQied and fo re- 
deemed, walhed with remiflion of {innes, and fo redeemed from 
finnc, inchoately : but becaufe flie rcturneth to the filth of finne, 
that remiflion is confirmed, neither in the houre of death, nor at 
. the day of J udgemsnt. The talfe Prophets were bought as riicy 


for whom he died anh rofe a^mnc^, 241 

bclecved. Had they beleeved cfFedually with a foveraignc, well- Luk,i r.28. 

rooted affiance, they had been bought faving-effsdually : as they Rom 8.25, 

beleeved fapcrficially, fo they were bought in a<?l: and event, but ?^^*V^^' 

not unto Salvation. The parchafe of redemption goetb before f^^^Jft/S??oI 

faifh, is not made by faith, but applied only: but it ismofl: affu- quiturrcrtptura^ 

red, ifmenbeleeve unfainediy, they are redeemed ef,;duaily, if Exod.j5 i6,^ 

they beleevc not, they are not redeemed t for them that be caft 06F ^^^^' i s*^* 

as aliens, wc doe not reade that redemption was purchafed. This ^^'^"^fi^h ««»«» 

interpretation will not feeme new, nor drained to them that &all ^eminf^mm: 

weigh the circumftances of the Text, not to them that urge if, am/uaL adfei^ 

when they ihallconfider it is their owne. It agreesh well with' verity 

the fcope of the Apoftle, which is to fhcw the fearefuU condition ^^e i^medoKt. 

of fuch falfe teachers, becaufe they in life denied the Lord that had ^^ Redemp. hs. 

called them into Covenant, which they had accepted, whom . i>^^*^^^M<P<^i:* 

they had embraced by faith, by whom they were delivered from 

thepoliutionfjoftbc world, in whom if they had beleeved unfai- 

nedly, without quefl ion, they fbould haVe been f^.ved : and whom 

wilfully, not of frailty, they had denied. And is not this a good 

argumei: to prove,ttiat by their "wiifiill departure they bad brought 

upon thcmfelves fwift damnation. If they were never the nee- 

rer heaven by ought Ghrift had done, the fault was their owne : 

for life was truly promifed unto them, whereof they deprived 

themfeives, not bscaufe they could not doe otherwife, but becaufs 

they would not receive it, pr having received it in part, they vo- 

Juntarily fell off. What though God never purpofed to make 

them afl:uall partakers of the faving benefits of Chrifts deaths By 

his commandement he bound them to beleevc, by promifebe a^ 

(ured them of Salvation if they did bclcsve,hebeftowed upon them 

caany fpirituall gifts the fruits of Chrifts death ; and if they fell a- 

way, God was no c^ufe efficient or deficient of their revolt : And 

doth not all this conclude their finnetobe out of meafure finfull 

in denying the; Lord that bought them. 

The other places Rem. 1 4. and t Cor. 8. receive the fame anfwer; 
forthcyfpeakeof weake bretheren for whom Chriftdied, who 
were beleevers, or as bcleevers, for whom Chrift died in refpeft 
of application. And then this argument doth not hang handfom- 
ly together, Chrift died for beleevers in rcfped of application, 
therefore be died for all men to impctratc righteoufnefTe. I f they 
wafonthus, he died for fome in refpe(5l:of application that may 
' i ■ I i perifhs 


Chrifl the MedUtour ofths New T'eHament 

FerJiiia cfi 


nerUinaa mor- 


Vorfi in Kosi. 


peri(h ; therefore he died for all men in refped of impetration, it 
hangs but loofely : for they themlelves will fay, Chrift died for 
the faithful! only in refped: of applicacion, and not for all men, 
whatfoever We are to thinke of the condition of the faithfull, whe- 
ther they (hall ftand, or may perifh. Amongft thcmfelves, fome 
that maintaine generall redemption by the death of Chrift, doe yet 
hold, that no lively member of Jefus Chrift, canperi(hj or fall a- 
way. And I can hardly fee how their poficions will hang toge- 
ther, if they doe not grant, that.though fome believers may fall 
and perifh, yet others cannot : But as conceraing the weake bre- 
theren, fuch as be true believers, it is poffible they fliould be grie- 
voufly rhaken by oftences and temptations, yea deftroyed, as farre 
as lies in the authours of fcandall and temptation, and their own 
fraiky : but in refpedl of the decree and unchangeable love of God 
and the interceflion of Jefus Chrift, they (hall not utterly periih, 
but if they be tempted, they (hill be lupporced, or if they fall, 
God will raife them up againe. The Apoftles exhortation then is 
forcible, that they fhould not offend their weake brother, for this. 
was as much as lies in them to deftrcJy him for whom Chrift died. 
Thus Vorfiiui paraphrafeth the text, offend not him with thy 
meat, I pray thee, and as much as in thee is deftroy him, foe 
whom Chrift died. Andinhis/cc. ccw. upon that Chapter, al- 
though the eled cannot perifh, the unchangeable- decree of God 
withftanding, yetit isnotfaidin vaine, that they perifh by our 
fault, v/ho when they have entered into the way of falvation, be- 
ing offended with our adions begin to turne from the fame. And 
in loc, com. upon the other place ; although Chrift will fuffer 
none of his to perifh, yet indeed they are faid to drive weake Chri- 
(Uans into deftrudion, who doe rafhly offend them, becaufe to wic 
oflences of thcmfelves doe tend to their deftrudion, to whom they 

Laft[y,Tt is dbjedledjthat the Covenant in Chrift is generall, ^ah^ 
3ii(5. & 6. JO. vvithout refped of others. 

As the Covenant \b generall, fo is the fruit and application of 
Chrifts death, in and through whom the Covenant is made, that 
is, proffered of God, and accepted of man. As all and every man 
iSjCaUed into Covenant, liveth under the Ordinances of grace, is 
partaker of the fruits of the Spirit, and applieth the death of 
ghrift^ fo Chrift died and rofe againe for hii«. But diis wanner of 


fer whom he died and rcfe againcj* 243 

Chrifts death pertainech to the event, ad or application, which 
they confelTe is not common to all men , and is manifeft in this, 
that God entred not intx) Covenant with every Nation at all 
times, neither under the Law, nor in times of the Gofpcll, fciU Aa. 14.!^, 
with the Nations he pafled by, and which as the Scripture faith ^'^ »7'l'3' 
were without God. God exprefTely declared himfelFe in the time 
wherein the diftindiion of Jew and Gentile tooke place, that he 
would accept of ftrangers, as well as any, if they fhould love and 
fearehisname, I(a.$6.'j, ButtheCovcnantac that time was not 
made with all Nations, as it was with the Jews, not made known 
unto all the Gentiles, they did not enjoy means fufficient to come 
to she knowledge ot the truth ; That the promifes of mercy did at 
all times belong to them that fulfilled the condition, is needlefle 
to be proved : but that the Covenant was made with every man, 
or that meanes fufficient or grace to receive the promiles was 
granted to every man, at all times, in all ages if they would, is 
that which no Scripture teftifieth. And that paflage of the Pro- 
phet, which promifeth the acceptance of the ftranger, if he repent 
and tUrne unto the Lord, ismanifeftlyfpoken of the times of the 
new Teftament, when the partition wail was broken downc, as 
the verfes following doe convince. In the daies of grace the Co- 
venant was more generall, then in former times it had been : but 
God hath not ercded his Tabernacle, nor walked amongft all Na- 
tions, in every age of thefe laft times,as experience teacheth. How 
then is the Covenant generall, relpeding every man ? Peradven- 
ture they mean no more but this,that every man that will be faved, 
mulVbe favedby it, and whofoever doih believe, be he bond or 
free, Jew or Gentile, male or female, rich or poore, he fliall be 
faved, though the Covenant was never made with mod Nations 
of the world, nor accepted by them, nor they had means to come 
to the knowledge of it, much kffii grace to performe the conditi- 
ons: and then to grant the Covenant is generall will availe them 
nothing. There is no force in this argument, the Covenant of 
grace is made with fome, none being excluded, ifthey repent and 
believe>therefbre Chrift died for every man, rather we may ftrong- 
ly argue, Chrift died not for every man, becaufe God is not the Rom.i.?^, 
Godot all by Covenant. But the invitation is generall, yc»7. in ?a*''*^* 
the daies of grace and to them that heare it, and the promife uni- Titt!^!!*'* 
yerfallto every believers weadde, the invitation is lerious,ftiew- Luk.a4,47, 

X i a ing 

244 Chrift the Mediatour of the New I'effament 

ing what God is well pleafed with, and doth approve in us^ fciL 
that which he perfwadeth with arguments in.themlelves forcible 
to mo¥e and incice, and what he willperformea it we make good 
the condition. We adde, that the party invited is pallively capa^ 
ble of the^invitation,. that no man of what ftate or condition^ loe- 
ver is hindred or kept backe from comming to Chrift by any caufe 
efficient or deficient out of man himfeitej which doth either con- 
ftraine or neceflitate his not comming i and he that rffuleth to 
£ome, refufeth not through inability, as unable, though unwilling 
anddefiroustoimbraceir, but willingly preterting (ome bafe in- 
feriour good before it. But this argueth only the fufficiency oi 
Chrifts deaths that all men Oiould be faved, if they did believe^ 
and the efficiency thereof, that the members of the vifible Church 
Ihould be invited feriouily, and thofe that, be effedually called 
Chould inherit the promife. 

ItwiUbefaid, to what purpofe are they called and invited, if 
they be as unable to come, as a dead man is to arife and walke. 
Trueitis, every man is of himfelie unable by nature to come unto 
Chrift, and God doth enable whom he pleale : but this inability 
isnotfromanyimpoliibility that is without man himfelfe, either 
inrefpedt of the thing commanded, or any external! caule> or 
ijruiteneceflityanddiipoiition, but from his voluntary perverfe- 
p^effe, . which is moft blame" worthy. The comparilon may be ad- 
mitted,, if rightly interpreted, otherwife it iscaptious ; for finne 
is the death of the foule not phyficail, but morall s Man by fin loo- 
feth not the faculty of underftanding, and willing, but of under- 
Handing and willing aright,, as in duty he is bound, the ob]e(fl be- 
ing propounded andxevealed with fit and convenient light,. It is 
not therefore all one to invite a (inner t© forfake the errour of his 
vj^y, and call upon a dead man to arife out of the grave. The 
Lord who doth whatfoever he will in heaven above, and in earth 
beneath,, in his deepc and unfearchable counfell never, abfolutely 
intended to make every man adually and efied:aally partakers of 
the benefit promiled, for ifhe hadfopurpoledit, it fliould have 
taken effect s neyertheleffe, the invitation is ferious, (hewing what 
■we ought to doe, and God doth approve and defire on oar pasts « 
and the purpofe ofGod to give faith to whomhe pleaiej andn@c 
IQ all menj is no caiile of any mans unbeliefe^ either efficient gc 

for whom he died and ro[e a^ainz^. . 245 

that not {imply alone, but comparatively in refpedt oi others^ who 
believe not : but that man refufeth the promifis of mercy, this is 
of himielf-e, not of fimple or naturall infirmity, which might pro- 
cure pity, but of his owne perverieneffe,, and love to fome infe- 
riour good, different from the good propoied, or contrary to it, 
and averfcneile from the.circumftances and conditions of the ob}t& 

Theyaske, what figne doth God fhew of defire or approval! 
that men fhould believe^ when he gives them not power fo to doe* 
This that he commandeth ,, intreateth , perfwadtth them to re- 
pent and believe, waiteth with lon^-luffering and patience for- 
their amendment, promifeth mercy if they will returne,. convin- 
ceth them of their wiliulneffe, and though he change not their 
hearts by the effeduallworke of his Spirit, is wanting, to them in 
nothmg, which in juftiee or promife he is bound to give, fpecially 
when theirimpenitencyis not from lack of grace, but from per- 
verfenefle. If this fatisfie them not, let, them aniwer themfelves-^ 
how God doth, wiU the repentance, of them that be call o^, and. 
left to the hardnefleof their hearts ? How he doth will, defire and 
approve. the con verfion of fiich as he hath blinded and hardened 
for their fins, even when they are fo blinded and hardened ; as of Q^w.^.f.- 
Caine, who was of the wicked one, and Qew his brother, ber i joh.j.i& 
caufe God had refped:: unto, hisfacntice, andof thejewsj whofe lA^ui-^.\%, 
eyes were clpfed., and hearts hardened,, that they ihpuld noE 

How is it imaginable, fay they, that impoffibk fhould be the 
objedrpfGcdsdeiireprapprovall? The anfwer is given already, 
s^gipoffibleinitfelfe, or in refped of the unreafonabieneffe of the 
thing commanded, is noctheobiedof Gods delirc, appro vail or 
commandment : but an impoffible thing to us in rcfpeci of our 
perverlenede, maybe and is th^ objedof Gods commandmenr, 
and fo of his approvall and defire,, as he doth will and, defire whaS: 
he doth command. Doth not.God exad of the Gentiles given vi^, 
to the vanity of their minds, that they Iliould. feeke him in the 
way, wherein he will, be found, if they would be faved, wheri 
they have not mcanes (ufficient to bring thejn to the l^nowkdge cii 
£he truth, ^nor grace to believe ? Poth not the Lord command^, 
approvca and defire the cpnverfion of many obftinate, impenitent:; 
]|ja(ops.fivin§mthe.ChHi:di^. who have and 4oe abufe ths meane$> 

2^6 Chrili the Mediatour of the Utw Teftdmem 

of grace, whom for their former and prefent contempt he doth 
blind and harden, whofe condemnation is aggravated by this, that 
they have, and doe live under great and good teaching ? Dothnoc 
theLawexadperfedlionofthemwho are under the L^Wi, when 
itisimpoHiblebyreafonofthe infirmity of the fieili ? Is not the 
rebellion ofthefiefn repugnant to the Law of God, from which 
itisimpoHibetobefreedin thislife? In the Covenant of grace, 
perfediion of faith arid obedience is commanded, otherwiie im- 
perfedion (liould not be a finne : but that is impoflible to man, 
whileft he carries about this body of fin. And if impolTible be not 
the ob/e<ft of Gods will in this fence, he that by cuftome in evitl 
hath contraded an habit, that he cannot but fin, lliould not cffc;nd, 
and he that is carried with moft violence of mind unto evill, ihould 
be leaft evill. 

They demand further, how could God approve that fuch fliould 
repent and believe, as doe not thefe things from him, and by the 
power of his grace, who therefore might glory, as he would have 
oo creature to doi? i C<?r. 1.30. And it is a moll fure thing, God 
would have no creature to glory in himfelfe, and moft true, that 
faith will not, cannot glory in any thing, but in the Lord, and 
therefore we acknowledge that God of his grace hath chofsn fome 
men to faith and holinefle, as in juftice he purpofed to leave and 
forfakeothers for their fin. For if God decreed not to give men 
faith and repentance, he is not the authour of them. For God 
doth nothing in time, but what he decreed to doe before all time. 
To exclude boaftir^g it fufficeth not to fay, that God gives grace, 
whereby we might believe, if we will, fpecially ifweufeour na- 
turall gifts well : fW that makes ability to believe only to be of 
God, and that in part procured by our felves, but faith and repen- 
tance to be from the free ufe of our owne will, whereby we are di' 
ftinguifhed from others which believe not, to whom God wiflied 
as well, and who received as much grace from God, perhaps 
more. See Graven, dijf^n. de eleSt. &fid. pravif, . But leaving 
that matter for the time, to the ob/edion the anfwer is plaine, 
that as God commandeth wicked men to repent and believe, fo 
he teftifieth what he doth delire and approve, but with-holding 
theintcrnall and effeduall working of his Spirit, they will not re- 
pent through their perverfeneflfe. As it is a duty which God rc« 
«|uireth, fo it is approved, but without his grace it cannot be pcr« 

" ' ' " -farmede 

for whom he died and rofe againc^. 


formed. It is a certaine truth, if the wicked doe repent unfai- 
nedly, they (hail be accepted, but repentance is the gift of Godg 
which without his grace cannot be wrought. As God comman- 
deth repentance, lo he doth approve it, but he approves not that 
men fhould glory in themfelvesjbecaufe if they returne as he com" 
mands, it is by his grace. God teftificd to Cain what he appro- 
ved, Gen.^ 7. when C^i^ had not grace at that time to doe what 
God required: nor did the Lord approve, that he fhould glory in 
himfelf, as if he could repent by his own power, 

Ic may be asked, to what end doth God invite and perfwade 
wicked men to repent and believe, ifhe give them not grace to be- 
lieve if they will. The latter part of that queftion mull be expiai- 
ned, for if this be the meaning, that many men through their owe 
default be kft of God without grace fufficient to bring them to 
iifeeternall, it is that experience it felfeconfirmeth, in many In- 
fidels who have departed this life, before they had means to come 
to the knowledge of Jcfus Chrift, And if God may deny to fome 
both meanes and grace lufficient to bring them to life et^ernall, he 
may juftly with-hold the graces of his Spirit from them that be 
called and invited in the Miniftery of the word, when grace is free- ' 
ly given, and both the one and other be deprived through their, 
owne default. But if the meaning of that latterclaufe be, that 
though wicked men fliould ieek and truly dcfire grace, yet God 
dochviolently with-hold it from them, then it is moft faUe, and 
implies a contradidion, as if men without the grace of God,could 
truly delire grace. Now the end of this invitation may be, confi- 
dercd according to the meanes and invitation it felfe,. and the will Tiupkx animi - 
of God exading of man what is good and acceptable, and what, difpofitioad p 
in duty heowethuntoGod ; and in this refped the falvatioft of dem&pesntren' 
the party invited is the end oftbeinvitationv or it may be corfi- .„^ Kon.-Cdi ut 
dered according to the will qf God, whereby he doth no: only, or- ajJiamm ewm- 
daine and approve meanes to (uch an end, but will io bring to pafle getium.-jemalM, 
that the effed ftiall follow : or hereby he not only commands «^'^'''«' 
them to believe, and others to further their lalvation, but willeth 
efft dually to bring them to falvation and draw them unto him by 
the powerfull operation of his Spirit, (o he doth not will tho. lal- 
vation of all that be called. As men arecalled to repent that they 
might live, and God doth in calling them avow it is his defire,thty 
Would repent that they might live, Co the end of the invitation is . 
~" ■'" ' "" ^ ^" ' "" ' " ' life. 

24S ChrlBtheMediatour of the New Tefiamem 

life and falvition. This is manifeft, in that the Lord doth earneft- 
ly againe and againe call upon impenitent and obftinate finners to 
repenc^nd believe, protefting that he defires not their death, but 
rather that they fhould repent and live, when yet in his juft and 
dreadfall J adgement he hardeneth their hearts for their perverfe- 
neflfe and rebellion, that they cannot repent. But in relpeifl of the 
good pleafure of' God not to give-them grace to repent and believej 
which oFhis rich mercy he gives to others, who have abuied what 
they received no klTe, perhaps more then they, the end is to ma- 
nifeft his juftice in them, for the contempt of his grace. For what 
God doth command, intreat, perf wade and pramife, that he doth 
will as he doth command , in:reat , perl wade and promife it. 
BuE as Go4 doth juftly denie that grace to one , which of his 
free love he vouchfafeth unto another , fb he willeth to ma- 
nifeft his juftice in the one fort, and the riches of his grace in 
the other. 

Laftly, Someobje(5l, that they that are invited muft either have 
Chrift, he not dying for them, or mifleofChrift though they re- 
pented, whcrec£ the former would argue mutability, that Chrift 
4liould die for men, and not d'lQ for them, and the latter would be 
a breach of promife. A conceit not much unlike, drove Socinm 
to denie the prelcience of God , becaule whcncelbever .this pre- 
fciencecommeth, it is altogether certaine^ and from that is ne- 
ceffiirily gathered an antecedent neceflity of all things which are 
done. Socw,Prale6i:.cap.2t And in the fame forme and man- 
ner a man may reaton from the prefcience of God, if God approve 
the repentance and faith of them^ whom he doth certainly fore- 
know to have no portion or benefit by the death of Chrift, then 
either if they repent they {hall have no benefit , which is con- 
trary to his promife, or if they have benefit, then is God 
deceived,- neither of which can be admitted without blaf- 

And the anfwer to both thefe cavils is one, that certainc it is 
Chrift died for them that believe, and whoioevcr believeth in him 
truly and unfainedly, {hall have benefit by his death : but we need 
nor, we cannot fay, Chnft died for them for whom he died not, 
or that God is changeable ; For it is as fure and true, that they will 
not repent and believe for whom Chrift died not. The connexion 
is good, if che reprobate doe repent and believe unfainedly they 


fair 'fphom he died and ro^eagn'mc^^ 249 

(hallbc partakers of the benefits of Chrifts death : but the fimple 
Propofitionsarebothfalfe; the reprobates doe repent, and they 
are partakers of the faving benefits of Chrifts death. Carnall rea- 
fonings have brought forth ftrange raonfters in Divinity, and in 
this parcfcukr not a few : It is good tor us to acknowledge the 
wifdome, juftice, goodneffe, mercy and truth ok God in all his 
wayes, though we Cannot wade into the depth of his counfcls. if 
men give them Pelves leave to reafon thusagaind the proteftations 
of the Lord, why doth he intreat and perfwade them to rcturne? 
why doth he complaiae that they will not come unto him? if he 
give them not grace to come if they will, if he doe no: enable 
them : Might they not plead as well againft the fore-kaowledge 
of God in the fame manner , if God certainly fore-know that 
men will not returne upon iuch invitation, why doth he intreat a- 
gaine and againe, fending his Prophets early, and calling upon 
them, when by the refutall of fuch mercy, they aggravate their lin, 
and encreafe their Judgement. Sure amongft men fuch axourie 
would be accounted idle, unlefTe it was done for a further end. 
One anfwer will fufficc to both Objeftions : but when ftiall 
we make an end, ii we give way to our ignorant and blind ima- 

Now let us come to the fecond opinion, which is that Chrift 
^itd^y and by his death fatisfied thejufticeof God for all that have 
believed, doe believe, or ftiall believe ; that they, and they only 
are partakers of the faving benefits of Chrifts death. The death 
and redemption of Chrift they deny not to be fufficient for the fal- ^."^^ MaUeran^ 
vationofallmcn; nor that it is efFeduall in many particulars, to ';<$"^»''/-*|»*4 
fome that believe not fincerely J but that, if the will of God, or J^^S'S 
the event be confidered in refpeft of faving benefits, it was pecu- Tr.sonn.Li, 
liar to the faithful!. For Chrift the Mcdiatour of the Covenant of demmfi, Religi 
grace, died for them only that be comprehended in the Covenant Cbrifi.cap,i9* 
of grace. His bloud is the bloud of the cverlafting Covenant, of 
the Covenaat that God of his grace hath ftricken with his Church, ^^3^ ,*' ^ J' 
andwasfliedfor them that have been, are and (hall be called in- and»o.z8j 
to that Covenant, This U my hloud of the new TeBamefit/^hich MaM4,z4. 
isjheAfirmanjfirretniffionoffinnes: For many both Jews and I^a«Jl«»3. 
Gentiles, dfwhich the church was to be gathered. Luke hath ff^**'*®'- 
it, ^hiciokJheAfirjoH j and fo it was fbed for them, and for "^°'^'*?' 
many of the fame fpiritaaH eftace and condition with them, for 

K k " '^ many 

25© . chnftthe M^diaieur 6f the NetffTeHament 

many under the fame Covenant. The word many {$ ufed for all 
fQnieticne,^o»i.5.i5;,i^,ip. but here it is ufcd rather to d iftin- 
guidi them that be in Govenant, f rom them that be caft ofi^ and 
Heb.2. 10,15, jhem to whom remiflion of (ins purchafed by the bloud of ChTift 
is fcaled in the Sacrament,ffom them to whom it is applycd. The 
remiflion offinne here fp6kcn o^ is not put for remifliblencfr;, 
but aduall remiflion granted and receivedjfor rcmiflicn in a6l and 
apphcation, whereof all are not partakers. If all be taken for the 
common fort and poore of the pcople(which yet may be queftio- 
ncd, and cannot be proved by any paflige of Scripture, or fhew of 
reafon) and our Saviour ufed that phrafe to teflifie his aboundant 
love and humility, in that he flied his bloud for the poore and in- 
feriour ranksof men in this world. It makes nothing againft the 
former interpretation. For not many mighty, not many noble, 
s Cor 11 ^^^ the.pGore and bafc of this world are called and admitted into 
* Covenant. But the faithfuU only be eS^dualiy in Covenant: 
they that be in Covenant according to the outward ad mini- 
fit ation, doc prof-fle the faith, and in fome degree arc con- 
formable in refpe(5l of converfation: they that be truely and 
cfFedually in Covenant, doe foundly and unfaincdly beleeve. 
When the Scrip' urc fpeakes of them that be out of Cove- 
' , nant, it faith they arc not knowne of God, neither doc they 

E oJ^'!*© know God, that is, they are not regarded of God, neither 
Exod'^T ^°^ ^^^y J'^gard him: when of them that live in Covenant,^to." it ftileth them the people of God, fonnes or children of God, 
Ifai.6^8. the fonnes of the living God, a peculiar people , reconciled 
Hof u 1 o, unto God, jiiftified unto life ; the daughters of Zion and of Jeru- 
Tit.» 14, falcm, who have the Jerufalem that is above for their fpiritualJ 
Gal a^J mother, the feedof i^^4^<tt», who is the Father ofusall; And as 
lloirt*4. li. Jerufalem which is above is the mother of us all, fo is Chrift /aid 
to die for us all, and God to have mercy upon all, i?<7«w, 8. 5 a. He 
that jpayed not hii oii»n Sottae, hut delivered him up fir usaU, Rom, 
1 1 , g i . Cjad hath concluded ^em all in Hnbeltefi, that he mi^h have^ 
mercjupoti all. Roni.^.\%, By the rijihteoufizejfe of one^ the pee gift 
same Hps»: a& men unto jufiif cation of life, that is, of all them 
which pertaine to the poft erity of Chrift by fpirituall regenerati- 
on. It may well be, that all to whom ?^«/ wrote that Epiftlc^ 
did not onfainedly believe, but as they profefTcdthe Do^rine of 
Salvation^d in fomc meajfur e walked according to the policie of 

f'$r vohom he died and rofe agaiwLJ, 251 

the new Jerufalem, and as they enjoyed the Ordinances of grace, 
whereby ChriCt was applied, fo the Apoftle fpcakes of them as 
Saints andbdovcd and faithfull. And in the fame fenfein other 
places, they are reckoned amongft the faithruU, beloved and eled, 
who believe for a time, and profcfle the dodlrinc of Salvation, and 
partake the feales of the Covenant, though afterwards they fall 
away : and as they are called belecvers, converts, difciples, mem- 
bers of Chrift, temples andfonnesofGod ; as they are faid to be 
jaftified, fandified, and redeemed, fo is Chrift to have died for 
them, as he isapplycd in the Ordinances of grace, and they par- 
take of the benefits of his death. But as for them that be not in 
Covenant, we (hall never reade that their (innes are pardoned, 
that they are delivered from death,purgcd from their finncs,rccon- ^^u^^'^^''- 
cilcd unto God, received into favour : nay, the contrary is plainly jof,' j^'* J* 
affirmed of them, that they arenot the people of God, that they Aa.1%.9^ 
have no communion with Chrift, that they arc enemies in their Roin.jr.i, 
minds by wicked works, alienated from God, that the wrath of; 
God abideth on them, that they arc without God in the world j ^°J»'»»»« 
which is never faid of them for whom Chrift died. The Scripture { cor.J le 
fpeaketh expreiTely, that Chrift died for his Church, his (beep, 16,17, * 
his children, his people, the people or children of God, thofethat 
are given unto him of the Father, his brethren. As the Father 
knotveth me, evenfi k?on> I the Father ^ and I lay dow»e my lififir mj 
Jieep, foh.lQ- 1$. Take heedttnto your [elves y and to allthef,ockey to 
jiedthe ChnrchojQod, "^hich he liath purchafed With hU own hloud. ? 

^^.20.28. Chrifl ii the head of the Church, and he is the Saviour 
iff the body, 8fh.^ .25. ^hriji loved the (^hurd), and gave himjelfi for 
it,VCT,2$. He /ha/l fave his people fiom the'tr Jtnnes. UMatth. i, ii^ 
who gave himfelfefir uiy that he might redeeme m from all iniquity, 
andpurifie unto himfelfa peculiar people, Tit. 2.14. As thou hafi given 
himpowerovir aU.fejh y that he fhould give ettrnall li^ to as many as 
thou haSi given him, fob. 1 7.2 , Heprophejied that Jefus J^ouU die for 
that Nation ; and not for that T^tion only, hm alfS that he/houldga" 
ther together in one, the children of Cjod that ^ere fcattered al>road, 
foh, 11.51,52. For both he that fanBifeth, and they "^ho arefinflified 
4treallon£: fir ^bich caufe he-is notajhamed to call them inrethren, fay- 
ing, I )^iU declare thy Name to my brethren, Helf.2, 11,12, The 
Church and pcopk«f God in themiclves considered were finncrs, 
ungodly> eacmics, alienated from God, and Chrift died for (hero, 

Kk 2 not 

252 Chrifi i he MsdUtoiir e{ the JSIt tP TeUajnent 

B.Qm. j.^^io. not thai he found them friends or brethren, or children, but that 
he might m.^ke th:m fuch^ as by the participation of the benefits 
of his death they arc made fucK indeed. The faithfull arc the 
feed or children of Chrift, which he hath brought forth with pain 
andtravell. Jfai,$^.iOyii. The inheritance of Chrift, which he 
hath pur chafed by his death, given unto him of the Father, that 
they might be redeemed from death, and pofftfTed of him for theit 
Salvation. P/a/.2,S. as the Pfalraift elfe where expounds it, /^^ ?^ 
r«^ ef the ^'or/d /hall remember and turns unto the Lordi an^^l'l 
?nLit.27- ^}ie kinreds of the Natism Jhdl '^orj%ip befvre the. And if Chrift 
and'a^.^gl' *^^^^ ^^"^ ^^'^ ^^*^ people, {<lz^^ inheritance, (heep, and Church,hc 
' ' died not equally foe all and every man t for then in his death he 

conHdercd none to be made his (heep or brethren before othcrf, 
sordid he purchafe grace that one (hould be made the child ct 
God rather then another. For though grace be diftribu- 
tcd, in different degrees, yet that being fa common to 
them that bekeve and them that belccve not , that fome- 
timcs the greatcc meafurc is given to them that rejeft and 
caft it cfiP, it cannot bs the caufc why one man differs from ano- 
S^inail i\n> Mat^ things ar^anfwercd to this argument ; As firft, that it is 
^^r/,j.f(».ii7. not faid Chriit died for his n^ep, or brethren only, and that his 
rorji.avica dying for them doth not exclude others; as ?««/ faith, Chnft 
. "-5?'' 'J^f g dk<^ for hina,apply ing the death of Chrift to hia3fdf, but not ex- 
Giltlo!'^ ' eluding others. But the inftance is not likej for theic words fjSr 
we) atcnotdisjundivc to diftinguifli Par^l from the reft of the 
faithfull, but from unbckevcrs, or them that were not in the fame 
ftateorkind. This is a priviledge common to Paul with all be- 
lcevcrs,that Chrift died for him : inrcfpctS of them then it is not 
dis|unc%ve, but in refpec?t of them who be not partners in that 
prerogati,yCj it is disjundive. Therefore the example doth ra- 
ther prove the fpeech to be reflridive, then, otherwife : for as 
thefe words of T^s*/, fVh» laved me^ md ^ave hirafel^ fir msy ^i^ 
ftinguitli Paul from the company of unbsleevers, and fb are exdu- 
nvc: in like manner arc thcle words of our Saviour, Ihj dortn mj 
>j9j%«?y/^(pf,reftridive and excluGvc. In thofe Texts there is 
no cxclniivc particle exprcfied, but the propofition for fenfc is pc» 
^ridive. For when di&rence or diftindiion is contained in fome 
Jermegtkc ProgOiition isioc fenic cxdufiy^j no kfls thsD if it was^ 

fir whom he died and reje againe^ . 253 


cxpfcflfely noted. Thoti padt fiarethe Lerd thy g od, him /hali thou 
fervcy and to himjha^t thoa. cleave :. here is no reftridion or cxgIut 
lion exprcflsd, bat in fenfe it is exclufive, Callufonmein thetime-of pj-^^^^ 
troui^lsi aftd l^ill heare thee : only is not added, and yet For the 
fcnfc the words are excliifive. /« thy feedJhalUU the Nations of the 
earth he hle^ed'^ though no exclufion bcexprcfled, theApoftleis Gal.j.iJS. 
bold to interpret it, as if it had been fiid , In thy feed alone. 
whom he foreknew, them he predejfisfated : this propofition is not Rom.S.apjjo;, 
cxpr€(fdy exclufive, is it not then exclufive in fenfe ? WhcnD*^- 
•z^/^faitbjThe Lord is my God, he excludes not the faithfuli from 
the fame preeminence : but when the Lord faith to bis people, 
1 4m the Lordthj Qoi, he excladcs them that be not in Covenant. 
AhrAham beleeved Cjod^ ahA itVPO^ accounted to him for righieonfr ^^"♦^ 5»^^. 
ncjfe: here isnot rellriction added, bat the propofition is cxclu- 
five. whofoeverbeleevethinChri^ fhAllnot^erijhy but hrive everU^ Jof>'3«^«^ 
pn^ life :. doth not this propofiiton exclude works from being a 
caufe of Salvation, becaufc only isnoc added? Someaofwcr, 
that thcfe paflages be exclufive, becaufe the Apoftle exprelTciy 
(huts forth works from the ad of Juftification,iK<5«»,3 . 28. whersr 
as they rather teach, that faith doth comprehend repentance, con- 
veriion and new obediencciand thzt works are not excluded f roaa 
thcadlof Juftitication^ but only works done by the,powe!!:,^ 
turc: But leaving that, the propofition is for the matter exclq-^ 
five, and.that the Apollie Oie wcs from the thing it felf, proving 
hereby that JbrahamjsCtQT hehad f cUoWcd the Lord a long time^ 
and yeelded obedience to his commandemcnts, was jiiftified by 
faith without the worksof the tfW' The words therefore may 
be exclufive though only be not added : 'and that they be rertri- 
' dive is plain by the thing, fignified: for what is it for Chrift t<? 
Jay down his life for his ft sep, or to pur ichafe his Church by his 
bloud, but to bruife thaferpents head, to redceme them from all 
iniqtjity,and pur^fiethcin to b? ^peculiar people tohimielfe,to 
^avc his people from their fins, tdcfdivcr them frprti thef^areoi 
hell and death,5nd to blelTe all Nations of the earth, 
theprcmifemadeto^i/'^^^^. ^ ■ • ^, 

Jh is needs no further confirraatton then the .'next, anfvv'?ry, 
which they make, that the words be exclufive notin.rcfpe(flp^ 
the thing it fclfe^ but of the modpta ■ which others exprells thus, 
thai CiKift died foi his feeep inrcfpca of the application anci 

2 54 ChriB the Medmour of the Nem tefiament 

cvcHt, Forifitbsexclutivsfnthe w«a^/«, cxciufivsit is as well, 
though only be not added, as if it v/as . And the qucftion is not of 
the fufficicncyofCbrifts death for all men, in rcfpedofthsmag- 
citude and excellency of the price : nor of the ©fSciency of his 
death in fome degrees, for fach as fhall not inherit the crown of 
glory: but of the >w(?^^, whether be died y«j^^^V»?^r ^ e-jl^wV^/er 
f«^«r»w /«y?, for all ahd every man. That this J^**^^ is exclu- 
ded, will appearc in that we ll^all never rcade that Chrift died for 
any but for his fhcep, his Church, his brcthrcn,his pcople,or theoi 
that be confidercd as fuch in refped of prefent profeflion, cxtcr- 
nall adminiftration, and application of his benefit?. Vnto yoti ii 

Lui^e i.i I. iforne this day in the City of David, a Saviour, ^hich is Chrifi the 

^"^^ ^'t^' ^°^^ 'B/ejfedi>e the Lord god oflfrael, becanfe he hath vifited 4nd 

"* * r edeemed hid fCQ fie, and hath raifeduf an home of Salvation in the 

hottfe of his fervant ^avid, as he^akehj the mouth of his holy Prom 

phets, V(>hich have beenfince the "^orld be^an : That rt>e Jhoftld be p^ 

Hied font our enemies, and fiom the hands of all that hate us, Jldlint 

Luk« 1, JO, ^^^ havefeen thy falvation, '^hich thou hafi prepared before the face of 

gi,32. dipeople, A li^ht to lighten the gentiles, and the ^lory of thy people 

Jfrael, Wherefore in aU things it behoved him to be made like unto his 

^ ***»7* brethren ithat he might be a mercifU and faithfnU high Prief,in things 

yertnining to Qod, to make reconciliation for the finnes of the people^ 

jRev.ji.9, Thofi art Worthy to tnhe the hooke, andto openthe feales thereof : for 

thou "^aii fiaine^andha^ redeemed us to Cjcdbythy bloody out of every 
h^nred, and tongue, and people, and nation* And generally in every 
placcjthey, for whom Chrift is faid to die, are called his cleft, his 
fiiecpjhis people,his brethrenjnot barely called into Covenant,but 
received upon their acceptance thereof. The feverall paffages al» 
Icadged to prove the univerfaiity of Chrifts death, have been ex- 
amined already, and found to fpcake direftly to this purpofc. But 
amongft them that be called into, and accept of the Covenant] 
fbmebecledledfimply, bthers in comparifon, fomebethcfliccp 
and brethren of Chrift in truth and ijncerity , others in prc- 
ftffion and cxtcmall adminiftration, or in fome refpcft only. 
And as we muft: diftinguifli of the eleft and (heepc of Chrifr, 
ib of his dying for ^etn. For he died for all his elcd, as 
they apply atid be partakers of the benefits of his death : he 
died faving-effedually, /c-fV. to bring them to grace and glo- 
ly y according to the Jcdion of grace , for his fimply cledl 
* ' ' and 

fo%. vphm he died and rofe agamcj* 255 

atid people in truth, that is, for them upon whom Salvation 

(laouldbeconferredjandto whom it ftiould be ibundly applied. 

So the Prophet telieth us, ChiilVdied, that indeed and moft cer- Ifa,f3.xo« 

tainely he might fee his feed, and bring many brethren unto God. 

And if Chrift d^ed not for his (hecpc for this particular end, that 

by his fpcciall grace, and that which is given to none others, they RGw.p. i g. 

might in joy the fruit of his death, we muft confc{!e, tliatChriH Johsio.i$, 

in thisfaying doth give no particular comfort to his (lieepc, and 

in that whole Chapter i which is ablurd. And though fheepe and 

belcevcrs materially be the fame, formally in this plaee they ba 

not :for when Chrift faith to the Pharii'ees, Tee bekcve not, for 

pe are not ofmjjhee^e. Joh. i o. 16. If to be a b^leever and the (hecp 

of Chrift doe fignific the fa'.ne thing, he llioald fay, ye bcleevc not, 

and that which follovfcthf (J^jfieepe keare wy voice, and folloi» 

me, } Qiould be the fame as if it had been laid, the bclee- 

vcrs beleeve. So that flacepe and bcleevers arc reciprocall, but 

formally they are not made llieepe by faith, but by eledion. 

Moreover the acquifition of righteoufncffe by the death of 
Chrift, and the application thereof, are things to be diftinguifhed,, 
butfo infcperably conjoyned, that for wbomfoever it is acquired, 
to them it is applied, "By his kjiowledge jhid my righteopts fervant 
wfiifie many : for he Jhall he are their inii^mnes^ //^.55.II. He i>arc 
thefinneofmany^ and mads iattrceJJJon for the trdnfgre^otirs^Ifa.l'^j^. 
12, '\By hisfiripes are we healed, Ifa^^^.'y. Who veoi delivered for our 
ojfences; and vadi raifed againe for cur jufiif cation, Rom,<^ zy jis. 
hy the offence of one^ judgement came upon all men to condemnation l 
evenfo h) the righteoufneffe of one, the free ^ift, CAme ufan aUmenun^ 
tojmfiif cation of life, Re)fD,<^.i8, Who Is he that condemtMh ? It ^ 
(fyriBthat died, yea ra'hr that is rifen againe, ^aw.8.^4, I ^^ 
come that the^ might have li\e, and .that th j: might have it more ^-• 
boftndantly, foh. i o. I o. /» thts '^m manifefied the love ofgodtove^. rd$, 
us, becaufe that godfent hit only- begotten Sonne into the Titer Id^ ihati 
we mght live through him ,1 foh^^ p. 'By the which •PcUlv^e ttrefan^ii* 
fiedt through the offering of the. body sff^fm Chri^ once for all, Hebi. 
1.0. 1 o. For by am offiering he hath psrfeciedfor everthemthat arefantt. 
Sifiedj verf.i/^. The paffages of Scripture. are plentiful!, which: 
tcftifie applitation to be the end. of Cbrifts deatii ; for he died to* 
cftabliftiandratifie the everlafting Covenant of grace, Iieb»p,T$-^. 
^<5,i7,toaboU(hhini that had the power oicbathj that is, the. 

2 5 5 Chrift the UtdmGiir of the New Telfamem 

devill, Heb. 2 . 1 4, i y „ conquer death, t Tim, r . i o. dcftroy and kill 
(mn^,Rom,6. 10. faa^ific his people through the truth, foh.ij.lp* 
give life unto the world, 7<'^.^. 35. redeems us fro jn the curie of 
the Law, ^-sAl-ij . and from all iniquity, iT^V. 2. 14, obtainc etcr- 
nall redemption, Heh.9. 12, chat we might be made the righte- 
oufmfTv ofGod inhim, 2 Cor.5.21. that he might deliver us from 
thisprefentevillworld, (7^/.i.4. that being dead unto finnc, and 
ahvc nntoGodfRom.6,^,$,6. we might not live to 01^ f dves,but 
unto him which died for us, and rofe againc, 2 ^or.5.1 5. and that 
We might receive the adoption of fonncs, G4/.4. y . And it is ab- 
ftard to reafon it fdfc, that Chrift by the decree of God fliould pur- 
chafc that for aicn which is not given unto them; that he fliould 
acquire what they obtaine not -.that by divine imputation Chrift 
ftiould die for every man, when the merits of Chrift be not com- 
municated unto them : that the promifed feed fliould be given to 
Abraham , no blefling or multiplication following. If Chrift 
have purchsfcd a new Covenant, faith, redemption, reconciliati- - 
on for every man, without queftion they arcorfiiallbc delivered 
from the condemnation and dominion of finneJ the Spirit is given 
or fliall be given to abide with thcoi j they arc or iball be 
renewed after the Image of God. If Chrift be a King , he 
hath a Kingdomc , fubjefls and territories , whcrcm be doth 
cxercifc his rcgall power. He is a King not only in perfonall right, 
ortopunilli enemies; but a King to feed and rule a people, God 
hath given his Sonne the uttcrmoft parts of the earth for his po- 
(feflion, and (hall men with-hold it ? Shall God give men unto 
Chrift, and fhall they detainc themfdves from him? If Chrift 
came to deftroy the workes of the devill, (that is (lane, as the A- 
pofllcfticwes, I foh.^.S* 7e/».8.4i,44.)andto deliver men from 
the fcarc of death and the devill, ftiall wc not thinke, that Satan 
iscaftdownc, and death aboliflied? Chrift is a Saviour as in me- 
rit fo in efficacy, clfefhouldhis purchafc be in vainc, the end of 
his comming into the world be uncertaine, his purpofe in laying 
downchislifcbc ffuftratc,and Chrift (bould merit by the appoint- 
ment of God, what God doth not give : thcrfore the impc* 
tration of righteoufnefle aiuft not be plucked from the application, 
nor doth the giving of benefits porchafcd by the death of Chrift 
depend lipbn the plcafure of men any more then the acquifition 
doth. Betwixt the purchaie and application of Chrifts death, 


far whom he died and nfe Againe^, 257 

faith comes between : but that faith is merited by the death of 
Chrift, and for Chrift Touchfafed to them, for whom he died, 
Tit,l.6, Ephef.!."^. Thil.i.lp, £phef.6,li. 

Some have anfwered, that all men arc the /lieep of Chrift, 
as the diiperfed, torne, and devoured of cvill paftors and bcafts of 
the Held, and the feduced and defrayed are acknowledged to bo 
ftiecp, f<fr.23. 1,2. Ezek^^^.%,6, But the Prophets fpeake only 
of the people of the J ewes, which at that time was diltinvfl from 
the Gentiles, as the flock and inheritance of the Lord :fo that 
hence nothing can be gathered, bat that they, who live in Chrifts 
Church and told, are his people and fhcsp of his pafture. 

Againe , the Scripture fpeakes of the fheep of Chrift , two 
wayes, according to vocation or according to cle<ftion. Accor- 
ding to vocation they are ftieep, who externally pertainc to the 
number of Gods people and the Church : according to eledion, 
many fheep are without, many wolves within, and many Qieep J''**^S» . 
within, many wolves without. Although there be a diftin<^ion ejSJ'?!*^*^; 
betwixt the merit of Chrift by his obedience even to death, and ' 

bis intcrceflion, yet one of them cannot be feparated from the o- ' 
ther : for he maketh intcrceflion for them to his Father for whom 
he hath merited reconciliation by hisdeatb, and we cannot thinkc 
he fhould lay downe his life for them, for whom he would not 
pray. If we lookc unto the flgnification of the words,Mediatouc 
andlnterccffor note the fame thing : and if Chrift^ have put him- 
felfe betwixt the wrath of God and man to obtaine reconciliation 
by makingfatisfadlion to offended jufticc, can it be thought, he 
will not requeft, that for the virtueof his facrifice they for whom 
hehathfatisfied, might be accepted of the Father, if we looks 
to thcfe two fundions of Mediation, fufcring death and making 
intcrceflion, they are conjoyncdin Scripture. It is Chrifi that ^on, g "^ 
dtedy jea rather that isrifen agdne, who iieven at the right hand of 
^od, who alfo maketh inter cejjion for m. If any man jlnne we have i Job.»iij». 
4» Advocat e with the Father lefpts Chrifi the rightequs^ and he is the 
frofttiation for onr onrfinnes, Cbrift is our Advocate, if he be 
our propitiation, if we will receive the tcftimony of the Apoftle 
and not fcparate things that God bath con/oyned. Incredible it 
is, that Chrift out of his incredible love/hould voucbfafeto lay 
dbwne his life for them as well as others, for whom, the time of 
his paflion being at hand, he would not power out a praypr. How 

Li thcfc 

S) B * Chrift the Mediatour of the New TeHantem 

_ , thefe two be conJQyned in the intention ofcurSaviouu-jfc. to pray 

Jo .17.19. for men and toofer himfclfe a Sacrifice for them, may appeareby 
the words of our SaYlour himfelfe, for theje Ifandifie wjfelfe^ tha£ 
iSj for thcfe am I prepared to off>:r my^ fclfe, that they might be 
fandlified by the truth j forthefe, that is, them for whom he pray- 
ed. And it Chrift had intended to cSFer up himfelfe an holy and 
propitiatory facrifice for the finnes of all and eyery man, he v/ould 
rather havef prayed his Father to accept his facrifice for all men, 
then profefle that he prayed not for ail men. For whom Chrift 
hath oS-ered up himfelfc a Sacrifice to put away finne, for them 

Heb.$,24. <joth he appeare before God in heaven ; and if he doth appearc be- 
fore God far them,he doth alfo make requeft for them. But Chrift 

^9^^7*9* prayed not for all men,profc{ibth that he prayed not for the world. 
He prayed for beleeversand them that fhould beleeve hereafter, 
and teftified that he would not pray for the reft. And it muft be 
obfervcdj that be praycth for them that beleeve and Ml beleeve, 
as they were ©ods, and of God given to Chrift, which formally 

|pfaa6.3f ,3^; is not the fame with beleevers, though it be materially. 

They anfwertathisargumentj that there is a two- fold inter- 
ceffion of Chrift, one gcnerall for all men that they might be- 
leevcThc cDher fpedall iot belcevcrSjtbat they might be gloified. 
If you aske the ground of this diftindionj.they fay^ Chrift up- 
on the Crofi'j prayed for his pcrfecutoiirs and them that put him to 
death. Father forgive them, they know n®t what they doe. But 

I^k«Z3.s4, if we fearch the Scripture v^c (hall find no pafi'ige that {aith,Cbrift 
prayed for every m'an that he tuight bekevc,, nor is probable. Foe 
if he askc faith for all men, then abfolutely or conditionally : not 
abfolutely; for then all men fhould obtains faith, becaufe Chrift 
wasabfolutelyheardin whatfoeverhe abfclutely.prayed for. li 
upon condition, doth he then pray to his Father, that they might 
not refift the firft grace oftcred, or that they might beleeve, if they , 
doe not refift the firft grace ? But if abfolutely he pray that they 
might not refift, then they doe not refift grace : if conditionally, 
that they might beleeve, if they doe not rcfift^thcn he prayeth that 
they might beleeve if they beleeve: for not to refift the firft grace 
is to obey it, that is, to beleeve= Befidcs, ifChril^ pray For all 
men that they might beleeve, then alfo that they might enjoy the 
©ofpelV which isthemsanes of faith : and that cither abfolutcly, 
fi^they fbould en|oy the GofpelJjVyhic^wckaow they doe notj 

for whom he died mh rofe againe^, 259 

or upon condition, a? the right ufs of their naturall gifts, or the 
piety of their progenitours, or the like: And thcnthcfe conditi- 
ons our Saviour doth pray for abfolutcly or upon condition, or not 
at all : If abfolutelyj then all men fhoald ufc their naturall gifts 
well, bccaufe he is alwayes heard in that which he doth aske ab- 
folutcly : if not at all, then it is not of grace that men u{}z their na- 
turall gifts well, or lome grace is given to men without the inter- 
ccffi on of Chrift. And when the Gofpcll is vonchfafed to forac 
that abafe their naturall gifts, tootRersnot, did our Saviour pray 
that fome (hould have the Gcfpell abfolutly, foms conditionally ? 
or is the Gofpeil granted to fome for the interceflion of Chrift, 
t^otheis without it, although he make interceliion equally for 
all men ? And if the Gcfpell be vouchfafed to fome that abufe theic 
naturall gifts, why doth not God give the grace of faith alfo with- 
out that condition, under which only Chrift asked faith for them* 
Moreover,if Chrift pray for all men that they may belcevc, he as- 
kcth this for the vertue and merit of his paflion,or not.If not,thcn 
faith (hould not be given for the merit of Chrift : if he aske for the 
merit of his paffion, then he asketh it without any condition; for 
Chriftd ;cd abfolutdy & without conditio for all men,as they teach, 
& what Chrift hath merited tor all men, that (Sod giveth abfolute- 
ly to every man. Chrift upon the crofie prayed for them that 
crucified him, Z«^^. 2 3. 3 4. But that might bsof private duty as 
man,who fubjedcd himfclfe to the Law of God, which requires 
that wc forgive our encmies,3nd pray for them that perfccutc us; 
not of the proper office of aMeaiatour,who wasto intercede for 
his people by fufering death and making requeft. It behoved 
Chrift, ashefubjededhimfelfeto the Law, to fulfill all rightc- 
oufneff^, and fo to pray for his enemies, but that wasnoto'utof 
his proper office as Med iatour, which wasto ofF^rup himfelfe a 
Sacrifice or make interceliion, as our high Prieft. If any (hall 
contend, that this is to be referred to the proper Mediatorie inter- 
celiion of Chrift, it will not prove the matter in hand : for he 
prayed not for all and every man, but for them that crucified him, 
and that indefinitely, not un4verfallyj for them that were pre- 
fcnt at Ifis crucifying, and infimplicity of heart (and not of affe- 
aed Ignorance (rcfiftingthe evidence of the Spirit fpeaking by 
Chrift, and by miracles giving reftimony to his doflrine) in obe- 
dience to the commandemcnt of the Supcriours, did crucific him, 

LI 2 - ^^^ 

2$o Chnft the MedUtour ef the Uew 'X'eMamem 

but not for all them that had sny band in his death. Hepraycth 
not that they might bclceve, if they were not wanting to thcm- 
fclves: but prayeth for forgivencftc for them that had abufed 
naturall gifts, and fupernaturall meanes of grace : fo that it can- 
not be referred to that general! Interceffion they fpeakc o^ with 
any (hew of reafon. 

Some anfwer, the fcnfc of the words is only this, Father 
feeing they have finned of ignorance, let them notbcpunillied 
with that punifliment, which the thing they have done dcler- 
V€th (which was without all hope to he blinded, hardened, and 
caft off^) but let them not for this fin be in this ftatCjbut fliew mer- 
cy on them, that they may be in pollibility of repentance, pardon^ 
and grace, which interceflion anfwereth Chrifts dying, as it rc- 
fpcdeth all, which was to pofiibilitate their Salvation. But this 
cxpcfition IS new and ftraitned, and cannot be confirmed by any 
circumftancc of the place, or Signification of the word forgive- 
neffe: and if it be granted, will not futc with their purpofe. For 
Chrift died not to poflibilitate the Salvation of every man, that 
had or ftiould abufc naturall gifts and fupcrnaturall mcancs , 
as the rulers of the people, which flirred up the people to dcfire 
J efus that he might be crucified, nor prayed for every man, that 
had fo fearfully abufed the msanes of grace by wilfull and affeded 
i^noran ce (if not Worfe) that he ^ould not be given up to blind- 
ncfle and hardncifs of heart. Ifany man (hall be bold to afSrme ei- 
ther of thcfe, we muft defire better proofe then his bare word,be- 
for^e we can yeeld affent, 

ifitbe fiid,thcperfons for whomChi-tft|>rayed wcrcnotina 
ftatc capable of remifiiion or pardon, becaufe they were impeni- 
CdfvhAnMol. tent and unbeleevcrSj^orwwa;* anfwereth, that we muft under- 
€ap.t7,^ag,r. ftand the condition, if they repent. Andbythefamereafon, te 
might aske falvation for all men, fit/, if they repent and bejeevc. 
And how then doth this Intercc0ion differ from that, which 
they fay was fpeciall for the Salvation of belee vers. Surely to ask« 
the pardon of their finnes that repent, doth rather pertaine to ijw- 

ciall Interceffion whereby the iaJvation of them that belecvc is 
prayed for, then to thcgenerall, wherein the faith of alhmcn is 

An example of this generali Interceffion , wherein Ch-jfi; 
yrayeth that all men naigbtbclcevc in him, we have (chcy %) 

for tphom he died and rofe agawe^, 25i 

in that ly.of^^^^, vcr»2i. That the ^orld may heke'ue that thou 
h^p fin we. Some by the world in that place undcrftand the 
elcfVjWho then were djfperfed abroad, or them that were to be 
converted from infidelity to ths faith. ^ But becaufe the word 
world in the whole Chapter is taken in another fence, it is moft 
naturallin this place to underftand it as before, for men that be of 
the world, not illightencd, or converted to the faith : and the 
word ^^/<?^'Z'« to be put improperly for to acknowledge or con- 
fcfl^. The fenfe is, that the world,although unbekeving,aItbough ^^/^^„^/ - 
an ad verfary to me, yet feeing the great love and concord of my j oh. 17.11/^ 
Difciples, may be compelled to belceve, that is, to acknowledge ia»/en. ia^. 
and confcfle,that I was fent of God, that is,th3t I am not as now it 1 36. 
thinketh, a feducer, but that I am truly fent of the Father; , or that 
the 1 nfidels may by experience be convinced to conf clTe my glo- 
ry, and be compelled to acknowledge andconfcflc that thou baft 
icnt me a Saviour into the world. This £cn(Q is fo plain and e^e,, 
that we iijccd not feek any iurther for the meaning ; but if we 
grantittobemeantof true and found faith, it will not follow 
thence, that Chrift made interceffioa for every man in the worW, 
that he might belceve. Tor the world is ufually taken for men in 
the world indefinitely, and not fimply for every man, nor yet for 
the greater part of men in the world. There Wmimt a decree fiom , 
Ceftir .t»Aft£^ft^>ihat all the "^orldfhouU be mxed, LuJ^i.i .but this 
cannotbeextendcdtoevery nation, much L{J: to every man. The ^ 
immre j^rlts £oe f)r^ mtothe Kings 0^ the earth, and efth^ "^hele V^deViU»i\9^ 
Vcmld. Jiev.i6.i4,<tAlltheVi>£rldVPondredafier tkeheafl,Rev.i J.j. Jchro.14.17, 
'2-he^oIeV^orldljethinimqmty,lfoh.$.i.g. Be ^^ in the '^orU^ Jer.27.7. ' 
undthe ^oricL k»^vs> him not. f/h„x , 10. 'Sehald^ the^orMfUgone after Dan,!.? 8. 
hpm.fc^h.i 2.19. The Sy rxacke Interpreter, vulgar Interpreter, and M^"i3.«o.2z, ] 
^4»»«»theGreekerarapbra(l, adde the univerfall particle and ^^^'g ^\ 
Ecacte it, tihe whole world; But if the world be taken for '* •^*^^' 
every man in the world, we muft conclade^ that every man in 
the world did follow Cbriftj and that no iusn in the world did 

know him. . . \^ 

They aske again, what h it the InterceilionsfChrift required? 
q>faI,2S.4^^k£ofmei and lVi>ill give the the ke-atheft fr thine Inhe^ 
ritttTK^. feitnotfor unbeleevers tobringthsmtothciaith? and 
doth not Chrift intercede for the comming of Gods Kingdome, 
as he taaghtMs Difciples to doc ? There is tberefean Ii^tcef- 

Li 3, fioo. 

2^2 chriHthe Mediatour of the New 7'eftamem 

fion of Cbrill for them that beleeve. Bun here wc cannot find that 
generalllntercelSon of Chrift they fpeake of, that eyery man 
might come to the faith by fitting meanes, but for the moft part 
Jmtn. Qrat, in§ffc6kazll The praycj required in the fecond Prshne ^y»;«/?^ 
de saszrdot. -: referreth to the prayer which Chrift offered to the Father for hitn- 
chr, fclfejaccording to the commandemsnt and promife of the Father, 

eyfskj of me, and I VpIH give thse the heathen fir tloine Inherimtjce: 
to which Promife of the Father Chrift having refpcd-, faid, F^ 
ihet;- glorijie thy Sonne,that thy Sonne al(o may g/orifie thee^ as thorn 
Joh.!y.*» '•, hafi oiven him power over alljiejhy that he might give eternalllife to as 
■many as thou hii!i given hinij. And frojTS this prayer are to be di- 
ftinguiftied (faith he) thof« fupplications which with ftrong cries 
and tearcs he offered to his Father in the dayesof his fleS : by 
thofe he craved to be freed from his Agony, by this he pray eth 
that he might fee his feed, and that the will of God might profpec 
inhishand. But howfoever it be, the prayer fpoken of in that 
place,is abfolute,ccrtain,and effeSuall : for what God there pro" 
mifed, Chrift prayed for in particular, and he was heard therein : 
and therefore it cannot be applyed to that gcnerall IntercelH- 
. on of Chrift which they would mamtaine, as every man may 
plainly fee, 
I They further reply,that this Interceflion of Chrift,f oi&.iy.per^ 
taineth to the application of Chrifts dsath ; that Chrift maketh 
Interceflion for belecvers : and by the world they are fignified, 
who did or would contemne and rej efl Chrift offered to them in 
thewordofhisGofpell; as the word world is ufed in many 
other places. 7<7A. I.I o. and j.ip. and 14.17. & i6.8,p.& 14.32. 
But if it pertain to the application of Chrifts death, ic foUoweth 
thence, that the death of Chrift ftiall be applyed to them, who 
were given unto him of the Father, that in fpeciall manner he 
might lay down his life for them, feeing Chrift offered up him- 
felfe a facrificc to the Father for them, and them only, for whom 
according to his office of Mediator{bip he made fpeciall Inter- 
ceflion. If by the world obftinate contemners of the Gofpell be 
underftoodjWhatftiall we thinke of them to whom the word of 
reconciliation was never fent, or Chrift offered in the Miniftery 
tof the Gofpell ? are they partakers of the benefits of Chrifts (pe» 
ciall Interceflion ? or is the death of Chrift applyed unto thcna ? 
if only contemners of the Gofpell be msant by the world, for 

forwhom hdkdand rojea^ainLj, %6^ 

which Chriftwouid not pray, why iljould it be interpreted oC 
fpeciall Interceflion, feeing our Saviour (as they confcfB) ncithec 
laid down his life, nor made general! Intcrceflion for fuch as fucb, 
that they miglit be brought to the faith, or be partakers of the me- 
rits of his death ? Our Saviour in that his prayer oppofeth the 
world to them that are given unto him of the Father, and as to be 
given unto him of the Father^ notes fomcwhat precedent to ef-s^ 
feduall vocation and lively faith, though every one that is given 
unto him doth or ihall beleeve, fothe world notes a ftate antece- 
dent to wilfqllcoHtempt, though they that be of this world* if 
they live under the Gofpell, will prove themfclves contemners, 
fdh, 6:3 7 . tiAll that the Father gweth me fiall come unto me ; and him, 
thm commeth unto me, I Vclll.m no Vfife cafl out, faith Cbrift. But 
to come unto Chrift is to beleevc in , bjm by efFeifluali vocatiooj, 
fob A . I o. The world knew not Chrift s but they were the world,, 
before they (liut their eyes againft the light, andrefufed Chrill:* 
offering himfelfe uoto them, 7*?^ g.ip. They areths world who. 
are not given unto Chrift, are not his (beep, his people, his bre» 
tbrePjbslievenot inhim, be difobedient, caft out, though they , 
never llubbornly contemned the Gofpsll : becaufe the ibund ther=% 
ofnever came into their eare?5 that light never fhined amongfl 
them. And now for conclufion of this argument, let this one 
thing be added, that if we fsarch the Scripture we (hall find no 
mention of this two-fold Interceflion of Chrift properly medi2=> ■ 
tory,one generall,the other fpeciall, which fome of late have dc»- . 
vifcd : but that he makes Interceflion for ail and every of them', 
that are given unto him of the Father, and only for thenijand that 
his IntercelTion is ever certain and effcfluall ; as when he faith to< 
^eter, J have frayed for thee, that thy faith fdle not : and to all the.- j-y^g ^^ ^ • 
A poft Iss, / Vci/Ipray the Father, and hefhdtgweyou another comfor^ > joh, 1 4, le^, . 
ter, that he may abide ^Ith you for ever. And when we heare from > 
Chrift himfeife, that according to the proper office. o£his Media=-. 
torfliip he makes Interceflion only for them that aregiven unto- 
h\m of the Father, we may conclude, that in fpeciall aianner be > 
ciftrcd up himfelf a facriHee to the Father for them only, Other 
argutiients are alleadged for confirmation of this truth, which- 
who4ift may reade at large in fundry Treatifes of this matter Si 
h\M it would be too long to ioiift upon each parcicu.lar> therefor© 

j^^ Urn ChriH hath fdfiHed the o ffice ofUedUtour, 

here I will brcake off this controverfic, and procccdc to that 
which folio wcth in this intended difcourfo. 

Chap. III. 

Bdvsf ChriH hath fulfilled the eftce of Medtatot^, or horn he is 

IN the fulncfle of time, the eternall Sonne of God, took^ unto 
him our nature, and became God and Man inonepcrfon, that 
he might be an cquall aiiddle perfon between God and man. 
The neccflity ofa Mediatour appearcs in this, that man is guilty, 
and God true and righteous* If man had continued in his inte- 
grityvhehad (lood in no need of an expiation : if God had been 
unrighteous in the paffages of mans finnc, there had been due unto 
him no juft debt offatisfadion. But feeing man created good but 
mutable, did willingly and by voluntary choice tranfgrcfle that 
Law, under the precepts whereof he was moft juftly created, and 
unto the maledidion whereof he was as neceffarily andrighte- 
oudy fubjedif hetranfgrcffed: and God was purpofed not to 
fuff;r finne to palTe utterly unrevenged, becaufe of his great hatred 
thereunto, and of his truth and the Law which he had eftablifhcd 
againft it : of neccflity either God muft execute the fcverity o£ 
his Law, whereby the creature {hould everlaftingly loofe the frui- 
tion of him, and he flionld likewife loofe thefervice and volunta- 
ry fubjedion of his creature, or fome coutfe or other muft be 
found out to tranOate this mans (innes on anothers perfon, who 
may be able to beare them, and to interefl; this mans perfon in 
that others righteoufneffc, which may be able to cover him. Of 
neccflity a Mediatour muft be found out to ftand between (Sod 
and man , who muft have one unto whom, and others for whom 
and in whofe behalfe, and fomewhat wherewith to make fatisfa- 
dion to offinded jufticc ; In regard of God towards man he mtift 
be an officer to declare his rightcoufneiTe, and in regard of man to- 
ward God a furety ready to procure pardon and deliverance, not 
by fevour or requeft, but by way of fatisfadion. He muft be one 
with us in the fcUowIbip ©four nature, paflions, infirmities 


or hw hi is the MedUmr of the New Teffawem. 2^5 

and temptations, that fo be might the more readily fuffer for us, 
who in lo many things fuflf^red with us : and one with God the 
Father in bis divine nature, that fo by the vcrtue of his fuffcrings 
andrefurredionhemightbe able both tofati$ficjuftice,tojuftific 
our perfons, to fanftifie our nature, to purifie and perfume our 
fervices, to raife our dead bodies, and to prefent us to his Fa- 
ther a glorious Church without fpot or wrinkle. Ke muft be 
man pure and nndefiled ; man, that he might fufFcr, it being no 
way dt that one having no communion with another, (hould 
roakefatisfaftioB byfutfl-ring for snothers fault; Man pure and 
unde61ed,otherwifc he could not have fatisficd for himfelf, much 
IciTe for them that had fo grievoufly oftcnded. He muft be ntian^that 
he might have companion on them that come unto God thrbagh 
him: and pure and undeHled, that his SacriBce being pure and 
without fpot, might be acceptable and pkafing to provoked ju- 
ftice. He muft be God that he might beare the weight of Gods 
wrath without finking under it, be the King and Head of the 
Churchjdcfend his people againft the enemies of their Salvation^ 
fend forth his Spirit into the hearts oF his redeemed, and receiv<: 
from them fuch divine wordiip as was due to fo great and graci- 
ous a Saviour. He muftise man, our neere kinfman, that he might 
have right of redemption, be a merciful! and faithfull high Prieft, 
in all things like unto his brethren. He muft be God, that by his 
death he might overcome death, and him that had the power of 
death,that is,the devill, free us from the guilt of (inne, and curfe oi 
the Law, and prcferve his redeemed unto his everlafting King- 
dome. He muft be God and man in one perfon, and fo of a middle 
condition between God and us, in that both the natures of God 
and man doe concurreand are conjoyned in his perfon, that he 
might joyne God and man in a Brme and ftable Covenant of 
f riend(hip and reconciliation : and be the root, fountaine and be<«' 
ginning of fupernaturall and fpirituall being, in whom the whole 
nature of mankind ftiould be found in a more eminent fort then it 
was in Adam^ The horrour of (inne was fo grievous, the curie of 
the Law Co terrible, the price of redemption fo great, that a meet \ 
creature could not take away the one, or pay the other ; and that 
man might not fall away as he had done under the former Cote-' 
nant,ourMediatour, who was the foundation of this new Cotg- 
nant,did afliimc oar humane nature unto his divine perfon. Tbere- 

Mm foc(^ 

266 How Chrifi hath fulfilled the office cfMediatour, 


fore the etcrnall Sonne of God, being ordained of the Father to 
this office of Mediatorftiip, that he mi^ht intercede between God 
and man,and joync God and man inonc,did afluDoc our nature in- 
to the unity of his pcrfcn,and was born of a woman,that he might 
fave and call (inners,and redeeme them who were under the Lav , 
ap4 ftiut up under the curfe of the Law, 

The fecond per fon in Trinity, the Son of God by nature, the 
Image ofchePather, by whom all things were made, was made 
man, that he might renew wrhat was difordered by (inne, and 
make us the fonnes of God by grace and adoption, who were by 
nature the children of wrath, it being fit our redemption (hould 
be wrpug^t t>y the Sonne, and fealcd by the holy Spirit. For 
ivbercas a double million was necclTary, the one to reconcile, the 
other to gtfe gifts to reconciled friends : the Father being of 
jione>fent his Sonne,thc firft proceeding perfon to take our nature 
fnd make fatisfadion : the Father and the Sonne both fend the 
spirit, the fecond proceeding perfon, tofeale up them that Chrift 
Itath redeemed by his bloud. And who was fitter to become 
the Sonne of man, then he that was by nattire the Sonne of God I 
who could be fittertomakeustheSonnes of God by grace and 
adoption, then he that was the Sonne of God by nature? who 
' fitter to repaire the Image of God decayed in us, then he by 
whom at firft man was made after the Image of God? Thus 
Chrift was a fit and c quail middle perfon, conjoyncd by the bands 
of friendly fociety, and peaceable agreement with both the par- 
tics, God and men, that he might be a Mediatour of reconcilia- 
tion and peace betweene God and man. He tooke unto him 
%hc fani^ified nature of man , that therein he might draw 
neere unto men^ and be the root of them that are fanftified ; 
and retaiincd the nature of God, that fo he might not depart 
Com God. 

Here it is queftioned, according to which nature Chrift is Me- 
diatour, whether as man only, or as God and oaan. That he is a 
Mediatour according to the concurrence of both natures in tht 
luiity of his perfon, it is confefled by all ; for if he were not both 
Cod and pan, he could not mediate between God and man % but 
l^hetfaer be be a Mediatour according to both natures concurring^ 
In the worke of Mediation, there be fome that make queftiono 
Q^r {dblutioo is» that Chrift is Mediatour according to both n»- 
.! ture^ 

or how he is the MedUtour of the litw TeHament^ 


tores, the humane nature doing that which pertained to the hu- 
manity, and the divine nature that which pertained to ihe divini- 
ty, but the humane and divine both concurring to produce one 
aft or work of Mediatorfliip. As the divine and humane nature 
concurre to make one Chrift, fo the atSs of the divine and hu- 
mane nature, diftinft in vcrtuc arid operation, by co-operation 
concurre to make up the fame work of Mediation. Some of th^ 
works of Chrift the Mcdiatour, were the works of his humanity 
in rcflwft of the thing done, and had their efficacy, dignity and 
Value from his divinity ^ in that they were the works of him that 
had the divtnity dwelling bodtly inhim: snifomethe works of 
his divinity ,the humane natutc concurring only inftrumentaUy, as 
the remittingof (ins, the giving of the Spirit, the raifingofthc 
dead, and fuch like. The works of Miniftcry, the Sonne of God 
performed them in the nature of man. It was the Sonne of God 
Arid Lord of life, th^t died for us on the Croffe, but it was the 
nature ofman,not of God wherein he died. The works of Au- 
thority and power were all performed by the divine nature, yet 
not without an inftrumentall concurrence of the nature of man. 
Chrift furred as man, but the divine nature did fupport and fu- 
Raine the humane. He died as man,asGod he overcame death, 
conqucred,androfcagainc: as man he was made an ofFsringfoE 
our fins, the worth and value of the Sacrifice was from thedivis 
riity. The two natures in Chrift be diftinft in their eflcnceand 
properties, and fo in their operations, that we muft not imagine 
one aftion of both natures : but as the natures be united in one 
petfon, fo the operations concurre to make up one work of a Me^ 
diatour. Many chiefe,neccflrary and cfTcntiall a^s concerning our 
reconciliation with God, are from the Deity of Chrift as frool 
the next, proper, immediate and formall beginning/The Incac- 
tiation of Chrift is from the Deity, which did aflfume the humani- 
tjF, whfich when, it was not, could not affaine if felfe. The mani- 
«fiatton of God'Avas a work truly divine, from th«^ 'humanity of 
Chrift as an inftrument,from the Deity as the true caufe. Chrift as 
man tcacheth as an inftrumcnr, and Chrift the Word teachcth as 
Mcdiatour: for he is not only Medktour, who (iipplycth the 
4*Gioa}fcofa»iii8njn!^Ht; but the Deity did move the humanity' 
as his ihftrument, that is, pcrfonally united, and not as anothers. 
To%d6wn his life paffircly belongs to the fk(h, to lay ^own 

Mm a his 

lib. s.cap.7, 
§ Poteft tameiu 

ad 9perationem 
mam fofunt 

Ian, fatal, 



Ittth animai, 
in BeS,contKt^ 

Mate. 11.27; 



How Chrisi h At b fulfilled the office ofMedimur, 


Rom, I 4 1 


Meritum M«- 
Jiationii efii& 

Spiriim: fidad 
perfonam Aie^ 
&io Ufmitatur 
quoad oi)i$vo» 

his life or foule adively to the word. The refurredion of Chrift is 
an efftaciall part ofour Redemption J but Chrift rofe not by the 
propriety of his flefli, but by the power of his Deity. Chrift as 
Mediatour performed many divine ads : but the humanity alone 
cannot be the beginning of a divine acfl ': as Chrift as Mediatour 
hath authority to forgive fins, to fend the holy Spirit not merito- 
rioufly alone, as Bellarmine diftinguiftieth , but efficiently, to 
conjoyne us unto God, and bring us to lalvation. Chrift as Me- 
diatour is the King and Head of his Church, which dignity and of- 
fice cannot agree to him that is meere man. For the Head is to 
give influence of (ence and motion unto the body, and Chrift gives 
liipematurall fence and motion unto his myfticall body, and that 
both by way of eificicncy, and by way of difpofition, fitting us 
that ah impreflion of grace may be made upon us. He prepareth 
and ficteth men to the receipt of grace by the ads of his humanity, 
in which he fuffc^red death, and dying fatisfied Gods wrath, remo- 
ved all matter of diflike, procured the favour and acceptation of 
God, and fo made men fit to receive the grace of God, and to en- 
joy his favour. He imparteth and conferreth grace, by the opera- 
tion and working of his divine nature, it being the proper worke 
pfG5>d to enlighten the underftandings of men, and tofoften their 

- Ifitbealleadged, that there is nothing that one perfon of the 
Trinity doth towards the creatures, but they all doe it, and con- 
fequently, that thofe things which Chrift did in his divine nature, 
pertained notto the office of a Mediatour, being common to all 
ihei^erfons. ,; ^ ; 

-J) Ihieanlweris, thpughtheadion be the fame, and the wprke 
doneby them, yet they differ in the manner of doing it. For the 
Father doth all things authoritative, and the Son fubdu^orita'- 
tive, as the Schoole-men fpeakc ; that is, the Father, as he from 
whpm^ and of whom are all things; the Son as he by whom are 
ail thingSj, . not as by aninftrument, but a principall efficient. And 
in this lort to quicken, give life, and to impart the Spirit of Sa»- 
dification to whom he pleafeth, efpecially with a kind of concur- 
ring of the humane nature meriting, defiring, and inftrumcntally 
aiTifting, is pioper to the Son of; God, manifefted in our flefh, and 
lioteommon to the whole Trinity. As the fecond perfon in Tri- 
nity did affliHie our filature, and flottheFatheror the hdy GJioft : 


0r http he is the Mediatour of the Nerv TeHament, 


and as Chrift; is the Head of the Church, not the Father or the holy 
Spirit ;fe fo he doth give life and fence to the body, and not the 
whole Trinity. If the fpeciall Offices of Chrift be considered fe- 
vcrally, much more ifall of them be confidered/oyntly, it will c- 
vidently flppeare, that both natures muft neceffarily concurre in 
tlieformall execution of them. For he cannot worthily performe 
the office of the chiefe Dodor of the whole Church, and heavenly 
Prophet, nor execute the office of an eternall, high Prieft, that 
is, offer a, Sacrifice truly propitiatory, daily beare the prayers of 
all his people, andprefent them before God ; nor exercife kingly 
power and authority in heaven and earth, who worketh to the 
forme of mcere humanitie, or onely as he is man : When, 
in thofe offices there muft be a. divine excellencie and elfi- 


, The end of pcrfonall union is the adminiftration of his office; 
and the perfonall union ofl two natures in Chrift had not been ne- 
-ceffary, linlefle both had concurred as a formalL beginning to that 
worke. For every agent neceftarily worketh accordi.9g co and by 
titsiorme ; whence itiblloweth, either that the pcrfon of the Me- 
diatour doth not confift of two natures, or both natures of Chrift, 
as proper formes, doe neceflarily concurre to the proper works 
!^^of a Mediatour, becaufethcproperoperations muft be conjoyned 
in ope vtforke of a Mediatour, as bpth natures are joyned and unif 
ted in one perfon. There is one God, faith the Apoftle, and otks 
i^ediatour between God Ainiman, the man Chrift fefus : ad- 
ding the man Chrift, to ftiew that in him were both na cures, that 
is, hewasGodandmaninoneperlbn, andfoaifit middle perfon 
or Mediatour. And man may be. taken perfonally„ not naturally, 
it being moft ufuall to name the whole perfon of C hriil from either 
uature: as he is called the Lord of glory, when his perfon is un- 
derftoed. And fointiis place,, the man Chrift, thatis, thatper- 
Ipn, whohaithatnaturebywhichheis truly called man,: aiKi 
of chat appellation there may be divers weighty reafons, more, a- 
mongft the r^ft this,: that the Apoftle would encourage us to put 
our truftanicoqfidence in him as being, our cider brother. By 
voluntary 4tfp?nlation Chrift is Mediatour as God incarnate, and 
nptiby nature as God. And according to that difpenfation Chfift 
.. is Mcdistqut to the Father, who isperfonally galled GcxlTome- 
jimes^iathiiiefpeft, and diftinguifhed from Chrift as Mcdiatouc : 
" ' W"i 3., and„ 

tta per fonts y t<u 
lii (3* operatiCj 
(S" qaalU opC' 
ratio i talUfvb* 


1 Cp^ltS; 

ia BeS.contrM 

Joh.i7*j. aird> 

270 Hoiv Chrifi hath fulfiHedthe office of Medmour, 

and Chrift is our Advocate to the Father, but never rcprefented in 

Scripture praying to the Son or holy Spirit , but the Father only s 

which difpenfation is carefully to be obferved,from which we muft 

not depart upon any vain fpeculation,which humane curiofity mighc 


A Mediatour muft be a middle perfon, equally diftant, and c* 

'BttUm. ie qually drawing nigh to both parties betwixt whom he doth me- 

chriii'.^*€.u diate. And thus Chrift God incarnate is a fit middle perfon, for 

§. Pr£teru. he draws as neare to the Father as God, as to us as man, and is as 

UttfoiMte/i farre diftant from God as he is man, as he is from us as God : and 

jertmdiuiin' jj^ comes as neare to the Father,as he deparceth hom us:and comes 
ter ueam er 1 1 i 1 V l 

•iomineraycumu- as neare to us, as he doth to the Father. 

triafi niturm But Chrift as a /uft^saan is not fo a middle perfon, for he comoB 
■Meat. not fo nigh to the Father as juft, as he doth to us as man ; nor is (a 

f arre diftant from us as /uft, as he comes nigh to us as man. Then 
as Mediatour heftioutd be joyned to the Father in will only, but in 
nature dif- joyned : and be diftant from man not in nature, but 
in quality only : then (hould he be Mediatour, not as fubftan- 
tially pne with the Father, but only as he is united to him in 

If it be alleadged, that if Chrift be Mediatour as God incarnate, 
then he is Mediatour to himfelte, becaufehe is God, and theniil- 
fo hcfhouid difter from himfelfe , becaufe a Mediatour is a middle 
perfon. ; ^.. 

lumbileap.^. Weanfwer, it is not ncccffary a thing (hould differ from the 
not, I, j,'j 1 J, ' extreames according to all that in refped whereof it is of a middle 
condition, but it is llifficient if it differ in (ome thing from one,and 
in fome thing from another, as is before explained. So the Son 
of God incarnate by voluntary difpenfation differeth not only 
from the Father and the holy Ghoft, but from himfelfeas God on- 
ly I fcii. as man he difFereth from himfelfe as God, and as God 
from himfelfeas man. The whole trinity being offended with 
us for fin, was to be pacified, but the Scripture teachetb, Chrift 
wasourMediatourtothc Father ; and we muft filence our con- 
ceits, and learne of God what to believe. And afturedly if the Fa- 
ther be reconciled, the whole Trinity is reconciled3^ And further 
it may be added, that he who according to abfolute efTence or m- 
tureis the partie offended, may according to voluneary difpcnfa- 
uon fuftaine the perfon and'd^ the o^ce of a Mediatour : and lb 
^ - ^ ' Chrift 

■ " " - ' ^ "- ' "■■ ' - ■ - ' ■ I I - - - ■ — 

er how he isthe Medtatour of the New Telfamem. 2 71 

Chrift was primarily a Mediatour to the Father for us, and by coa^ 
feqnence and lecundarily to the whole Trinity, andfo to hitnieUc 
as God. 

It isfurther obie<fled,if Chrift be Mediator according to his divine 
Dature,then all three perions in Trinity be Mediatours: but this is a 
meere deceit; for the divine nature is taken efTentially for the divine 
nature common to f ather,Son and holy Ghoft :or perfonally for the 
divine effence confidered diCtindiy in the Father, Son and holy ' 
Ghoft;In the latter fence we fay, Chrift according to his divine na- 
ture is our Mediator, as he was incarnate, and did alTume our nature, 
unto his divine p^rfon, and not the Father or the holy Ghoft. 

But then ( it will be faid ) he was inferiour to the Father i. In 
office it is true, by voluntary difpenfation he is inferiour, but in na- ..... 
lare he is equall to the Father : and nothing hinders but one eqaall. ^"^''^'^w^-'lv 
to another in nature, may by voluntary and free choice under- take p, ., ^ 
an office of inferiority. Being tn the ^r me of God, he humbled ' *. *^* > 
himfelfk. The Scripture teacheth expreffely, that God the Far joh.i.i8.&f^ 
ther gave his only begotten Son to death for us : and the only be- 16/& j./j, 
gotten or proper Son of God according to both natures, and in, Rom.f.8. 
both ftates is faid to adminifter bis office, the property of either na- ^P^^^* »'7» 
tare obferved : asalfotheonlybegottenSonofGodis faid to de- ^Toh'''''flu . 
fcendfromheaven to earth for our fakesj and to. (ulfcr death foe *,/& '^jfo^ ** 
us, and to have done and luffered other fttch things : and that i)y Aa.ta^s.* 
the bloud of his Son we are reconciled to God rhe Father. 

This office of Mediation Chrift hath performed. Birft, as the 
great Doftour of his Church by revealing unto us the way to life, e* ^ Cor.i.7 8 o. 
yen the laft, full, and perfeA will of God concerning mans falva- ' 
lion ; the wifdome of God in a my fterie, even the hidden w^dom. 
which God ordained before the world, unto our gkay, which 
none ofthe Princes of this world knew : Such things as ^7^ i>^«^ 
notfetn^ care hath not heard, ar ever entred into the heart of 
man to conceive : Such as the naturallinquirie of Angels could ne- 
Tjer have difcovcrcd. No man k^oweth the Father but the Sonne , Mat.i » 27* 
andheto^JfomtheSenitehathrevealedhiffLj, NomanhathfeeH J^^*"'*^*- 
Codat any time, the only begotten Sonne ^hich ie in the bo(ome 
nfthe Father,, he hath declared hinu. Heonly it is that openeth^ 
s^ebolbmeof his Father,, that vsy who revealeth the fecret and. 
myftericMis counfels, and the tenda and companionate affetflions . 
ofhis Father unto the world.. Heisfaidtobeatcacherioic^om joi}.|.a; 


ijz How ChriHhAthfulfilledtk office of Uedmeur^ 

God, andtobe the Lord which fpeaketh from heaven, and the 
dodtrine which he taught an heavenly doftrine, even great Salva- 
tion. The woman ofSamaria could fay, Ik^ow'When the Mef- 

Hcb.i«.iy. fiaheometh, be "ifill te& m all things : And our Saviour proteffeth 

}oh }. I z. CO his difciplcs. All things that I have heard efmj Father, I have 

T^u'**"^' made k»own unto jott. 

Job t^ I i ^^^ *" ^^^^ ^^^ "^^ Covenant is lifted up above former cxpref- 

fions of the fame Covenant for fubftance. For God ^ho in (kndry 

Heb.i.i. times, andin divers manners fpak^ in times fafi unto the Fa' 

Tcr j . ^ ers by the Prophets, hath in thefe lafl dales jj> oken ftnto m by kii 

Sonne; V^ho ds the brightnejfe of hie glory ^ and the exprejfe Image 

Col. 1,1 y. ofhisferfin j that is, he in whom the glory and Majefty of the Fa- 
ther, otherwife invilible and inconfpicuous, doth (hew forth ic 
felfc, and that which is hid in the Father as in a ring, is mani- 
fefted, as on the feale. And as God is manifefted in Cbrift, fo 

Col.i. J. was he manifefted and made knowne by Chrift. In Chrift are hid 

Bphcfcj. ©,io. all the treafures of wifdome, and he hath made knowne the mani* 
foldwifdomeof'God. The difcovery of mifety and fin is tbac 
which fweetens mercy, and gaines it aleem : and therefore as the 
mercy of God was plentifully unfolded, fo was the Law laid open, 
and fin difcovered by our Saviour more fully then it had been in the 
old Teftament, that as fin abounded, mercy might abound much 
more. And where the maladie appeares hideous and defperace, 
there is need that we be well acquainted with the foveraigne reme-; 
die, and hence as the doore of the Law and curfe ts cafl: quite open, 
that men might throughly know themfelves , fo Chrift in his 
perfon, natures, office and benefits is lively deciphered , that 
when men feele themfelves loft in themfelves, they mighc 
runne unto him for rightSDufnefie , grace, life and falva- 

Secondly, Chrift hath fatisfied offended juftice, and anfwered 
«. whatfoever the Law had againft us. The word fatisfadion the 
Scripture hath not, but the thing fignified thereby is plainly noted 
by the phrafes of Redemption, Expiation, Reconciliation, and 
many fuch like every wherein Scripture. Juftice did releafe the 
debtour, or the puniihment of the perfon olfending s but Would 
notfimply releafe the puniftiment of the offence, or pardon the 
fault without fatisfa(^ion. Ifchen the guilty be fpared, the%ecy 
muft fuffer punifhmenc 

or how he is the Mediafour of the New TeBament, 175 

It is here queftionedjWhecher God could not pardon fin withotit 
fatisfa(?Vion,or fatisFadlibn be abfolutely neceffary, the decree and 
plcaCure ot Godfo to have it excepted. 

Many found, orthodox and learned Divines hold the'affirma- Mm'mJepivf, 
tiye, becaufejufticeiseffenthlltoGod, and it is a righteous thing chriftiub.i, 
with God to render tribulation to them thatafflidt, arid that every ^'^' ^'^mnili 
ttapfgreflipn receive a juft recompence,: .2 Whsf i. 6, Heb.%,%. ^^'^^^\!'M 5*j 
$.oi^}irSh^x6^*^^-^. And it recompence be jufl;, it is in juftice 
to let'fiagoe unpunilhedi The Lord' tci^ifiethy that he that juitf- 
fieth the wicked i^ an abhominacion to his highnefle^ and he will 
not doe what he abhorreth in others, Prov.iy.i^. 7/^.5.23. Cod 
cannot but love his Image, and fo he cannot but hate the corrup- 
tion ot'it, and feverely puniQi that which is diflentahie from it. 
This feemes to be engraven in the heart of man by nature, that 
Godisjuft, and that fin cannot be done away without fatisfa- 
(ftioH : and hence come thofe many fond devices amongft the Hea- ^f* »on e/^ alU 
then to pacifie offended juftice : they were ignorant of the true ^i*^*^ internum in 
God, and how his wrath and difpleafure was to be appealed : but ^H' vdmf^. 
aflured of this, that he was offended by fin, and that without fed vaimt^u 
fatisfadion the fin could not be expiated or done away. Foe quidamefeaut. 
thefc and (uch like reafons many have thought, that it is abfo- ia^awr de ira 
lutely repugnant to divine juftice to pardon fin without fatil- 'p£y^^'^9> 
Uetioa. Judex peccatii 

Others and thofe learned and orthodox areof opinion, that the ptefi,^uial^ 
neceflity ot fatisfaftion depends upon the will and pleafure of tuntati fervit 
God, andthatGodbyhisabfolute power, (alva juflitU, mighx. a'^e«'^. i^ms 
have pardoned fin without fatisfadion. For God might out of '^"J-'^i^!^^.' 
his ablblutefoveraignty not have punilhed ^dams fin, both be- p^^hQ df/ie$- 
caufe it was againft himlelfe, not others to whom he is tied to doe tator & judext 
juftice: and efpecially, for that the dcmonftration of his reven- quara cum pme^ 
ging juftice fpringeth not from the neccfiity of his naturej but irom '^^'/^o" »ttqM* 
faisvoluntary dilpcfition, aswellasthe giving life perpetuall, to ^^"/^'ow'^f^ 
obedience for a certaine I'pace performed. For with-draw that vc^ hah^ ^l^^fitnm 
luntary Covenant, whodoubteth, but that had the creature kept di Ikentjam " 
his innocency a thpufand yeares, God was free to have annihilated Senec. 
hiflfi ? ^^fc^God is able w,ere he pleafed to flicw his power to turne oceidtre contra 
itltohisgloryj whjcjj j^ens im^^ not attaining, being alfo J'^^ft'^^j^'^L 

forbiddenby'theLaWoftheir Superiour, maketh them that they varenmop^l'* 
cannot alw^ieS;\s^t^h juftice forgive, even that wherein themfelves terte* 

2 74 How Chrift hMh fulfilled the office vfMcdUtour, 

are crdpailedw If God of his abfoluce power cannot pardon fin 
withouciatisfadlionV diennottopunifhfin is (imply a thing im- 
poflible, or God in fo doing (hould be deficient or inconfortnablc 
to the rule of his Vviil*. but to let goe fin unpuniflied is fimply the 
omiilion of a divine adl (the decree of God excepted) not defi- 
cient or inconformable to any rule of Gods will, but rather a pe-* 
culiar exerctfe of divine mercy. What abfolutely God can willj 
that be can juftly will : otherwife it might be that God can will a 
thing which is in juft, or that he can will in/uftly. But it was pof- 
fible for God to will to let fin goe unpuniflied, it is not abfolutely 
repugnant to his divine nature io to will. 

If God cannot pardon fin without fa- 
n£ rathnes turn de^mm t^cam ohtinenntji it a tisfkdion, then it is necefiky tha t he pu- 
'Deu.pumetmagmzxneceifuatem.^, ut ^illi fin by abfolute neceflity, or fin pre- 
^tit'voimtatuaaurtt.agem, vdutiignU caU- mppofed, it IS of abfolute neceffity that 
jacit ex necejfitate nature. Windel. de tnmda. it be punifiied ; but it is not of ablolute 
S€&.z.c.i. Uxagsndi necejfttas i.natur<e neceflitythat fin bc punifhed, for then 
%. cmgruenti^. lUiperqamagemitaagit, Q^d fhould punifii it alwaies in one 
y pernatumm non pop njn ague, ^ vjl ^ ^^ ^ ^ as hccan, as natu- 

meco2mttoiie^ve<cuincogntti')m. //taper ,, ' , , • r , 

qmrnagmsmnHtefinQncmgrmnmfm na- r^U agents worke : whereas we fee by 
m&agne. * experience, that God doth differently 

punifii the fins of men in this We, the 

lefier ofFendors moft, the greater kaft many times, ever foas their 

punifii men cs might be increafed. Neither can it be faid, that the 

greatnefieof puniilliment in this life, doth kfieri their puniflimen^ 

in the life to come • iof the punillime*its of thelife to come being 

eternall, can carry' no proporticMi wii:h the puiiiiTiments of this 

life. Thenit wasof abiolute neceflitythat Chrift lliould luffer fo 

many ftripes and no more, be forfaken juft (b long and no longer;; 

Schnium c#. Continue in his agony fo many houetS and neitlher .UK)re nor Icflei 

»m fe^uiinpt* ThebountyofGod to reward obedience iseffentiallas well as ju^ 

fium ex quavU fiice to pijnKh iniquity : and if God punifk iniquity % a'bfolute and 

negationejuflu Baturallneccfliny, of neccflity he muft reward obedience i if he 

WM«/>®f M «/. pm^jf}^ iniquity without divine conftitution, he muft reward dbe- 

jjyy^ ; dience in thefame manner. God may mflK^ a ilipre mildptmini-j 

Non efi per^e^ ment then (|ndefdrveth, therefore at leaft he^inay -ka-^e lome "M^ 

mum at idquoi gree of finunpuniilied s ■ as alfo, itis la wf ull Br God to m&[i equai) 

jufiefiat^non in fip,. togrant pardon to Dne> to ptoifli another according to his 

^i»fS "" i^^^t JP g^Y? ??ward above merit isnoc contrary to ^Iticcj if 

or how he is th^ Mediatoitr of the Nem TeBdment» 275 

it be given of our owne: nor to punifh mercifully, and leffe then 

the fault defervech, if it be^a fault commicted againft our felves. 

And it fcen^es as much repugnant to /u- 

fticetoacceptafurety, as to pardon the ^^'^H^^^^irn 7)61 proprktatss qmmm exerd- 

punifliment; efpecially that the Son of *'^'^' ^^^^^oadaaum. mmqmadtemp^is' 

God the oartv offended fhould rake noon *"^'^"^^^"^^'^oet!am quvaJ obj'.m dmmi. 

j^oa,ctie party ottenaed,inoul(i take upon nmomm, penda a. itbera ipj m Uiuntate, 

him our nature, and make latisfaaion for &xpromjjtone j-u aitqaod acqumtur ei eui 
us. And if God by abfolute neceflity muft fa^<t e/itpromijjh ; at commiaatione apenm 
punifti fin as it deierveth, then it is (imply ^'^»''^xat declaratur mmtum pma inpeccmte, 
impollible to renew the (inner by repen- fJ'*'pf^^''»f'lcommm.n,e. cum bm,tm 
tance,or to annihilate him,becaule then he ftZ^Tmu^'Tcl^^^^^^^ '^"^ 

doth no t bear what puniihmec his fin doth cord^a non (g^^ffet, fedpuratjct mivemlmi. 
call for from the hand of juft ice. Juftice \^ nimeeomutcibilUt vdetiam immifsHcori po. 
eflTentiall to Godjfo is mercy,bounty, libe- ^^^^^^dici: fmiliter, neq^extradanti confi, 
rality ; but God llieweth mercy to whom f''^'"^'*"' '«"'^*^"''^«' '^cijnjufium did p'o. 
he Jill&doch good CO whom he willfrc.- :iC'/4:Sl^'^^^^^^ 
ly,notby abfolute neceffity:only God hath nam meremr, eoq, pumbuu ejt, boa ex Ipfa 
obliged himielfe by righteoulnefle of fi- peccant' pacatoru ad {upermem relatione 
delicy, that is by prom ifcs and threat- "^'^J^'^'^'^f^lf*''^^ (^ propne naturak utve- 
Bings, which muft be fulfiUcd, to doe 7JTZ7SITT'''T' ''''' '^"^ "*'' 
this or that. Sm though It hath an out- ^m^erf^Uter^^propnenaturll^tj^ 
ward dilagreement, iuchasmay bcm 3i tme [atu <mv.mens. Chamic*. Wra^ 
creature from the Creator ; yet it hath no ''*""' ^' ^'^' ^ « '• Parfcerye defc, 1 1, se^. ,5 
inward pofitive repugnancy or contra- ]^^"p"^^^J'^"'^"' '■' '^i' ^'^' 
riancy to Gods nature, luch as is betwixt ^"^g^ "johfy^S [o{ *^' ^^^•5^'^°* P^*^« 
fire and water : for then fliould the di' • . s . 

vine nature inwardly in it felfe be worfe for the being of fin, and 
(hould necelTarily mil it. Sin is difpleafing unto God, he cannot 
approve it as good in it lelfe, but it is one thing to be difpleafed 
With, or hate (in, another to punifh it of abfolute and nacurall nc^ 
cellity J as it is one thing to approve obedience, another to re- 
ward it of neceility. It is moft true, that God doth not onh hate^ 
but punilb all fin, but that he doth, not by naturall neceility, buc 
by naturall congruity, which may ftand with the moll free will of 
God, determining to mamfclt his juftice, for the manifeftation 
whereof the iuni.hmentoffin was necellary. The hatred of fin 
and puniihment thereof are joyncd together as a free cauie and ef-^ 
fed, not as a neceffary cau(^ and effe<S : for God hateth fin at all 
times, buc punilheth ic not ever, but in his tim^ pt (^(on. But 

N n i ' ic 

276 Hetv Chrift hath fulfilled the office ofMediateur, 

it is not material! to difpute this matter in more words ; for feeingr 
God hath determined that his juftice fhall take her revenge, if by 
breach ofCovenantflie be wronged, he cannot but panilh fin ac- 
cording to its defert, neither may he fet us free from the fame, but 
fo as wronged juftice may receive fatisfadlion.The decree of God is 
unchangeable, and the fentence of God denounced againft fin mult 
ftand firme for ever, therefore punithment muil be executed, if the 
commandment be tranfgrefled. 

And the reafons of this decree be 
Qmntaimfimiafttnamantef,agitinoyje' weighty. For hereby God manifefteth 
&umfu£amomr.iitumlverreceptiium:q^aa . • j^iftindipnation ap^ainftfin and map. 
reH'aimzSstva^nrak (ilia nimirum accep "js juumaignation agamitnn, ana mag- 
tatiom, qHxC^cmnjeTtnaeUitatem) nmpof- nitiech the riches ot his grace and tender 
ftaSfiotatitde "ferfrniapeciaioruin perfonam compalTion towards the finner, whonit 
aiiam tranfire Ne<j etiamfapientia 'Dsi, que he is pleafed to fave from deferved wrath. 
inhocnegmomaxm^ tluat, tecum babuura Seeing then God decreed not to deliver 
viderur ■ (iter nuturam mqutffet "Deta altter _ ? , . / j • 

JmlUlknm cnim eftMttx medhrum. marl from the lentence ot death contra- 
5»it.24.»6,i7. ) Cted by fin, but upon fatisfad:ion made. 

to divine juftice, and the puniflnmentpf 
finbornebyhisfurety, of neceflity if Chrift become a Mediatour^ 
to intercede for us, he muft undertake to pay our debts, and in our 
roome and fteed to fufFer what we defer vcd. And as he undertook, 
fo he hath borne the chaftifement of our peace, and by bearing the 
punifhment hath taken aWay our fins. 

That Chrift did under-goe the punifhment due to finners, as 
their furety, is evident in this, that he died for us. For the 'Up ages 
offinneisdeMh, Rom.^.23. &5.12. which God inflidlcth upon 
S;Cor;i f . ai , none but either a finner, or him that beareth the perfon of a finner : 
^'* wherefore feeing Chrift in himfelfc moft innocent, did fuffer death, 

E°h K7?' it neceffarily followeth, that he fuffered not in his owne, but in 
Hei. » Vi. «>«r name, and fatisfied the Father for us. Hi'herto it makes, that 
Aft 20.z8. he fuffered not any kind of death whatloever, but ignominious, 
Col.i.xo. violent, judiciatl and accurfed, fuch as had the fence of Gods 

Bom.5 2j« wrath ad/oyned. For no realoncan be imagined, why Chrift 
Hcb K Ls*4. f^ould fo much dread death, which the Martyrs endured without 
feare, but that for the time he was deprived of that refrelliing of 
3Cor.4 8,^. divine grace and favour wherewith they were fuftained and con- 
firmed in the midft of the fire. Nor is there atiy thing, whither 
we can referre, thofe tremblings of Chrift, thofe groanes and 
tj^sireS; in which he was heard, tha; defire that the cup might pa^e 

or how he is the MtdUtour of the Netv Tefiament. 2 7-7 

from him, but to the impo'ition ofour finnes, and that conflidl 
with the wrath of God, which followed from it. The death of 
cur Saviour is referred to his unfpeakeablc love towards us, fokt.^^ 
13. gal.1,20. £phef,^.2,2^* But if he could not but die, becaufe Rev. i . fi 
he was man, he flicwcdhis infirmity in dying, rather then the Gal.».ao, 
fervour of his love. For though Chrift had loved us «nto death, 
yet had he not commended his love in dying, if he dyed by condi- ^'"^' '^*' ?• *^ 
tion of nature, and had not being innocent laid downe his life for ^^''^'''•^' 
us mortall, becsufs finners. I n like manner Chrift is faid to have j^ - 

carried our finnes, and that in his body upon the tree, which in 17/^'*' *^ 
ufiiall pbrafc of Scripture is to^ be punitlied for our finnes, and pay Basa^«f 7» 
the punidiment ofour finnes, 7/^.53.1 1. 1 Pee, 2,24, Lev.ip'S, y/iixA.^ 
& 20.17. & 24 15. A^/<!»w/5.i4.23.& 30.15. /i^w.5.7 £«j^ ^^'' 5» '®- 
And fuch a carry mg is defcribcd to which fmiting is adjoyned^and ^ ^^^' * *' *°' 
the chaftifement of our peace, from the tranflationofallour ini- sjr,"poruivlt ee^ 
quitics upon Chrift, 7/21.53.5. For as it followeth in the fame a/cenJerefeeit, 
place immediately, Be was afpBed, that is, with the punifhment dvai^^HVy 
due to finne, v/hich was laid upon him, Jpi.'i%.6{j, Whercunto furjumjerre, 
thofc paflages of Scripture might be referred, which fay, that J^^l'^V*' 
Chrift made his foule an offering for finne, 7/4.5 3 . i o. ^^^^ he that SSi. jj^l' 
knew no finns, was made finne for us, 2 Cor,^, 21, that he hath Mar.p. 2, 
redeemed us from the curf of the Law, being made a curfe for us, Hcb. 7. 27. 
Gal,^, 1 3 . in which be muft of neccflity be underftcod, who bears ^'^' *• ^*' 
the puni(hments of finne. And it is againft reafon, that he fliould p * « 3* » ?* 
be faid to bearc the finnes of others, who fufcrs by occafion of fin ■ *^ * *• *♦•' 
only, unlcflTi he bearc the punifhment of finne, and take it upon 
bimfclfe. For who will fay, he that fuffcrs lofls or dammagc from 
the fault of a thicfe, doth bearehis finne,when he doth not beare 
thepuniilimentof theff, noris punifhedforit. The Evangelift 
tranfliresrhis faying of the Prophet to corporall difeafes, which 
Chrift did not receive upon himfslfc, it is by way of fimilitude and 
agreement in the thing it fdfe, although the manner of the thing ^^^'^'^^ i^ilTs. 
be divcrfe ; as alfo by fuch miracles, Chrift declared himfelfe to 
be that Meffiah, who was to bearc, and by bearing to take away 
our finnes. 

Moreover the Scripture faith, Chrift died for our finnes, i C/»% ,^f ; 
15 3. (Ja/.i,^, Hei>,io.i2o I Peti-^^iS. and was delivered to "^sX'' 
death foroaroffer!ces,ifoi».4.23. and for finners and wicked, Jf4i ^^ , 
5 3.^« Rom*^ ,6. 2 Cor.^ ,21, to be made Unncfoi: us, i 7«/.3.i S* *" 

■' "' ' " ~ Nn 3 ta* 


How Chrifi hath fuljilledthe office of Medimur^ 

ViiVji 18,19. 
& 106. 17, 




1 Cor. I I.I f. 

\i3r4f figoifieth 
the lanpuKive 

Rom. If, 9. 
31 Cor. i. 1 1. 

5. 20. 

i Cor. 5. 10. 
aCcr.7 4,& 
5»* & l».J. 

2 Cor. 1 2r 10. 
I Com. 4. 
3ud.vcr ly, 
Sjc Lztini^ pro 
hsvtfidji gtat'.' 
a agerCy uldf- 

Heb ?il7« 
^g ibi expiatu 
mem, (si earn 
qux ft pliscan' 

to fufF:r the juft for the unju'i, which ion port, that finnewas the 
Ctficicnt meritorious caufe of the death of Chrift : for finne cannof 
other wife be the caufe of punifhment but By wsy of merit, nor carf 
any man be laid to be puniflicd for (inne, but the meritorious caufs 
ofpaniiliing is noted thereby. And thofe particles applied to 
other things may note the finall caufe, apphed to fuffcnngs, they, 
point out »hfi efficiertor meritorious only, andfinnes deicryc af- 
^\&.\onpermodtiWpana^Lev.i6,'3,9, 'Deut.l^.\2, 1 Ki/i£.lj^,i6. 
Chrift 'S fa id to die not only for our (innes, but for us j not far our 
good alone, but in cur roome and fteed, asthephrafe importctb, 
and the one particle ufed fii^nifteth oppofitionor lubrogation and 
commutation, .^4^20.28.'^). foh.i 1.50. Rom.^.y,S. 
2 Cor.5.15. Hei>.2 p. I Pet, 12. and the latter, though fome- 
timts It admit a different fence, in this matter mufl: be expounded 
by the former ^Rom.p.'^, 2 Cory. 20. 2 C«r.^.i^. Chrift died, 
the Juft for theunjult, that is, bein^ jufthe was fubftituted for 
usufjjaft, and fufiercd not only for our good, asthe Martyrs may 
be {did to doe, Ifa.^^ p,io. Rof9)$.$,6yy,S. i Pet.^.i^, i CerC. 
i.c;;, Thefameisdemonftrated by this, that Chrili is faidto be 
the Mcdiatour, who gave h imfclfe a ranfmne for all men, i Tim, 
t.$,€. that by redemption of tranfgrclTions which were under 
the former Covenant, they that are called might receive th« inhe- 
ritance, H(?^.p 15. and the mediation it fclfe is joyned to the 
fprinklingof blood, jf^^^ji 2.24. fo that none other mediation is 
to be underftood, then that whereby parties difagreeing arcfet at 
one* Hitherto it is to be referred, that we arc faid to be reconci- 
led to Grd by the blood of Chrift, Row 5.10 1 1. 2 Cor. 5. 18. 
£phef.2.i6., whereby our conv rlion to God, is not 
undcrrtocd, as ^t vve who hated God before, had row departed 
there from, and did fet our love upon him, but that we whsch for- 
merly were under wrath arercftored into favour, that which cau- 
sed that fcperation being taken away by the fatisfadion of Chrift 
and free condonation of grace. Therefore Chrift is called our 
propitiatorie,/2<?>».3.2i:. andpropitiatjor,! 75^.2.2. & 4.10. not 
a tcftimony of placation, becaufe God in Chrift is ma 1e propiti- 
ous unto us, and not we propitious to God. In Scripture God is 
iaid to reconcile the world unto himfclfc, according to the uiu- 
all manner offpeaking, wherein hethat ofFsndeih, is therefore faid 
to be reconciled, becaufe as he gavecccaiioa to hatred, £0 he bath 


or how he isthc Ucdmmr of the New Teliamem. 2 79 

reed ct reconciliation, and the pacifying of him whom he hath Sopboeies in 

oC-nded : although the reconciliation of them that be offended, be -^J^*^^ -' 

not excluded. ... tX'"^'^ 
The deliverance which wc obtame by Chrift is called redcmp- ^^^ cwciUari 
tion, which was made by the paiment of a price, Rom 3.24. Gal. i. ipfoi reddere, 
3. I 3. Ephef. I. 7. Hek p. 12. I Tet. i. l8,ip. UMatth. 20. 28. fropiiiou 
Mar.\o.^$. I C^r, 6.20, & 7.23. and redemption made by a P^Miomnii 
price, can be no other then by fatisfa<aion or fabftitution, as the ^"^^'^'''jM 
Apoftle faith, ChnnhathredeemedmfromthecHrfeoftheL>ix»,be. ^laTaTIZrr,- 
ing made a curfefor us^ga/.^.i 3. i Tim. 2 6. Faith and repentance hahet jufiitiat* 
and preaching cf the Gcfpell come bet ^vixt, that wc might ob- Z>ei. pma- 
taine fpirituall deliverance from the captivity of finne : but no man f^'^i-'a vcr) 
will fay, thatwe arercJeemed by them, as by a price whereby '^H'^f^^fpec* 
we obtaine deliverance? Inthc legallfacrificcsfmnes were cxpi- h^per^oZutet^ 
ated no other way but by fubftitution:bo w much n»ore was Chrift, ^- ingenere 
whoisthebodie ofthof; (hadowes, fubftituted forthefinnes of fpeetata, fine 
the faithful! ? Wherefore the Apoftle faith, Chrift was appointed ^efsmmatione i. 
to make reconciliation for the finncsof the people, Hd.2,17. that /"^»'^^» "^ero 
is, that by expiating thefinnes of the people, be might paciHe jZfZZltl' 
God; in the fame fence wherein the blojd of Chrift is faid to di^ divin<e cpug 
purge the confcience, H^^.p. 13,14. Therefore the Scripture u» eft : procataf. 
ieth thofc words in this bu(inc{fe, which note recompence and ^^^avero cau/a. 
fiibrogation ; as^^^D which figmfieth both to pacifie and reconcile /'"'Upeccata 
gen I ,20 Tr<.t/.i5 i4.andtorecompenccorfatisfie,2i'4»,.2t. 2Zm7Jyen^ 
^. Exod.2i'SO. 7V4/.4P 8. and N-Jn to recompence or p ay, 9^». tia. Vof.nft^ 
3i,3p. In the legal! facnhces there wasatypicall expiation, but saf. lu ' 
the confcience was not purged, nor finne taken away, or heaven- 
ly things fanftified by fuch facrificcs : bat the] facrifice of Chrift Hc6. $•. 9. &. 
was neccflary, by which things of fo great moment were rff cled, *°»4^&^^.»3^ 
which was tipified by the legal! facrifices, and was c Jjdluall as a • 
morail caufe of Salvation, before Chnil was exhibited in the flclli. 
And if the Fathers of the old Teftament were laved by Chrift, of 
ncceflity the fatisfaiftion of Chrift was true and real!, for when it 
was not diftindly underwood, it could not profit them as an cx- 
a-mplcorconfirmatibn of doctrine, but asarf^all fitisfa^ion only. 
If Chrift'by his death had confirmed hrs doarirc only, and not mb.^, 
inadcfatisfadion, hehadnotdiedasaPrieft, whofc otfice it is to 
cflf^r facrificc and make attonemenr : but the Scriprore Ihcweth 
plainly, that Chiift is 0115 high Prieft, according to the order oi 

2 8 o jl0iv Chrifl hath fulfilled the office ofUedtatour, 

Melchk.edech, *7y^/liio.4. ^^^•7.i4jI5. who hath ofi^red up. 
himlelfe a fwect linelling facrifice, €phef% . i . and fandlifltd as by 
one offering up of bimfelfe once for all, Heb,\ o. 1 1, 1 2. And be- 
<aufc the facrifice of Chrill: may be confidered, cither as he offered 
fieb.j.i j,»|. up hinjf-ifcfor all the faitbfull in generall, his fhecp, and Church, 
or as every particular faitbfull man is comprehended under that 
univerlality, and the good things purcbafed for ajl, tend to the 
falvation of every fingular beleever , God would have the firft 
(hould be {hadowed forth by the anniverfary facrifice,and fomc c- 
\. thers which were for all the people : the latter by the pri- 

vate facrificcs of every fintier, Lev.'^ . Exod.79. ^o. Chrift then as 
Mediatour by his death hath made fatisfadion for us,and that true, 
full, reailfatisfadion, and not by a certainefidion^of Law or di- 
vine acccptilation, as they call if. For why did God exadt tbc 
bloody death of his Sonne, if it had pleafsd h-m to reft in any light 
fatisfadion ? The Apoftle concludrs, the facrifice cfChnft to be 
neceflary, becaufc icis impofliblethc blood of Bulls and Goats 
ihould doe away finncs,H£'^.io.4. which argument con eludes not, 
if Chrift hath fatisfied only, as it plcafed the Father to accept of 
bis impel fed fatisfadion, as if it had been pcrfcd-. The fatisfa- 
£lionof Clirift was free, becaufehe was freely given to fatisfie, 
but the decree of God prefuppoi^^d to (hew his mercy and juftice, 
full fatisfadion was ncceflary : bccaufe finne muft be punifned i^s 
the Law requireth, or God is not true as in his promifcSj fo in his 
^ g threatnings. None other wages is appointed for iinne but death, 

om. . ij. jjg„2g hg that js dead is juftified from finnc, Rom.6 7. But Chrift 
fuflfered death, and by death made recompcnccto juftice for our 
debt : and inthat hediedforfinne, hedicd once, /?<?^^.^.p,io. He 
^ , tafted death, that by death he might dcftroy him that had the 

Be .2.9,14, power of death, thatis,thedeviil, and deliver them who through 
^*' fcarc of death were all their life luijj\:6: to bondage. But when 

the Scripture nameth death generally, it comprehends all that 
which God threatned inihat fentence, ThoHjhalt die the death i 
that penall death, which is the reward of (inne, but not finne it 
feUc : whict^ is penall only, not finfuH. Other mens debts are an- 
fwered divcrfe wayes :fome anfwer them fimply as redeemers, 
fome as furcties. He that anfwers them afe.a furetie, muft -paj the 
'• ^ * fame fummeof money that the debtor owsth. Now Ghrift is npt 
• >®nJy our Mediatour, but qur fqrctic, H^^.7. a 2. and hence tbc me- 

MrhowheistheMediatouroftheNcwTeHament, ^ 281 

diation of Chrift is called a propitiation. Rom.^, 55. i^o&, 2, 2. 
and the furety is of debt and j^fticc to make full fatisfadion, be* 
caufc he hath voluntarily promiTed it, and God the Father did in 
juftice exad it.i?<?«».3.a4,3 5.and 8.32. 

Inthsfufeingscf Chrift we muft confider tlie circumftanccs, 
and fubftance of his fuffiring?. The circumftances, as the perfon 
of the fuffjrer, the caufe of ftifftring, and efficacy of the pallion s 
in which refped it was more then the Law required: for the Law 
did not require that God (hould die, nor that ^ny one lliould die 
that had not finned, nor fuch a death, and of fuch efficacie, as noc 
only to aboli(h death, but to bring in life, and that by many de- 
grees niorc excellent then that which <iAdam bad loft : but if wc 
relped the fubftance of punifbmenf, it was that which the Law 
required, which he paid of love free and voluntary, and yet of 
juftice. Juftice requireth the fame fumme of debt, the dig- 
nity of Chrifts perlbn nothing hindering: and according to 
juftice Chrift made fatisfadioh. As concerning th§ fabftancc 
of puniftiment, Chrift fuffered what was due to us, but in 
the circumftances , which pertained not to the fubftance of 
the debt, fome thing was pardoned, to the dignity of the 
perfon. In this ftands the \iignity of Chrifts perfon , that he 
might befit msritorioufly to pay our debt, fo farre was it from 
freeing or acquitting him fur any part of our debt. He that k»e-^ 
mjtnne, '^as made ji?me fir tis, 2 Cor. '$,2 1 . Surely he hath born our 
griefis, and carried our firr owes. /Jai.$^.'^. When the Scripture 
fpeakes-fo fully, why fhould humane curiofity limit the fufferings 
of Chrift, as if they Were-not fully fatisfadory, but by divine ac- 
ceptilation only? Chrift fufEjred not every particular punifhment 
that every particular finner meeteth withall : but his paflion was 
a common price payed at once for all his people, fatisfy ing juftice 
for all their offences, i^ff»»- $>i9' ^^^' lo* i4' Rom,S.$^. He lore 
ourjtnnes in his body upon the tree, i Tet.2,2^. We are redeemed by 
hisbloud. Eph.j'J' Thehloud ofChr'iH cleanfeth tu from alljtme, 
ifoh,i,6, Phil.i.S, CqL 1.20. He hath made peace by the blond^mfaA 
of the crojfe, ltiik,Ravsnfi 

Touching the puniihments which Chrift fuffered, they were ^Sf' 
not ordinary, but beyond meafure grievous, bitter and unfupporta- ExamfuEc^ 
ble; yea, fuch as would have made any meere creature to finke Thefameffigiu 
down under the burthen of themtothebottomeof hell. VothC' mm Sahbath 

O • fufftred 

2 gj How Christ hat bful filled the office ofudUtour, 

fufercd grievous things from all the things in heaven, earth and 
hsll. He luff red at the hands of God his Father, and of men ; 
6f J ewesj of Gentiles, of enemies inftilting, of friends forfaking, 
of the Prince of darknc(Ve, and all his crueil and mercilcflTc inftrul 

ments. But whereas of the punifhments of finne, fomc be finnes 
and puniQimenis both , others puniihments only : and fomc 
common to the nature of man, others perfonall growing out 
of fome imperfeftion and defcd in the vertue and faculty for- 
ming the body, diforder in ^\tt, or fomc violence offered : and 
fome for finne inherent, others for finne imputed ; Our Saviour 
Chrift fuffered the punifhments that are only punifliments, and 
not finne, common to the whole nature of man, not perfonall to 
tliis or that man ; the punifhments of the iinnes of other men,not 
his own, and that of them that fliould breake o3- their fins by rc- 
pentancc,notofthcm that would fin forever, if they might live 
for ever. The whole life of our Saviour was a life of fuffering^ 
but his fpeciall fuff-rings were thofe he endured in the Garden,or 
upon the croffe. In the Garden be was in an agony : upon the 
crcfTehe was prcflfed with the weight of grievous and unfiippor- 
table evils. His agony was that forrow, wherein bis foule was 
befet round with heavineffe and feare even unto death. Thus the 
Matta^.|7j Evangelifts defcribe it, He be^an to be prr or» full, and. ver j heavj. 
38. Then faith he to them, {cil. Peter, fames and foh», (JKy Joftlu exceem 
ding i^rvovsifullye'iien unto death. He began to be 0re ama^d, and to 
MaM4.? 2 ? ^^ "^^^y ^^^'^y» ^^^(^i(h unto them, ^^My foule is exceeding (orrorvfull 
Ji>\x,it*%7, finto death, Tsfjvffi^ nty jo^ul troubled. His foul was fmittcn with 

horrour, that all powers and faculties for a time left their proper 
fundion?, and did concurre to relieve nature in that extremity; as 
when a man hath received fomc gaOily wound, the bloud doth at 
fir ft retire to comfort the heart. But thisftay came not from any 
internall defed, which had been (infull , but from an external! 
caufe,to wit,the horrour which fell upon him,as the wheclesofa 
Watch may eeafe from motion without any fault in them, when 
they are (tayed by the hand of the Artificer. He feared alio the 
ftrokc of the jufticeofGod his Father, fitting on the Tribunall or 
Judgement feat, to punifli the fins of men, for whomhcftood 
fonh to anfwcrj this he feared, as a thing impoflible to be cfca- 
pe-d, in refpc<3: of the refolution and purpofe of God his Fathcfj 
^hat by his ^ti^fa^ory dcatbj and no other way, man (hould be 

orhowheistheMediatouroftheKewTeB^mem, 283 

delivered. And be declined everlafting deftf lidlion, as a thing he 
knew he ftiould efcape without all doubt or unccrtaintie of 
event, though not without confliding with the temptations 
of Sathan i and the enduring' ^f ' many grievous and bitter 

Tncfc paflions in Chrift were mofl: pure, becaufe he himfclfe 
was moft free f rom all taint of fin, as if you put clcare waterinto a 
clcarc glafl'e,though you rhakc and ftirre it never foiTinch, it will 
raife no mud. 

The cflcds of this agony were two • Earneft prayer and 
bloudie fweat. Being m an agony he frajsi mote fsrvemly. He *, ^ , 
JeS oh his JAce and grayed: He prayed thrice the fame words, Jp 
my Father i ifkbefojjilfley let thli cup pajfe from me: nevertherejje. Matt. 15.39. 
ftot as I ^illf bm M ihoH "^ilt. As the lenle of nature and inf criour 
reafki prefented death, and the ignominy of the crcfl'e unto him, 
as they are in themfclvcs evill, without the ccnfideration otany 
good to follow, he dcfired to decline them. But as fuperiour rea,- 
fon confidercd them with all circumftances, knowing Gods refo- 
lution to be fuch, that the world ftiould thereby be favcd, and by 
no other meanes, he moft willingly accepted of them. Between 
thefe defires there was a diverfity, but no contrariety : a fubordi- 
nation,butno repugnance or refiftancc. Confider Chrift in pri- 
vate's a man,of the fame naturall affedions, defires and abhorren- 
cies with other msn, and the cup as it was very bitter and grie- 
vous, and fo moft juftly he feared and declined it, and could not 
but decline it, unlefle he bad put off the nature andaffedion of 
man : But confider him in his publike relation, as a Mediatour, a 
furetie, a mercifull and faithful! high Prieft,and (b he moft wil- 
lingly and obediently fubmitted unto it. And this willingneflTc 
in refpcd of his office was much the greater, and the comfort wc 
may draw from thence the fweeter, becaufe in refpedl of nature, 
his will could not but ftirinke for it. If nature had not necefiarily 
fhrunke, fweat ftartled, and ftood amazed at that.fervice, Chrift 
had not manifefted fo much love and free fubmiffion to the com- 
mand of grace, nor could we have had fo much comfortable alTu- 
ranceofthe truth of our redemption thereby: for it is impdffiblc 
the nature of man fhould conflid; with the terrible wrath of God, 
and not dread and tremble. The Apoftle faith, Chrtfi inthedayes of 
hiifejh, cjfered ftp prayers and fupplicat ions y "With firon^ crying and H«bv5^f» 

Oo 2 . teares. 

284. Hew Chrift hat hfulf lied the office cfMcdiatour, 

teaveSi and^'o^ heard in tiie thin^ he fiared. In theNewTcfia- - 
- ment the word fignifietb rever-cnce, Luke 2. 25. y^^.2.5, and 
8.2. Hf^.!2.i8,or circumfpcd caution joyned with feare, H^^, 
11.7.^^(^,23,10. but feare isnioftfit to this place, as it figni- 
fietb commonly in good Authoursj and by the phrafe it fdfc may 
be confirmed : for he was heard from bis fearejas he was delive- 
red firom death. 

The fecondeffec?: of this Agonie was a blcudie fweat. Ina- 
cold nightj when our Saviour lay upon the ground, in the open 
airs,no man being ncere unto him, no violence offered unto his 
bQdyj.,he did fwcat clotted bloud, in fucb abundance, that it ftrea- 
aiiedthroughhisapparell,andwettheground. Never was there 
fweat like this fweat, nor anguifh of foul like this anguiftithat 
he then endured. Butthefe I may call the beginnings offorrow. 
Upon the croflc he uttered that dolefull complaint, c?% (y^^.wj» 
Mauh.i^" god,Vphy haB thm firfaken me ? He complaineth not that his hea- 
venly Father had forfaken his, but him. Formerly he had wept 
loh^iTv over Jerufakm, and commended his Difciples unto tlie cuftody 

■ * of his Father, being sffjred they rhoDld be gathered, though, for 

the time difper fed. But the caufe of this lamentation was, that 
being now in the hands of his cruel!, bloudy, mercikiVe enemies^ 
left to endure the extremity of their rags and fury, his Father for 
a. time withdrew from him that fclace he was wont to find in 
him. The unity of his perfon was never diffolvcd, his righteout- 
neffe or graces were never cither taken away or diminifhed : nei- 
ther is it poHible he (bould want aflurance of fururs deliverance 
^nd prefsnt fupport : but for a time the Father did with-draw the 
fenfe of favour and comfort^, that his humane nature might fuff^p 
• what our finnesdeferved.. This dereliction v;as altogether with- 

out fin; becaufeChrillcur Saviour brought it not upop^imfeifej 
but was calk d unto it,. agd in tbe confit^ his faith was moft firm, 
' not fhakenwithany degree ofunbelief: in which c^ies only the 
"w ant ©f comfort is a fault,y^<7. when WS; bring it upon our felves, 
Qr (lain it with infidelity. 

It is here objeded, that sn innocent perfon ought not to fuffef 

for a nocent, for guilt is infeparable from fin 3 The fonne pidl not 

bean the iniquity of hi^ Father , neither Jhall the Father heare the ini- 

^uit}.ofthefin,thefiulthatJtnneth the fame Jhall die, S^ek^l^^io-, 

■ Eor the clearing of this obje^ioiJsVve muft note^that there is a 

crhovsfhcis theMedtatouroftheNcwTeHament, . sSj 

two-fold manner of guilt, either fuch as groives out of Cm- inhe- 
rent, which is the deferving of punirhmeiit,as it is in us : or fuch 
as growes out of (in iraputed,and that not hy reafon of union natu- 
rail • as the guilt ci Adams fin is imputed unto us (which man- 
ner of ioiputatipn like wife is thi Foundation of punidiJnent defer* 
ved) but voluntary by way of vadiosonieand fufception. 4"^ ^ 
euik is only a fircc and willing obnosioufneife, unto that punifli- 
ir.ent which another hath defcrved. In an ordinary ccutle of 
providence it is true, the fonns lliali noj bearg the punifninent of 
jhe Fathers fin; becaufe he is altogether perfc-nnliy diftina:, he is 
not appointed fo to doCjas ChrilV was,he is not able to bear them 
fo^s to take them off from his Father, as Chrift did ours, and al- 
ready hath too many of his own to beare : but this was no natu- 
rallorunchangeableLaw, and if the will of the Sonne go along : 
with the Fatherin finning, it is not (lrange,not unufuall for hiai 
to fuff^r for his Fathers and his own fin together, as for the conti- 
nuation of: the fame ouencc. Mors particularly for refoiution of 
the qiiciHon; whether aninnoccntpsrfon may fuller for theguil-^ 
ty, we muft note, firll that God out of his doii^inicn over all 
thinf^s, may cad paines upon an innocent perfon, ss it is msnifeft 
he dfd upon ChriO:, who fafE.-red moft grievous things^ and death 
it felfe ; And what ground of complaint could any creature have 
againft God,if he fliculd have created it in fire,and made the place 
of its habitation,the indrument of its pain ? Do not we our fclves^ 
without cruelty, upon many, occa'ions put creatures that have not' 
ofF-nded us, unto pain ?. 

Secondiyj.itisnotuniverfally againfl: equity for one to fuffiC 
the punifi^rnent of anothers fin : Wc fee the Infants of Sodome, 
Babylon, Egypt, oi C''^<!ih,1>athmtZn^ Ablramy were involved 
inthepuniiiiQient of thofc fins of which themfclvcs were not 
guilty. The Lord refer veth to hirafelfc the puniilimsnt of the 
Fathers upon the children. SxQd,^Oi%. and 34.7. He punirhed. 
the finnesofthrse hundred and ninetieyeares all together. Ezsk^, Lam.^-yj 
4. ^> 5, ^'^^«ii commit ted the finne, and yet Canaan was curfecl 
forit,^««.p.2 2,25.Thefin was.^«f^^^?'s alone, and yet tlic Lc:- 
profie cleaved not to him only, but to his pofterity. 2 JCiW.j.a^. 
For the fin.of ^^«/, his fons are hanged up before the Lord . 2 Sdm, 
^1,2^1^, Achan trefpaffed alcn?,but hepsriflicd not alone, but his. 
fqns and his dau§htcrs>and all that he had with him. foj^, 7. ^4- 

Go .^5 Xhs 

t Safn.ii^ 


^AClus cui pxna 
inejt^eji aCfus 
oranihuii nee in 
-^omnss concejfuu 
^are utpcena 
fitjufia, requu 
tritur ut a6iiii 
ipfeposmlh fit 
in poiefiatepu- 
tmthgitj aut 
entUj autjufio 
O* 'valido cm- 
■fenju ejus de 
cujm poena 
4em ddi^Q, 

Hm ChriH hMh fulfilled the office ofMedUtom, 

— - - ■ ■ ■ ■ "" I 

The fin of crucifying Chrift was tha fia of the Jewes in that age 
alone, and yet wrath is come upon them to the uttcrmofr, even 
unto this day, Matih. 27.25. i Thef, 2, 1 6. vU, l Kin^, 21,21. ?»i^.9.56. 1 /Cj«^.2. 33.^^^22.30. And if it be not 
unjuft to puni(h one for anothers fault, and grant impunity to the 
ofiendonr , it is no£ unjufi: to punlfli the innocent for thofc 
faultSjWhich are remitted to the guilty, 2 King»% g^io. i King^^ 
21.21. For it is eflsntiall to punifliment that it fhould be 
infiided for finne,but not that it Should be inflii^ed upon him that 
liath offended. 

Thirdly, that an innocent perfon may thus in fufticc and equi- 
ty fufi^r for a nocent, there is required fbefidcs the a6ls of ordina- 
tion in the fapreme, of fubmiflion in the furetic, and of confent in 
the delinquent) firft, an intimate and ncere conjundicn in hiai 
that fuffcreth,with thofe that (hould have fuffcred. Several! unions 
and conjuniflions there are, as Politicke between the members 
and fubjcds in a ftate : and thus the people were punillied for 
DavidsCm, 2 Sam,2^.i^iiy, and in a common-wealth univer- 
fally finfuil, a few righteous men may as parts of that finfull focie- 
ty be juftly fubjedto thofe temporary evils,which the fins of that 
fociety have contraifled. See i Sam. 12,2^. Natural), as between 
parents and children, fo the Lord vifited the fins of Datha-zi upon 
his little ones. Numi/. 16. 27^33. Valer,'Max. de T)ion, Skulo, 
Plutarch, defer A Num*v'mdi^,Myi\icsi\\iSiS between man and wife, 
ib the Lord punifhed the fins of ^/»^^/^^ the Prieft of Bethel, by 
giving over his wife unto whoredome, Amos 7. 1 7. And we fee 
in many cafes the Husband is liable to be charged and cenfured for 
the exorbitancies of his wife. Stipulatorie and by confent, as in 
the cafe offidejujfores & ohjidej^vtho are punifiied for the fins of 
otherswhomthey reprefcnt, and in whofe place theyftandas a 
caution and muniment againfl in/uries which might be feared, as 
we fee in the Parableof aPrifoner committed to the cuftody of 
another perfon. i JC/w^. 20. 35^,42. Sothefurety is punifiied for 
the debtor. Poirwfibric,as between a man and his goods,and fo wc 
find that a man was to off^r no beaft for a fin-offering , but that 
which w3shisown.Xf'^.5.6,7* Befides, there is required in the 
innocent perfon fuffering, that he have a free and full dominion 
over that from which he parteth, in his fuffsring for another. As 
>, a man hath free dominion over bis moncy^ and thcr- 


er hew he kthe MtdUmtr GftheMewTeHamem, 287 

fore in that re fpcd he may engage himfelf to pay another mans 
debt ; but he hath not a free donainion over himfelf, or his own 
iife i and therefore he tnay not part with a member of his own in 
commutation,for another s, (as Zakucui did for his fbnne) nor be 
(wt'iKMy^ ^\o\vj down his own life for the delivering of ano- 
ther from death, except in fuch cafes as the Wordof Godlimi- 
teth and allowetb. Now all thefe things hold in Ghrift in a fpe- 
ciall manner. There is a moft neere conjun(Slion between him 
andns. Heconverfcd amongft men, and was a member of that 
Tribe and Society amongft whom he livcd,and therefore was to- 
gether with them under that Romane yoke which was then upon 
the people,and in that relation paid tribute unto Gefw: He had 
the nature of man, and was fubjeifl to all humane and naturall in- 
firmities without finnc. He was myftically married unto his 
Church, and therefore was anfwersblc for the debts and mifde»- 
mcanours o^ his Church. He entred into Covenant, and became 
furety for m3n,and therefore was liable to mans engagements. He 
became the polTeffion in feme fort of his Church,whence it is that 
we are faid to have him. i }oh.$,i 2»not By way of dominion (for 
fowearehis.i;^or.6.ip,)but by way cf communion and pro- 
priety. He was Lordof his own life, and had tberefcre power to 
lay it down, and to take it up. And this power be had (though 
he were in all points fubjfd to the Law as We arc) not folcly by 
vcrtue of the by poftaticall union, which did not for the time . 
exempt him from any obligations of the Law, but by vertue of a 
particular command, conftitution, and defignation to that lervicc 
of laying down his life. Tb^ commandement have- Incewedofmy- 
leather, foh. IQ.18. Moreover, he had power ample enough to 
hreake thorough the fufF;rings he undertooke, and to allarac his 
life, and former condition again. Ihavefowtrto Uj it dovi>n,a»i- 
I have power to uke it up. And therefore it was moft juft and 
righteous, that Chrift m himfelf innocent, fhould fuffjr tor us in 
our felves guilty, which doth more plainly appeare, in that all. 
parties are glorified, and all parties are willing and wcli-pleafed,. 
All parties arc glorified i The Father is glorified in the obedience 
«^his Sonne.^fl^. 1 2.27,3 S.^tf^^ 17.4. the Sonne is glorified by 
the Father. 70^.17,5. H<f^. 2.7. crowned with glory: and the 
finner glorified, being received into favour. Joh.i 7.24. All parties 
arc wiliings the Father is wiliiog, for by his ^Ordination he ap- 

a88 How Ghrifi hath ftdfiiledthe office of Mediamr^ 

pointed Chrift unto it. ^(^.4.27,28, and in his love and com-i 
paffion beftowed Chrift upon us. Job. 3, 16. by his, divine sc- 
cepcation be reRed well plcafed in it. Mattkiy*^, and by his 
wonderfull wifdome fitted it to the manifeftation of his glory 
and mercy, to the reconciliation of him and his creature, and to 
the exakation of his Sonne. The Sonne is willing, hechearcfuJi 
ly fubmitted unto it. H^^.io.p. and freely loved us, and gave 
himfelfuntous. ^4/.2.2o, The (inner is willing, and accepteth 
and relieth upon it. Theiummeofallisthis, By the moft wife, 
jufl:,andniercifull wiliofGod, byhis-owne moft obedient and 
voluntary fufception, Chrift Jefus, being one with us in acjani- 
foid and moft fecret union, and having full power to lay downe, 
and to take up his life again, by fpeciall xrommand and allow- 
ance of hisTather given him, did moft juftly, without in/ury to 
iiimfeif, or diftionour to or injuFtice-in his Father, fufftr the pu- 
niftiment of their fins, with whom he had fo neere an union, and 
V/ho could not themfelves have fuffcred them with obedience in 
their own perfbris, or with fo much glory to Gods ;ufti<ie, mercy 
and wifdcme. And though the wrll of God being ever;uft, is 
to us a fufficient csufe of what God willeth,and the reafon there- 
of be to us unf ear chable : yet in this matter we can a/figne juft 
snd weighty reafons of this will of God out of the Scriptures. 
God will not execute the fevcrity pfhis Law,bccaufe he is mcrci- 
fulljilow to anger, and ready to forgive. His free and everlafting 
love, and infinite delight which he hath in mercy, difpofcth 
him aboundantly to pardon V and exercife loving kindncfle, in 
the earth. £xod,^^,y, iMicha j,i8. lonah ^,2, 2 C^roft.^o,^, 
TfalS6*^.S,lfai.^$.y. /(?r.p.24. and 31.20. Luke 6.^6, 
Xtfw.2.4. AndiftheLord lliould utterly deftroy all men, there 
fhould be no Religion upon earth , as man fbould everlaftingly 
loofe the fruition of God, fo he ftiould like wife k)ofethc volun* 
tary fervice and fubjedion of his creature ; lohn 15 .8. Ezek^ 
13.11. For thefe reafons God purpofed nbt utterly to caft 
cnan off, and poure upon him deferved vengeance : but withall 
be purpofed not to let finne goe unrevenged, and that for \\\^iQ 

Firft, becaufe of his great hatred thereunto. He isx)f purer eyes 
then to behold evill, he cannot looke on iniquity, HaLi,t^. it 
^rovoketh abhorrency in him, Pfd,^.6, Z4ch.d,ij, ^ev.^,t6. 


or hew he is the Mediator efthe Kew Telimem. 2 5y 

oAmos 5.21,22. 7/4.1.17,14. And what is more convenient then 

to tcftifie how much finne is difpleafing unto him, which isdone 

moft conveniently by punifhtnent, £;v*^ 32.10,1 1.* 

& 16, 12. foh,^.^6. Impunity hath this in it, that it makes that 

Cmnss belcfl^ efteemed ;as fcare of puniflimcnt is a ready way 

tokccpemeninawe. They that have written of the relaxation of Proxma/uM 

La wes doc note, that thofe relaxations arcbeft, to which fomc idem ac tmtm-> 

commutation or recompence is annexed : becaufe by that meancs dm, 

the authority of the Law is preferved, and obedience given to that 

rcafon, which was the caufe of the Law. 

And hence we may gather a fecond rcafon, why God would 
not pardon (inne without fatisfadion, fc. his truth and the Law 
which he had eftablidied againft (Inne, which he will in no wife 
aboliih : one jot or title Jhall in no wife pa^efiom the L<w^ till all befnl» 
filled, LMatth.$.iS.- For it is. altogerher^ndecent, cfpecially to 
the wifedomeandrighteoufnefliofGod, that that which provo- 
keth the ej^cution, ^ould procure the abrogation of his La wes, 
that thst (Thould fupplantand undermine the Law, for the alone 
preventing whereof the Law was before eftablifhed. 

Alfo God will have men alwayes to tremble b^rchim,and by 
his terror to be perfwaded from (inntng,2 Cor.$.i o, it .and there- 
fore he tcfervcth to himfelfe entire the puniftiment of fin,that men 
might alwayes feace before him, Mattkio.iS, Z»;^. 12.4. The 
omiffionofpHnifhment after the publication of the Law, doth de- 
tract fomewhat from the authority of the Law, with the fub/efts : 
God therefore willing to (hew mercy tothe creature fallen, and 
with all to maintaine the authority of his Law, tooke fuch a courfc 
as might bcft manifeft his clemency and feverity, his hatred of fio', 
caretoftablifli the Law, and tender companion towards them 
that had gone aftray. And hereby the love of God towards them • 
that are fpared is the more illuftrious, that he fJDarcd them, who 
rather then he would not puniih finne, would give his only be- 
gotten Sonne to die for finne. 

It is objedcd againe, that God doth freely remit and pardon 
finne,thcrefbre he willed not that Chrift (hould make fatisfaftion: 
becaufe free remifilon will not ft and with fatisfaftion. And mo^ 
fure it is,that God is favourable to our iniquities, ler, 31.34. but 
God hath fet forth Chrift to be a propitiation through faith in his 
bloud.i^<'w.3. a 5.-^<^.io.43.Z-/^^i .^8,^9,70. 

rp There 


Hew chrlft hath fdfiUed the opeeofMediatouri 

HemiJfiQ eft ah 

CreditQr (ibi fd' 


tsjn qua Vs- 
hior obligation 
ne dehitlfilvi^ 
£iione aliunit 


Gen. 3^ 1 7. 

There is a cwoFoldpaimentof debt : one of the thing altoge- 
ther the fame, which was in obligation, and this »"^/o/*i^(? freeth 
from punifnment, whecher it be paid by the debtour himfclfe, or 
by the furety. Another of a thing not altogether the fame, which 
is in the obligation, fo that fome &d of the Creditour or Gov^ernor 
mull come unto it, which is called remiilion : in which cafe deli- 
verance doth not follow ij^fofaBo upon the fatisfadlion. And of 
this kind is the fatishdion of Chrift s for in the rigour of the Law, 
the delinquent himfelfe is in perfon to fuffer the penalty denoun- 
cedt. Every man Jljall beare his owne burthen, GaL6.'^, In the 
day that thoH eateft thereof, thou Jhalt die the death. So that the 
Law in the rigour thereof, doth not admit of any commutation,oE 
fubftitution of one for another. And therefare,' that another per- 
fon fuffering may procure a difchargeto thg perfon guilty, and be 
valid to free him, the will, confent and mercy ef him to whom 
theinfliflionofthepunidim.entbeloDgeth, muft concurre, which 
^'m falvlt loc in refped of the debtour is remilHon ; and his over-ruling power 
S/2c debet, ut Kiuft difpence, though not with the fubftance of the Lawes de- 
mands, yet with the manner of execution, which in refped: of the 
Law is called relaxation. Rem illion therefore is not repugnant to 
antecedent fatisfadion : but only to that paiment of the thing due, 
which ipfofaBo doth deliver and fet free. 

It.may be added that of grace Chrift was ordained to be our 
forety, that at the commandment of grace he made fatisfacftion, 
and that His mind and will in fatisfying was, that grace might 
juftly glorifie her felfe in pardoning oSences^ and not that pardoa 
ihould be given of juftice. And to the fatisf adion of Chrift is full 
?ind perfed, ar^d our pardon is every way free and gracious. And 
feeing every one may impofe a Law to the ad depending upon his 
own free will and plea(ure, he that prayeth for another, and- he 
chat admitteth the paiment of one thing for another, may cove- 
nant, that remi0ion ibail follow prelently, or after a certains 
dii,qtiO£}[atufa- time, purely or upon condition. And thisvvas the will and plea- 
§tiorttmtalsin fure of Chrift making fatisfadion, and of God admitting fatisfa- 
dion^ and this the Co venant,. that God {hould pardon (in, not 
preiently in the very time of Chrifts paflion, but when man is tur- 
ned unto God by true faith in Chrift, humbly intreating pardon. 
Tp forgive fin, is not oppofite to the accepting of that iatisfadion 

debitor libere' 

Rom. |, 14. 

Market nihi(0' 
miKtd grattiita 
^ei gratia. 
jt. BationedC' 
sreti gratmti. 
■ 2. Ratione d&ni 
gratuUii & 
^. Ratione ap ■ 
iuitis.-quod tale 
covjtliiim iuve- 
?iit quol tale 
fiieMum di' 

a J. Epfc^4=?i. 


%. qgi.% 2^1 0. which is freely ad^kte<i, . when it might be refund, and to which 

w hm he 'a the Mediatonr of the New TeUamem, 291 

he upon whom the benefic undue is conferred, doth conferre 

, Itisfurtherobjeded,thatChrifl:fatisfiedno£;uftice fully, bat 
by divine acceptiUcion only-; becaufe he fuSered but for a timcj, 
whereas we deferved to die eternally. 

Sundry anfwdrs are made to this doubt. Some fay his fuffering 
for a time was more then if all man-kind had fufFered eternally, in 
afpeft of the excellency of his perfon. But the worth and excel- 
lency of his perfon, was neither to difpence with time, nor grie- 
voufneffeofhispunidiments, butto make the pafiion of one a- 
vaileable for many. Ocherwife if it might have dKpenfed with 
one degree of extremity of punifhmenc due to fin,it might alfo have 
difpenled with two, and coofequen tly with all. 

Others antwer, that the puniQiments of fin eternally remai- 
ning, muft according to the rules of divine juftice, be eternall : but 
it is no way neceffary, neither doth the juftice of God require,thaC 
the punilliments of fin repented of, ceafing and forfaken, fhouli 
be everlafting. For as Divines note, there are three things to bs 
confiiered in fin • the averfion from an infinite and incommutable 
good ; the inordinate converfion to a finite good, and the conti- 
nuing in the fame, or ceafing from it ; and to chefe feverali things 
in fin, there are three feverali things ant wering in the punifiimenc 
of it. For to the averfion, which is objedively infinite, there an" 
fwereth the loffe of God, which is an infinite lofie. To the inor- 
dinate converfion of thefinner to things tranfitory, there anfwe- 
reth a fenfible fmart and griefe intenfively finite, as the pleafure 
the finner taketh in the tranfitory things he inordinately loveth 
is finite. To the eternity of fin remaining everlaftingly in ftaine 
or guile, or continuance of it for a time, anfwereth the eternity of 
punifiiment, or the fuffering of the fame, but for a time. Now, 
our Saviour Chrift fuifered only for thofe fins , which he meant to 
brcake off by framing the finners to repentance, and therfore it was 
no way neceffary for the fatisfying of divine juftice, that he (hould 
endure eternall punifiiment. 

A third anfwer is, that Chrift fuffered for a time, becaufe he 
fuffered to fatisfie, and fo to overcome upon the crofle, he trium- 
phed meritorioufly over principalities and powers, therefore his 
fufterings could not continue for ever, but muft have an end. Foe 
in fuifcring he had not fatisfied juftice, nor conquered ?he enemies 

P p a of 


2 p^ Bm Chrisi katbfulfHed tkeeffice ofMcdmm', 

pfour falvation, if he had lien under tke punift^ment pf our fins e- 
^ ternally. Buc this fheWech the reafon why Chrift fuflFcred but 
for a time , rather then how his iuffering for a time could (a- 
tishe the juftice of God for ever , which had deferved eiernaU 

The fourth anfwer is more full and free from excepti©n> that 
Chrift buffered but for a time, becaufe it was impoflible he fliould 
_ be held under of the lorrows of death, nA^* 2. 24. The wicked 

fuffer eternally, "becaufe they being cafl under the curfe, they can- 
not deliver themfelves, and juftice will not fet them free : but 
Chrift in fuffiring did overcome, and delivered himlelfe, fo thac 
his fufferings continued but for a time. In kind his fufterings were 
clar&im To ^^^ ^^"^^ ^^^^ thofe, which in us (liould have continued for ever,, 
zj.^,cap.ii. ' although they did not continue : wherefore ? becaufe they had an 
$«4?.4. ' ' end not of themfelves, or their owne nature, but of the power of 
Chrift .He overcame thofc puniftimencs which had been altogether 
eternall, if he could not have overcome. 

Laftly, it is objeded, that if God did elecH: and choofe fome 
men to grace and glory in and through Jefus Chrift, Chrift needed 
Sji»odal.T)ord. not, nor yet could make fatisfadion for them j for in as much as 
Mbi/upra, jj^y ^^j.g beloved of God, we cannot conceive how fatisfadion 

fkould be needfuU or coiild be made for them. Thus fome difpute 
with great confidence, but little ftrength. For this Propofition, 
God. ioveth whom he hath chofen, or to chufe is to love, doth ad- 
mit a double fence : one this, whom God doth eled, them he Io- 
veth, or willeth well unto them, in time to make them aduall 
lU't tu ' heires of grace and glory in Jefus Chrift, and thus it is moft true> 
famlnnraml aod doth not ex^clude, but inferre tke neceffity of fatisfa(flion ; a- 
MT>cinezant nother f^iice may be, that whom God doth eled, them he dotfa 
meritumchrU love as made acftuallheiresof grace and glory by the influence of 
^i & efeSiim h^ iove, and in this, it fhould exclude the necelfity of fatisf adion, 
^leOtom tUad ^ ^^ ^j. - ^^ ^^ admitted.. It is not abfurd to fay, the eled 
m'Dewipnat ai?e m grace witft God m reipect or ordination or appointmeHt; 
homines eie- but after are brought into grace by Chrift in refped of the acfluali 
gf^e, poftea fie ctmation and communication. When Chrift is faid to reconcile us 
abfoluteete£fu^ untoGod, the meaning i& not, that God did then firft begin to 
mmuSm lov^» or Will well unto us^ as ifhe did hate and will to damne us, 
%A}fe dicatm. before I for then we muft admit a proper change in the purpofe 
^%m.^^9% ^4 ^t^^^^l^ WiU 0^ Gp'i F^S^^^^^i f?^^ !5 ottemail caufe^ 


or hew he is the Uedmour oftheNewTeBarmm, ^pz 

which is contrary both to Scripture and found reafon i butwhereas 
formerly we lay under wrath deferved by fin, now we are recei- 
ved into favour and f riendihip with God. For reconciliation is a 
tranfient ad, done in time, which inferrs a change in the creature 
reconciled, a change of ftate, not of qualities, and folio wes the 
obedience of Chrift, as the effed the caufe, and which God impar- 
teth to believers. Reconciliation, as the Scripture fpeaks of it, 
imports not any change in God, nor the externall good will or 
love of God, which remains in himfelfe, and woriieth not any 
change in the creature : but a blefling granted taus in time, that 
we who were the children of wtath by nature, fliould be the Sons 
6t God by grace ; we who were enemies, and hated in refped of 
theeffeds of wrath, and defertof (in, {hould be made friends and 
deare to God , the enmity being taken away by the bioud of 
Chrift. And from hence we may learne how the new Covenant 
in many things hath the prerogative above the old. For wherein 
vl^o/>j mediated it was by the power of Chrift, but Chrift was 
that one Mediatour, who mediated from his owne authority and 
immediate power. Mofes was called by God and the people, but 
an imperted Mediatour, as not a right middle perfon : but Chrift 
was a fit middle perfon both God and man, partaking the nature 
both of the offending and offendedparty, and fo a. middle perlbn 
not only in office, but in nature, willmg and fitting to mediate. 
ji^afesby reafon of his weai^nelfe, was neither powerfuU wiih. ^ 
God nor yet fully compafliona te and powerfuU with the people i - 
But Chrift was man for the whole body of his brethren to prevailc 
for them: and man with his brethren, to be fully fenlibie. and 
compaffio"*^^* ^^^' ^' ^7* Againe, he was man with . Qod. tp 
prefent a perfed ranfome or price of reconciliation : Md he was 
God with man to bow them fufticiently to acc^^pt the reconcilia- 
tion offered. Mofes ftood in need t© mediate ht hhnlelfe, as for 
the people: butChrift having no controverfie for liimfelfe, me-~ 
diated only for the people, and hath perfeded, whsvin Mofes 
wanted. For he fully bowes and circumcifeth ihe hearts of his 
brethren tofeekeatjtonement and to walke futably ; He doth re- 
move the guilt of fin fully from the confcience of the offendingbre- 
thren, Htf^.9.14,15. He is potent with God to fatisfie revenging Gal.3.ij,i.«^ 
juftice by prefenting his bloud to remoye the curfe of the Law, that 
ifeofe which are called might receive the ioheritaoce. He alon^. 
- — - ? P ? h.a£fe 

3^4 Itd:vChrifi hMh fulfilled the office 9fMcdiauari 

hath in his owne perfon performed obedience to the broken Law of 
God, and fulfilled all righteoufneffe : and by his croffe hath can- 
ceiled the hand' writing that was againft us, and broken downe the 
partition, and flayed hatred and x^mity betwixt the brethren, 
£phef.2.i^,i$. But of this more hereafter. The Fathers recei- 

ee5,n,i5,E4, ygj j^Q^ jl^g promiles, but faw them afarre off, and were perfwa- 
ded of them, and {aluted them with great fweetnefle : but under 
the new Covenant we have recived the promife, God hath fent 
his Son into the world, borne of a woman, and made under the 

Gal 4.4^^ Law, and openly manifefted him to be the Son of God. And if 
the appearing of Chrift God and man, did adde much to the joy 
and comfort ofthe Saints in glory : the manifefcation of Chrift in 
the flefh mufl: adde to the faith and comfort of them, that waited 
forthefalvationoflfrael. Thelncarnationof Chrift was the day 
of his Coronation, and of his eipoufals, wherein in fpeciall man- 

^ant,3.if. nerhecontraded him unto his Church. Goe firth, O ye daugh-' 
tersofZlon^ and behold King Salomon ^ith the cr owne Vphere- 
mih hii mother crowned him in the day of his e^oufalSy and in the 
dayofthegladneffe of heart. The Fathers cxpe<5led deliverance 
from the curfe of the Lav/, and to inherit the promifes in and 
through the Uiiejfiah : and the Sacrifices did prefigure, and Pro- 
phets foie-tell the death of the ^if//?<2^j but we may well thinke, 
the f aithf ull did not diftindlly underftand, how the Saviour pro- 
miled, was to fatisfie juftice, and by death to overcome him thac 
had the power of death. But in the new Teftament we learne ex- 
preftely, that Chriftis made of God unto us wifdome, righteouT- 
neife, fandification and redemption, bow he fatisfied juftice by 
one oblation of himfelfe, removed the curfe of the Law, deftroyed 
him that had the power of death, purchafed the promifed Spirit, 
4ind rarified all the promifes of the Covenant by his death and 
bloud-ftied, Hf ^.9. 1 5. 

Thirdly, He is entred into heaven, appeareth before the Father, 
and maketh requeft for. his people : unto which there is pre-requi- 
r^d a power and prevalencie over all his enemies, to breake through 
the guilt of fin, the curfe ofthe Law, and the chaines of death, 
with which it was impolfible that he fhould be held. And this 
ppwer of Chrift was ftiewed in his Refurredion, wherein he was 
declared to be the Son of God with power, Rom, i. 4» and in his 
afcenfion, wherein he led ^1 his CQcmies captives, Mfhef^, 8, and 

' / ' ' m 

or hop? he is the Mediato:ir of the New Tefiamem. 


in his flitting at the right hand of God, farre above all principalities 
and powers, Ephef.i.ip^io^ Allwhichdidmake way tothepre- 
fenting of his Sacrifice before the Mercy-featj which is the con- 
fummatioR of it, and without which he had not been a Prieft, PFe 
have (uch an high Prielt ( faith the Apoftle) as isfetdowne at the 
right hanA of the Maj9siie in the heavens, fir if he "^ere on eartfi 
hejhot^ldnot be a Priefi, feeing that there are Prielis'^hich offer 
gifts according to the Law, Heb. 8. i^^. Chriil our high Pried- 
having offer edlip him felfe ap expiatory Sacrifice once for all, by 
his divine power rofe againe*from the dead, and is entered into the 
very heavens, to appeare in the prefence of God for uSj Heb,^,t^i 
It was- the fan:ie continued adion, whereby the Prieft did offer 
without the holy place, and did then bring the bloud into the ho- 
lieftofall, Heki^.ii, Forthereafon why it was fhcd was to 
prefent it to the mercy-feat, and tofhewic unto the Lord there. 
So Chrills ad or olfice was not ended, nor fit to denominatehim a 
compleate Prieft, till he did enter with bloud and prefent his off ea- 
ring in the holiefl; of all not made with hands, HeL p. 24. And 
therefore he had not been a Prieft if he (hould hav^ continued on 
the earth, for there was another Prieft-hood there, which was not 
to give place but upon the accomplifKmenjvjef his ; for the whole 
figure was to pafle away when the whole truth w^as come. Now- 
Chrifts oblation was the truth prefigured in the Priefls facrificing 
of the beaft, and his entrance into heaven was the truth prefi'gured 
in the Priefts carrying of the bloud into the holieft of all. And there- 
fore both thefe v/ere to be accomplifli-ed, before the Leviticall 
Prieft-hood did give place. 

Some referre this to the oblation of Chrift, whereof they make 
two parts ; the one expiatory, when Chrift fuffered upon the 
crofle: the other prefentatory, u'hen he doth appeare in hcavai 
before God for us s the one of l^illing or fuffering, the other of o- 
ftenfion : the one finifhed on earth, when Chrift fuffered without 
the gate : becaufe as no fin, fo no punifhmem: can come within 
the holy place 1 the other performed in heaven, fatisfadion being 
firft made on earth. The firft was not a preparation of a Sacrifice^ 
but a Sacrifice : the latter was not fo much a Sacrifice, as the com- 
memoration of the Sacrifice made : for appearing- in heaven is not 
properly a facer do tall ad, unleffe it leane upon the vertue of the 
§3crificep?rfqrmcds. the firft was an ad of humiliation 5 the lat- 

Inchoiri. poteff 
ctrdotii ftmts 
typka Sactrds-r 
tio &perfe^(i 
iffe mnps^efi 
i/lo fiate.Obla^ 
terra pstftQif- 
fimaf lilt. fed 
ferfcflie/ie par-^ 
tis ?}o>iperjeiiL 

fsrre in terra^ 
QbUtiane manc». 
re in tsrr^ 
Heb,i.j,& 10- 

I Cer. 5,7, 


29^ Jim ChriBhMhfdfiUedthe offtce ofUeciimar, 

cerof glory ; chefirft perforaied once for all : the latter done con- 
tinuilly : that the expiatory Sacrifice or obtaining of redemption _: 
Slrecltr'^ this th2 application of redeoipaoa. The Sacrifice confifted in the 
tudinei^Re^am ^^^^^^^ Chnft alone, the application thereof is grounded upon 
& ludieumin- thrifts death as its merit, bat eff>;c1:ed by the life oi Chrift as its 
terhomifisf, ipi mediate caafe. Wiien the Apoftle faith, Chrift appeareth be- 
Ke^er enmfx- fore shs Father for us,the exprellion is borrowed from the cuftome 
deratt in/uii of j Courts ; for as in them when the Plaintive or Defen- 
bemt^zms * ^^^^ ^^ called, their Atturney appeareth in their name and behalfe: 
picuobfides, fo when We are fummoned by the juftice of God to defend our 
qui quiiadiu fdves againft thofe exceptions and complaints, which it preferreth 
■■■apparent in Re- againft US, We have an Advocate with the Father, even Jefus 
gu con^sSu, Chrift the righteous, who ftandeth out, and appeareth for us. 
firma fiat con-, j i^^^j j^ o j > rr 

It confifteth in two things ; Firft, his appearing or prefenting 
of his perfon In our nature and in his owne, as a publike perfon, a 
Mediatour, a fponior and pledge for us ; as fndah was both a Me- 
diatour to requeft, and a furety to engage himfelfe to beare the 
blame for ever with his Father for his brother Benjamin, Gen,^^, 
8,p. And Fattlioi Onefimm a Mediatour, / befeech thee for my 
(onneOneJlmus, Philem.p,lo. andaSponfor, If he hath "Pronged 
thee, or oweth thee ought, fut that on mine account, I ^ill repay 
it, ver. 1 8jip. So Chrift is both a Mediator and furety for us, Heh, 
7.22, and 8.^, 

Secondly, theprefentingofhismeritsasa publike fatisfaftion, 

for the debt of fin : for the juftice of God would not be entreated 

or pacified without fatisf^dion, now that is for ever, becaufc he 

{hall not ceafe to appeare. 

Heb,7.»T,z8. The InterceiHon of Chrift is his gracious will,f erven tly an^ im- 

Rotn 8,j4, moveably defiring, that for the perpetuall vertue of his Sacrifice, 

iHeb./.ay. all his members might be accepted of the Father, whereunto an- 

fwereth the confent of the Father, in whofe bolome he is, who 

heareth him alwaies, ^5^.11.41. andin whomheiswellpleafed, 

Mat.iy.^, who called him to this office of being as it were mafter 

of Requefts in the behalfe of his Church,and promifed to heare hin* 

ilom.8.34« ill his Petitions. 

.i[Joh.2.i.' Thislnterceflion of Chrift is generall and particular, for all and 

every faithfuUmin. I pray not fir the ^orld, but fir att that 
thoffhafigivenme,]oh,iy.9, for all that (hall beleeve, verf. 20, 

Sim Off, 

$r how h is the Mediatour of the J^exv TeBament. zgj 

Simon, Sintmy Satan hath dejirei to minnow jou 04 "^heate, but 

I have prayed fir thee^ Luk.22.31,33. As the high Prieft went ^*°^»*^'»'» 

into the San<5l:uary with the names of the twelve Tribes upon his 

bread: SoChriftentredintotheholieftof allwith our perfons in 

our behalf e, and doth carry all his people upon his breaft, and pre- 

fents his delires unto his Father for them. 

It is alfo heavenly and glorious : for our Saviour doth not fall 
upon his knees or proftrate himfelfe before his Father, as in the 
daiesof his humiliation s for that is not agreeable to that glory he 
hath received, and to which he is exalted : but after a manner be- 
fitting his glory, doch prefent hfs good will and pleafure to his 
Father, that he may thereunto put his feale a»d confent. It is a 
praying not out of private charity, as the Saints pray one for ano- 
ther in this life, but out of publike office of mediation, by a pub- 
like perfon fet up, not only to pray for the Church in generall, but 
to prefent the prayers of particular men to God in their behalfe j 
not out of humility, which is a propofing of requefts for things un- '^''^ ^"/"f Pi^ 
merited, which we exped of meere grace, according to the free ^Jandtmfi"* 
promifeof God ; but out of authority, which is the defiring of a Satana,mard<i 
thing fo,as that he hath with all a right joyntly of beflowing it,who ^ earn, ac c. 
doth dtfire it. tiamip/atege 

True Interccflion as it is a publike and authoritative sid: is foun- ^ ^."* ^"* «*• 

ded upon the fatisfadlory merits of the perfon interceding : He ■^^-(^^''**'*'''<»' 
L • t K 1 u- ^ ... c> * ntbiM ac mora 

cannotbe a right Advocate, who is not a propitiation too. The intxaui-endo 
Spirit is our Advocate by energie and operation, by inftrudion ipfe spimm J, 
and afliftancea as by his counfell, inlpiration, and atliftance he en- tSoscox/otafur 
ableth the faithfull to pleade their own caufe. But Chrift is our «^^*"A''a^>, ut 
Advocate by office, as he taketh upon himfelfe the caufe of his f^rodUnTe^'* 
Church, in his owne perfon applieth his merits in heaven, and 'Dicim^Q 
furthers the caufe of our Salvation with his Father. The Spirit Paradetuf^ 
maketh interpellation for men in and by themfelves, emboldening Advocatus (s* 
them in their f eares, helping them in their infirmities, when they ^'^^^^'^'^^ » qui 
know not what to pray, and giving them accede unto the Father, jj""^''^"^/ ^j? . 
JEphef.l.iZ. H.*.io.i5.I?. Ro'>'.^.26.Ephef.i.i6.mdhi4U,eil»-f. 
their Advocate, as be leadeth them into all truth, and teacheth /datur, inii. 
them fo to pleade their caufe, that they have wherewith to defend ^«"'>/"'o eo eti'i 
and comfort themfelves, J oh. 1 4. 1 6. againft the criminations and '*?«''«^ ^ de^ 
tyrannieof the world, foh.16.7,2. ButChriftby his Interceflion a^^^"' 
applieth his fatisfaftion made, andlaiesthefalveco the very fore, cinatur.:^^^^^^ 

2^8' Borv Chrisl hath fulfiH^d the office ofMediatmr, 

" i'l " i -■ — ■ \ ' ' ^-ji^. ' ' — rr 

And fo the Interccflion of Chriftmiplics three tliings. The pcr- 
pstuail vigor of his facrifice ;. the will of Chrift fervently dcfiring 
that sU his members might be accepted for the vertue of his facri- 
fice :and the willofGod refting well plcafed with us in his belo»- 
¥-ed Sonne. 

The Saints on earth pray mutually one for another according to 
Gods coramandcment, not in their owne names, or for theiif 
owne merits, but for the merits, and in the name of Jefus Chrift; 
but the InterceflionofChrifi: is no way es reciprocal!, he praycth 
for all and every one that is.given unto him of the Father, and that 
through the vertue of his facrifice, but they pray not for him. 

This Interceflion of Chrift is ever eflFe<auall, becaufethe Father 
heareth and anfwereth him, and as he hath a power to intercede 
for us, fo hath he power to conferre that upon us for whicli he in- 
tercedeth. J nvillpraj the Father^ mdhe Jhdl give yon another (^oni' 
fortert foh. 14-1^. Jf Igoejiot away the Comforter mUmt come untQ 
yofii ^ut if I depart » I will fend him unto yon ^ ^oh.i6,y, Chrift as 
man praying for himfelfe, was heard in that which he feared, 
though the Cup did not paffe from him : but Chrift as Medlatour 
is ever heard in the particular which he defireth. 

Many and great benefits come to the Church of God hy the J^n- 
terceflion of Chrift Jefus. i . Hereby the faiihfull are alfure^ of 
protCtflion and defence againft the continual! temptations, afTauIts 
and accufations of all their fpir ituall enemies, Satan and the world, 
Whoiihethatcondemneth ? It i6 Chrlji that died, yea rather that k 
rifenagainef who ii even at the right hand of ^od^ veho alfo piaheth In» 
urceffonfoY m, Rom, 8. 34. / fray that thots voou/defi keefe them from, 

But are not the faithfuUfubrjedl to cvillsj corruptions and temp* 
Nations ftiii? how then js thatpart of the Interceflion. of Chrift; 
Jaade good unto us ? 

For the undcrftanding hcrcof>we muft know that the Intercef- 
fion of Chrift is a vaileable to the faithfull prefently, but in a man- 
ner futeable and convenient, to the prefent eftate and condition of 
the Church, fo that there may be left roome for another life, and 
therefore we muft not conceive all prefently done. As the Sunns 
ihinethon the Mooneby leafi^ely degrees, till The come to her 
iuU light y or as ifthe King gyant apacdon to be drawne 5 though, 
^fi grant b^Qf the. wMg tfing^at.oi^ce, yet it cannot be written,. 

6r h^ he is the Mediatonr efthe l^ew Te§iamem» 299 

and fcaled but word after word, and line after line, and action af- 
ter aftion : fo the grant of our holtncflb is made unto Cbrift at firft, 
but in the execution thereof, there is line upon line, precept upon 
precept, herealittlci and there a little; fuchan order by Chrift 
obferved in the diftribution of his Spirit and grace, as is moft fute- 
abletoalife of faith, and to the hope we have of a better King- 
dome. I have frayed for tk^ef that thy faith faiU mt, faith Chrift to 
Teter, yet we fee it did {hake and totter : the prayer was not that 
there might be no failing at all, but that it might not utterly and 
totally faite. 

2. Hereby they are afTured of the pardon of their daily infirmt- 
mities, and ^heir rifing againe if they fall. If any man (inneof in-, 
firmity, he hath a pardon of courfe granted, for Chrift is his Ad- 
Yocate to pleade his caufcj 1 foh,2* i , If any man flip of wcakencfie. 
fee (hall rife againe, tor Chrift hath prayed for him, that his faitK 
might not faile, Luk^ 22.51,32. 

3. All the workings and comforts of the Spirit in cur hearts 
which we en/oy, are thefruits of IntercdSion. J will pray the Fa* 
theff and he Jhall give J ou another Comfertef', ot Advocate, that he 
may abide with you for ever, even the Jpirit of truth, fob, 1^,1 6 yiy, 
who fhall Icade the faithfull into all truth,and inable them to plead 
their caufe againft the calumnies of the devill, and accufations of 
the world : who doth teach them toifigh and groane unto God fbt 
mercy, fpeakc unto his highnefle in prayer, furniftieth them with 
wifcdome and prudence in every condition, diredeth them to 
grapple in all temptations, ferve God in all eilates, raifeth the de- 
fires to heaven, formeth* Chrift upon the heart, cnflameth with 
the love and comfort of the truth, healeth, renewctb, reviveth; 
prefirveth, ftrengtheneth, fupporteih, and fcaleth up unto cte?^ 
nail life. 

4. The fourth benefit is free accefle to the throne of grace, and 
affuredhopeofall blefiirigs here, and heaven hereafter. Seei»^ 
then that rve have a great high Priejt that upaJfediMto the heavens, fe* 
fusiheS9nneofGo2y let m hold faft oftr profejjloffy and, come boldlf 
unto the throyte of grace, Hf^.4. 14, l<5. And againe. This man 
after he had offered one Sacrifice for finnes for ever, fate dorvne on 
the right hand of God, from henceforth expeBing tiU his enemies bt 
made hisfootfieole : £tom whence the Apoftlc infcrreth. Having 
therefore hldnejfe $9 enter into the fioliefi hj the hUed 0} feftis, and 

Q^ 2 hihfing 


^oo Hcfv Chrtfi hath fulfilled the office cfMediamr, 


Heb, 7,* 5. ha'vifi^^ff hi^h Priejt over the hof/fi &f G^fd, Let m draw neere v>ith a 
true he(^t, in full a^nrance of faith, Heb.iO. I2.— - 23, 

5. The prayers and workes of the faithfullare fandificd and 
accepted in the fight of God, the imptrfediens that cleave unto 
them being covered and rcKioved ; as the high Prieft in the Law 
was to beare the iniquity of the holy things of the children of 
Jfraelf that they might be accepted, -E'j*rfli28. 56,38 ChriiUsthe 
Angell of the Covenant, who hath a golden Cenfor to oflfer up the 
prayers of the Saints, /?<ft/. 8. g. And tliisis a benefit which run- 
neth through the whole life of a Chriftian ; all the ordinary 
workes of our calling (being parts of out fcrvice unto God, for in 
them we worke as Servants to the fame Matter) and workes of 
mercy and nghteoufnefle", are unto us fandified, and to the fa- 
ther made acceptable, not-witl>ftanding the adbcrcncieof finnc 
unto them, by reafon of our imperfedions, by the interceflion of 
hisSonnc,who hath made us Priefts to ofi-^r our Sacrifices with ac- 
ceptance upon this h\UXtRev.i*6, i Pee,2.^ . Ifa,6^ .y.'Phil.^AZ, 

6, The fixt benefit is fellowlliip with the Father and his Sonne, 
7 fray for thefe, that m thou Father art in me^ and Jin thee, they alfif 
way be one inuijfohiy,!!, 

7. Continuance in the ftate of grace, andftrengthagainft fin, 

fo that the faithfullfhall not finally be overcome, is the gratious 

and comfortable effed of Chrifis interce0ion. / have prayed for 

thee, that thy faith faile not , Luk^ii.^i* Father Imllthatjhej at- 

fo, whom thou haft jiiven me^ h with me where lams that they may 

Behold my glory whieh thou hajij^iven pte, foh, 1 7. 2 4. Some may fay, 

in our Saviours prayer fot*Peter there was fome-what finguhr. 

And every example is Angular, and fo this as an example: but it 

containes nothing Angular which is not common to all the faith* 

full, and fuch as are given unto Chrift of the Father : for then wff 

muft fay, Chrift prayed fo for Peter^ as he prayed not for his peo«- 

ple whoftoodin more nccdof his Interceflion then Peter, (if 

the matter be weighed according to the judgement of men,) who 

iiad obtained many priviledges. And if P eter j hiihQ:t3\\ perfc» 

verc, becaufc Chrift prayed for him, they for whom Chrittroake^ 

interceflion that their faith may not failc> they fliall continue in 

faith unto the end. If they fjy, this priviledge was granted to 

^eter as an Apoftlc : then it was granted to all the Apoftles? 

|at this privUedgG was sot conuaon to Bstm and W^a 

cr how he is theMedtatouroJtheNewTeHament. 3ol 

; not for the faith* 

Itrctrvaincs then that it was given to him as a faithful! Apoftic, 
and fo agrees to all chefaithfdl with him. And the things which 
Chtiftasketh for his Apoftlesarc to be diftingui(hcd : for feme 
things arc fimply necclTary to Salvation, as chat they might be f»- 
vcd fr»m eviil, and fandified by the truth ; others which pcr- 
ta ine properly to the Apoftolicali office. Now whcnChrift af- 
keth things neccflary to Salvation, he prayeth not for his Apo- 
files as Apoftles, but as faithfull and beloved. For what things 
are asked for this or that man, as he exccuteth this or that office, 
they properly rcfped that office : but whatfocver things tend di- 
redly to the falvation of the Soule, are not to be reckoned among^ 
the things which are peculiar, but which arc common. 

Further they objed, that Chrift ever pray- ru a r rr . 
edfor theabfolutc perfeverancc of belecvers, mthl'^^fZ'l^-' -:"*' 

, f r J !• • ^ ' iii'i astauh.uil, but as eivcn unto him 

but after a fort, and upon condition. But of the Father .• fcr Chrift hath prayed 

the prayer or Chrift isccrtaine, and not fuf- ^or them that they might beli/ve; 

pended. They for whom Chrift prayed doe chri«s imerceffion is not conditionally 

not love the world, but that they love not ^^^^'l;^" that condition ispurchafcdby 

the world, is an effcd of Chrifts prayers, not 1^ fo°l rl ?',f uwr""'- ^^ "^» 

1- • • J • -u ^L L • t t"^" '°'^c Ipirituall hleffinp is necefla= 

acondition rcqmred in them that he might ry torus, / chrift hfth not pl.t 
pray for them. Some prayers taculy include chafed, if ye;, then chrift doth not 
a condition in him for whom we pray, as if ^^^'^^ '^^snj'ght receive what he hath. 
we pray God to give cternall life to a (inner, P"''^'i^fed. li chrifts Interceifion be 
we prefuppofe faith and repentarxc : becaufe 0° .nlT" ^ u '" ''\'' '* '^"^ '°"^"'- 
Without faith and repentance life cannot be "sdea^ or^Wct" ^"'^ ^^ 
given, nordefircd ;but fame prayers prefup- 
pofe no condition in him for whom we pray, as when we praw 
God to give faith or repentance to any man. Now the Intcrccfli- 
on and requeft which Chrift maketh for the fathfull doth prefupl 
pofe no condition ; for he prayeth not fimply that life midit fiml 
plybcgiventotlieftithfull, but that they might be kept from e» 
vill, and if they be kept from cvill, they muft pcrfevere in th- 
faith : for to fall from the faith is the grcateft evill. Neither cai^ 
itbcfaidthat Chrift prayeth for them that would perfevcrc, but 
he prayeth that they (hould perfevere : for the objca of the thine 
for which wc pray, muft ba diftinft from the thing it fclfc prayt 
cd for. No man would pray for men to pcrfcvercif they doc pcr^ 
fcverevbut rather that they might perfevere, which otherwifc 
yvouldnot. Yet they reply, Chrift prayeth that his Apoftles 

5^^ ^ might 

joa Horv Chrisi hath fulfilled the office efMedmour, 

— ~ — . '- — ^ • -• 

might be kept from evill, as he had kept Jpn^as, Job, 1 7. 1 2. Bdikc 
then Peter had no greater alTurance of his recovery, nor the reft of 
the Apoftles of their perfeverance in the hxth^thtn 'fudas had. ?«- 
^a^ was given to Chriit in refped of his office and miniftery, but 
not as an heirs of Salvation, or as the faithful! are faid to be given; 
The particle tranflated But, in thatclaufcCi?«^/^<? child of ^erditU 
^fi) is not ever an cxceptive^but an adverfative in many places • as 
Qal,2.l6 KnomKgthat a mm iinot jufiifed l>y the Vforkes of the 
Ltm^bmbytheftxith ofjefus Chrifl, Mattb.12.4. IVhtch ^as not 
iawfullfor him to eaty neither for them that Veere yicith him, but only for 
the Priejis, Sscgal.i.y. tCor.j.ij. Revs A' and 21.27, And 
the Hebrew particle ««* h and ki $n*, which the SeftftapHt turnc 
\a.v [xh, gen.ll*l6» a^^etj (7tfff.24.38. Ifai.^^.2. and aM'^ 2 Ki»^, 
5.i7.isufedadverfativcly. And fSjo.} t which thcSyriac Inter- 
preter ufeth, is now and then put for an exceptive, in which 
fenfc ufuaily jjj folio wcth it,but without it, it is moft commonly 

an adverfative. For the Syr. Jla) is compounded of JU ,«' w/ Ur^^ 

Ha % f^K 3nd is the fame with the Hebrew /<w /^. And fbin this 

place, ff^doi is oppofed to them that were given unto Chrift, and 
not excepted from that number, as if he had been given alfo. Wc 
maytherefore^oncbde that our Saviour prayed for the ccrtainc 
^perfeverance of them that were given unto him, or that the/ 
might be kept from evill, and that he was heard in that which 
he defircd. 

fourthly, Chrift being advanced at the right hand of bis Fa- 
ther, doth exercife his Kingly office, both for the comfort of his 
xhofen, and thcbridlingandrepreflingcf his and their enemies. 
This is noted by his fitting at the right hand of the Father : 
which was foretold by the Prophets, The Lord faid unto my Lordl 
Sit thou at mj ri^ht hand, u»tlll I make thine enemies thy fiot~fieole, 
PfaLiio.i, J^.2,i^» -^4«^. 2 2. 4^. 44. Z«i^. 20.42. and by our 
Saviour h imfeit s Tejhallfee the Sonne ofmanftting en the right hand 
effower. (JHarkji^»62. And accordingly it was accompliftied, 
Thid man after he had offered one facrifice for fnnes fir ever, fate 

mJ\^iav doTvneonthe right hand of god. Htfi. lo. 12. 'Thus Chrift is faid 
to ftand at the right hand of God. -^^* 7. V^i to beat the right 

:«?^^m hand of God. ^«?». 8.34. i F^^.s.aa. to fit at the riglit hand of 


%a.v (Jt^tii 


Pfal. 1.1,4. 
; Gen. 1 8.1 5 . 

€us inierpeUat 
in GxlOyfTtftat 
aim patre 
Mediator efi 
■^ Creator: 
Mediator utpe. 
/cat, Creator ut 
SntiaragAt in 

(4^. 10, 

See '.Veod.:ia 

or how he k the Medimm of the Netp Telfamem, §03 

God. M^rk.16.19 to fit on the right hand oftbe power of Godj 
X»^22.^9. a^d to {it downqon the right hand of the Majeftic 
onhigh.Hs^.1.3. The right and left hand are proper diiFercnces 
of corporall pofitions: but figuratively the right hand is put for 
power, ftrength, counfell, work, aide, love and fidelity ; as Pfal, . 
^6. 10, Their right handujuliofkrihes, TfaLi^^.'^Ai. Their rights 
kandU a right hand offalfjood, that is, cither confidence in theic 
own power will deceive themfclves, or they will dcceivsothers 
to whom they promife fuccour and afliftance. i Sam 1 4 1 9. 2s 
notthehandofloaif ^^ith thee in all tJjii ? CJaLi.Q, Thej gave to me 
A^d 'BarnabM the right hAnds of fillowjhif. And being applycd to 
God it notes his power, ftrength, aide, M^ijeftie, glory, fove-. 
raignty, and divine aut^ority. PM^^^-.^/Thy right hand, and, ifai.4S.1j; 
thine ay me, and the light of thy countenance, becanfe thou hadfi a., right hand s© 
favour unto them. Pfal.'J 710. Thii is mine infirntitj^ hut I ^ill re- fp^n the hea-.- 
member theyeares of the right hand of the mofl High : where wc find ^^'^■' - 
Gods hand, that is, his power oppofed to the infirmity of his fcr- 
-vant. My infirmity and weake faith made me apt to finks under 
the ftmfcof Gods difpleafutf , but when 1 called to mind the ex- 
periences of ©od« former power inlikedifireff^s, j recollesflcd 
my fpirits,and v/as rcfrefhed 5gam,Pfal.Sp.i^. Strong id thy handy 
as/dhighisthy right hand. Pfal, 20. 6. He 'Will heare him from .hiS: 
holy heaven,Vpith the favingf ftrength of hii right hand^ TfaL 2 1. 84 
Thy riqht hand fhail find out thofethat hate thee. Tfal.\\%.\6, The 
right hand of the Lord idejcalted, the right ha)id of the LorctdothvaH^ 
mtly, Pfal. I J- J. Skevfi thy marvellom k^ndnejfe , O thou that, 
faveB hy thy right hand them yi,^hieh put their truft in thee, Pfal./^^ 
Thy right hand id fill of righteofifnejfe. Pfal. 138.7. Thy right hand Sven there JJiall thy hand leade me, and 
thy right hand /hall hold me. Hah. 3 .1 6, The cu^ of. the. . Lgrds right, 
hmdjball be turned unto tkee. 

And God ftrengthenetb, and helpsth and upholdeth his people 
by the right hand of his righteoufnefie* Ifai.^y . r.o. that is,by hi5 
power and faithful! promifes, which in their wcakneffq ftrengf 
thens them, in their fear and flagging helps them, in their (inking 
and fklling upholds them. Therefore alfo Gods right hand is cal- 
led the right hand of M^jeftiCj ^^^.1.3.. and the. right hand of 
j)iower.i?/^.2?.d5U, . 
Tg. fi^ properly, bjstQ|sneth.a||tc ofbodi^ oppofite to flanding, 0^ 
' ' '"" "" " " '~ " E^pvingri 

Ho0 Chrip hAtb fulfilled the^offke ofMediatour^ 


Lcike S4.49* 
Ruch 1.4. 

"■^V "la^ 

Vii. 1 Chron, 


pD Pfal.'i$.io. 

^i dextrant 
proximam fo/i 
tern habere. 
potefiatem. Bpb, 

moving s bat figuratively it fignifisth to reft, ftay,dwclljinhabitc, 
rule or govcrne, as Tfal.i,j.^. One thing have IdeJtredoftheLord, 
that I '^illfeeke after y that £ may /r, or dwell, in the houfe of the 
Lordallthe dayesofmy life. I K'»»j',i,go. Hefhall Jit upon mj 
throne in wy fiead, Trov.zoS. A Kingthatftteth inthithrene 
ofjndgementj feattereth away all eviW^ith his eyes, Jfaul6*'^, And 
in mercy jhall the throne he efii'ahlipsedi and he fhAU fit upon it in truth. 
To ftand or fit at the right hand is an ufuall phrale in Scripture. 
By the former divers things are noted ; Firft, to rcfift, oppofe, or 
hinder the endeavours of any one ; PfaL l cp.(5. Let Satan ft and at 
hii right hand.fcil. to ftay or hinder that it might not move, to in- 
fringe, or weaken his endeavours. Zech. 3.1. a/^W he fhewedme 
lojhfia the high Friefiftanding be fire the Angel of the Lor d^and Satan 
fianding at his right hand to refiFi hirxu. 

Secondly ,to aiTift,dcfend,protcft againft enemies and manifold 
dangers.whereuDto men arc fubjeft. He fhaU ftand a^ the right 
hand of the poorcy to fave him from thofe that condemne hidfortle, Tfat, 
I cp. 3 1 . / have fit the Lordalwayes be fire me^becAHfe he is at my right 
handt I jhall net be moved. 

Thirdly, they arefaid to ftand at the right hand, that obtaine 
the next degree of honour with him at whcfc hand they*are 
faid to ftand. T>fal.^^. p. Vpon thy right hand did ftand the 
^ueenin golXofOphyr, 

For the fecond, Great Kings and Princes doc fct them at their 
right hands, whom they Specially love, favour, or honour; and 
whom they mind to advance to the chicfe degrees of power and 
authority under them, or to be as it were in their ftead, and in of- 
fice to reprefcnt their perfon j The King rofi up to meet Bathjheba, 
and bowed himfelft unto her, and fate dorvn on his Throne ^ and caufed 
a feat to be fit fir the Kings mother ^ and Jhe fate on hii right hand, 
I King. 2 , 1 p. To fit on my right hand^ and on my lefi^ is not mine to 
give, butit flioU he givento them fir "^homitis ^epared of my Father,. 
Matth,20.2if2^, By Chrifts fitting at the right hand of his Fa- 
ther, is noted that great honour and glory, plenitude of power, 
and judiciarie office or dominion, which God the Father hath 
given unto his Sonne, after his manifeftation in the fiefti, in his 
Nativity; and juftifieation by the Spirit, in his Refurreftion : for 
thenamongft other dignities, he was received up into glory. 
I Tim,^.io, It D5ay be defcribsd, thchigbcft and fuprcmc dc^ 


or h&w he isiheMedimttrofthe New TeBamef^, 3 05 

grce of Chrifts exaltation, wherein bs hath received of theFa- 
ther, excellent glory, dignity, power and dotroinion,and isadual- 
!y made the head of his Church j and Lord ar)d Ruler of all thirigs 
both i-ri heaven ^nd earth, tvho u ^ane inta hem)tny .md'ii en thi 
right handdfQodf Angels^ and authorities ^ and fowers, being inad& 
{ubjeB unto him, \ P^r.3.22. He hath fet him en his oT»n right hand 
in the hea'venlj places, farre above all princifalttteJ .^d famf-y akd 
mi^ht, and dominion, and every name thae m ffamedy'^mt Jidlj^in'thii 
Vcer/dybutaljo in that '^hish ii to come : And:.hktk fut aU>tUngs //«- 
der hii feet, and gave him to behead over all things to jht (^harch^'Sph, 
1.20^2i,z-i.ThouhajipHt all things in fiibje^iion nndtr hihyhe left 
nathing that ii not jet put under him. Hf^.2.7,8;PV tJmo^Hch of 
thi Angels ft»d he at any tirney Sit on my right hand, lie hi f t- Jl^, 
which the Apoftls expounds, H«f mufi raigHe.till'M.inatliyi^^ad 
iHemies under his feet, i Cor. 1 5.2 5, By; this fitting at thc^right ~ 
band of the Father, not the propriety of his hutnane nature ; but 
thecxceedingglatiousliate of his perfon is ^gm^^i^iVe.have 
(u:cha)f^hlgkPriefl,^ho.k fet oH the right hand-oftJ^itkco'nkof'the 
^M^^j^i^'in the heaven's^ HekS.l. Setdowne M'the^ghtkan^ofthi- 
throM^fCfvd, HV^.12.2* His divine riature-c^uld n^cpofli bly re^ 
ceive any intrinfecall ioiprovcmcnt or glory, 'altfelncfle of glory 
eflentially belonging thereunto : bus fo farre forth'^ it w^s hum- 
bled for the adininiftration of his oSica, fofer^Vit was- rs-advain^ 
ced. H« emptied and humbled hlmfelfe, noc.'bylcrDpryiitigand 
putting off his divine gicry,but by fiiftiring it to be over-ihadow- 
ed wichthcfimilitudc of finfuli flsili, and to be humbled under 
the forme of afervant : an4 He is magnified at Gods right hand, as 
be dothmanifeft and llnew forth his divine glory invbis humine 
naitiirc,- which before was covered and^ iliadovO'ed therewith, as 
"With a vaile. "Arid bow-ever we cannot fay tire, Deity or divine 
nature was exalted in any other fenfe then by evident manifefts- 
tionofit feUe in that man who was before defpifed, and accufed 
•asablafphemer, for that' hcmadchimfdfeetpali witb.God,;y€t 
fey ^eafon of the comiraimcasiioia of proporifes feo m orranamre 10 
affbthel"' in^fha un ity of one perfon, 'it is> krirc that as God favcd tha 
world by histloud, and , the Prince of life was crucified^ and the 
Lordvlay in tha Gravei f^> ^^^^ was at the right hand of Majelf ie 
-cx?»hed agai«^ The humane nature of Chrift is moft |iighly::C!S- "''^^''"•i ./ 
^k'edi^sshc hath obtained^ nc^cnunsncic ^DdLdignityovetall "Hl'*^'^'- • ' 

Rr creatures. 


MmO/jnfl hoik fdjiStd the office of Mediatour^ 




doth belong 
unco bim as 
God coeffenti- 
all and coeter- 
nall with the 
Father. Chrifis 
Kingdome is 
his by donaei, 
on as Media> 

Autem h£c Jefu 
Chriftff, quatc- 
%u& Mediatarf^ 
mn ut coej^en* 


H£S &rdi»em ^ 
widgii docent, 
quo "Deus cog' 
mtianem Ec- 
(Lk^£ impertitt 
quata OTtgiaem 

crcaturcs, which in rcfpedl of his humane nature he never had be- 
fore ; he hath an ample and inimedkte claime to all that glory 
.which tniglit in {he hutnane nature be conf<;rrecl upon him. Thii 
glory) jdigiiity. and dominion Chrift received from his Father 
according to his eternall decree and Covenant. He fits at the 
right hand of bis Father , and from his Father he received his 
powerjatithorityand rule. 

y. Chr^ftis a King bothi)y the providence, and by the good wiU 
and im-McdiatcicOnfecrat'ion of his Father. Tke Father loveth the 
Sonnet and hath ^iven all things into hii hand. Job, 5,35. He judgeth 
no mdny-iffit hath committed all judgement to hii Sonne. Ioh.f,Z2, 
\hat:ts,'ihati) ehtrjtjftcd hjhi with thcaduail adminiftration of that 
ppwef in tVe Church, w-faich ociginally belonged aotp bimfelfo 
Hcbatb niaddhitii tobc-Lord.afad Cbrift, ^c7.2.3<^. zn^viiit^ 
him up to fit on his throne, 'ver,50. Bim hath Godexa/tedVcith f»s. 
right hand, to be a Trince^ and a Saviour ^ fir to give repentance to If* 
rael,:.ASi 5^5 i., H^ hath ordained him to he- a Itidge of qnick. and 
dMdi:AUiiQ\il^'z\\Iie.hathaffoinndblmoverMi fypnhotife^ H^^. }. 
a,d. He ^athcrv^KeM. him, aiidpnt all'ihi^§s mfuhjeUion wider hii, 
^et^Heb.i,j^2. He hath highly exalted himy and giveH him a nam» 
above every name, Phil.i.g. Therefore bucalleth him my King,, 
fct up by h jirj, ajpon his own holy hill, and that in the ver(ue of 3 
ioIcitinedecree.tiV*'^*^-^?' •Iherefbrc to fit on the right band of 
the Father doth hot note glory and dominion properly divine, 
whithdotb belong to; the Sonne as cocffentiall and coeternall 
with his Father, and. IS his bynatum: but glory and dominion 
next unto that which is elfentially divine, which belongcth (© 
Cbrift as Msdiatour, and which is his not by nature, but bj dona* 
ticn^ and undjidn Iroin his Father, being made;th^ Head of bis 
Church, a Priiice of Peace, aad King of Righfeoufnefl'?. This 
glory and dominion W3S given unro Chrift ; aad fo was not that 
ctcrnali glory,.naturaH and ciTentiall, which he had v?ith bis Fa- 
iherbeforc the fourfdations of the world* 1 his glory Chrift had 
Bot before hn. afccnifion, in to heaven:: but th© other as itisnatiJ* 
tall, fo it was ^oci cverlafticigi Saiat Panl and Pettr doecon- 
llrue it by raigning immediately over every creature, till the My- 
ftcrie of our redemption /ball be finifhed,i C^r. 15.25 .PfaLi i o. i. 
The getting ChriGe in the throne of- Ma icftie,^^^. 1.5. and^.i. 
^d^2i^»^:th^ %bt ^nd 0^ #>€: ^oi^e o£ Qodi, thcix^dkiog 

w hovf be is the MediaioMr ef the New Teytamm\ 3 b")' 

ofhimChriftandLord»^^.a.35,3^.,aqd 5.3'- ^^ is hot then si felfmem 
^might of divine fovcr^ignity oyer ths creatures which is gi- chrt(ii mn p]r9 
ven unto ,hiai, for this'doth fo follow the nature of Godjthat it is ^^/^fc^L] 
neceifary with every perfon that hath this nature. This the Son fedfroipf9 * 
could not relinquilb, this he cannot be taken unto, ss which doth regnmdi affa 
necedarily agree to him, as God bleifed for evermore. What is accipiamwi so* 
itthfji^? A right of executing; imcnediately and in a manner ap- .eferanoHfaidg 
propriaCeto t^ispcrfons the fovfr^igne 4on3Jnion of God, oyer ^^^ S^V. 
every creature. This foveraignty is given to the psrfon of the fionureaevo- 
Sonne both as God and man now afeendcd : as God, for it is a cabitur.Marti 

man-hood doth concurre as an inltrument working with bis 
God-head in the adminiftratjon of ir. 

The meaning then of this phrafe it not to be admitted to t^e^perejuf" 
e<|uality to the divine nature, for this Chrift ever had as God, and ''«*» sjlemie 
could not but have : neither to be admitted into the divine blcfled- J"^®^'*fJJ'*^ 
ncffe fetledfy to in/oy it : for Chrift as God ever bad and could phyficam^Ui- 
not but have that eflT-ntiall beatitude. Neither doth it import quamtramfu- 
thus much, That the humane nature of Chrift is elevated to this foaera feu 
honour, that it may freely ufe the divine Attributes, omnifcicnce, tf(i^^i*onemiz 
omniprefencc, omnipoiency,fo as to becouie by them omnifcient, ^y*^* ^"r^* 
omniprefentjomnipotent no lefle properly then the divine,thougb Lamejurdm 
after a manner farre othcrwife; the divine nature being thus by persons ^tm^ 
naturall neceflity : the humane bdng thus by union with the di- vm, 
vine, by gracious communication of thefe unto it, with liberty to ^ ^ , 
ufe them for the perfeding of it felfe. So that according to this fedXaieKdo' 
opinion, the humane nature of Chrift is made omniprefent with non\7i<t[U 
the omniprefencyofthe divine nature, not as a thing fubjedivc- ^?»«ri«, non 
\y inhering in it, but fo really communicated with it, that it is permniram, 
made truly omniprefent by it,tbough the divine Attribute never '^^^^ fif/'^^l 
goe forth of the nature of God, in which as the proper fubjcA' "pnfoJa rs 
they grant it immoveably inherent. The ground of this crrour is,' hoyn^ (^e. 
that they fuppofe upon the union of the two 

natures in Chrift a rcall communication of W't'fom.t. delib ConcorJ.eapXp.<;9S. 
divine Properties to follow, as that the f«^^P;^''^'^^»«if ««« "-^"^'^ 
humane nature is made truly omnipotent qmrummifinmcft,cUm*infinva,T9-' 
or omnifcient^ not by any confufion of Pro- tm ch/i/im/ed non mum Christ efi ubi§. 

R r a perties, 

3^3- Horv cHrtp hath fulfilled the office ofMediateur^ 

Sicutcau hibet im^zn^tatzf^.udrpe C9, parties, nor yctby any bare communtoii-and 
^u^'^'i f /rf'^J -'' «j?.i«/««,^«3;,; cdn<:oar{b 6i it Cathc,{ame £?ff^;eaclH^^ift^fr 
carnmiti]U4rtmhmfin,p^y g|l working that^^bicb'belengeih to it-with 
^i>kif&<ih^mrequhUiaej[/i:erg'J'fi'jeri communionof the Other, b'jt by' a realldo- 
j^r^Jlfa-turdelumnanarura^'yereeii' nation, by which the divine Qftinipotcncy 
ameUenwpoputetJiMepernatura'n, dothfob^coinetheomnipotency of thehu- 
fi'^'n^'^^fM'^MM^^'J'^'^ tnane nature, that it may #eitettenipotcnt- 
■^ -^ '.YvrlrJ. • lywitb It, no kfk then the diYine nature- 
dotji^it fclfe. But the union cannot caufc the humane nature par- 
take more in the Properties of the divine, then it caufeth the 
divine partake in the Properties of the humane. Againe, if t 
^ Kjjc.anj reall communication did foUow of divine atfhbiif4^,it. 
• ^ ■ ^^'\ '"' p?uft ne<?ds be of ail, as eternity and infiaiteneffr, feeing "thefc are 
^li.j: .r.0L^|_g divine ei$;nce, Vv'bich can no way be divided. Befi?!c in the 
union of foul and body which is perfonall, the life of the foul is 
.,: not comirucicated with the body, bur an cf?-^ cf it only. And 
.. to what end j"hou]d created gifrs ferve, when now niorenobte 
•' rroperties"4oe enter? Not to mention that infinite pcrfcdilons 
cannot perfcdfinitehaturcSj no more then r^aibn able perfcdions 
csn Ojake pcrfc^fl unrcafbnsble creatures. Finally, this opinion 
*■',!. tnaketh the divinePropertiesbecoir.einCiruitientary faculties as, 

■;. , it were to a finite nature, . j- • 

' The place, where Chrifl fits at the right hand'-<tf<'hisFather,?n 

tefpe^ of his Humanity, is in heavens bccaufs where that is, 
. there it is aifo inwardly glorious in itfdPe, and hath in it f:;If, 

M^rkl6?i9. as in a lubjed, bis power, and worketh by that pov/er within the 
Hebr.4,r4. ' ^heare of it tinJtenelTe, not ftvnallyfrom-thswcrdjbutwithit, 
A& an4 in it. He is. at the tight hand of God in the heavens, Ephef, 
* ^J^^*3'.**.' j.;3p.mthehigbeftpl2ccSjH^^. i.g.S. above, Ce?/,M. This his 
Sovcraignty is a confequsnt following on his Afcenfion into 
Heaven. Lookas Kings are crowned in the cbiefc Cities of their 
"Kingdom'^s, and keep their relidencc in their Palaces necre unto 
' tbcm: io it v^as decent that our Saviour fliould be crowned in 
. tiis_beayenly J ■-rufalcnr, and keep his re(idcnce as it were in his 
heavenly Maniion. There Cbriil fittetb at the right hand of 
God, where be appearetb for "as, where he maketh intcrceffion 
for us: B>it Chriit appcareth for us in Heaven: H^^.9.24. and 
I ^'4* ^"^ ^' Heaven heniaketh reqjeO: for us, and from Heaven we 
■ ife6.<.' * expels the ]^^i^ ] efus. *?i;i/.3,2 1. God is infinitej Heaven is his 
"'■" '~^'^- • throne. 

er how he is the Uedimurefthe New TeBamem. -gop 

throne, and the earth his footftoole : but the bunanitj of Chrift 

is fii>it7, and not every where prefent : Chrift is afcended above 

thefevifibk heavens, above chetn and without them, but he fit- 

teth at the right hand of the Father in the bighcft heavens, above 

then[>,not without tbem. So the Cherubims were over the Arke Ephef,^ 9 ,0 

of the Covenant, and yet they ft ay ed upon the Arke, as the place. Heb.9.5/ ' 

Heat^ is one thing,heavenly ^lory another. 

ven, his prefenee in earth, in the Church, in Heb.^. >^.Heb.8.4- ita cieium dmtur 
the tnidftofhis enemies is not excluded. For | 't«'7«»'«< i^afJ^Q-. 3 Mac. ^, ^^, 
the fame Chrift, who is man, is alfo God and i^^^V'^' ^f' '^ ^X«f^«^ ^",^ /^- " -' 
.very wher. Chrift in hisbody^s in the ^^S^I J^i^^V S^!^^! 
heavenly and triuoipnant i^nurcn, abienC rueTd^^'m.hphsi.j.^. Ephir.^.ii.aad- 
from the earth j by his ioBnite Deity he is ^.i. Juh.j,ii,iz, 7^a4/.£:Df^.ii,Pfai. 
prefent together in the earthly militant and ^'^^J^' When a gnuc natme is in bea- 
toveniy. But concerning bis Body we may "J"/'' '-^^otmcmh chrift is notfc 
trulyconclade,bec3ufe h^ is in heaven ther- i/, ,, ,^, ematlrJtame^^^^^r^^ 
fore it is not every where ; tor.Chnlt cm- duaihmc reii^uit. Eijtm c&rni duptexjfq^ 
not be faid to be made every where in f he comarius exiflenji mo.'iui tijbm pon pal 
heavens, without a conrradidicn, no more '^/i/^' bcain & tUuilh^fm.phy^m. 
then to bs made infinite within limited ^" ^P-'P^fi»^'- 
bounds of being. This being taken for granted, that heaven can 
■ftgnifie nothing but a place limited for the extent oFit. Chrift as 
God and man hath power of rul: over sll things, by the c ff»nce of 
his Deity he is every where ; by the elf nee oF his hum?.riiry now 
he is in heaven t buthcrukth every where by the miniTlericsc? 
hiS'dominatioi. Where as man at. the right-hand of the Father, 
there he is faid to be as man in rcfpec^ ; and if where hs 
fits as ruling, there alio he be in all places in his body, he is aifo m 
his body out of his body :. then which nothing is more abfurd* 
Ci^'-ift is rcceived.into Heaven, and licteth at ths right hand cf 
God, by a mediatory adion, which he excciL-eth 3C4'o;ding to 
both natures, the word working what pertaiaah to the wordj . . 

and the fl^fn what appcrtaineth to the Beila. Chrift is Mt'diatour, 
as God and man : ancS glory hath redounded unto him as God ani 
i^an: and living in this glory he rukth and governeth his 
Church as God and man. He afceoded into Heaven in hisharaa-N 
i>ity : hs (itteth at thcright hand of God as Mcdiatour in refpeft 

R r 3 of 


UovQ Ghri^ hath fulflled the dffiee 0fMedtM6m, 

Pfal 4?.f. 


Men/ura efi di- 
vifio quae dam 
<(bn(itti'n •' 3t t'n 
Chrifio plenif 
[una copii & 

iGoiM% 8,si. 

mv^Q-f dolor 
imr&enfu^ Se- 
vects ikuntur. 
Job. 1. 16. 
Nan deplead» 
dliqiiidex ip- 

di/nenpone, fed 
implenda no(ira 
indigentiara ^ 


Nuiiab, I! 45. 

£ Pet. I. 44 

oi both natures ; he worketh together with the Minifters of the 
word by his divine and every where prefent efficacy. 

The firft thing implied by Chrifts fitting at the right hand of the 
Father, is the filling of his humane nature with fupernaturall gifcs 
of knowledge, power, c^c, and whatfoever doth any way pertain 
to the adminiftration of his office. God, his God hath annointed 
him Veith theoyle ofgladneffe ab9ve his pliowes. In refpe<fl of US 
thefe gifts may be called infinite, but fimpiy they^re not, becaufe 
they are things created, cheeffedsaad works of the holy Spirit, 
abfolutely they are finite, comparatively infinite. He received 
the Spirit above meafhre, that is, the whole Spirit, all the gifts 
of the holy Spirit, in higher degree then any creatures, men or 
AngelSs i'Ci f-ull abundance. That is faid to be done in meafure 
which is done fparingiy, moderately, in proportion : for he that 
gives bountifully or largely doth not meafure or number what he 
giveth, but powreth out copioufly, as we fay, from the full heape 
or with both hands. And that which is plentifull, aboundanr, 
fulljis faid to be above meafure, not that fimpiy and abfolutely it is 
infinite, but in comparifon. By that which is given, and not by 
meafure, not that which is infinite, but that which is whole and 
entire is fignified. And of his fkllne^e "^e all receive^grace fir 
grace : we fo receive of his fulneflfe, that his fufficiency is no whit 
diminidied ; our want is filled by him, but his fulnefle is not emp- 
tied by us. The Sunne is not greater, if it be beheld of many,not 
the lefle, if of fewer : the fame is true of the righteoulnefle of 
Chrift imputed. The Sunne doth not decay by motion ; an Angell 
is not wearied with the fervice of God ; Chrift man is not wearied 
with the care of the Church, nor his ftore and plenty wafted with 
that which he doth every day impart unto his Church, not as a 
materiall beginning, but as an efficient. Inhimfelfe Chrift fhall 
ever have fufficiency, and in relped of us perpetually redundance. 
But the fame wifdome and holinefle, which Chrift hath in himfelf 
he doth not infufe into us, but he doth workein us by his efficacie, 
wifdome and holinefTe anfwerablc or proportionable in a fort. 
With fuch gifts we are adorned as our head, but not with fo great. 
Chrift is the annoin ted, and doth annoint us : but we are only an- 
nointed, the redeemers of others we are not. The fountaine o£ 
grace is in Chrift alone J theftreameflowes to the faithfull : but 

the ftreame is from the fame fountaine, diough Icffe then iu Chrift 

' '" •••-—■-■ ^ is 

vrhmheistheMedimuroftheNtmTeftamem, 311 

is annointed above his feliowes. The things here compared are Gal.4.6., 
Chrift and his feliowes, and the meane wherein they are compa- Ef/J:'^^ 7- 
ted is the annointing -..for which the Lord is called Chrift, and ^ '^HD 
we Chriftians ; together annointed, not together annointing. ^hald. 
We are like to Chrift, and fhall be liker unto him, but equallin ^jf^' Met^' 
dignity we are not, nor never ftiall be. Concerning his office r^rtjbuu'u"'' 
Chrift hath no fellow, he alone is Mediatour : as concerning his pr« parti^ 
perfon^ there is none in heaven or earth, who dares to boaftthat ejbus, sept, 
he is the fellow of Chrift : But according to his humane nature, ^^f* Ttif/zeru^ 
the hithfull are his fellows, whom he doth acknowledge for bre- X^^-p"^- ^'™^- 
thren. Our union with Chrift, and the union of the humane na- yg^'?^?^,^^ 
ture with the Word differ in kind and in very deed : but both thefe eipJmm^* 
are freely effed;ed of Godjand the one is like to the other, although quamcmg^ rei 
the one doc farre exceil the other. Chrift is annointed as our aUcujut ^luum 
head with moft abundant grace : we as his members in degree con- . ^J*^ ^f^ommunu. 
venientforus. , Heo.^.ij.&j.; 

The fulneffe of grace is of two. forts : Firft, in rcfped of the ^t. Heb.°l'i°° 
grace it fclf e 5 And fecondly, in refped of him that hath it. The, iCor.^al, 
mlneffeofgraceinrefpedtofgraceiElelfe, is then,^ when one at-, 
taineth to the higheft and uttermoft of grace, both qtioad effentiam 
0- 'virtHtem ^intenjiz'} & extenjive :m the eHence and vercue of it . 
intenfively and exccn{ively,that is, when he hath it as farre forth as 
it may be had, and to all effeds and purpoles whereunto grace 
doth or can extend it felfe; asheisfaid to have life petfedly, or. 
the f ulnefte of lif e, that hath ir, not only in the effence, bat accor- 
ding to all the operations and afls of life^ lenficive^ intelleduall^ 
rational!, fpirituall and naturalL This kind of fulnefte of grace is ^^ « j.x, 
proper to Chrift only. The fulnefie of grace in refped of the lub- par'i.qwrl * 
jeAorhimthashath it, is then, w"hen one hath grace fully and Art'^,^ 
perfedly according to his eftate and condition, both intenlively 
to the uttermoft bound that God hath prefixed to them of luch a 
condition, andeKtenfively in the vcrtueofit, in that it extendeth 
to the doing and performing of all thofe things that may any way 
pertaineto the condition, office, or eftate of luch as are of his , 
place and ranke. Or weaiayfay, there is a fulneffe according to 
mealure, thefulnefleofamearurcorveffell, a fuUnefle for them- > 
fclvesonly, a fdnefleof adivity, courage and refolution : and fo £„5j i.t^.Bcro 
fohn the Baptift, Steven and others are laid to be fiiU of the holy 5 ^. AaXi^ * 
^hdfil df wifdoijn^ and aDderftan^ing* But ft^lnefle without. i King,? j*^- 

3 1 2t Hov? Chrift hMb fulfilled the ofke cf Mediator, 

mealiire, Ukethefulnefleoflightin theSun, or water in the fea, 

which hath ^n unfearchable iufficiency and redundanqr for the 

whole Churchjis proper to Chrift alone. So that as he was bmi- 

Eph,4 8. filed with ail ipirituali endowments of wifdome, judgement, 

lLi.ii,i Sc6iA. power, love, holineiTe, for the difpenfation of his own oftice : So 

from his fulnes did there run over a (hare and portion of all his gra- 

'. ces unto his Church. 

A"^ a Certaine it is our Saviour irom the very 

C.rA.ty CM ^s mm knows God ^^^^ that he tooke our nature was per- 

Z!:i!!i;^^^:Z:':^^ feaiy fanned and received the Spirir^a- 
felfe, J5u: the Hp;;itle fpeakech noc of covemeaiure : Dut the perionall union aid 
the' raaft. hood ot ciirill only, but of not endow the humane nature with the 
hiswKokperfon^ noiofhistaan-hood reall titles of the divine ; othetwife Chrifts 
asinthstnneGrifehumihation, but of ftrength as man (bould have been infinite 
^uT^iSft^^SI^ fto™ 'h* womte : and his body (h^uld 
oift.3 as might Htly ibnd witb the myfte- ^^^e been, every where. And it would be 
fie of his humiliation. Luk.s.yz. kfle unreafonable to fay , that his body is 

at this day infinite, and his humane nature; 

every where, then that his wifdome or knowledge as man, ftiould: 

have been infinice, or as great whilft he was in the wombe as now 

itis. Jf the divine n:ituredid not communicate his infinity to the 

humane , nor make the Son of God To compleate a man for 

flrength or ability of body from the wombe, as at thirty yeares he 

was, whatrcafoahave wc to imagine, that our bkfled Lord and 

Saviour did not as truly grow in Wifdome and knowledge, as he 

didin ftrengthand ftature'of body. Simple nefcience can be no 

^ . ^ ^ ^ (in in any child, nor in any man, unleiJeitbeofchofe things which 

wSr 'Defta^- ^- is bound to know : but proficiency in wifdome and knowledge. 

tt^qmei mmu- is to the Sons of men a praife- worthy perfcdion : which muft not . 

Heu.f.s. Ok* be denied unco our Lord and Saviour in his infancy or his youth, no 

dientUm dUi more then he is to be robbed of any royall arcributes now he is 

^Iffl lit .'^^' v/< ^^^^ Yim^. That he was without all ftaine of (in, the moft holy 

icirey ardule!' Sanduary of the moll holy and bleded God, is ftedfaftly to be be- 

gYAvu lievcd. But chat he had. the fame meaiure of knowledge at his cu:- 

lamacifHa Ci?* .cnmciiion which he had and gave pi oof e off , when his Parents 

f^m n '.n ^o^a found him in the Temple, or at.his 3 aptifne, - frs (li Kc his rcluri:e- 

T'^'n '.irZ <?t:ion and aicenfion he hach, t:i\ts cii3 Scripcure tdliricth'npc. . .^s 

Mars s / ? z. man he was ignorant of the day ot juqgeaicrntj vvrucn now m hea- 

M*«^g,i9. Vvn he kao wes.j as aii other things pertaining to his , office. ' How- 
: - ----- — - ■ - • g^^j. 

er htP ht is the Mediator eft he New TeUiment, 


Um coneerntt, 
omnei virtutes 
tale increment 
iu<ninea accc* 
pirunt, quaie in 
creaturam ca" 
Thijf, Theelog* 

ever therefore our Saviour had the habit of all knowledge from the 
beginning, yet he had not the ad: and ufe of it. Tha t which fome See Maidmau 
anfwcr, that Chrift by inf ufed knowledge knew all things, and af- in Luk. z 40, 
ter attained another kind of knowledge, which they call acquifite ^"*"^ votunttf 
Is not fo fit, becaule knowledge acquired and infufed of the fame 
things is of the (ame nature and condition, and two formes or qua- 
lities of one kind cannot be in the fame fubjed;. 

The fccond thing implied in Chrifts fitting at the right hand of 
the Father is to be admitted into divine bleflednefle, fetledly co en- 
joy itv Chrift as God ever had^ and could not but have that effen- 
tiall beatitude : and that blefledneffe which he receiveth as man is 
nottoha^^eend. The good that is in an intelleduall nature is of 
two forts : the one of vertue, the other of fweet, joy full and plea- 
ding delight : And though both thefe concurre (ometimes, as in the 
fruition of God in heaven, wherein the per fedion of vertue, and 
tulneflfe of joy and delight doe meet together : yea and though e- 
very thing that is vertuous be delightfuU, yet it is not fo much the 
height oF vertue, as of delight, that is judged happinefle. Now 
our Saviour Chrift was joyned to God by 

the affedipn of vertue or juftice , and Vtrnwicwpus chrifiiptwtt ((s" tamm 
could not be devided or feparated from '«^"^ior.e'», turn e0ifus qm/dam Dei- 
him, no no: for^a moment, becaufe he 'pJT'!Z:,:::Z:;:,:::'Z 

could not but loxe nim, teare him, trult m tamen mienefua, & hujus mmU tffz* 
him; but by the affedtion that feeketh "• ^ ■ - 
pleafing content in enjoying thofe ineffable 
delights and pleafures that are found in God 
our Saviour as man might ) and was for a 
time divided from God. Moreover our Savi- 
our Chrift in his life time here on earth, fo re- 
ftrained and kept within the clofet of his iecret Spirit, the happi* 
neffe that he enjoyed in feeing God, tha/it (hould not fpread far- 
ther, nor communicate it felfe to the inferiour faculties of his 
fbule, or impartthebrightneffeofittothebody, but it was fub- 
jed to mifery and paffion. The godly in this life doe taft not on- 
ly fome hope of heavenly life, but the firft fruits of this heavenly 
joy. The Church and every Saint is heaven : the fouleof the righ- 
teous is heaven. Our Saviour was both viator and comprehenlor, 
bleifed in this life, with that bleflednefie, which is not to be had 
but in heaven : but now our Saviour advanced on the right hand 

S f of 

Rit fiui. Can lii, iz. cap. i^, 
Maldonat inMat.x6. Ifa 53.4. Joh. 
46. Hcb. 4. If. Job, 14,231, Prov. 
15. » 5. Chamier. temtz. ifb'y. cap 20» 
Nu/ius compreben^er eft obnoxius uliU ca- 

2 14 ffow ChriB hath fulfilled the 0pce ofuediateur^ 

of God, isadmitced into that incomprehenfible, glorious, fetled 

blefledneffe , never to fuflfer the leaft ecclipfe for one moment 

. - ,., . which doth communicate it felfe to' 

CUm Panft. torn. i. Itb 4. cap 4 and?, n ^.^.^p^^ „f r„,,i_ „ . , , ^^"^ S" 

Mar.E/.2. tP^ti,Bi.. ticb.iz.%, Phil. P P^^^^n^^ -"^^ T ^^^y' ^^*' *^ Tew conmfiari, doiere, ^ pati IS ana laaii remame tor ever incorrupt 
nonpotefii cuid.ivmaheutitudots' impafft' tiblc, impatible , immortall, encrealed 
j>?/i/<M -uere (ir rea/ifcr eommmkata fuit. with ftrength and nimblenefle fhinine 
z;r^». Tom,i, cofej^. de perf»n, chrift. -^yith brightnefle and glory celeftiall and 
f '^•^oz. divine. 

Thirdly, our Saviour Chrift as man is taken to have prcro^ya- 
tivc before every other creature. For this phrafe of fectin^ at \is 
right hand, noteththepreheminenceof feim, as next to God:him- 
fclte : that looke as one made a King, hath a dignity above all per- 
fons named in his Kingdome, Dukes, Earles, Lbrds : So our Sa- 
viour takenup as man to this kingly dignity, muft needs be in 
preheminence before them. It is no v^ronder, for this nature d- 
fentially appertaineth to that perfon, which made all thefe things 
vifible and invifible. Againe, every p.^rfon, the nearer he is in con! 
Coll i^Tob i^n<^ion of bloud to an earthly King, the more he hath prerogative 
i.ll Heb uz\ at)ove Others, more dif-jbyned : (o this created nature, feeing it 
3.* Rcvcl,4 ult' is made one perfonally with God, by how imuch it is mare nearely 
united, by fo much it is fit that itftiould have prerogative: before 
others. Not tofpeake, that being heire of ail things, it is meec 
that he (hould be before all, who are but parts of his inheritance 
and having more excellent endowments, I . mcane created gifts 
than any other, it is meet he Hiould have the firft place before all 
other. Chrift isfet farre above all principality, and power, and 
might, and domination •. which words are commonly under- 
ftood of the Angels, but the two firft words may fitly be inter- 
preted as names of excellency found in this prelent world. For 
principalities and powers when they are put for angelical natures 
they are not termed (o fimply, but with an addition to the place * 
but thele words put for humane excellencies, we reade them fim- 
ply, without any thing added. And this diftribution of power 
Ephef.i.:o. <*V^;, principatu^ dicun- "^5^^^ i" ^j^'S World, and m that to come, 
?«r. Rom.8.j8. Luk. sa 14. srgnificat refpeCteth lomething in this enumeration 
etiamturmai. iSain.n.n. Epu i-io fbre-named , the former thefe two firft 
^e;?;;fyft?,^^. named , the latter the couple follow 

16. 'Druf. pxteuin Rem. 8.3g.Z>«o<^ ibid, ^' 


@r how he is the Mediatour of the New TeBament, 


; Fourthly, Cbrift not only as God, but as man hath power a- 
bove every creature : As Mediatour he hath received a power im- 
pcriall over every creatare : which is apparant in this, that the A- 
poftlc faith, Cbrift is fo placed above all, that all arc fub jc(5i: un- 
der his feet. Tome is given all porver in Heaven and earth : that is, 
power whereunto every creature is fubjc^. He fpeaketh of it as 
done, bccaufeitwasimmediatly to be performed. Thisperfon 
as God, receiving by voluntary difpcnfation this honour from the 
Father, that he fhould in an immediate and appropriate manner 
execute government over all creatures in heaven and earth j the 
{ame perfon as man participating in this Kinglydivine authority, 
fo farrc that he; (hculd inftrumentally concurre in executing all 
that jwdgcmcnt which Cbrift according to his divine nature did 
principally cflfeA. Though the Father and the Spirit have a right 
and fo.veraignty over the creature, yet they doe not immediatly 
execute this in fuch manner as the Sonne doth, who hath received 
a right of executing immediatly and in a manner appropriat to his 
perfon, the foveraigne dominion of God over every creature. The 
Sonne by voluntary difpenfation fent by the Father, did emptie 
himfelfeofcxcrcifing and Hie wing forth his right and dominion 
over every creature : and the Father by voluntary difpenfation doth 
refigne to the Sonne the immediate execution of all power over 
every creature, till that time that all things be fubdued under him. 
This the Scripture doth lay downs, as in regard of earthly pow- 
ers they are fubjedt ; for he is ruler of the Kings of the earth. He 
hath this royall ftatc written on his thigh, as it were King cf 
Kings, LordofLordSj^^t'.ip.i^. That he hath power oyer the 
Angellsis plaine, both by the reverence they doe him, and their 
obedience towards him. Every knee boweth unto him, the cvill 
Angells yeeld fignes of fubje<ilion, either deceitfully to wrong 
ends, orby force compelled, though their ftate is fuch they can- 
not doe it rcligioufly as the other. And if Cbrift have power to 
fend forth, difpofe of, and imploythe Angells, he hath power 
to take account bow that he fcttcth them about is difchardged. 
The evill Angells could not enter the Swine without his Icavc^and 
they arefubjcd; to his judgement : when the Saints (hall Judge 
the Angells, what power bath Chrift himfelfc this way ? And 
as for the excellencies on earth, they all receive their power from 
Chrift, and are at his difpofc : yea the Apoftle faith. He is cro w- 

Sfa ncd 


EpheCl. II, 
He6. 2. 8,5. 
Macth. i8< i^. 
Cbrifii domini- 
ura, I. EJfen^ 
terno hahet 
cetnmune cum 
Patre, i.Vi. 
carium feu Afe- 
diatorium quad 
habet a Patre^ 
in cuius loeum 
quafi/uecedit. Heb; 

Rer. I, y. 

Heb. I, 4,6, 
<?ol. a. 10, 


Horv Chrifi hdth fulfilled the office ofMediatottr, 

Heb.i. 7j8« 

Jok 17. a- 

€amer, in Heb. 
7,8. Par. Ibid, 
jintithejii eft 

: inter Chtifti 

ad desetrant Pa^ 
triii (^ expien . 
ftata nofira. 

cusrit /» Chit. 
fio (i.)P\ 
Chriflura, tnb'* 
h e t&ta'in ec' 

ned with glory and honour, and all things are put under his feet: 
The Apoftle fpcakcs of that dominion which Chrift received over 
all the creatures of God, none excepted % but if all things be fub-^ 
jedtcd to the feet of Chrifl:, is not the humane nature every where? 
No : for the phrafe in Scripture is not to be underflood of fubje» 
6lion locall or corporall, but imperiall j fc. that the man Chriii 
is King of heaven and earth, having all things fubjedcd to his 
command. This power and glory which Chrift as man received 
is not infinite fimply, for then it fhould be the deity it felfe, which 
hefhould not have had in the ft ate of humiliation : but the deity 
he had before, not by habituall infufion, but : by perfonall union; 
And if Chrift by vcrtue of the hypoftaticall union had received all 
fulneffc of the God-head, that iSj all divine Properties, as fomc 
interpret it, it is not poffiblchc (hould have received greater or 
more ample glory : for greater then that which is infinite cannot 
bebeftowcd. But the Scripture fpeaketh cxpreflbly, that Chrift 
as man was truly and really glorified, or that he obtained that glo- 
ry and Majcfty which before he had not, fc. as man. And if the 
humane nature be infinite or eternall of neceflity the Incarnation 
of Chrift, and fitting at the right hand of the Father muft be real- 
ly the fame, if they bcnot abolifhed, and the humane nature made 
cquall unto, if not the fame with the divine. 

The right hand of God abfolutcly confidcred muft not fo be in- 
terpreted, as if it was all one with the phrafe of fitting at the 
right hand of God. For by the right hand of God is fignificd his 
power, wifedome, protedion, providence, &c. but by the other, 
the exaltation of Chrift, and communication of Ma jefty and rule, 
which he may excrcife and (hew forth every where, without the 
omniprcfence of his humane nature. Neither ar&we to imagine 
that Chrifl: hath allthings or places or times fofubjededto him- 
felfe, that he doth forth-with change their natures by this fubje- 
dlon, much leffe that he doth make them to be and not to be at 
the fame time ; as to make all places to be one indivifible title, 
or all times to be one point : for lb it (hould be divifiblc and indi*; 
vifible, the fame and not the fame together. 

It is objecledj that the fulncfie of the God-head d wclleth bodi- 
ly in Chrift, that is, the whole efftnce, Ma jefty and glory of God 
d welleth in the humane nature. And we are to conceive the per- 
£bn there fpoken of, fc. the beloved Sonne as man, as incarnate. 


crhorvheis the Udmour of the Nm Tenement. 317 

The reafon is, bccaufc the fccond pcrfon in Trinity, the Sonne of ^^^^^. 
God abfoluteiy confidered, hath all fulnefle, not by voluntary dif- nitudoefiuni- 
penfation, but by naturall neccflity, in as much as the eternall Fa- ver/a Tiei vo- 
ther never was, nor could be without his eternall Sonne, God imtM cir Ma- 
with himfclfe. In Chriil his perfon there is a threefold tulneffe : iefias^^mmm 
the firftfundamentall,fc. the fulnelTi of the divine nature, which ^''^I'eflS 
doth pcrfonally dwell with that man-hood in Chrift, whence it jebet.ij/ ■ 
comes to paffe, that this man is truly called God, that is, the man- zfrfm. Vbifu' 
hood taken intofellowfhipcfthefelfeperfcd and eternall perfon praPag.bou 
of the Sonne of God, ib that it is become as a part othis perfon, Omnupienitw 
Thefecondisthefulnefle of office, to which even Chrift man is fj^'^,'^^^'^^ 
called. For in regard of his humane nature now united to the fc- ^^ homim, nom 
cond pcrfon, heis mancalledtobetheChriftof God, that is, an- ftcutin alys 
rjomted our Prophet, Prisft and King. The third the fulnefTs of fanau, gratiA 
created or habitual! graces, wherewith the foule of Chrift is fil- '^^^'^^ ^« ^*» • 
led, which are not divine properties, (for no created gift canbe ^'^S^^'" ' 
a Propcrtie divine) bat effeds which the God^ head worketh di- rclucmmni- 
ftinft from it, as the foule giveth life to the body. Now for the q^tme /m 
dwelling of all fulneffe in Chrift man, the latter two are in him confimarione, 
fubjedivcly.the former,that as the God-head doth dwell in Chrift A''s^^«^' a«w- 
man, not as in the Saints by relation of lo^e and communion of the ^^"f .^i*J^„7 
cflfeas of it in grace ; nor ss in she glorified Saints in regard of a- ZitJfmdl^- 
boundant love manitefted in the gift of glory ; nor any fuch (im- nature mfspe- 
pie cohabitation; but it dwelleth in the manhood as with a nature rabiiiter & ^et^^, 
which is taken to unity of psrfon in the Sonne of God, and fo is fsnaliter* 
through grace become of the fubftance of the Iccond perfon. So * ^^'^'^' * ^^ 
that Chrift as man hath the fecond perfon of Trinity , God with 
the Father and Spirit dwelling pcrfonally in it : (o that this man- 
hood is ctfeatially and fubftantially coupled with the deity in uni- 
ty of one fclfc-perfed and eternall pcrfon. Chrift man is fitly 
called God, and therefore in Chrift man the God-head is fiid to 
dwell properly : b'it Chrift his humane nature may not be faid to- 
be God, and therefore the God-^head is not fo fitly faid to dwell in* 
the humane nature as in the pcrfon denominated after it, that is,, 
in Chrift man 

It will be faid, if Chrift rule in the midft of his enemies, then ic. 
muft follow that he is every where prefenc. 

But that is fpoken of the perfon, and not of the man-hood alone,, pfal. i g o» 3„_ 
and what is faid oi the perfon doth not neceflarily belong to both, 

S i 3 naturcso. 

3 1 8 Horv ChrlH hath fulfilled the oftcc ofMediaidur, 

. " — ■ — ■■ ■ ■ II ■ TWW 

natures. And Chrifts dominion over all things doth not require 
his corporall prefence with all things. Ac- 
Jc>h.8.s8. Chriftinrefpeaof his di. cording to his divine nature, he is, every 
'::::J^:::::^'^'Z!;^^;^:!:i whereWent according to thee^eas^of h. 
cffeftuall prefence of bis body, he en- providence,wifdom,power,grace,e^c. accor- 
treth the foulcs , and ftrengtbenerh ding to his humane nature he is eflentially in 

the hearts of all the faicbfull, by the heaven, and now only in heaven, but his do- 
power of his grace and truth of his pro. niinion is over all things : which doth 
raife Hphcf.i.iz, Col.2 lo. iC^t.ti, j r ■ 

r Chriftistbe firft-borne, Col.i.tS. "ot denote foveraignty, power or omni- 
Heb. i.a,4. and beire of all things, prelence effentially divine, but glory and 
%Cot.4-^' Majefty next to divine, as was faid be- 

The fift thing implied in Chrifts fitting at the right-hand of the 
Tatheris, that in fpeciall he is the head of his Church. The word 
Head is uCed fometime for one who in any kind is before or above 
other: and in this large fence, Chriftis the Head of the Angels, 
that is, their ruler or governour, one that is above them ; man is 
the Head of the woman, Chrift of man, God of Chrift. But here 
* .it fignifieth that Chrift is fo over his Church, that he is in a more 
neare and communicative fort conjoyned with it, as the head is 
with the body and members. Looke as the King hath a more in- 
timate and aimiable fuperiority over his Queen than over any other 
fubj'eds, fo it is here in Chrift our King, whofe dominion towards 
his Church, who is his Spoufe and Queen, is more aimiably tem- 
pered and nearly affeded, then is his government over any other. 
Chrift hath taken the (elfefame holy and fpirituall nature with his 
Church, ftanding as well of chat which is outward and fenfitivc, 
as of that which is inward and intellcduall. The faichfuU are uni- 
ted to him here by knowledge of faith and love, fuch as Chrift 
himfelfeby his Spirit begetteti in them, as hereafter by glorious 
light and love. He doth communicate unco them that whole ife 
of grace and glory, which they have or ftiall receive ; dired: and 
move them oucwardly by his fignifying will, and inwardly by fen- 
ding his Spirit, which moveth with efficacy to that which he 
ftiewech; andfolloweth them with aides inward and outward, 
leaft cheir faith iliould be prevailed againft. Though betwixt the 
faichfall and Chrifts naturall body there be a bodily diftance, yec 
the Splric which commeth from Chrift doth lo pyne them witf» 
iiim, chat nothing commpth cwixt him and them. The fame life 


or hm he is the MedUteur of the New TeUament. 319 

of grace for kind, which is in Chrift,is in every faithful! foule,as fire 
kindled & fire kindling is of the fame nature. And Chrift having ful- Jf^Ji*/^^^?"!' 
neffe of grace and glory for all his, he cannot be but moft ready to TutyquateniL"' 
communicate with them every thing for their good. Chrift is the pomundi vita 
Head of his Church, both as God and man our Mediatour. For data eft, ^ fide 
did not the divine nature, which is the fountaine of all lite natu- ^"oi'i* mandu- 
rail and iupernaturall dwell with this man or humane nature, . we J^^"*"' ^.*"^ ^^^ . 
could not be enlightned or quickned by it. He that eateth my flefh rTttfimui^l\ 
(faith Chrift) hath life in hirru ; not that this nature of ic fdfe jufmodi eficZ 
can doe thefe things, but becaufe the Ddty dwelleth with it, and ci<e, qu^ Msdi- 
byitasbyaninftrumentjoyned perionally withit, dorh properly ^^'oruperfonse 
and efficiently workc thefe things. The omnipotent pow^r of W'"^^ cenve- 
creating fpirituall graces is not in the humane nature, nor the om- Repjiatabiff 
nipotent actions which doth produce them, doe or can proceed 2Je«, &him, 
from the humane nature : but they are in God only, and from divim&hu-' 
God in and with the humane nature, working to the fame effedls, "'^^'t voiunta' 
according to its property. Chrifts humane nature hath both under- ^^f*^ "'*^"' . 
ftanding and will whereby he worketh, and is an internall infttu- pnpt'j^pa/rent 
ment united within the perfon of God the Son, as a part of his Jf>h6,j7. 
pcrfon in a fort, yea more neerly : but thefe divme works, which Fstm d patte 
Chrift the Mediatour worketh, the chiefe vertue and adion, which ^<»^^' xtemam 
properly effei^eth them is in God, not communicated really with ^ ^mreatam 
the other nature, though it doth worke them in this humane na- ^^'lao/a^^o; 
lure with it, yea and by it,as a moft nearly cdnjoy ned mftrumenc, dm beatam Irl^ 
which within the perfon of God the Son hath his proper adtions wamvttamha- 
concurring in an inferiour degree of efficiency to that which the ^et:ut Medra^ ■ 
divine nature properly and principally worketh. ^od worketh ^'>^'^^tam bea- 
graces, Chrift- man worketh the lame : tne divine nicure crea- ^^^l^^^^l^J' 
r-!th them and infufeth them into this or that man, through tioletnvionm 
Chrift man being as a common conceptacle or conduit- pipe. The acqmfuju,^^ 
humane nature worketh them not by powertull creating them, but dtvinafm vir- 
by taking away fin and the caufe, that lo way might be made for *^^ ^!* "^^^ 
this promifed Spirit; by interceding Mediator-like for chem; and (£f^'', 
by willing the going ot fuch graces from him, as. who is with God gee F/e//of the 
tie Son but one worker, though a diftmd principle of working, C7nuuh.!ib 5. 
that is, though diftinfl in nature, yet the fame perfon. He there- ^ 'p. 1 &. 
fore worketh them as his own workes, from his owne power : ^okUart. j-, de 
fm Gods power is by unity ot perlon made his, the divine power P^^M^^"fi* 
notbeingwithout him, as the power of another perlon then he is 

' . biic 

3 2 o How Chrifi hath fulflledthe office ofMediamr, 

p.ij6,Peti(ata but being perfonally with him. And thofe things which his hu- 
T^^^i^7 ""' mane nature workethjwhich are wrought after his humane nature, 
mtimmidd the workes not of an humane, but a divine perfon .- for though 
tarn bumana the nature, according to which they are wrought, be humane, yet 
quum divina the perfon working is the perfon of the Sonne of God. Hence it 
fua voluntate; is that Chrift-man doth give graces attthorimtive & effective, 
stamen non yg^ according to humane adlion doth eff eft them in the 
^cttlidumHm- *^'gheft degree that an inftrumentall operation can effed any 
namnaturam thmg. 

ab ip/bproce» S^ Paul gives graces by laying on of hands with prayer, ««/»«. 
dat jncordano' fierialiter, not as his worke, but as intreating it from God in 
burn?/iTr^ Chrift, and fignifying what God doth in Chrift ; not from any 
/umopereturT power any way within his perfon, but the power of another; non 
nametiampro' asconjoyned withGod, as the body with the foulc, but as an in- 
tend sp.s, & ftrumenc with God. Chrift the Head of his Church is over all, to 
operatio per ip . whom all things arc fub jed. He who muft be a fa ving head to us, 
um'ienlui' there is great need he (hould be over all. Could he noc bind thac 
obm : alterum ^tong one, and caufe him re-deliver his poileflion, how (hould 
ad intra, alte. We ever be fet at liberty ? Could he not diflblve the worke of Sa- 
rum ad extra : tan, fwallow up death, create life and quickning in us, our cale 
ftdutetiamhw were lamentable ? 

7fvduiZT ^^^ ^^^^ ^^'^^^ implied is, That Chrift God and man is the ob- 
'opnaihnm J^^ of divine odoration. Let all the Angels of heaven worihip 
Tieitatu fux him. ny^ll k^ees pyall how unto hitn, (^All fhall honour the Sonne ^ 
innobii as they honour the Father, Tee believe in God, believe al^ in 

Hcb,i.6. ;»<?,. (aith our Saviour. In him Jhall the Gentiles truli. So Ste- 

Pfy 7. Fhii.z. ^^^ called upon the Lordjefus iaiying. Lord fefm receive my fpirit, 
1^*4 °iViot)'. -^"^ ^^" Apoftles in the entrance of their Epiftles defire grace and 
f,z%. \?\a Z.I ».' peace from God the Father,and from our Lord Jefus Chnft,not the 
Joh.j.if, 16,17 Lord of Jefus Chnft,as fome Heretikes would corrupt the textjand 
g8356joh.6 z9 £q jjj [hj. ihutting up of their ^^i{k\tS-^The grace of our Lordjefus 
& IS |6. Joh. (jyi^^ I Cor.l%,2Z.GaL6.i%.i Cor,i^.i^.Phil.^.2S.l Thef$, 
xtrt;!;"!:!!: i^.z^./.S-l^. Philemv.2S. 2Tim.^Z2. 
Aa 7.59,60, Butlomeobjeft that if adoration be due to Chrift God and 
2job.3.Rcv.i, man,then it will follow,that the humane nature is omnilcient and 
4>?.R.o.i'7'Syj:. almighty: which followeth not, becaufe that which is Ipoken of 
^C^'^*i'^Co, tjie concrate or whole perfon, is reftrained to the one nature, 
Ephf-f i>z!^* which (hould not be. The perfon adored or called upon is man, 
s ri«i.i/;. ^^^ the humanity it felfeonly or ioicly, or in it felfe properly ta- 

$r hew he is the Medimur efthe Hew TeBament, 321 

ken, is not the proper fubjed or objefl of that- worOiip. Albeit 
we may and fhoiild adore the man Chrift with divine worfliip, yet 
may we not adore his man-hood, or his fiefh and bloud. Becaufe 
though the man Chrift be God, yet his man-hood is not God, and 
by confequence not to be worfhipped with that v/orfliip which is 
properly and eflepcially divine. Againe, if adoration agree to the 
humanity oi Chrift, then may his humanity helpe and favc us. But 
the humanity ofChrift cannot hdpe and (ave us : becaufc omnis 
fiEiio eB fkppofiti, whereas the humane nature ofChrift is not (up* 
pofitum. None ck thofe who defend the adoring of the huma- 
nity of Chrift with divine worftijp, doe well and warrantably ex^ 
preffe their opinion. 

Firft, Some of the Schoole-men have found none other refped Aqmn,%, ( 
wherefore the man-hood ofChrift can be laid to be adored, except Aruy, 
this, that the f^efti of Chrift is adored by him who adoreth the 
word incarnate, even as the Kings cloathes are adored by him who 
adoreth the King. And thus they make the flefh of Chrift to be 
adored only by accident. Bgo vera (faith the Arch-biftiop of 'DtKep.K^U 
Spalato) nottpHto a cjuoquam Regit veftimenm, qnibHS efi in- ii^*7-cap»ii.i9^ 
df/tus,adorari. And why doth he that worfhippeth the King, wor- *^* 
ihiphis cloathes more then any other thing that is about him, or : 

befide him, perhaps a Hawke upon his hand ? &c. There is no 
more but the Kings owne perfon fet by the wor(hippcr to have any 
ftate in the worship, and therefore no more worfliipped by him. 
Others devife another refped: wherefore the man- hood of Chrift 
may be faid to be worfliipped^ namely, that as the divine worfliip 
agrees only to the God- head, 2indnoz per (d»is pracue fumptis, i, Prsxiarasx^ 
(lib ratione jdrmalicoKJiitHtivaperfonarum qua, eft relatio, but ^^J*^y ^^^i^f* 
only as thefe relations identtficamur with the effence of the God- ' nguart.i • 
head : fo the man-hood of Chrift is to be adored, N on per fe pra- . 
else, fed profit fuppofimtur a Deo, But ii by fteppoji tat ur they ■ 
meane ( as they muft meane ) that the man-hood is aiTumed into ■ 
the unity of the perfon of the Sonne of God ( for otherwife if they v 
meane, that the man-hood is made a perfon, they arc N eftorians) "^ ' 
that which they lay cannot warrant the worftiippmg of the man- 
hood with divine woriliip : becaule the man-hood,even after this 
aflumption and hypoftaticall union, isftillforall th-it a creature, 
and a diftind nature from the God-head, fo that it cannot yet be 
iaid to be worfhipped with divine worlhip. 

Tt D^ Field 

322 How Chnft hath fulfilled the office ofMediateur, 

' , • D^ F*>/ilayech out a third way : foe whiles he admictech the 

mil^i^'^^ phrafe of the Lutherans, who % not only concrecively, that the 
. j.s^p.i ,. ^^^ Chrifl: is oainipotent, but the huininity alfo : he thus diftin- 
guiilieth; when we fpeakc, faith he, of the humanity of Chrift, 
ibmetiines we underlland only that hunaae created cffence ot a 
mm that was in him, fprnetimes all that that is implied in the 
being of a manjas well fubfiOtence as eflfence. Bat this difliinflion 
is as if a man ihould fay, fometimes by blackneffe I underftand 
blackneffe, and fometimes the (ubjefl; wherein it is together with 
the blacknefle it felfe. An ablira;^ is no niore an abltrad it it have 
Aqu.'i,iu.ii. a fubliilence. It is the tenet of the Sehoole, that though in God 
«f^'». the concrete and the abfttad differ not, becauCe Dens & 'DeitM 

are the(ame, yet in creatures ( whereof the man-hood of Chrift 
is one) they are really different. For the concrete iignifiech fome- 
thing compleat fubfiliing, buc the abilrad ( fach as humanity ) 
iignitieth Something not as fubiiiliing, buc as that whereby fome- 
thingis.' Wherefore when fome fay, theflelli of Chrift is to be 
adored, the fpeech is not proper, buc figurative : becaufc properly 
lib Tcapitf' ^^* fieQi, fecHndumfe, is not adored, bscaufe it is a creature, buc 
" ' ' - ^ ' Godmaniteftedin theflefli. But here it is to be noted, that the 
Scripture fpeaketh of worfhip which is gracioufly communicated 
of the Father to Chrift as Mediatour, and not (imply oi that which 
J V ^ is given unco him as the only begotten Sonne of God. As God 

loh,%^}.6. h^^h exalced him, fo he hath gracioufly communicated this honouE 
and dignity ofworiliipuncohim as God and man. The adoration 
chemmi.hAnni oFChrift ma/ be coniidercd two wayes : either as it doth refpe(ft 
';-^^i ' the effentiali properties ot the God-head alone, or the properties 

of both natures and the orKce o[ Chrift. If it relped the proper- 
ties of the God-head alone, adoration is predicaced of the perfon 
denominated from either, or both natures, and is underftood to 
be true of i\\\ c perfon according to the divine natare,as the effential 
properties therafeives are underftood to be true of that perfo accor-- 
diog to the divine nature. But if adoration rcfpedl the properties of 
Sbhnm,iin,%, 5oth natureF,^nd the o:iice ofChriftjit is Ipokeo of the perlbn accor- 
dspeffofhibrrf, ^i^g tobotli natures^ and is underftood to be trucj bat the diffe- 
'^^'^ " renceofboth natures b;ring kept. For we aske blellings of Chrift 

,Godani man, in performing whereof, we defire and underftand 
that he doe wtiat is proper to the Deity according to the Di- 
■sfiiif-j auj proper to th^hUvTianity according tg the huimnena- 


cr hm k is the mdiatour of the New TeBamem, 223 

turc. For as the office, fo adoration rcfpcding the office, doth 
not take away the difference of natures, that is,doth not confound 
or equall the naturcs,or the properties of the natures. So we crave 
of God, that he would intercede for us, which he doth accor- 
ding to both natures, becaufe Interceffion is the office of the 
whole perfon: which parts in this office he pcrformes one 
way according to his Deity, another according to his hums- 
nity,and fo of the reft. 

Chap. Ill I. 

Horv ChriB doth bring his feo^le into Covemm, 
or fellow fhif mth h'pmjelf^^. 


Hrift being appointed of the Father the King and Head of 
his Church,and after a moft excellent manner thereunto an- 
nointed and advanced of the Fathcr,and having fubjeds given un- 
to him, it cannot be but he maft have his Kingdome and fub jeds 
He is a King as in perfonall right, fo in ad : He hath his King- 
dome and territories wherein he excrcifeth his regali power. He 
is a King as to punifli enemies, fo 10 feed and governe his peo- M«i7.<^^. 
pie, which arc given unto him to be made obedient unto his 

The way whereby Chrlft enters upon his kingdome,is ever bv 
Conqueft . For though the foules of the Eled are his, given by 
free donation purchafed with a great price, yet his enemies have vh\6%^% 
the firft pofTcffion, which muft be cad out by ftrong hand jand his it'lfl ,« 
people themfclves by nature rebellious, unwife, difobedient, until! Joh.^.jfe. ' ' 
they be lubducdand brought into fubjeaion. High imaeinati- As for the 
ons muft be abated, and proud rebellious lufts battered and beaten """'^^ °^ '^^ 
downe before Chrift come to rule and reigoe in thefoule. The fef^i!""? 

n^rtTa'^ a"'"'"V5 r f ^^^ ^^P"^'^ '' ^^^^ by an ho- he ha /aT/;;' 
ly warre, deftruAion and defolation j wherein the Kinc^ oi kings ^U in hh^h'y 

faghtcth againft,fubdueth, and bringeth under the difobedient, proceed only of 

Which tormerly did rife up againft him. But this wafting or de- ^"^"^ ^oiyGhoft. 

folation isnotthelofreofcemporalllife,or fpoiling of ^rporaU wS/^''^"' 

Tt 2 goods, ' 

1 24 HotP chriU doth bring his feofle'ints Covenant, 

goods, or any outward dcfolation which is feen with the eyes, cr 
heard with the eares ; but a moft happy defolation,whereby pride 
and haughtinefla of minde is dcpreffed, and the mindelifwd up 
to things above ; the power o* the fleih is qaellcd, and the Spirit 
doth gather Ctrength ; the edge of vices is dulled, and all kinde of 
vcrtue doth bui and bloflbme : and where the flefli did rule, the 
Spirit doth rule. 

But what thcn,dotb Chrift compell men to fub/etfl themfelvej 
unto him? In no fort, but of unwilling he makes themwillinfy 
.. totally or throughly willing. The people of Chrift arc free arid 

ExVd gf',**!. ''foluntary, who cffcr thenrjfdvcs willingly unto the Lord, and 
achro /o.8. yeeld themfelvcs unto his fervice. Therefore they arc faid to 
joh,6.4f . come unto Chrift,to runne unto him, to ferve him with a perkft 
Ifai.55 J. hearf,and a willing cninde. 

a Chron.48.9, j^gjj jj.g gathered into the Kingdome of Chrift by cfFeduall 

holy vocation, whereby Chrift doth not only invite them by his 

a Tim.i.9i Word to repent and belecve,but by his Spirit doth affuredly bring 

(hem unto himfelf, or unto the participation of the Covenant of 

Rom.S.iS mercy. Vocation according to the purpofe of God is free, not 

depending upon any precedent condition on our part required, or 

whereby we are fitted or prepared to receive grace ofl&red, noc 

Upon the good ufe of any naturall gift vouchfafed. Juftification is 

of grace by faith in Chrift, and To is Salvation : but Vocation is of ^'^<2 g^«c^ without any condition at all. It is mt of him that 

'^illeth, nor of him that runneth , hut of God that Jheweth mercy -^ 

lph.z.4,f, ^[,0 of his rich mercy quickneth them that are dead in finne, and 

Ifa!.6f.i.i. ^3{i\^^^ehold rne^xoihcm that inquire not after him 5 and hideth 

Maciuaj,* . the great things of the Gofpell from the wife and prudent, but 

jrcvealeth them unto babcs^ according to that good pleafure of-his 

lofijiAs. ^^^^' '^^^^ Abraham was called, when be fcrved other gods i 

K&'^^eT and Ta/^/, when he breathed out threatnings againft the Saints a 

Mait.9.9^ and MAtthevi>,yfihsxi he iate at the receipt of cuftome. 

The perfons called into fellowftiip with Chrift, arc all and on- 
MaE.11.27, ly they that arc given unto him of the Father. To thefe Chrift 
Kev. revealeth the Father ; thcfe open unto Chrift, and he commcth,if, untojhem: for them he hath laid downc his life; they (half 
3oh.i7.9j,zo, heare his voyce ; for them he hath prayed that they might 
Joi!*io.a8c, belecvc through the Word, and unto them be will give ctcr» 
MdsjF.a. iiail Iife» 

. The 

or Feiiowfhif with hmfelfc^,, ^25 

The Subjeds called in the Kingdoire cf grace, or under the 
new Covenant, are Jewes and Gentiles, both necre and farre 
off, bat fpecJaliy the Gentiles, when the Jewes were broken off iviau,8.ii,ij, 
for a time. UHanj Jhall come from the Safi and fVefi, and fhdl fit Aa-a.3». 
do-wn Vfith Ahrahamt and IfiaCj and f-acob in ike Kingdome of reii «>/:/.<*- 
Heaven, and the children of the Kin^dotne Jhall he cafl eut into x£5<»'j''^«« (fi 
utter darknejfe. The promife is made to yon, and to jour children^ T^'^^cmf^'i 
and to all that are afarre off, even as many oithe Lord jour Qod es^^pnepo}. 
fhall call. To all that are afarre />ff, th at is, to th e Gentiles, at that mnm u^ejuf. 
time removed from the Covenant, but in time to be brought back, modi adverbih 
or gathered to Chrifts fold. The time of ignorance god regarded <idjufi£famftpi 
notyOY was highly difpleafed vjhhii>fftnorp he admemjlisth aR men r'^^'^^f' 'f^'*- 
everj "^here to repent, "Be^ it k»oyv»e therefore mtojou, that this Sal- Ti-^J'^^lu- 
^ation of gvdiifent to the gentiles. Chrift therefore isfaidtobe nm^jubadye^i. 
the light of the Gentile J, ihzt he (hould be the Salvation unto the fvem^cras.H? 
end of the world. In this fenfe is that of the Apoftle to be under- '^Jh^^^uc^ m 
Ctood, pyho'^ill that dR men Jhallhe faved, and come unto the k^ovf^ e^B.femel, 
iedge of the truth : fir there is one god^and one Uiiediatmr betwixt zndxl'lt' 
God and man, the man ChriB fefus. Thou hafl redeemed m to^ and sj.46,47, 
god by thy bloudy cm of every kinred, and tongue , and people. Rev. 5.9. 
and nation. 

The terme or point from which they are called,is Satan,finnc, ~. 
and the world ; Satan as a Tyrant holds men captive at his will, * ^Jn'^-ip* 
untill Chrift that is ftronger then he, binde I im, and caft him out, 
Satan holds them captive through ignorance; having put out Aa.j<5;i8, 
their eyes of underftanding, and through their inordinate af- * Cor. 4.4, . 
fcftions, and luftsjwhcreby they are drawn afide : vvhileft we arc Ep^*^'*. 
under the Law,fin hath dominion ever us, that we obey it in the ^°"''*^'MaMs. 
lufts, and give up our members as weapons of unrightecufneiTe to . * *'' 
commit wickednclTe, 

The fubjcdl or matter of Vocation,are men naturall, worldly, Tir.i.xa, 
animal, carnall finners,ftrangers from the life of God, dead in apet.'i.4, 
fins, and therefore unworthy to be called, and not only unable to Ephia.i i,iii 
make anfwer, but wilful] and rebellious to refift and refufe' the ^"'^ 5-* 4. 
call and invitation of the Gofpeli; Men walking in the vanity "[^p*^'^^' . 
of their mindc, having their cogitations darkened, ferving Caui.V"' 
dumbe idoK £ph.V 1*7,18. 

If it be faid, the Scripture mentioncth (bmcthat were wor* 
tby of their calling or of peacethat was offered. That is not robe ^^'^•*o.ij,ia^ 

Tt3^ ' under-. '^- 

^26 Hov Chnfl doth bring his people int9 Cdvenant^ 

underftood of any worthineffe of gracious acceptation that can be 
in a natural] man, upon the good ufe of naturall abilities and en- 
dowments, but of a further meafure of light,which the Lordim- 
parteth to them that are in part enlightened already. He fpeak- 
eth of the Jewes, amongfi: whom many were godly, but to 
whom greater light was to be granted^ the Melfiah being ex- 
hibited. He fpeakes not of the difference betwixt thefe to be cal- 
led, and others not to be called effedually , but of the difference 
between fome called already, and fuch as were of the number of 
them that were not called. The godly will not deny himfelf 
to be a loH fhecp, as he had need to be converted more and more. 
I Pet.»,9, If then the fubjed; of Vocation be man a finner, captive, dead ia 
Ephef.2.!,^,3, trefpalTcs, then the bound or terme from which he is called is the 
"*' 5« ftate of life animal, and of finne and mifery, becaufe of finne, fciL 

i^^^A^'.-'^R from guilt and condemnation, from the power and fervitude of 
finne. The terme unto wnich he is called is Cjod,or Chrilt, righ- 
teoufneff?, and Salvation, or cternall life. God the Father in his 
a Tim. 1.9. Sonne is both the author and the terme of Vocation; he of his 
1 Cor. 1,9. rich grace and mercy in Jefus Chrift calleth us to come unto him- 
sCor.i. 57,^8. fdf, from whom we had ftrayed and departed. Chrift alfo isthe 
sCcn 5. 18, 1 9j author of Vocation, and the terme wheteunto the called do come, 
^'^j' They are called unto the flatc of grace and i^rnaturall good,and 

zl'a,\?i4\s. ^^^ fpirituall blcflings in this lik^ commurron with Chrift in 
I Thef.a*!**. wbom is the fulneSe of grace and truth, and the ftate of glory 
Roin.8,z8^29, and confummate fruition of God. 

1 =>. Vocation is partly extemall , partly internall. Externall, by 

the Miniftery of the Word, ordinarily propounded by men, ex- 
traordinarily propoundedimmediately of God totheminde and 
will without the help of man, God doth fomstimcs ufe the mi- 
Jam.^.so, niftery of private pcrfons to bring men unto faith and repentance, 
and he is pkafed to blefls the word of Exhortation or admoniti- 
on fpokcn by them: but ordinarily he maketh ufe of his meffen- 
Mit.i§.s9 %o, gcrs and fervants to that purpofe. Therefore our Saviour fent 
1 Cor.|.5, forth his Difciples to preach unto all nations : and the Mini- 
^s7}^>9- fters are called Gods Fellow-helpers or Labourers, Planters, Wa- 

^ 5,°'^'f* '% terers, Minifters by whom the Church beleeveth. I deny not but 
Lcor.i?-'. * in fome cafes men may bs converted by reading, or f^udying the 
Eph.4./i',3i. Scriptures, feeing it is the matter and not the manner which 
doth convert; and it cannot be fhew^d that God will not work 

- -by 

6r FcUetvfhifwith himfelfc^^ ^ly 

by reading, when the preaching of the Word is not neglcded. 
The knowledge of arts and tongues may be acquired by good 
books, but moft ordinary by inftrudlion by lively voice : and beflr, 
when both arc exercifed with diligence and care : and h by tha 
reading ofthc Scriptures a man may obtainc faith, but mofl: com- 
monly it commcth by the hearing of faith, though they profit 
moft that joyn both together. 

The inftrumcnt of Vocation is the Word of God, or the Go- 
fpell of Jefus Chrift s I meane,the whole dodlrinc of the Cove- j^^^ 
nant, and not (imply the promifes of forgiveneflTe and eternall Gal.|.z/ ^* 
life in Jefus Chrift; which is called the hearing of faith, and H.^b.i.?, 
the word of faith, and the preaching of faith, the Gofpell of Rom.10.j7. 
Chrift, the preaching of Jefus Chrift, the word of reconciliation, I^3i.j3.s. 
So life and immortality is brought unto light through the Go- ^qJ^/j^^ 
fpell: and the Apoftles v/hvtrc-ever they came preached Jefus, an^"^'^,*,^^^/^* 
who unto them that are called both Tewes and Gentiles, is the and s6.t^, 
power and wifdome of God, ^od fiom tl:e begiming (faith the x Cor.f.iSjao, 
i\pqftle to the Thelfalonians) hath chofenjoii to Salvation^ i^wough ^ Tim. 1.9. 
(anBification of the Sfiritt and the faith of truth, 'thereunto he called ""•^•?' 
jotihy our (jojpelli to obminethe glory of our Lord ^efm Chri§i, If ^Xhef aV?'*^! 
the fight of mifery be neceffary to e&<5fuali calling,thac is mani- - • > *~ 

fcfted by the Gofpell : for it teachetb, that without faith it is im- 
poUible to pleafe God ; And if man ft and in need of a Saviour,.he 
is loft in himfdfe; (o the prcfcribing of the remedy doth difcovcr 
thenialady. Without hope oFpardon there is no true turning un- ^ 
to God : but the Gofpell propoundcth mercy to them that bum- 
ble their foules and confefte their (innes. If men may be perfwa* 
ded and drawn to come unto Chrift, allured and inticed by fair's 
andfweet promifes, thea the Gofpeii is the fole inftriinent cf 
converfion: butconverfion is a faire or flattering perfwahon, if H°f'^'^4« 
I may fo call it. Ferrours drive no man unto God cfthemfclves, ^P.'^' =^.'*7v 
but rather from him, unleilc he be pleaiid to work by them : «nd 
gentle perfwafions may prevaile, if God vouchfafe to put in witli 

God doth freely give his Word to whom he pleafe, as long 
as he pleafe, and in what manner it fccmeth bcft unto him in his 
infinite wifdome. he gave his Law unto ^j-acob^ hi Sm'tutes .and^ 
JudgeTftents unto Ifraeljje hath not dealt (oMth every Nation, The? PraL^.z. 
times, of igno.'a.Kc God regarded not- Greater/things Were- Aa.i/.jW; 


3 *^ ff<^^ ChrOidoth hmg hkfeofk int$ Covenm, 

Mat, 1 i.i|,t4. done in Capernaum, Chorazin, and Bcthfaida, then were done in 
A& «« TyrcandSidon,Sodono3 or Gomorrah. Tanl was forbidden to 

MatAo.fl preach the word in Afias and the Difciples,to enter into the 
wayes of Samaria. Greater mcanes God doth vouchfafe to them 
Eick.2.7. !^^^ 2f^ Worfe, and more meanes to them that be more obdurate 
and ^.7,8^11. i" their finncs • like to them that are unlike, and Icfierto them 
Aa.13.45, that be not To deeply plunged into profaneneffe. For Goddoi^h 
exhort them, that they might be inexcafable, that they might 
E2ek.2.j. know a Prophet had been amongft them; that it might be for 
mlXTlo ^ tcftimony againft them, that they might be hardened, and 
Mat*.i j.\4, *^^^ ^^^ §^°^y of God might be manifeftcd in the vcflfcls of wrath. 
I f , 1 6. ' Thus Chrift is ftt up for a fignc, that ("hall be fpoken againft, and 
Rom.g.ij. for a rock of offence, i Pet,2.j,S. The Word is a morall inftru- 
Luke 2.34* ixjent of converfion, which God is pleafed to ufe,. without which 
he doth not ordinarily work, but it hath no power of it felf to 
work: and therefore converficn is the imaicdiatc work of the 
holy Ghoft, not withftanding the mcanes which God ufcth in the 
turning of a (inner. Naturail inftrumcnts being moved have fomc 
power to worke of themfdves, or by their own faculty; morall 
not Co, The Word is a fit inftrument,thongh of it fclfc it hare no 
power to produce the etf"i(3;. For though converfion be not a 
bare morall perfwafion, yet it is efFedtcd by perfwafion, or at 
leaft not without perfwafion. In the change God dealeth with ' 
man as a reafonable creature or inftrument, which is to be renew- 
ed by grace, and allured by promifeSjfwect, pleafant, profitable, 
firmeandfure. Now the Word is very fit to convey thofe ad- 
mirable and moft forcible perfwafions from the care unto 
the foule. 

The Word is more generally publilTied in the times of the 

Golpeil and Kingdome of the Mefliah, then it had been in for- 

% Cor. y, 19. nier ages. God is in Chrift reconciling the world unto himfclfe, 

and hath committed unto us the word of reconciliation*. thcGo- 

Col.i.a^. fpellwhich hath been preached unto every creature under Hea- 

ven,that is,to all Nations, J ewes and Gentiles,and to all forts, and 

CoLi.^. fexes, noble, bafc, learned or unlearned, bonder free. And thus 

Mat,88.i9, 10. it did come unto them, they not minding it, or having it once in, their thoughts. And hereof this is an argument, that it commeth, 

not where it is fought, but where it is gainfaid. The Spirit was 

more abundantly poured forth upon the Church after theRefur- 


dr Fellow[hif withhimfdfc^. 

redion of Chrift : The Paftours of the Primitive Churches 

wer« faithfull and diligent : the primitive Chriftians did >Thcf,,.8, 

not hide their candle under a buOiell, but did fliine as lights to 

others, and labour their converfion : and the Gofpell lika the 

Sonne for clearnefle, did fprcad forth the beames of light more 

abundantly. ^ 

The Gofpell is more glorious then the Law or truth of Goi 
inanifdted in the old left a ment: that was as a Candle that 
could not fpread it light farre, this as the Sunnc difperfeth his 
beatncs farre and nigh. It is the miniftration of life, a quicknins * ^""^-l^U^^ 
lpir!t,theminiftrationofrightcourne/re, which Obaliendure for 7**'5',vo,u, 
ever, and in this rsfpea it doth exceed in glory, it is a Gofpell 
m of glory. Jf the types of Evangelicall things were glo- 
rious, how much more glorious mull the GofpsIIitfelf needs 
be ? The Gofpell is called a glorious Myftery, a royall Law a Q'^t'«y« 
mmiftration of glory, nay, glory it felf ; a glory which draw- ^'^'''\ , 
cth the ftudy and amazement of the moft glorious creatures i Thef .if 
unto It. iijci.i.i*. 

The publifher of the Gofpell, is Jefus Chrift, the only begotten ' * ' 

SonneofGod, whobeing in the bofome of the Father, thetruth Joh.,.18. 
It Icitc, and molt famiharly acquainted with all his Counfdls hath 
revealed and brought it to light. ' 


The matter it felfe,is great Salvation, fuch as eye hath not fe? n 

care hath not heard, nor ever entered into the heart of man to con^ »' 

ceive:Newesf?om heaven touching righteoufneff^ and life etcr- ^^^''^'^'^ 
naIl,through faith m Jefus Chrift. Gods wifdome, power, good- 
pelft, mercy, grace, longfuff-ring, &c. are glorioufly fet forth 
intnc vjoipejl, ' 

The mainc fubiea,is Chrift , the brightnelTe of his Fathers glo- t. u- 
ry, the Image of the invifible God. r««crsgio. Heb.i.,,.,^, 

This word propounded by the miniftery of man is not only pre- ' 

rl a"? I ^"gg^H^y '^^ S Pirit un^o the minde. For the holy 
Ghoft doth not inhghten the foule by his internall adion into any 

?n^h?w "7^'^^'T"' °^ ^^/^^' '^^^^ '^^' ^^'<^h is contained 
in the Word externally propofed, oraffeathe heartwith other 
icnles, then which are propofed out of the fame Word Faith is o 
by hearing, thatis, bypreaching, and prcachig by the VVo^^^ T^^:^^ 
Cod, that IS, by commiffion or edia from Godt But this proa- '' 

Vu ching 

330 How ChriB doth bring hisfCdfleinte Covenamti 

joh.iy i7,io, cbing did perfe^Iy containc all things confummatory for the fan- 
3oh,i4 »6. aification ofthc Church, even ajl things which Chrift taught to 
jo^i 5 -1 5. yj difciplcs, which he had heard of the Father, and were dclitcr- 
3oh/i.i?.& cd unto him, who was in the bofoms ofthc Father* all truth, 
j.n. whereby not the Apoftlesonly, but the whole Church, even to the end of the world, fhall be fandified. The wifedomc of God 
in a myftery, even the hii wifedome, which God had determi- 
ned before the world, unto our glory, the glory ofthe univerfall 
catholique Church : the wifedome which none ofthc Princes of 
s Cor.a.7. this world hath knownc : which containeth thofe things which 
verf.8. God hath prepared for thofe that love him, all that love him, and 

verf 10 ^°^ ^°^^ ih^m. that were in the Apoftles time. The wifedome 

verf!i J, containing the deepc things of God, even the things which God 

EpheC /. 8, 1 6. hath freely given to his Church, called,the unfearchable riches of 
z Cor.».i6^ Chrift, the riches of his glory. The wifedome which is the very 
1 Cor.».i4. minde of Chrift, and the knowledge whereof is called, the very 
verf. 6. kno wledae ofthe minde of Chrift :of which the fpirituall and per- 

AGir^il. lect men are only capable. 

Joel z.%%. The plentifull powring forth ofthe holy Spirit was differed un- 

A^.a.i6,i7. till the glorification of Chriftj and he being glorified, it was to 
3oh.i6.7,8. be differed no longer. Chrift being exalted at theright hand of 
Joh.i6,s3,i-?. jjjg Father, he obtained the promifed Spirit above meafure, and 
He (hall re- powred it forth in fuch plentifull meafure, as had not formerly 
ceive of me t bcco beftowcd upon the Church, fo that then was fulfilled what 
Chryrofiti7nf was foretold by the Prophet ^tf^/, IwiS powre mj Spirit upon all 
h ti'nv>->\.'^ pjh. That Spirit is the Spirit ofthe Father alone, and of Chrift, 
7«i/7w^j« vof gjjj ^-jj picade the caufe of none but of Chrift, in all this age of 
7S7? '/?& ^^^ ^^' ^^» ^^ ^^^ Advocate of Chrift againft the world : He Ihall 
iv%oicfk, In not fpeakc of hirafclfe, but whatfoever he (hall hearc, that iliall 
TOf ifjwi yvw he fpeake, and Qiall ilie w it unto you. So that after the Apoftles 
«»< §-j e fcien- there fhall be no new infpiration necefliry to Salvation,unlcfle wc 
^"'ue'mvi ^^^^ ^^y* *^^^^ *^^^^ ^^ another Chrift, or another Comforter. 
Tcor 2 A^' The Apoftles inrefped of their office were able Miniftcrs ofthc 
Gal;? li." ncwTcftament, ofthc Spirit,not ofthe letter, of righteoufncfle, 
Heb.8 n. and not of condemnation : Able Minifters furnifhcd with fuffici- 
a Cor.3.8, cnt gifts, andfo with fufficient knowledge : of the Teftament, 
^ l»9o which is not to be abrogated, whcreunto nothing muft be added : 

ofthc new Teftament, which (hall not be antiquated, ordiia- 
OttUed : Of the Spirit, and by infpiration taught thofe thingjj 


er Fell9i»fhip mth bimjdfc^, 531 

which agree to tbQ moO: pecfed and fpirituall : and of righteoaf- 
ncCfj, which is the laft, immediately coDJoyncd with life ctcr-^ 

The Prophets fpcakc of the times of the Mc/fiah as the times Jok,4.x|. 
of clearc light and revelation^, after which no new infpiration is if3.8.s,», 
to be cxpetSed . fVhen the UHeJJi^h comet h, he wlH teach m all things » ^^^ ' ' ' * 
The times oi the Mcfliah arc called, the laft times, which are the ^ p/t^'j* jj, 
times wherein that Dodlor of rightcoufnefle is promifed, after Gal.4,i,?.?. 
whofc comming we are to looke for no clearer or fuller rcvclati- a Cor j, i7,i8^ 
on of divine myfteries. So the Apoftlc fiith, Chriftwas mani- CoLi.i9,&a, 
fcftedinthelaftdayes, to wit, in thetimefiofthe Gofpell. The *• 

time of the Mefliah wasthat time appointed of the Father, wher- * cor.!',!!** 
in the heire was no longer to be an infant under tutours and go- Maci^li 4* 
vcrnouts, but es of ripe age he fliouldlive under the guidance of Rom.a 7,8,^ 
the Spirit: of whom, as by the Spirit of liberty, being enlighten- 
cd, he (hould with open face, as in a glaflfe, behold the glory * Cor,?,9. Aft. 
of God. The Doadncofthe Gofpell infpired into ;and preached I^*Hcb!tT'^* 
by the Apoftles, is moft gloricu"?, the Gofpell of the glory of i^tuuifz^. 
Chrift, who is the Image of Gcd, and the brightnefT: of his glo- Col 2.z,3,Coi, 
ry, in whom it pleafed the Father, that all fiilncffc {hould dwell : i.aj,»6. 
in comparifon whereof the Law is not glorious : which (hall be ' J^*^*'- ?' 
preached in all the world untill the end come, andfhall continue ^,Z7tZ"bZ 
without abolition. The Apoftles preached the word of faith, nmeteghur'ec' 
rightcoufneffs and life, the word cf falvation, and poWer of aefia. iidlar. 
God unto falvation, even great falvatior, and the immort all feed deverk2)eiM4< 
which doth endure for ever, even Jefus Chrift, m whom are hid '^P-^' 
all the treafures of wifedoms and knowledge, that the whole 
Church might have communion with the Father and with the 
Sonne : But the Word of faith,righteoufne{fe and life, the im- 
mortall fee \ the Word that doth reveale the aiiniftery of Chrift 
fully and intircly, is a word confummatory and not preparatory : 
in communion doth confift pctficlion or confummation. And 
in thefe refpeds the calling of Chriftians to the ft ace of grace, is TitusBoionim 
mere excellent then the calling ofthejewes; as the inSrument ^K'''««'^^"<^-. 
cf their calling is more excellent. The fame Word for fubftance it^yn duxi7l^oc 
was delivered to both, but not for full and ckare mmiRftation. ejt,ineuiefianif 
In thcGofpel',Chrift, the promifes, heaven and life is more di- qux omnes m- 
flinc^ly revealed and fully propounded. God dealt with the P" > ^ <"«'>^' 
Jewesas with children young and tender; with Chriftians,as ^on->^'^^u»T* 

Vu2 with 

532 fiorv chriB doth bring hi^ ptv^le m0 Oovemnt^ 

mjeijmdum le- 

gaftioA audie- 
rtti(ijMoa intra- 
hit 4:ii'Jiomt(i 
in eccieftam 
'Dei^aut Moit' 
hita, Audmut 
autsruy lie^^ 
docete omnss 


I Joh.zQ, 

113. lCor,i.7, 

A'i' £tM« foi* 

Gsa,3i. 28. 
i Sam.8o7' 
EpW.^.x». We 
wreSlc not 
pgiinft fiefti & 
A-^:. 16.14. 

s Pec.i.2z. 



with men grownc to age, and come to fomc tipeneffs. The 
bounds ofthcCharch are now extended to ailnations, and all 
men are invited to repentance,that they might live* 

It may be qucftioneJ, whether the word be not frmtlefTc. and 
unprofitable, feeing ths Lord promifcth in Covenant, that men 
QiGuld not teach every man his neighbour, but they fliould be all 
taught ofGod. Butthsinternaii teaching of the holy Ghoft, is 
not to be fevered from cxtcrnallinilruiftion by the holy Scripture; 
for then it ihould follow, that the Scriptures were written in 
vain,that in vain we were exhorted to reade the Scriptures, yeata 
give attendance to reading, exhortation and dodrine ; and that 
the miniftery of the Word was altogether fruidcffc. But the A- 
pofiles themfslves plainely declare, that the reading of the Scri- 
pturcSjand miniftery of the Word,and writing to them that were 
anointed by the fpirit, was not ufeicfTrand unprofitable. Such- 
paffiges of Scripture then are to be underftood comparatively » and 
not as fimple negations, and fhew what plenty of knowledge 
God would pDur upon his Church in the times of the new Te«. 
ftament, leading the true children of the Church by hisbleffed 
Spirit into all truth neccfHry to Salvation. The like phrafes are 
often found in the Scriptures, and the adveifitive particle Qbut^ 
is not pat as exceptive : But the anointing, /. e. except as, 

Internall Vocation is by the operation of the holy Spirit effe- 
dlually inabling and drawing us unto Chrift j enlightening the" 
mmde, and affcding the heart, ferioully to attend unto thofe 
things which are fpoken, and by faith to receive and embrace 
them. The principall efficluall help which maketh us come to 
God by belief, is the efficacy of Gods Almighty power put forth 
to fuch a purpofe. It is the efeduall working of Gods Almighty 
power,which worketh faith in us to Salvation. For the creating 
us anew in Chrift, is a greater work, then giving us our naturall 
being in nAdamt and therefore may not be afcribed to any power 
that is not almighty. We are by nature dead in trefpafo, held 
in bondage by ftrong powers, whom none but the ftrongel^ can 
over-mafterj and by believing we are lifted up to an eftatc 
without comparifon more excellent then that we formerly re- 
ceived. Now to bring us from death, under which ib mightie 
ones held us captive^ to fuch a life fo unutterably glorious, muft 
siesds be the working of a power almighty, Bcfides, fo farrcas 
" ■* ■ - God 

or^FeUivpJihipwith himfelfcjiXv.^ ^^Z 

God doth intend to work, fo farre he putteth forth his omni- 
potcn^ power to accompiilh ; hut God doth intend to make iome. 
before other fome come unto him : and therefore he dothlketch 
out the armc of his power to eited this. 

A fecond helpc is the inward illumination and infpiration 
wrought in us, by which as-the intcrnall Word God fpeaketh in 
the minde. The converlion of jinners is. called,a convidtion, be- 
caufe it is ever wrought in us as we are rcafonable and intelligent 
creatures, the /udgemetit going before is a diredour what to 
chufr.And if the minde of man were once throughly and in a fpi« 
rituall manner (as it becommcth fuch objedls as arc altogether fpi- 
rituall) polT^fled of the adequate goodnelT: and truth, wtich is ^"^itf^^f'c^ 
in grace and glory, and did coniider it deliberately, both fimply fanie^fuadfat 
andincomparilon, witball circumftancss and occurrences, and ^ langu'de ' 
did apply it felfe to tbeferious ftudy and thought thereof, the traclethakna^^ 
heart could not utterly rcjed them. For humane liberty is not a ^^-f /erej'e ad 
brutilli,but a reafonable thing : it confifteth not in contumacy i^^if<^^dmi ap* 
and head- ftrongneffe, but in fuch a manner of working,as is apt to ^^.etro autem ' 
be regulated, varied, or fufpended by. the didates of right rea- appstttm[tnf» 
fon and found judgement, if things be diftindly and certainly ttvtfepetam. 
apprehended, ferioufly. weighed and pondered, and the thought i^^^td er tam 
thereof prefcrved and kept in mindcThe only cauie why men are "^f^^.^"^''^^'" 
not willing to fubmit unto Chriftjis.becaufe they are not through- 5/7/«a?«5 "I'dp- 
ly,and in a manner futableto the excellency of the things, jnlighte- paitu impui/^, 
ncd in their minde, or they do not keep in minde and thought jubeatinteUe- 
that which they are taught in the Word of God, and cannot but &um judhaTt 
know in fomefort. Sinners in Scripture are faid tobe blindc, f-* W''^«« 
fimple,fooks,bruti{h,inconfideratc, that remember not that God *"^^^^^^' 
feeth them, confidcr not their latter end. Sinnc is natural!, not 
as nature is oppof^d to liberty, but as n3,ture is oppofed to grace ; 
And fo without Cbrift and the holy Spirit, miferable, natarsil or ^of^JV/d! 
ttiortall men would finne neceflarily. . The firft linne of our firft ^ cor, \l^\ 
parents was an errour : for whatfoever a man doth will, that he i Tixuxj^o, 
doth will being led by certaine reafon,true,or in appearance. The 
ad of -willing hath in it power whatfoever is Tubj^d to it,but it 
fclfeisnotin it own power, tut in the power of reafon, whofc 
prefcript it doth follow, whether right or corrupt, Nccf ffarily 
good is preferred before evil, and the greater good certainly and 
Siftindly knowne before the icjfler, but not knowne it b not prsf - 

y.u 3. ' ~ ferret:; 


In fingulU qui- 
dem aifimabui 
tur ab inteffe' 
if a: in genere 
tamen xoluntoi 
I iperat inteUe- 
{fur nee infel" 
Ififus fe appli' 
cat 3 / inteUu 

juffui a volun* 


1 Cor, 8,2, 

H6W Chrifl doth bring hisfeofk imoCovenam, 

fsrred with equal! neccflxty. The \vill is not enforced of it felfc^ 
cither of it feifc refting, or forcing it lelfe : for then it (liould bc^ 
in a,fl and not in a^,at one and th: f^me time : The will cannot 
bsnd into the dired contrary: for then it might moft willingly 
dcfire that condition which it certainly knew to be moft mifcra- 
tJe, and refufe that condition whicii it iijoft certainly and di- 
ftindly knew to be moft blelTrd : Nor fufpend of it felfc, without 
the intervention oftheundcrftanding, bdcaufethe will is not the. 
miftrcfls of it fclfe, but of the a(^, which depends upon the infe- 
riour faculties. They that know the gift of God, they dc(irc and 
aske it. They that know God, they willtruftin him, and keep 
his Commandemcnts. They that are taught of God, they will 
come unto Chrift : and faith is hvely and operative to draw men- 
to the love of God, and obedience to his precepts. 

The adl of judgement !S two-fold : i . Naturall, which arifcth 
from the fliarpnefle or dulncfl^ of the wit, a . Morall, according 
to which we arc faid to be good or t'iiL There be two de- 
grees of light. I. Direding and warning what is to be done. 
a. Perfwading and efRftually moving forward the will. This 
pcrfwafion is, when with fuch force the holy Spirit doth accom- 
pany the Gofpell, that it doth not only move the will, but movfe 
ite&dually or throughly, and beget faith lively and well rooted. 
What the minde Judgeth bcft, the will followcth as bcft ; what 
lefle good the minde judgeth, the will Icflb followeih. What the 
minde judgeth the gteateft evil, the will doth fpecially avoid: 
what it judgeth alefle evil, it doth /eflfc flee from. Unlcfle the 
minde Ihould either wax idle, or loofc the reincs to the ajRdions 
(which muft needs proceed from a moft grievous and moftper- 
verfeerrour of the minde) right reafon would obtain net only by 
righfjbut in deed and faff, the command and rule. 

Knowledge is either prcfcribing or perfwading, true, and ib- 
lid : either of the thing (imply confidered, or o^^ the thing confi. 
dered with all his circumftanccs,ccrtaine, juft, profitableand 
pleafant,anfwerable infome fort to the nature, excellency and 
life ofthe thing known : And in this cafe, the heart is not over* 
ruled, contrary to the full, fpirituall, and infallible evidence of dim 
vine truth, f;:ricufl7 thought upon , unto a pradicsll judgement. 
This is the learning; of Chrift, the teaching of the Father, the 
knowing of things which palfs knowledge. Chrift i% not known* 


orFellorv[hi^mthhmJelf€^. sjj 

if he be not acknowledged as he is propounded j what pcrfcd si igmrareac, 
knowledge doth peifedly, that imperfea knowledge doth fm- e^piturpro nan 
perfedly: As the end acknowledged cannot bcrefufcd, by like '*'^^'*'i^^^> did 
rightjncithcr can the meanes acknowledged, the meancs I fay /""^^ "^^'s*'*' 
neceffary.only neceffary, and without which there is no poffibili- Tx uZl7 
ty or likelihood to obtaine the end. For will is a reafonable ap- peccartfmtaii. 
petite, and therefore doth not ftirre from fucha good as is ftjlly q^ignerath- 
and fpiritually reprefcntcd unto it with cvidencc,ccrtainty profit "^•' ?"'« ^wawi* 
and delight as the moftuniverfall, adequate, and unqueflionablc Z''7nte/eTu. 
objcftof the defires and capacities of an humane (oule, and that urVurtuT 
both (imply and mcompanfon: for the frecdome, and willing aiiudagitMc 
confent of the heart is not la wleflj, or without rules to moderate ^^^'^ndit ai re- 
it, but it is therefore faid to be frec^ becaufc whether out of a true ^''®^" '^*^**^^ 
judgenient, it move one way, or out of a falfc another, yet '"*"*' 
in both it movcth naturally in a manner futablc to its owne 

If it be objected, the heart being unregenerate is utterly 
averfe unto any good. 

The anfwer is, that it is irue,thc will muft not only be mdved 
but renewed and changed, before it can yeeld to Chrift. But 
uithall, God doth never fo fully and fpiritually convince the 
Judgement in that manner, without a fpeciall work of grace 
upon the foule, whereby the will is framed and falhioned to ac- 
cept, embrace, and love thole good things of which themindeis 
thus prepoffefled. 

The third help is a formall caufe, a free gracious difpofition or 
habiteoffaitb, by which the will is inclined agreeable to the dit- 5Vi>»ar«M fo* 
pofitionof it, tocomcuntoGod. This babite is neceflary be^ penariremif 
ciufe without it the will being in bondage, ftained and defiled, it IZT'Z'ji,^ 
,s akogethcr unable to will or defire that which is fpiritually Tcn^a^ .^T 
good. If there could be a will without fuchhabite, man might antei>^ecet,(5' 
performe the aft or a man fpiritually alive, before be was mad« ^'»'" petiprecj- 
alive. So that the full anfwer to this qucftion, w^.what is that *"*^^"'»»^'^^^/* 
<ff.auallhelp,whcrcby I cometoGod?istbis zitisamixtthing, /tT^Sl^ 
ftanding partly ohhat almighty power of his, put forth fcr i?y S;!^^^^^^^ 
good, partly of that inward Word and infpiration by mi with "^ ^ ^ ^ 
which his power is put forth; partly in that fpirit of faith and 
lupernatura)] life, which his almighty power through his Word 
bnngeth forth m my foule. what was that help whereby Cbrill 


Ho^ CMft deth king hli feeble im» CAvenam, 

^xfiU mntft 
de irrefifiibili. 
tate,fed deiit' 
fiaali. Nam 
quomodo traht* 
remut gratia 
nolumm 'Dea 
fa Tieigvatia f 

nihil alittd e^ 

made LiizarHs able to come to him out of the grave of naturali 
death ? The principail,was Chrifts power j the inftruincntall,his 
voyce; theformallcaufe immediately helping to it, oc working 
it, was the fpiritof naturali life, which the power of Chrift by 
his Word rcftored to this dead corps, which now was fallen. 
And thus we have the effeduall help or grace, by which w« 
come aflually to convert, which are ail given from Gods free 
grace and favour towards us. And when God doth infufe the 
habice of faith into the mindc of one of ripe age, he doth canfe 
him adhially to beleeve , as the nature of the thing it felfc 
and condition doEh manifeH. For if the Spirit by inlightening 
the minde and renewing the heart doe perfwade and move the 
{(jule effedually to embrace, adhere unto, and love the Lord Je- 
fusChrifl, then the condition of the thing will not beare, that 
grace (hould be given cff^dually, but the ad and motion of the 
Joule mufl: neceflarily follow. But though the connedion of 
thefe two be indivifible , yet the flexion or turning it felfe is 
not indivifible, or in a point ormomen*,but it may be fooner 
or flower, more fpeedy in one, more remilTe in another. 
The will is neccflarily bowed or bended, but more vehement- 
ly in one, more flackly in another , freely or willingly in all 
that are turned, and yet neceffarily. And this firft thing is 
well to be noted, for from hence we may gather in whatftand- 
eth the efficacy of grace, effcduall to Conver(ion , 'viz. In 
Gods cfieduall power put forth to execute his intention, which 
lie hath of converting fomc adually before other fome. IC 
doth not ftand in any congruity or temperature of grace, cor- 
refpondent to cur nature. For this doth argue there is in- 
ward, an incorrupted, connaturall difpofition to receive grace. 
This maketh the efftcl of Converfion as much, if not more to de- 
pend on the adive capacity of the will, as on the grace of 
God: For it maketh the grace of God worke it morally and ex- 
ternally by perfwafion only, and the will of man from a power 
Within it felfe, which doth more inwardly enter the e&d of 
Converfion then the other. 

Itmaybequeftioned, in what order doth the Spirit make us 
come unto God,wheiher immedi3tcly,or by fbme preparation go- 
ing before ? wherein it is further to be confidered,what that pre- 
paration is,or wherein it conlillstb^ 


orFellowjhi^mthhmfelfc^, 337 

* To the firft branch of the Queftion it is truly anfwered, that 

God doth ufe (b to worke our coniming to him by bdiefe, that he ^ 

dothfirft, for the rnofi: part prepare us thereunto. As before we ' 

engraffe a Sciens we cut it and fet it ior incifion : and ii aTimber- 

logg liefunkejn mudd, men (et to their tacklings, firft to draw it 

out of the mire, before they lay it on a Cart-to carry it av^ay. Thus 

God doth by his power often worke fome preparative change in- 

a (inner, before he doth by his power and word worke the Ipiric 

of faith in them, and make them come unto him. So God by 

aflidions is faid to boare the eare, and prepare to converfion. ^, 

When Mana{jeh was humbled in great milery, he fought the *i,,i?"'^^' 

Lord; Thus by convidion of fin, others were pricked in heart, Aa»,j7. 

and/ faid, whatjhall'^edoeto be faved ? and then fpeedily they 

received the Gofpel beleeving. Sometimes by extraordinary ter- 

rours rifing from externall accidents, yea hidden naturail caufes, 

God is pleated to bring men nearer unto him. Thus the Jaylor AStti6,%6,z7l 

was prepared to receive the Golpd by the fhaking of the CalUe, 

andthatfearehe fell into, fuppoling the prifoners had been fled. 

And Paul himfeUe by an extraordinary vilion was brought to Ad 9.^. 

great aftonifliment. Sometimes by reftraining grace or common 

gifts, which make men tor degree nearer, that is,in their kinds 

andftatenotfo much removed, as others in theiamekinde and 

ftate with them ; God doth prepare men thus : Chrift faid to the 

young man, who was nigh and unconverted, Thou art not farre MaNii.|4,anJ 

^omtheKingdoweof God* Nay God may by giving a man up to *o»a'» 

theheightoffomefin, orfinsjpreparehimtoconverlion ; zsPaul 

and (LManafeh, the one left to perfecucing, the other to thofe 

horrible out-rages. AndGodin wifdomeknewitbeft for Peter, 

to give him up to be tempted of Satan and left to himfelfe to deny 

his Mafter, for the curing of his felf- confidence.. Phyficians by 

ripening difeales make way to cure them ; for (ick matter is never 

more eafiiy brought away, then when in ripeneffe and quantity it 


Concerning this matter let thefe conclufions be remembred. 

TirftjThele preparations arc not abfolutely neceflary : for we fee 
God doth give landif ying grace to Infants, in whom none of thefe 
preparatory operations can take place. 

Secondly,We doe not finde that they have been alwayes ufed, 
though perhaps it be a thing moll commonly falling forth, How 

^ j g < . Hotv ChriB doth hrwg his people into Covenant, 

vits Matthew C'A\tA> even at his cuftome : and he followed prc- 
fently, not as fudds, but as a true convert of Chrift. So ZacheUt 
upon the very call, came downe haftily, and received Chrift joy- 
fully. So it is faid of Z,y<:ij^, God opened her heart, that Jhe at" 
tended unto thofe things ^hkh Paul jpake. For life and death 
being luch contraries, as have no third thing between them, which 
doth partake in them both, the one may be changed into the other 
without any thing preparatory. The entring of grace doth expell 
corruption, and (pirituall quicknefTein newnefie of life is the mor- 
tification of fin. Terrours doe not drive men to Chrift of them- 
felves, norftirremenuptoimbracethepromifes: and God is a- 
ble to draw men unto Chrift by the allurements of the Gofpell. 
By Evangelicall enticements men may be allured, as well as driven 
by the conviflions and comminations of the Law. 

Thirdly, All things which God doth prepare to the receiving of 
grace and comming to him, they make not of themfelves any 
thing to the introducing of grace, farther then God intendcth this 
efted by them. Feare of hell, confcience of fin, never fuch affli- 
dions, morall parts , and all gifts, which may be without fandi- 
fying grace and tiue belief e J many have all thefe, who yet never 
turne unfainedly unto God. When the fickneffe is growne greater 
in quantity, this abfolucely taken maketh the patient further off 
health. The feeling of the difeafe is no part of the recovery, though 
the Phyfitian may worke by it. Phrenfie in it ftlf e is no prepara- 
tion to health, but to the Phyfitian,who can worke on the patient 
niorefidyin this taking then in a deadly Palfey, it may be a pre- 
parative to health. Thus to be like an aguifli man on his good 
dayes, or like to fome mad-men in tiie time of their intermillions, 
is in it felfe as farre f rom ftate of health, as otherwile : but ycc 
the Phyfitian may ufe fuch a ftate, as a way to health, choofing ra- 
ther to deale with him in this taking, then in the fit. And fo it is 
not the height of fin, nor the feare of hell, nor a morall courfe of 
life, that of themielvcs can make nearer the ftate of grace, but on- 
ly in regard of God, who doth incend to turne them hereunto, 
Afflidions of themitlves profit not, if God open not the ear : fear 
and horrour drive to defpaire, if C)od fupport not : vertuous life, 
according to the light of nature,turneth a man further from God, 
if he adde not thereunto the elfeduail worke of his Spirit. And 
aiijor any of thefe in regard of Gods intention, may prepare man to 


i>r FeUowlhip with himfelf^^, 339 

receive the Gofpell or the grace of effeduall vocation. 

Fourthly, A man that is fanke deeper into fin may be conver- 
ted with leffe forrow or legall terrour , as the Thiefe upon the 
Croffe, and he that hath not ibgrievoufly offended may be kept 
longer under : for the ripeneflc and aboundance of the humour may 
make way for the more fpeedy removall thereof, when it is for the 
fafetyofothers,that have not gathered fo much corruption, to be 
kept under for a fealon. 

Fifthly, A Chriftian muft not quarrel! his converfion, becaufe 
fee hath not been terrified or brought fo low as others, or kept un- 
der (o long : for it matters not how deeply thou haft been wound- 
ed , but how foundly thou haft been cured : It is not materiall 
what paine thou haft felt , but whether thou be brought unto 

' Sixthly, Chriftians in temptations or diftrefle muft not defire or 
pray, that God would terrific them, or humble them with deepc 
apprehenfions ot his indignation : for they know not their owns 
ftrength, whether they be able to beare it, ifGodftioulddeale Ic- 
verely; they forget that it is God chat muft make all affli(^ions 
proficable,and that of themfelves thefe things tend to dcfpaire and 
hardnefic of heart : and it is no fmall unthankfulnefie to complain 
of the Phyfitianscare, becaufe he is inclined to deale tenderly with 
you. Godly forrow is to be cheriftied, and fo is the defire of, and 
prayer for more tenderneffeof heart : but when we pray for more 
horrour,we relie too much upon our felves,and yet confider not our 
own weakncffe. 

Seventhly, This preparation is neither faving grace, nor a thing 
between nature and grace, doneby theexternallaideof the Spirit, 
sit is not laving grace, becaufe it is that, whereby God is pleafed 
to bring us to Lhrift, and not that,whereby we are renewed to be- 
lieve , or engraffed into C hrift. Nor a thing between nature and 
grace; as if the Spirit without any habit of grace, did lift us up to 
thelupernacaralladsofbeliefe, hope, love : for then we (hould 
be lifted up roads of life withoat the habit, which is to make a 
blindc man fee without fight, and to make us bear good fruit with- 
out lap, or before we be good trees. 

Eighthly, Thefe things may difpofe us to faith, but not to /u- 
ftification immediately : becaufe the Imart ot the wound may 
provoke CO ferke a plaifter, but fcrveth not .to the curing of it. Ju- 

Xx 2 ftification 


U&rv chriB doth bring hu ftoflemto Covenant i 

ftification is of the free grace oi God through the bloud of Jelus 
Chrift , and not through any habit of grace infufed into us i 
much leflfe through feare of hell, or initiaUhope, or defire , or 
iiich like. : 

Ninthly, Where the eff^d:uall railing up of the heart to faith 
beginneth, there Gods preparative workes take an end : for 
as that which prepares the ground for feed now ceafech, when the 
feed is to be fowne ; So all thefe, which as they are prepara- 
tions^ fit the foal for Gods effeduall calling to be given, they 
have their end, whenthisimmortali feed com th to be fown in us. 
The fecond Queftfon is, whether the eliicacie of grace depend 
upon the liberty of will ; not whether grace hath its intriniecall 
vertue to worke after the manner of grace^ or a fupernaturall a- 
gent from the liberty of the v/ill j which all men deny. Thougli if 
grace enclinc the will to a vitaU and internal! a(5i:, k takes away 
lome degrees of indifferency, and addeth fome weight of difpoli- 
tion rather to will, then, to nill. But the Queftion is, whether 
graceeffedualldoeleave the will at liberty adually to refift it or 
no; or whether it be from grace, or the liberty of will that this 
man doth afifent, and not another, why grace in the fecond ad is 
effeduall to the producing of converfion in Peter , and not in 
pidas. If grace take away the ftonie heart, then it removeth in us 
whatfoever rhould relift or make head againft the Spirit : for the 
will cannot refill when corruption is removed , and to refill the apr 
plication of grace fufficient, is no fmall part of a flony heart. 'A 
caufe in power only, is not a cautc, bu: a caufe in af% applied,which : 
Is then fufficient, and not potent only to doe foinewhat, when ap- 
plied in ad it bringeth forth effed iTiifficient I fay, not phyfi- 
cally, but morally, prefuppofing the aduall application of it to 
£2e. ^ 6,2 5 326. that purpofe. And on the other fide,' if the heart.of flone be not 
D;ar,3o,6. taken away, fufficient grace v^as not adually applied of God for 
thatfpeciall efFed : for a. flefiiie heart cannot be received by. a 
ftony, bat the ftony is removed by theJBefiiie : There is the fame 
rcafon of that grace of converfion,. and of the grace that folio wetfa . 
after converfion : but the grace following converfion borroweth 
not its efficacy from the liberty of the will. That which God 
promifethtodoe, cannot be the condition of the thing proraifeds, 
becaRfethepromife is precedent i but God promifeth to give- a 
um- hmt^, and to jfticiiis. Spirit iato.thejnner man,^ and. that not . 

Mu'imu efica- 

iluak Ghfequi- 
mniUiiii quief- 


tto ilia efct 


3?^?^. Ifa.54 



ar FeEowfhif mth hm^fcj* 


for their fakes, but of his free-grace.. And this promife God did 
fulfill daily in the Church of the Jewes, bur more fparingly ac- 
cording to the rneafure of graqe, the luloeffe vyhereof was refer ved 
unto the times Oi the Melliah. That which the omnipotency of 
God is put forth to worke in the creature, that the creature can- 
Botrefifti But God putteth forth his omnipotency, that: by the 
effcduall working t.hereofs he may bring^ us .i;o. beleeve; To fay 
that not withftanding Gods helping grace; man may refift,: is to 
put grace in mans power,, not to put: mans will under the! power 
of grace : to make man able to f ruftrate Gods countell touching 
his converiion, and. make God a lyarin that which hehath fworne 
touching the gatheripg of his people. ,. ,. 

The worke of converiion is wrought in the will, not from, any; 
naturail powejof mffering^, but from cheobedience in. which it is 
10 Gods almighty power, vvhich it cannot but obey,, and come 
to any thing whereunto he will bring it.. Eor the will hach no na- 
turail inclination to feffer any thing, both for the being and man- 
ner of it above nature, as in the eye nowblinde there is no natu-i 
rail power to receiveiighta And if there were a.pbwer naturail to, 
receiveconverlion, then there mud be fome agent in nature able 
to worke converfion -.for there is not found a power naturail ok 
fuffering in any thing, but there is found a power correipondent 
working upon it.. But to leave the elficacy of grace: to the .liberty. 
of mans will to chule or ref ufe, tha t doth makethe v/ill no inftru- , 
ment lubji.-^ to Gods power,, but giveth it power to doe as it willj_ 
when God hath done all he may unto it. If God doe not apply 
and determine the creature to will and worke that which he work- 
eth in the creature, then the the Ciule why God work-. 
eth ,.and confeqoently why he willeth the converiion of», 
For Gods concourCe working this or that, mull either goe before. 
the wiiij andfo caufe it to will, or elie it muft. follow accom- 
pbrhing that which man willeth. Eut the will of man hath no 
eaulall force on God himfelte, nor doth his Willi olio w or attend 
uponthe willof man. If the efficacy o^ grace depend upon the 
liberty ofmans will,, then God doth not certainly tore-kno.w the 
converfion of man. For God cannot know this or that:mana- 
converfion certainly from eternity, but he mud. fee it certains in;, 
feimlelfcs, willing it, or in checauCes of it, or iiye muft fee '^x. frooi; 
41 eKmicVaas being prefciU to himlelfe oqc,<i>f the caufes. But.. 

~r " ■■ ^'' x.x"3. " " ^ '^ 

I fa 4.0. 4,0^ 
Luk.§,6, . 
Jotl 2.48, 

1 ret^i.j. 

Servmheri /»*- 
(iruinentum efil^ 
fed non necsjfe 
eft hews deiena- 
minet fjvguios 
a^ us few it At. 
omnu caupi 
fubsrdhtita ita. 

I bet inftrmnm^ 
turn pajfivum 
tzgenti iikrSi. 
5iC, - 



How Chrifi^^h ^ring hkfeQfleint^Covenmt,, 

Certitudo men: 
fit abfg^ omni 
eniii certitudiH 
Csr" neeeffltate 
efi impoJibUit, 
^uU 'Deo ie. 
trihacrir, am 
rationi a Dta 
mtnlmt aibu 
bit x,quando to- 
la caufalitoi 
quar>ra quanta 
tfijiEC a 'Deo J 
vec aratione 
Joh.6 5?, 
Jer. 51.^4, 
Ifa. 54.15. 
I Cor 4 7. 
Effs6iiu produ- 
fii in bac ebje. 
{lo e^ Kon in 
iil'j.nQn funt 
tribuendi taujae 
commumtsT a* 

1 The. C 2. 3. 

if the efficacie of grace depend upon the liberty of mans will, 
God doth not certainly will and determine the converfion of man, 
nor is it determined in its caufes or circumftances : and that he 
hath thefe things, as-exifting forth of their caufes from eter- 
nity to eternity, co-exiftent with him, is an unconceiveable 
abtiirdity. God doth fee what a free creature will doe, being 
fet in fuch and fuch circumftances, becaufe he doth fee how his 
power would determine him in fuch and fuch occafions : but to 
make him fee determination, when neither himfcUe hath arty way 
determined, when the circumftances doe it not, when nothing 
in the free creature doth determine him , is to make him (ee 
that, which neither in the creature, nor in himlelfe is to be 

They that are given unto Chrift of the Father, and caught 
of the leather , they come unto Chrift freely, but neceflariiy 
withall, not in refped of the liberty of will, for neccffity 
flowes not there from, but- the efficacie of grace : they come 
unto Ghrift, they are not lo diipofed, that they might come or 
not come. 

A common caufe doth not diftinguiOi r but if grace be com- 
mon to them that believe, and thtm that believe not, it is on- 
ly the common caufe of converfion, and doth not feparate the 
believer from the unbeliever. Men are faid to fandifie, purge 
and free themfelves, as the inftruments ofGod_, and free agents- 
fubofdmare to grace predetermining : but the Scripture never 
laith that man is the caufe, (eparating himfelfe from the num- 
ber of reprobates externally called in like manner with him- 
felfe. Converlion, as it is an ad: fupernaturali in us, fhould bq 
thetffcfd of divine vocation : but the caute of comparative, vo- 
cation (hould be the meere will or pleafure of rhe creature. 
Grace and liberty cannot be mixed together in the partiality 
of the caufe, becaufe liberty ( as the Patrons of that opinion 
hold ) is a free, inditferencj ekdive caute '. but gracc> a caufe 
determinate cq produce one effcd. The ufe of grace is the ap- 
plicacioH of aduiill grace co ad. Buc if the efticacie of grace 
deper.d upon the liberty of mans will, neither grace preventing 
nor co-operating doth apply grace to ic wcrke : not preyenting 
g*a^e, becaufe no meere power, as luchjdochaduice it ielf > net 
coioptxiking, becauiein order of caukijty itgoeth'floc^befor&^-tlje 
c etticiency 

9r Feffmfhi^ with hitnfelfi 


Phil.*. I J. 


efficiency of the will. It God give to believe, and not only pow- Poii.1119. 

er to believe, tobdieve,: and not only to believe, when we will 

to believe; then by grace hedetermineth the will to believe, fuf- 

fer, will J and theefficacieof grace is reduced unco God, willing 

and determining. And if he worke in us both to will and to doe, 

not according to the liberty of our will, but his own good pleafure; 

if to will and doe jinclinably, rightly and well, and not fo as we 

may refift> then he determineth the will to will and doe by his 


To what end doe the promifes and threatnings tend (may fome 
man fay) if God doe worke all things by his effeduall power in 
therri that believe? To what end, but that men might be faved? 
But God doth that which pertaineth to a King and Law-giver to- 
wards many, when that which pertaineth to the fecret and unut- 
terable difpenfation of his grace, he doth not doe : that is, he in- 
vites many in the Miniftery of his Word, and externall admini- 
ftrationof the Covenant, whom he douh not inwardly inftru:^ 
and draw, taking away the blindnefTe and hardneffe of the heart. 
But then the invitation is-agiftlefle gift. Not (o neither, but ra- 
ther he is a moft unthankf ull fervant, of a perverfe minde that he 
cannot obey : For this inability is no caufe of difobedience, pro-' 
ceedeth from no fault of the faculties fubjeA to the minde and 
will, from nonaturallqualicyoi- the matter neceflicating, but the 
meer wilfulnefle and perverlenefle of the foal. The invitation of 
God is not fo hard , that man cannot fulfill ir, if he would; 
nor wicked, that we cannot will to doe it without finne : but 
lawfull, juft, honeft, and fach as if man would he could not 
but execute, (o farre as he truly judgeth it ought to be willed 
and executed. If the eiicacie of- grace depend upon the li- 
berty of mans will to things oppolite, then the promiles of 
God the Father made to his Sonne might all be frullrace; 
That he (hbuld fee his/<?^^: that the feofU foould come nmo 
him from the North , and the Wefi , and fiom the Ijles : chat 
he Qiould pofejfe the GeHtihs as hts inhermnce ; th<fit: his do- 
minion fhould be fram Sea to Sea: that a ^illi>3g people fhould 
som« uftte himt &c. But the Covens nt of God with his Sonne can- 
not be made void and of none eflfed. 


7)euific ntovet 
na opera, ut h$» 
veifty 0> 'Deo 
oionentt (fymO' 
•ventiu'tro mo* 
rem get at- Nee 
tantum Deiaa^ 
g't eum volun- 
tatibm noftrUy 
fed etiam per 
li-i,^j,io. Ifa,. 
40.^,12. Pfal^ 

^eieminatio Z)ei efi externa y^qmvua. If (loiTie may ob)e(3:)converfion be fo the 
fjffa 'vmlU, prineipaiu. Humana vera, ^ofke of God, then, man doth^not repent. 

tasfefeeieaiv^, mtaiiter,^ex pra^iL fibt : toc repemance IS the gift ot God, bat 

c6 rationii jadich agat. 'Deuifrmh, theaflofman, God Jsthc caufe of wil- 

prmipaliter ^ ai ceteTm&ifumlikrum^ lingjcfficicnt, but SlCt foiffiall S the caufc ex- 

mjutmum, (r t'.beri fonendum deter, ^gy^j^gij g.^^ cffcaivc^but not fitslly cfBchnU 
mmat.fednonad ahum fed cU mndemnu- ^. determination of God est/rna:]! • -nrl 

mero aaum, ad quern v^tuniai in tempore inc GaeriDinarion ot.ooa .extcrnadi, am 

determmvttjeje. CdufaaHmliheriefi Vitali volition dlttcr as cauk and c&d.S ror 

potentia dettminatd mn fmpliciter po- h« workeih in US to wiU : bat volition dotb 

4entia, Tiemficmovet resnue/anasiUt not worke to will : the determination of. 

....- „., eentingmttam ^ .^.»~.„.^,„- , . . „ 

^M«y^o/Mf;mor waya-e/Zpf^yiw o' <« ^^^^^ ^^ loiernail , aod-re-, 

legefolma, its' inferior m or alts, Qrlegi fpcdcth gOod to be chofcn or tO bc de-. 
Jubdita,eJio quoijuperier phyfica tnfuit (ircd« 

iriinfermem.tmenfimjermefi libera. In man not converted two thingsarc to 
rea effepotejr tH srior, 0'' nan iupenor. . rj ^j ^- ^ ^ ^. j j 

ViJ^nL Kts' fan, egen iokn^ ^^ confidered ; native contumacy, , and the 
^la,, not curing or that native contumacy. Tna 

native contumacy ,!S of themfelveSjas darkncs 
from the eatthsthc not curing of this cotumacy is of God,as a caufe 
phyficall, becaufe he can cure it,but doth not ; but not as a Moral! 
caufCjbecaufe be is not bound to heale or cure it.Thc eff^d of God 
not curing this native contumacy, is only a negative non-conver- 
(ion phylicall or not cuipable,as a morall cffcd.Thc abfcnce of the 
funne is the caufe why the darkncffe of the night is not re- 
moved, but the darkencffeit fsifcisnot from the funne. Fault 
is a morall defcd, and cannot arifc but from a morall caufe 
and deficient. Culpable non-converlion is a confequent of Gods 
Eot curing our native contuoiacy, but noeffeft thereof, as of a 
morall caufe : becaufe God is not bound to remove it either by 
Law, debt, juftice, promife, or Covenant, andbct\»'ixtthere- 
liftance of the Spirit, and Gods not-converfion, the free willing 
; of the corrupt will, and voluntary love of native contumacy doth 

intercede, Notonly ability to bclicvej but bclicfc it (elfe is me- 
rited by the death of Chrift, and for Chrift vouchfafed to them, 
who are called according to his purpofe. 
In this vocation of afinnec God dotbfo adminiflcr both hf$ 


or Fellow fhi^ mthhmfelfc^, 545 

Word and Spirit, as he knowcth it bccommcth both his juft ice Rom,9.»4,*y, 
and mercy in Cbrift, alwayes refcrYingtohimfelfefulland free *6.& 10.57, 
power to call whom he plcafc, according to the good pkafure of ^omfu.lV 
bis will, But this diftribution of vocation into cxternall and in- 29, jo^aVj^'j, 
tcrnall, is not a diftribution of the kinde into its fpecialls, but ' ' ' 
fliewes rather what doth concurrc to that worke of vocation, * Cor.35,^, 
whcrcunto obedience iis willing and freely yeelded. Ronj.i.j, 

This vocation is inftituted and adoiiniftred according to the 
eternall decree and purpofe of God : for knowne unto God arc all Act.? j. 18. 
his workcs from eternity : and God doth nothing in time, which 
he decreed not to doe from all eternity. Whofoever-thcrefore is Ephef, 1,536,9, 
called in time, he was predcftinated from eternity » that he (hould 1 1. 
be called, and in what ft ate, place, time, manner, meanesfo- Jam, 1.18.. 
ever a man is called, he was predcftinated to be called in that »Tim.i.9. 
ftate, at that time, by thofe meanes, and neither fooner, nor la- 
ter, nor otherwife : for the execution cannot vary from the 
decree, but the note of changcabieneiTc muft bcafcribed unto 

The company of them that are called efle^lually is the Church, 
whichisvifibleand invifible, as this vocation is inward and out- 
ward; vifible, which doth profefle with the mouth, and invili- 
b!e, which doth believe with the heart : as man is diftinguifLed s Cor.4.i5; 
into inward and outward. And as vocation inward and out- 
War<l are not two callings, but one and the lame : fo the Church 
vifible and invifible arc not two Churches, but t6e fame Church 
differently coniidcred. Chrift hath not two Kingdomes, but There isbut 
oneKingdome, one body, one Church, whereof every one that one Lord, one 
is faving-iy called is a living member. Temple, one 

The work ofgrace and heavenly calling is that which giveth Hi"*^^'^JN . 
being to the Church, and makeit a different fociety from all o- potUn.'de vir] 
thercompaniesofmen whatfoever. By e/f.-dualkalling and the cier.BilCon, 
anfwer o^the foule unto God calling, men are admitted into the Ferpet,govir)i^ 
KJngdome of Chrift or Church of God ; every one that is thus "?•»!.] 
called is of the Church ; and every one of the Church is thus cal- 
led. He that is not thus called fs not of the Church, and he that is 
not of the Church is not thus called. He cannot be out of the 
Church, who is in Covenant with God: nor caohebeamem- 
ber of the Cbnrchjwho is not in Covenant. 

The (hccpe of Chrift by predeftination and ct email purpofe arc 

Y y gathered 


Hori? chriB i 

HOfkinto Cevemm^ 

Mat. 2© ?.f. i8i 

Rev. 5.9. 

Fro, 1.14; 


a J. 

Luk. 5.74,75. 


^ngutoritm qui 
ptnunt, opia- 
iile.efet ut h$m 
fet, te/pe^ti 
[alii boni^cujut 
potius hahenda 
fuit ratio, nan 
potentiam /uam 
fediendum m 

gatbcced iatothis fold, foaae fooner, others later, fomc after one 
manner, {btne after another, of ail nations, ^inreds and ongucs, 
Jewesaad Gentiles, bond and free, male and ftmale, necrcand 
tarrecff; fuch as haue ly en longer and funke deeper into finnc; 
and futh as ha^e becne preferred from the pollutions of the 

The end of this vocation as it is the workeof God calling, isj 
that they who are given unto Chrift of the Father, Oiould freely 
and willingly anfwer to God and Chrift calling, and fo become 
the confederates of God by Ghrift the Mediatour oftheNew Tc- 
llament, aod being faithful! and confederate, they (hould love^ 
fcare, honour, worfiiipand obey God injefus Chrift. In rc- 
fped of the outward invitation, it is their office and duty to an- 
fwer to the call sin rcfpcdof the inward and powerful! worke 
of the holy Ghoft, they arc certainly inabled and drawnc to come 
unto Chrift^ and give up themfelvcs unto hijn. 

Another end remote,isthe Salvation ofthe ck^, and the glory 
of God, in which refped calling to grace is a mcancs ordained of 
Godsand according to the ordinance of God neccifery to the com-- 
munication of Salvation : and the anfwer ofthe called, is a condi»» 
tion rcquifiteand neccflary for the obtaining ofthat cnd,acCoriiJ 
ding to the ordinance and appointment of Gorf. The glory of^ 
God, moft wife , good, merciful!, juft and powcrfull deth ib . 
brightly (hine forth in the communication both of grace and; 
glory, that it doth worthily draw the mindesof men and Angels 
into admiration, and loofe their tongues into the praife and mag- 
nifying ofGod. 

Gppofite unto this vocation, is^ I. That God doth fuflferfome 
to walkcafwr the vanity of their ownc hearts, and blindncflfc of 
their mindes,and doth not invite them to come unto him, or ex- 
horttbem to repent. Thus God regarded not the Gentiles in 
thedaycs of their ignoraipcc, but gave them up to the lufts of 
their ownc hearts. And at this day, many nations arc fliut up 
in ignorance, and have not heard fomuch as the found of the 
GofpeUfor many generations. It is true, the Lord calleth them . 
in a fort by his long-fuflfering and patience, and by the worke|of 
providence, in that hefillcth their hearts with food and glad*, 
ncfle , but by the promife of mercy he is not pleafe^ to fpeakc un« ' 
to them* ■ 

~- , :2 Some 

9r Fehwihip with himfetfc^, 347 

a. Some that be outwardly called, they contemne the counfcll ^^^^ 7-30. 

©f God, put away from them the Word of grace, rcrrft the Spirit ^?'^^ ^** 

of God fpeaking unto them in the mouth of his Prophet, whence pfaU /.IV **. 
followcth blindncifeof minde,h3rdncfle ofheart,efficacioufnc(sof ifai.ei.i^ 

errour that men Ihould bclceve lies, a reprobate fcnfe, and delive- and 6,9, i o. 

ring into the power of Satan. Jer,j^, 20. Thou hafl [educed this Joh.s 1.17,3 8, 

feofle J fill, by faife prophets promifing them peace, w hich God |®^|°* 

promifcd not ; and giving them up to the efficacy of errour, as a p^^filtatam2 

puniftiment of former tranrgrcfiion. himffmpofm 

I, God doth call fomc by the Gofpell, and beilo w upon them fmt kga Eth'' 

divers fpirituall good things, though notfuch as accompany Sal- nicorum^vei 

iration. And thus fomc doe hearc,and receive, and rejoycc in ^^'^ei,qu£ 

the Word, and bring forth fome fruit, but not to ripencflfe or ^cmceP^^' 
pcrfeftioB, ^^' 

C H A P . V* 

H^p^ Chriftiitns dnfxver U the call of Chrift, and fi 
come to have Fellovojhi^ mth him, 

IN the matter of Salvation it pleafed God to dealc with man 
by way of ftjpulation and promifc, and fo likewife in his cal- 
ling to the participation of the Covenant. For though this Vo- 
cation be every way free, gracious and abfolute, as the Spirit 
worketh where he lifteth, yet in the Gofpel, which is the inftru- 
jncnt of Vocation, it plcafeth God to propound both the conditio 
on, which he requireth, and the promife which he hath made. 
The promife,as an argument to move us the rather to give our 
fclvcsunto Chrift, and to doe what is required. The prefcription 
of what he requireth,as that condition, without which we can- 
not obtaine, and by which moft certainly we (hall obtaine what 
good is promifcd. Effsdaall Vocation on Gods part is the pow- 
crfiill invitation and aflurcd drawing of the weary and tbirfty 
foiile unto Chrift, that in him it might iinde rcfre(hing and 

Thcanfwcron our part, is a free and willing comming unto MiMTi*8,s©; 
Chrift, that in him wc might be fatisfied ; the embracing of Te- job. ^.44. and 
fas Chrift, andlodging him in our bofome. And thcrofore that ^. ; f ,37» 

Yy a " which 

Bow ChriHimsanfmr t&thecdlofchrift. 

which firft of all recsiveth that Vocation^ is i^aith, whereby wc 
believe, that if a man performs the canditionjheOijll pofieffethe 
promirejifhecomcuncoChnfl^beflialibefatisfisd: butifhepet- 
formenoE the thing reqiiirsd, he tliall not enjoy the promifc; 
he fhall not be fatisfied, if he drinke not the water of life* And 
not only fo, but he fcall contiaus poore, caked, blinde, miferabk, 
captive, a prifoner, an alien from the Covenant, and without 
Ccd in the world : nay,he {hall be puniflied with contrary evils, 
according to the narare of the Covenant divine, where there is no 
proDiifc without a comminacion contrary to it. This faith is 
grounded upon the free and gracious Covenant, whereby God 
is pleafed to binde himfdfc firft unto us, before he binds us unto 
hirafclfe, that hispromifc might be apprehended asthe ground of 
Ifal <%.i 8, ^^^ fatth,upon which wc ftiould firmcly beieeve : And uponthe 
3oh!7.J7.' fi*ee and gracious invitation of Chrift generally made to all and 
Rsy.ta. 17. every poorc, thirfVy, languilTiing, faintic foiilc, parched with' the 
fenfe of wrath, and withered for lack of the fap or fruit of gracCj 
to come unto him for eaCe and fweet refreOiing, to the contenta- 
tioo and i^tisfying of their foules; to come aaddrinkof-t^e wa- 
ters of life freely. Where kt it be obferved, that ThirB and ^ri» 
Ihui^.Z. fi^JfeAn phrafe of Scripture,doth note the want of good things, as 
PfaU4a.B. Qn the contrary, abfolute good, whereby thedsfire of foole.and 
lfai.32.2. body may be fatisfied; is ufually compared to Vpaiers. To.thirftsjs 
pn ^^^6 ^^^^ 2 ^^^^^^ defedi of the Spirit of Grace, or a defe<a:.of; the 
]?f3.i4j. . ^[jQie Spirit of Grace tormsntingthefpule, todefire it. And 
Joh.4, 1 4, fp not to thirft for ever, and the graces of the Spirit to remains 
and 7. j8« in us for cver,or that water, to be in us a fountain of water fpring- 
ing ap to life eternall, is one and the faine. In Heathen authors,ro 
thirO, is exceedingly to defire, but for the moft part that 'defire 
comes from foins tormenting want. ij^rtemdorpts^T} W'V -^ J^i4'itf 
» jie? (*?^.o '^9, ti am ^vy.e^v. And Cy^in willing to declare his ardent 
defire of doing good to others, faith, c'^4^ ?t?*dC«^j KSitio . a/m 
^atlficArl. In which fignification it is ufed by the Latines alfo, 
x^ PUne, Delnde ppentemm^ mrttitU tm defemiJiL -4/^^ 
Hoxzt, Sifii urgent K Jpfid J:c^vcn^\,Sk^ fa^4, ^pffdClmdlfiniy^r 
ti4 prAddi, And the oppofition that is betwixt thirft and watcc 
will evidence the fame. For water, if we rcfpefl the ufe whicft 
It affordeth to the earth and to bodies, doth make fruitfall barren 
idds I purifte things poliutedj, quench or wat?r thcir^ tfe^ aro 

and fo CGme to have FeU6w(hif With him» 54^ 

drie, and fwectly refrefti them that boylc with heat : And there*- 
fore if water metaphorically fignifie comfort and rcfreftiing, 
wherewith the foul is recreated andrcjoyced: Thirft, which i» 
pppofite to wstcrjdoth denote a foul dried up with grief, fpent 
with the heat of Gods indignation, and tormented with the vex- 
ing or mokfting want of grace and confolation. To be weary 
and heavie laden, is to be faint or tired under fome burden, labour, Dcut.i^. 1 8. 
/ourncy, dif^afe crwprk. But tircdnefigand fainting, wcarincfTc a Sam.iy.x. 
and tjTciJbie are no parts of health or cafe j no more then the fight, and ^j.ic, 
feeling, or. knowledge of the difeafe is any part of the cure: P^3l,«-7.See 
wearine^e and fainting is. neither part, degree, nor preparative to ' '^'^^* 
refreOriing, if'init felfconfidered. 

And here the doubt touching the precedency ol f^th and rc^ 
pent ance; n:vay eafily be determined. For it faith be taken largely 
orgeneraily for a bciiefe of the promife, if W:^ repent and receive 
it,thenfiiithis bciore repentance : for there can bejio turning 
withGuth©peofpardon,nor comming home by hearty fbrrow, 
wifhout ^ome expedation of mercy. .Ilius the Exhortationsrun, 
Xu^hunto the Lord, fir heu ■merei^U' mfl '£f-4ciou^.. KepmU fi^'tJie 
Km^i^ome.ofCjoAi^ -^/^'^w^. But' if faith Jbg taken. tyjorc^riBly, for 
"that faith-or bclicfe whereby we rec€ivejej^bi:ac;?3,or ^efl u pen the 
promife of God in Chrift J efus for pardon and fbrgiVencfle, then 
repjcntancego^^hbefor^pgcdons^for noremiflio!\i^vpi^^ Mark s.4: . 

Be enjoyed but upon condition of repentance ; and if thc-pcnftent ^"'^^ ^^^7*:- 
only be immediately capable of pardon,then pardon is received by, 
a penitentiall faith. If repentance be neceffary to Juftification, 
of neccffity it mufl goe before juftifying faith | becaufejaith a^ji 
juC^ification are immediately couptrdlogetn'ert'It iVimpolSbIc 
to come unto Chrift without repentanccjbut to come unto Chrift: 
is to embrace or receive him^ fonndly and eo-ednally to the re- 
f refliing of the foul. Comflfiing ^td ^rift is a lively motion of 
the foul, wherein arifing from fin, it dra weth nigh or approachcth 
untoChriftjtbatinhimitmightbefatisfied. The motion is one, 
but the points are two. For in drav;ing nigh unto Chrifl:,thc 
foul arifetb from fin : . whicb may .be xalied rcpsmanc®-. Q4^ th(^ 
fignification of the word, I will move no qucftion at this time s , 
but take repentance for a comming unto Chrift by true, godly, 
forrowjfrom whom we had formerly departed by fin and wicked^. 
nglfcjto the cstrcanchaz?g:d of our fouls. " • 

---■ — "■'^ - - ' Yy 3.. ^^ The.; 

350 Hm ChnBms4fffafer0 thecal if Chn ft, 8cc. 

a T" I ; The Author of repcntanc9,is God in J efusChrift. Repentance 
Jer.?i!*i8!^* is the gift of God, but the aft of man. It is man that rcpcnteth 
. and not Gad: but it is God that giveth repentance, inablethj and 
moYcth man to repent. Regeneration is the aft of Gad: rcpcn- 
E*ek.j5.iy, tancetheaftofman. Infubjsft they both agree; for he that is 
regenerate doth alfa repent, and foon the contrary : bat in their 
fbraiallconfideration and peculiar nature they are diftinft, Chrifi* 
alio as Mediatour is the principall caufe of repentance: for him; hath God exalted to give repentance unto Ifracl. And feeing rs- 
Aa.n. la* pentancc is not to defperation, but to life and Salvation, it cannot 
be without all rcfpcft of Chrift, in whom only we have delive- 
rance from the condemnation and dominion offin. Repentance is 
the ef eft of Chrifts death and intercelHon. As he hath purchafed 
|(*'5JMs pardon of (in for us, (b repentance alfo, otherwife wc fhould be 
partakers of fomc faving grace, or blerfing, which Chrift did not 

The Spirit of God is not undefervedly called the Spirit of 
Chrift as Mediatour, convincing the Confcience of iin and un- 
rightcoufnefTe, and difcovcring unto the heart the grace of the 
Gofpell. The Word of the Kingdome or Covenant is the inftru- 
mentof repentance, as that which difcovereth (in, and holdeth 
^rth hope of pardon, and intreateth, perfwadeth, and encou- 
rageth the weary and burdened to draw nigh to God by Je-; 
tliis Chrift, 


A Table diredling to fome prinet 

pall things in the foregoing 



I Br ahami^<?w thfa- ^ 
ther if the faith- 
^/7, page 50. Vs>ho 
meant hyhbTzhfkva& 
hiiia;^hether to he tranjlated 
Though he had been reroarded m 
ju^ke,yet mt of merit, ib* A doti* 
yu obedience required of Adam, 
lih.nMHraliyandfymbelicali.p, I o | 
"^hj godfirbade h^2Xi the eating I 
of the tree ofk^tonledge^hlA, ^he* 
ther Adams ferfeSiion in Inmcen» 
cy^erenaturall or (hfernatHralL 
p. 1 1 . Qods C ovenMt ^ith Adam 
a Covenant of fiiendfhip,net of re* 
eoMciliation.&i.A^^m how he could 
he fecurey feeing hii condition W^ 
i»«M^/<?,p.X3. Adam in Innocent 
cji^hether hehad power to believe, 

Adoption, the je'^es partakirs 
of it, yep had it tempered Voithfer' 
'yitftde, p. 3 5 

Acccptilation, whether CJorifi 
l^tiifiednot Qodsjufiice filly i but 
by divine Acccptilation only, fee- 
ing hefufered but fir a time. 2 p I 
Affiance, the ground of pml- 

cular affiance, ujome ^ord or 
prcmife made to a man not yet be- 
lieving, p.«2P 

Agony of(^hrip >^ithom any 
fin fill diflemper. 1^2. the effects of 
it, 22 ^,2% '^.Betwixt hiidefres i». 
hli agony i^ diver Jity, but no con^^ 
trariety, ib, 

All*» Scripture pmetime Jig^ 
nifesneither all precifely, nor the 
mofi partt 208 


BEcaufe "^hat itjignifieth,p.>^j 
The p/;r^yi from the begin- 
ning, or the beginning, T^/^rf/ is 
imports* p.4^ 

Believe, Vehether every man be 
hound tohelkwQ that Chrifl died 
fir him in particular i p. 2 2 2 ,2 2 3 J 
&:c He that goeth on in anevii 
"^ay ii not immediately called to 
believe in(^hrifi.2 2 3 .Things thai 
are trueoipromifedjt k not necef- 
fary that they be^unlefs W^ believe, 
325. That man cannot believe,^ 
' nn through impotency of'^eaki^efSi . 
hntimpotencyofVailfulmffe, 126 «■ 
Belief that Chrifl died fir allmen 
cannot be the ground of juHifying 
faitht2 2d* ^hatjtgne god gives op 

A Ta b l 

hii '^itlingnefe to have men ht' 
XiiifQ^hen he gives them notpov^er 


Believers and Chrlfis Jheep, 
horp they differ, 255 

Bellarmine co/sfiaedyVphoJaithf 
the faith thereby Abt^^^m '^*^ 
jfifiified, VPOSpjiice, p .7 3 

Bat^mt ever em exeepti-vet but 
eft an ^dverfative. 3x52 

GAnaan , how faid to he An 
everlafiingfoffejfion. p. 5 5 

Q^^2iX^hAtitfignifieth^ 2jg 

Carnall Chrlfiians their privi' 
ledge. ^ 55 

Carnall reafonings: to he avoi'^ 
ideA in divinity . 24P 

Caufe, ^n immediate or next 
Caufe WA<4f .p.70. A moraUcauCc, 
though notprefent in aU^jet iffup' 
fofed future jmaj have effe£is.p.^ 1 

CitcumciC\oi)^^'>hy Vtfith h/offdg 
andVfhy ordained^feeing bothfexes 
not capable of it, p. ^o, "^hat 
k ^as a feal of. ibid. Circum- 
cifion not unprofitable to thofe 
that '^e'rerM partakers of thejpi- 
rkuall bleffings^ . 5? i 

Chrift more darkly 'i^cvealed in 
the (Covenant of promife^and^hy, 
p. 3 2. Chrift CMediater,andTii' 
fiatour hothtioi.fir^hom he died 
and rofe again^ whether fir all and 
every man Vfith apurpofetofave, 
€r fir allinreJpeU of tbe-fufficien* 
cy of the price, not efficiency, lo^, 
3,0'^,2o6^C^c, No man hindred 
fron) comming to him by mycmfi 

efficient, or deficient out ofhimfelf 
2^^,Both natures concurre in him 
neceffartly as a formall beginning 
in the "^orkj of Mediation, 269, 
How he k infirioHr to the Father, 
S71 , our fimUyd Upon him. lyC, 
%yy, and he fubfiitmed fir the fins 
offhefaithfnlL 279. SatiifaUio» 
made by him, and that realland not 
by acceptilation, ib. and 280,2 81, 
How the Church it faid to have 
Chrift, 287. Bid appearinghefire^ 
hii Father for H6, Vehat it imports, 
2g6. How be ii King. 30^. In 
Chrifts perfin a threefold fulneffe. 
3 I y,How Chrift "^as Mediatour 
before hislMcarMation.p.2j,Qhn{k 
the common fi^tre'houfe, in "Which 
every thing ii fir H placed, that id to 
be imparted to believers, p. 3 8 
0[\\xc<^'members,the Covenant 
externally made "With every one , 
parents and their children, p. 24, 

Church of the eleSi only one. p. 
^o,(ometimes the bounds of it nor- 
ron>er,(ometimes larger, 203, /« 
the latter dayes,it is probable, the 
bounds of it ^ill be -larger then 
heretofore. ib,. 

Commandment, C/ods Com- 
aiindmcntsjhevt> Vehat our duty is, 
not Vehat Qod Veill Work-in every 
man. .154 

Conditions oftt^ofirts. 133 

Converfion, though not a bar^ 
morall perfwafion,yet not effeBed 
Veithout perfrvafion, •^2$, Convert 
fion of Afinner.called convi^ion. 

Und^hy. m.'^hat ii that effeEiu^ 
all help thereby a man comes to 

L E. 

rvorkiwhetherfttllonfoot in the pg^ 
fterhy^fAd^mJnrepa ef tem^ 
- ' - - • - : - <j foraU^odd things, p. j 3 Cove- 

o4d, of grace effeeiualt^. COoYer- | nant of^raceM^t, l^Tmpame 
fion. 3 16, ^r^ether god a caufe- of to be under the Covenant of works 
wans noH<omctCion, 344 md grace at once. 1^, Covenant of 

Covenant feverailderwamns: grace divers in adrmniBrations, 
^theorjg^mdV,ora,p..i. Cm,^ | We in (l^hfimce. 25. Co4nant of 
nam offakM^t.^,%. Accepiions \ nature and grace how they acree 

i'^rf?^^''"'"^'^'¥'^'^'h^^^^^"-^^- <-^^^mm of trace 
effenceofthe Covenant, Meretn tt \ to be confidereda^ promifeiandoi 

T^'^t'% ^^^^^ ^^^jf^^ eflabliM, p. a7/coven^nt^ of 
h9W.difer.ih,r-here maj^ea^o^. ' r^mi/e^^hat, , i«^v Covenant of 
Tenant Mthmt 'verbalfexprejrt-' prowi/ea^dthenemQovcmntMi 
€ns,p,$.yettherehave.beena/wajesl they differ, yiz,ei a ht w^.,,' 
expreffimsm the C<,stnmt ^Uh ChriB moredar^/y repealed i'nths 
thereafmablexrteMure, mid. The\ Govzmntofwowife.and.rphy fb 
Co^cnarit is on^thmg,andthe.YQQy^ri2inv4f^omi^^^^^^ 
n^meef the. Coveri.nt^ another, Igaynd how^h^g it continn^d.^: 
p.5 CaHfesUyGod^ple^fidto' The degrees of if. \\,. the pa. ts of 
deal with the reafonable creature \ it,^i.rpho contained under ir J 
inaCovcnznt'my,p.6. e^Co- 1 the Covenant of promire,\phetVer 
venant mth man m hnoc^cy, \ wade in M^^^ y^ith every infant 
thaugh the wrd^x^^mi^vmt to\thatj%ouldb^Urn intothem>rld 
kefo,tt,nl p.6. The Coven a at ^f- I p 4^ ■ Ccvenant of grace as mani 
twtxtCjodandmantngeneralide-\feJieAtot^-braham,D,Aj r^hatpe 
fcribedp.j. Thes^mhour of the [culiarijjo beobfervedtherei?t, ib 
Qovcmni:,god,mtgfida»dmanyi the grand promifej of it ^7'th'' 
ib.-T.he CoMif^zntusofgrace.even I temporal^ puniifes.^ a Covenanrs ' 
Tvhererewardj.- promifedofjuflice, \ perfonalt, f^^i/j'-Cov-nants' and 
ib. & p.g'ThefHhen of theCo- | nationall.'p,^^. Covenant with 
YQmntrsriM>i.,andhow,S. Covz-] Abraham, how confirmed p 90 
Rant of works, mdgmc^m where}, JH are not in Covenant in one 
t^S-cripme t^i^cmaM^,9. [ rnawfeA^^.gir(^p^i„s:m^of^race 
Qo$.Qnmti>f\, notj prnder-M^of^mLthA rdtiim^iit of 
onev kUt tnanifotd and^fmdrJ 1 the Gaptivity.pgi Covenant of 
wayeswhereby^they:are dtfiingmA works whether made with man faU 
jhed.Z.Oithe covenaat. wuh mm \ leK.^-^..,Qhfcumj ami-.^ 'I>i w- 
ift^'J^mcmi^-,p,9»'iQ^e^qtef.' f».'diferencin^ the <?/^ Covenant- • 

^ ^ am 

A Ta 

B L 1. 

andaew.^S- Covenant wsWf mth | 
J frae/ particular/]/ explicated, md , 
what Mofes kcught to the further \ 
gxprejfure of the Covenant ofi 
prace ii22, Qcds Covenant mth\ 
Pavid.i^-^.&c, Jtt thi-J Cove-! 
pant Chriji more cleerly njani^m i 
fiedthen before, 144. The ihingi\ 
frowifedin this Covenant* I4^>! 
1 47 . The condttioft of it, 1 4p , The , 
execution <>/?^a* Covenant. 150,! 
151. 0-e, In this QoVQx\^nt fome j 
^ings promifed ahfilfitely , fame | 
C9Kditiomllj,l$ 2ji 5 ^.TVo /^w^j j 
fo be confidered in this Covenant, 
1 54. Covenant made voith Ifrael, 
4fter the Bahjlonljh Captivity, 
15 6.^fi,The promifes. of this Co- 
venant, 1 5 S, 1 5 p. &C, I» what 
finfe this Covenant maj be called 
9few, 1 6'hereifi this Covcmnt 
exceeded the former, which God 
,made when he brought them out of 
$gjpt» 1^1,162,163. Of the new 
Covenant orTeftament, and how 
god hath revealed him fe If therein, 
j,oA^ See New Teftame?Jt» 

D , ., 

DOubtingj what the ;rtght 
courfe to tuk^ with him that 
doubts, whether he Jhouldbeleeve, 
becanfe of his former tranfgrejft- 



'De^dytiowhatpurMfe tfimm- 
Horn m^. t.Oi them that are de^d 
ifijinst 244- 

Death infliBedon none butiin-^ 
mrs, or Mm that biarsththeperjon 

Debtj A two-fold paying of 4 
debt. apo 

Decree of ^od to punifh fH, 
the reafonofit. ' i^6 


ELcd are in grace with god, 
in reSfeEl of Ordimtion and 
appointment i though after brought 
into grace by C^^^^y aUnallcol' 
latien and communication. 29 2 

Examination ofourfelvesne" 
cefary,p.2j. a meanes to attain 
andpreferve uprightnejfe. ' • > 1 8S" 

Exhortations to all import not 
agenerallpurchafe offahatio/nfor 
all. 208, log , they are ufe fill botk 
to thtm that have received the 
truth, and to them that have not, whatpurpofe exhortations 
and invitations are to per/wade 
men to believe that have no power?, 


Externall bleffings more eSiee^. 
med of under the (Covenant of pro- 
mife^andwhy, P«34 


FAith, why not expreffeiy requi^ 
red in the (^ ovenant of nature, 
p.l2. Faith which the righteoup 
nefe of nature prejiippofeth, how it 
differs from the faith required in 
the ^ovenant of grace, ■p. \ 3. Faith 
the alone caufe on our part re qui*-, 
red of juiiification and falvation^ 
1 8, /« whatfenfe it is imputedfor 
righte&ufnejfe. 63 . Thre^ divert a« 
ptnions $f orthodox Divines about 
the imputation 0fVaith.64.,6$,66' 
Faith hath not the pUce of om 

A T A B L E, 

righteoufw^eyhnt ^oth anfwer m\ Gofpdl, how to hennderfiood.i^, 
curfarticifatimofChrifitto th4t-.\ Gofpell, inrt^hat fenfe called ever- 
T^hkh is the ground of oitr l?em^ ■ hHmg,i^i, How faith is faidto 
partakers of ^ dams Jinnee 6j,6S.' come by the Gofpell, feeing it roas 
Though faith ^(f commanded in the ■ cemmandedin the law, 1 1 J . The 
larvyitfelloweth not ^ that hingju- ' lave ^ given to the Jewes^ot eppo* 
fiified by faith, we are jnflified by fte to ihe Gofpell," ib» Gofpell 
theworks of the laiv. 11^, Faithy^ ffri^/y taken, er the, new TeFia* 
whether that Chrtfi as he died to\ ment,rvhe}t it tookjts beginning, 
impetrate remiffon of fin for nfe\ ' 197, 198. 

in particular, be the objeB ofjufvi' 1 Good, that the inielle^lfiall na- 
fyi^g feitb,2 27, Faith JHfiifjing j tfdreis capable of, is double, 5 1 3 
is not without an apprehenjion of> Graces horv given by the hand of 
mercy in Chrifi to be obtained, but 1 the ApoSl:les,how by Ohrifl, 

implyeth not an apprehenjion of 
wercy in the pardon of fin already 
oi/taiited, . 327 

Faithfull, all of the fame faith 
tvith Abrahaiff, 9 1 

Father, though the fame roork^ 
be done^ by Father and Son, yet a 


Guile ofourJpirits,howtofinde 
it out, 1 87. d"C. how to tnke up our 
fehesfvritf Ig^i 

. H 

HAnd, right hsruA what it fig' 
nifiethin Scripture. 305 
Hc'-id,how Chrifi^ is the head to 
difference in the manner of workj j his body, 3 1 8 

ing, ■2681 Heart, a doub/e hsirt what, 

Vzthcrs^before ['hrip.,and(^hri^ 1185. fg^es of a good hear?, ibid. 
fiians in the time of the Cjojpell.un- Hcathens,/<y/w<? remainders of 
der the fame (Covenant for fub- \ (fods Image in them , and many 
fiance. '^6 \tempora:li bleffings vouchfafed 

Fellowes, how the faithfull are them, whence it cometh topajfe. i-j 
called Chrifis fellowes. 3 1 1 j Heaven, The fathers that died 
Fellowfliip with the Saints a\ before Chriji, hadnot thatper^B 
ftgne er weans of upright nejfe.i 88 ' flate in he^-^en.that now they have, 
Fulncflc of grace of two for ts^ \ cp-weareprefefit/yrpojfejfedofand 
3 1 1 j 2» heaven they did expeB their re* 
Q ^deem€r,'^^l6.TheKingdomeof 

Gl\\ng doth not alwayes im- 1 Heaven not exprefely mentioned 
port an aEl of grace, ^.6l\ intheoldTejiament, ' 13a 

Gofpell, why weft that the prOm 
mifeOjould gee before it^^ 2.:(^rdce 
hefiowed more plentifully under Hje 

Heavenly, thin ffi w^aptnptin* 

der earthly in the old lefiA" 

mentp \«^ 33 

Z z, 2 Humane 

A T/A'^ L E 

. ■' Huffiane nature of ChriJ}:^ciJ} kecanmither move to any thing of. 

highly exahed^:^X:)^\(^hrijfai mam \ himfelfc: thatu gettd^. mr tmne^ 

h^li ^ frethgative^abT^, e'T/ery grac^irfh^AVouehfafed^s 'ipp»' 

Creature,! 14.. He. is fet above all \ ' iRipoiliblbj how that. n>hirh is 

prw^ipa/ityi afidporf'er, and donii jrnpofllbkw^^ff afi oljeB of 

n%on tUndyphat ftgni^sdhsreby ,2\^, Godsdejtre md af-proifation, i^<y.^ 

Me hath a po'}z>cr ahcveeverycYe^'l : ".Jrfri.o<entv-w/fe/^<?r i3»\fnrid% 

tur'e.'i'i 5, Theman ChHfi isKin^' cent perfen cught tofufer.far\a, 

of heaven and earthy 216. yet this j nocenti the ejuefrion largely hatidiK 

power is not infime Jimply , ibid» I led, 284,285, &c.. It i6 not nni- 

Humanity cf.Ghriji whether to ^ ver/a/7y againH emitj for one tfk. 

l^' Adored, ~^\^-^^■. "^^X'Jufer the punljhmiTttiOfAtiotjoe^t,'A i^v^^^■^-■•iJ'^ i-""" '> ■ ■-■ \{\b> That an kmot^nt perfon 

IEbov^fe, what' it demteth, il 3 may justly fuffer for ^noient^ "a^t, 
Jewes, w/^7 macU a nationall , u required, 2 86» 

church, gi , they had a double 'vad \ Interccifi.on of Chrifi, . whe^ 
av^r their eyes, 120. j^» illujiri- \ ther nelidifiinouijhed into geher.ali 
oPMtypeofele^tofiinthem, 53 ! <«»^y/i<fd^//r-s?^8/'^I.hte*:cE0ion 
' Inczrnztion of ^hrifl, whet her \ of Chrifiy what it^, 'a()6. It» 
i^ecejfary ta goe before its ejfe^s, ! generall, and particular , heavenly 
^nd benefits, iS, Ir\czTi)3itior) of and glcriouj,'2^jj. It is founded 
t^hrifi the day of his coronation,} ptf on his fatisfa^ory .merits j:iHd, 
mdef^aufdlSt.'- ' 2 p^ \ Jtimplyeth three things, 2gS, ft 

Impute , what it Jignifieth in '■ u not reciproeatt,\h\di. Tide bene- 
$iCripture^,6Q,6\, Imputation of fits of it to the Churchy ibid. a;nd 
agoodthingthreewayes. 62. Im- | 299. Howthefaithfullcometobe 
putati'on and reputation how dif- \fubjeU to evil andmifery, Chrifi 
f^Jfjib. Certain ccrelUries Ahoht\ interceding for them, ibid, H^he" 
imputation, .y^e Faith. 62 therChrifi prayeth for the ab^ 
. Inhntsholy by Covenants 5 2 [folute perfeverance ofbeleevers, er 
■ Int egrity , .fe& Vprightnejfe, j only upon condition^ 301. 

iheneceffity o/*>,8o,8!,82,8 j. It j Invitations ofQad^ mansper- 
fifs-a (aire glo^e upon the meaneft verfenejfe only the caufe, why he 
aliens 3 S^, The ejfeBs arid fruits anfwereth them not , §45. 

ofit.Sf. Meanes to attain it. 85, I frael, w^iC-a^/Icfurun. 1 80. 
87188. How a. Chriftian istofiin \ Judgement , whether the will 
upMmfelftQMtmlntcgnty.S^y ifoliowk, 33-3,554.335« theaH. 
^v .; *\j ^ ;. • v'. 8p),(^c. U/JiVjdgcinent/W-/o/i,.ibidi 

" Impottacy of man^fuck that \ . Juftics ofGodcieeredinrequi^ 


A T 

A -B L E , 

rwgthati efmmfa^en, which he i Law efitred that jinne mi£k a- 
katb no fovoer U doe. 4 4« { bound, 1 39. Whether the Law hs 

^' Juftification cannot he bj faith \ aboH/hed to tkem that are under^ 
audworkes, 4i concaufes, ) o . J u- | the Q'ovenunt of grace, p. 1 5* - 
Qii^cmoniihyfdthalotte^mthyi Learning <?/' Chriji , i»haty 
that faith wh'ichii alone. 73* j 334* 

, , , . K. I "^^^bus.pzixumyMo.fuch thing, 

Ing,S why fpeciallj to bep'ay- \ p, |o, yet the fathers before Chri^ 
edfor^ , „ ,^-3.'^' \^'^^ ^"^ ^^-^^ perfeBHate^ vhick 

now they have, and we are prefent^ 

- Love of god torrard the crea^ 
ture^ a double dijiin ^io» of it , 4. 



< King^domc of Chrijl, he en 
trith alwayes on it ^ by conque^, 
g2g, y€t ufeih no comfulfiony 
224. me'4 are qathered into this 
Kjngdorae hj vocation^ ibid. 
Knowledge of god begets in 
as afmilittide of god, ^6, Chrifi 

favethnotas cleereLj known ^ but 
asfincerely achnovpiedged^ 3 1 



MAny fomstimes put for all, 

■ Mediatour, the neceffity. ofcney 
2-^4' what an, one the Media- 
__. tcuvmufi b^^\b. why the fecorsd 

Aw called fiery, why, loi.t^d i perfon voa^ McdhtQur^rathenhm- 
1 24 ! thefirj} or thirds 266. Accord-. 
J^he Law M given upon mount , ing to i»hich nature .Chrifi rs>M 
Sinai r»'^ <« Covenant of grace, \ Mediatour, ib, ^ Mediatonr^ 
proved at Urge^ l0^ilQ'^^l\Q. what ^ ijo.. Whether Chrifi a 
The Law r^ever given W/6-.; Mediatour ta himfelfe, ib. ryhe-. 
out the,gofpe/l, nor the Gofpell ther^if (fhrifi ^^.^Mediatour ac- 
ypithoptt the Law, 102. The Law ' cording to his divine nature, all the'. 
■requirethfaithy as mil as love and ' thres.perfons be not Ivkdiatours,, 
obedienccy 10,5. lo5. d"£-, The\ -^i.. 

Law to be expounded acccording \ ' Mediation &f. Chrifi , three^ 
to the fcnfe the prophets give of it, \ things to he ct^nfidered in the atis 
II o . In.the La w frequent men- J of it,p22f How Chrifi hat h per-^. 
fion of the Meffiah, ill.. Faith \ formed the office ofmcd !ati6,2 7 r <, 
in ChriHcomwandedinths Law, Meancs not ' all:,. 
though»iore ohfcurely, 1 1 3.,. Law j and therefore neither therest.of thci 
md Gofpell in Tpohat refpeEis opp'o- , effe5is of(fhrifis death, 2^3, 

fed. 115,116,117,118,11^, Meafure, %hat to-dog. a thing 
\'lOy&p. LzWi a double u/e oj I inMezCilVC, f^3l^». 

U, 1 2 o. How it isfdid that the \ Minittery of the fetveSj and the 

Z ^ } end 

A Ta 

B L E, 

endofitf 1 3 8. 1 rea^tt ^hy Qod made it ; f pp. 

Mifery in man the occaJionA New CovemMt pyefirred mttch 
hut no caufe of ^ods mercj to-' \ be fire the old, though both of the 
vpardshim, \famenM}ire> and from the fAms 

yit^nh^the times of theyit^X'm \ fountain, 200. Thefromtfes in it 
ah times of greater light, ^i^* afured hj Father, Son, and holy 

Moon, aftrefernblance of the 1 Cfhofl^tol, ^'os flricken with all 
Churchy 147. \ nations in oppofitionto thefeT»eSj 

Mofes, "Kvhether the Covenant , ib. made With fime externaUj^ 
of grace were manifefied hj him, \ others internally, 202, 203, The 
9 1 . The fhining of his face, what prerogative of , the x\z\N Covenant 

itfignifyed, P4. How and in what 

fenfe he was a mediatonr , ii'j, 



above the old, 2^3, 2$a,^c, 


r\ Kih, v^hen the Saints bound 
^-^ themfelves by oath to walkjn 

NAiuVQlgifts^whethir they way allthefiattttesof the law,what they 
befoftfedy that God will b Cm \ meant, 155. rvhy God confirtned 

.pon> fttper naturally I'^J. 

Negations in Scripture imply 

not alwayes an abfolute denyall^ 

p. 5 

New, rohat it Jignifieth in 

his promife to Abraham ^oatb, 

O'^az^xtTiZt^ under what notion 
requiredin the (fovenant, Ip. It is 
two-fold, ferfeB: and fincere, 20, 

Scripture y 1 94. zAnzvj feng^ Ohcd>izT\cc perfi^ is commanded, 
whatAb. A new commandment ^ though not rigidly exaEied, and 
Tvhaty I g^ . New man, what,ib, 1 T^hy, 21.// is in vain to thinkjfenm 

New Tcftament aboUJbeth not 
the former, but the former was ful- 
filled by the latter , 2 p. ^<?Z'^- 
nant ofgrace, in what refpeU cal- 
led a UQVJ Covenant, cr Teftamct, 
I p ) . JVhy it u called a Covenant, 
and why a Teflament, 1 96. New 
Covenant when properly it began, 

tring into Covenant, if not refoL 
ved to obey in all things , jb, 

Obfcurity in the knowledge of 
Chriji under the Covenant ofpro^ 
mife,and the degrees of it, andrea- 
fons, " p,32 

Old Teflament what, 9 1, diffe- 
rence betwixt the old Teflament 

196, l<lcvjTdkzmtntpubli/hed\and new. Old Tejiament aboUfh- 
onafolemn day, in the Affembly\ ed by the death of(^hriji, in right, 
almofi of all nations, I g-j. '^tVJ \not in a^, IplJ 

Tcftament, the nature ofitfiands j P ^ 

in thr^Joings, 198. A defer i- f T) AfT-OVer , when and to what 
ftion4ifit^\h^ The authority of it 9 ; JLpurpofe inflituted^ 1 42 


A. Tab X t» 

PecuVm people, vcko, 103 ' throw the chafUtf ^yid ohje^ians 

The Vcdzgcgy efth^€n>esi/m\a»fK>ere£i» The deliverance'^eehm 

luftrated Urotlj hj comparifon vf\ miti by C^>ri^ U called RedeiDpti- 

4k Sehoolmafierj dialing mth hiiX OD^and^Oiwade hj thefajingof 

Schelan, i38,i39,Ho.j^prw, ^ 279. 

Pcrfedion, yp^^at it imports in\ B.Qligiot)ffirfui>fla*fcee'i/erow 

Scripture phrafe,']^ . ^A thing is j andmcharjgeable, 27 

fmdto be perfi^ three irajes, y6, j Rcmiflion ofjin, though cer-i 

77' J^'VP' ! ^^^"' y^^ leffefilt in the oldTefta* 

Prayers f^ot to be made for all\ rnent,^ j . Kcmiirion,what,2§o,ft 

j»(?», 33 !• Chrijis fraying for j ^ not repugnant to antecedent fa- 

thofe that crucified him,icva4 ofpr'v | tiifamon, ibid«. 

^atedaty, not out of his office oft Repentance, how caUedfir m 

Mediaiourt 4 5 p. fome ^xzyzxsUhe Covenant of grace.l^. Necefm 

fuppofe 4 condition in him for ff^ryyandmuft accompany faith, yet 

whom we pray, feme none^ 501 nocaufe offalvation, i^; 

Perfonall umon, the end of it. Revelation, 4 double-cleerne^e 

26p ' o/revelation, 35 

To prepare the heart to feekj Reward, hovo taken h Scrim 

God.what, Z79\P»^^> 57 

VTepzvatiom^rvhethertheJpmt Right, or upright, by^hat. 
wakes us come tog od immediate lyy ^ords exprejfed in the originalU 
or by fowe ptcpzmiom going be. ^ 177 

fere. 256. Nine conclujions concer- R igb teoufnefle diver fij taken, 
ningfuch preparations,337.^^. ^2.Rigbteoufncfle>»«;'«;^//z/^, is 
This preparation is neither f>ving j not putative, 6 1 . RighteoufnefTc 
grace, nor a thing betwixt nature ^ ofthefa^, and of the per f on, 66 

md grace, 3 3-^ j S 

Priefthood, theendandufe of QAcraments of the old Tefld' 

it, 138.141 

\Dment no types of the Sacra*- 
ments ofthenen>f^o. Sacraments 

R Hading, C^^ f*f^y "^cork^ by it, of the old and new Tefiament how 
"^hen that preaching ij not\ they differ, 3J 

flighted, 3^7' Satan, Qods indignation againji 

Reconciliation , imports no j him,fome eaufe of the Covenant of 

ehange in god, 293 \ S/"^^^* i 7 

Redemption ; univerfall re- j Sacramentall phrafes, 'therein 

'demption, the controverfte con- 1 the thing Jigniped ii given to the 

sernipfc it ^^^I'^rJ difcuffed, iq/^\ figne, are ancient md familiar, 91 


•A' Tab l e , 

Sacrihces, ^-^^^ typified hy the I 4« heroic all f^irit into the'feopleof 
hloudof them^'^o, the fathers be-\ Gffd,ib, The fervice of the fomd 
firethe law that ofered them, had ! (^hrlflian is acceptable, ib. The de- 
commandment ■from Cjodfor them, ' grees andnatnre of foundnaffe or. 
J^<^. Jin expiate din them hyftMi' | linearity, Jb. &c. Theejfe&jofa 
tmion, 2jp fincctc heartily^. Nine Jignes of 

, Satis fadion, "ft'^jr ^«7i U't?^/^ | finceritv, :i74ji75,&c. 

}fst'par'donJinVpitho0titi2<i^i2S^.y Sit, To CityV>hat it imports in 
How 'free remiffionf^ands rpith la- Scripture^ and rpha! it is to fit at 
ti&fadion, ib. H<?bj it conld be ne- \ the ri^ht hand of CJod, 5 o :? , 3 04. 
cefary for thofe, Vcbich were beio" Chrifls (ntm% at the right hand of 
vedofgod,igi. The VPord fatif- God,whae,^o<^. The place where ke 
f'a^ion not to be found in Scri \ fitSjgoS. Six things implyed in 
ptMre, but the thing is, tj2. whe- (^hrifis fitting at the right hand 
titer God could not have pardoned] efQod, 310.521 

^\^;V^(7»rfatisfadion,273j274) 1 Socinus, the ground ^hy he de- 

&c,\medtheprefcience of Qod, 248 
-Seed, horfi ■varioufly taken in \ Spi^it,TheplentifidlpowriMgof 
S-cripture^ ' ^6 it,defirredtiU the glorifieatio»x>f 

Scgu\hh^hatitimports,lo'i\ Chriji, ^ 350 

Szx^znts head, how brmfedby\ Spirituall good things of twe 
(^hriji and his members, 3P,4o I/'^^-'* 15^ 

■ Servitude double, 1411 Sufferings of(^hriJi, two things 

Sheep of ChriflQ)oken of tii»o\ to be confidered in tbem^ Viz, the 
"^ayes in Scripture, 257' fubfiance, and circumfiances ; for 

' Sin, thedifcovery ofitfweetens \fubftance they were what the law 
rnercy, ^nd hence the law '^as more required, but for the circumfiances ^ 
fully difcovered by ^hrifi then it] they were more, 281. H« fuflpc-i 
had been afore. 272. Though ip\ rings were beyond meafure gr ie- 
hath an outward difagreement,fuch \ vom,22i^punifljments of Jin of two- 
^ may be in acreature from the^ forts, and which of them ChrijiCui'^ 
£reatour,yet it hath no inward pO'\ hied, 282 

ftive repugnancy to Gods nature 3\ • T 

fiich as u betwixt fire and ^ater, I 'Tp Aught of God 3 what it 
t:y ^' Three- things to be confidered] JL i^emes, ■ ' 332 

i«finne, 2^1 ( 'Xzmx^&csWbleffmgi inagrea^ 

Sincerity iandTruth, andVp-'ter meafure , and fpirituaU in a 
riffhtnejfe. It is a comfort to a man lejfe, given to the . naturallfeed ift' 
inbisgrMteftdifirefeitjZxItputs thefirftageSf ' ' : -jj 


A T 

Teftamcnt old and nevD^in rehat 
Accidents they dijfer^ ifeingforfftb- 


8 2,85. See Integrity. Upright- 
nes of heart and life, 179,180. 
fiancethefameyi6^,l6^ 16$, ^c. 1 (*yfn upright heart ii fixed in re» 
Of Truth and uprightne^e, 166. <g^rdofthe ohieEi, i So. The effeSii 
TrmhyVfihat it imports, xbJtprefup | «>/ Uprightnes, 183, 184. i8?» 
pofeth five things, i6jil6S,i6g. \ &e. The meanes voherebyit may 

Truth, compared by the ^Apofile 
to a girdle y in what refpeBs^ \ 6g, 
170,171, d-r. 
Time may befirve^^ 178 
Trinity, the AoUrine of it ob 

be attained andflrenffthened, \%6, 

W " 187. 

To W^k before god,what,j^t 
j^JTo walk in Chr.ivhatyy^. 
Wicked men, what benefit they 

fcure in the Id Teftamentf 201,! have by Chrifi, * 3 * 1 4« 

V 1 Will , wheiher the efficacy of 

VNion, and communion with \ grace dependt^pon the liberty of the 
ChrifiyhowdifiinguiJhedj^^.\W)]\, 540. They that are given 
Union , fever all forts of union d' to (^hrifi^comefreely yet necefarily, 
Conjun6itanofoneperfonwith am- \ 342. HowmenarefaidtofanBi' 
ther,2t6. Union of the two na- [fy and purge th^tufelves^^^i. Gad 
tures in Chriji cannot caufe the hu-- \ determineth the ',¥ ill to will and 
mane to partake the properties of ,Me, by his grace, 343- 

the divine t ' 308.! Works and faith cannot be joy- 

Vocation, by it. men are called \ ned as con-caufes in jufiification, 
into Chrifiskingdome. Itufreey\'jo, what Works ^^ oppofed to 
not depending upon any precedent faith in 'lufl-tfication, 1^7, 

condition, perjons called to felloW' j Word a morall injfrument qf 
flnp with Qhrifi , who^rs^ 2 4. The Iconverfion,^ 1 8. It U not only pre- 
fubie^ or mutter of \oc3i(id,wh4t, \p(tratory , oi if the^e were another 
225. Howmenarefaidtobewor-'iWgvdfuggefiedby thefpirit.which 
..fhy of their Vocation or callingiib, I might be called cofun-matory, 3 29. 
And 2 26. It ii partly externall^and j Word fignifieth thefecond perfon, 
partly internally ib. Sometime it ii j in many places of the old Teftam 
-wrought by the minifl *y of private ment. 1 2 5 ., 1 2 6. 

perfons,il6. The inBru.ipent of\ VJorli to cam what y20y,\j^()rld 
Vocation. 32.7. Intirnall Voca- ' .that Chrifi comet:ofavejwhat,2\0, 
tion, how wrought, y 3 3 ^» Whether the whole \vo':\ be recon- 

Vorftius confuted , who faith, died to Cjodby Chrifi ,i\6 ^& 217. 
that faith and repentance and new \ ^c, world ii ulually taken for 
obedience u accounted for ri^htem \ mfninthe vVrrlJ indefinitely, not 
oufnefs, 6p.' every man i fit he world, fipr yet t hi 

Uprightncs, neceJfary,So,Sly\greatefipart, 261* 


Texts of Scripture that receive foroe 
lightirom this Xreatifea. 










3 4- 



Pag. i4i 


54. P7. 
253. 2 p, 

49.; 3 3 


Ghap.^ Verf. Pag.' 









2 Chromchs, 

Chap. Vcrf. Pag« 

6. 23. 58. 


2$v 4^j4^* 
32. 16,17. 

4^- 34^3?' 







- , - '- ^ •- ! 

14, 167. 


I Samml, 
22, S'6. 



2 N5'4iw»f/. 
19. 143- 
3,5. i4P^ 

3^^ Ii>i2,i3. 1^5 



■ 5*- 

34. 13^- 

8. ibid. 

14- 7^-' 

4^., 5X,355S 




55.tPfat. Vcrf, 

55.17^ 4- 
124 1 10. 10. 

ioi.[i5. ^,1 ©,12,14 





























J 5. 


J 57* 






J 3 2, 








104 51. 




Chap. Vcff. P^g. 
II. 2,3,4,5,102.12a 



Chap. Verf. 






















sSj. 2. 


1 70. 

4. 55 

1 2. 7- ibid. 




4- 1^0. 

I . 










2©. . 




















lOjI 1,-12. 






4a. 14. 




.4 aa 3