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Full text of "The marrow of sacred divinity : drawne out of the Holy Scriptures and the interpreters thereof, and brought into method"



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Tlic Pourtracturc afthcK^vcrcnd and worthy Minijtcr of God> 
William Ames D.D.Jom^ time of Christs CoUcd^c in Canibnclgc. 
^-fni TrofisorofjDivinitj in the Tamo us VnivcrJxW of 
Traneker in f rieilancl . \ v,\\i'M.:fhckfi^s.t, 


J^rihtsn fjy LihnJlst^i-:!l 

Trt "rauU: C A./.r;A 



. DIVfNiTY, 


holy Scriptures.and the Interpreters 

thereof^ and brought^into Method. 

B rr 

William Am e s :,' fqaittimc DIdor. aod 

profciTor of Divinity in the famous Umv«r- 

fity ditFramk^n in Frhjlmd* 

Tranflated out of the l^tine , for the benefit of fuch who 
are not acquairttgd with ftrange Tongues. 

Whereunto are annexes eertaine Tables reprelentiiig the 
fubftance and heads dfa#*in ^ fhoa^view;^re<:/mg 

to the Chapters whetc they ai4 bMclicci^As alio a table 
^ opening theharcTwords there^pcomiined. 

A Worfce ufcfull for this Scaicn. 

^ ; 1 fc'^o R. 14.26. 

when yce come topther^e^erj me hath a. f falm*^ hath ^ Vo^rm^ath . 
To/i£u^^ hath a Revelation ^ hath an Inttrp^etation. I c ■" ' -::es h 
J.oneHntoedtfjing. V ' . 

"^^^ ■ ^ . . 1-^ . '' ' -. — ■:rn — ^ 

Pubrfhcd by order ftom thf Honorable the Hoti^'e ofCV^rntroni?^* 

"^ LONDON, 7^3^ 
Primed by EdwardGrijfiH ior Henry Overton ia^OTes-Hcad*al|y 



Briefe Premonition, or forewar- 
ning of the A uthor,touching^ 

the rcaion of his purpofe. 

ALthoughldocnot aflumcthis to my fclfc, 
to co0:iprchend in my mindc all the 
thoughts of cvill ipeakcrs,yct I forefee divers ex- 
ceptions which this my endcavour(proccediog 
certainly from a very good intent) Trofeculi 
£f»/<? according to the difpofition of the world, 
wjll fall iniO i the chiefe of which I purpofe 
briefly to mecte wiihall. 

Some ^ and thofc indeed not unlearned, 
diflikc this whole manner of writing, that 
the fum of „ Divinity ftiould be brought in- 
to a Chort compend. They dcfire great Vo- 
lumes , wherein they may loofcly either dwell, 
= or wander. Whom I dcfire to confidcr, that 
all have not fo great leafure,orfovaftawitjas 
to hunt the Partrich in the Mountaincs , and 
Woods :butthat the condition of many doth 
rather requirejthat the ncft it (clfc, or the Icat 
of the matter which they purfue , bee Revved 
without any more adoc. 

A I Seme 

Some doc not dlQikc this way, if tbechiefc 
hcad^ be handled in a Rbctoricall v^ay3 buc 
they tbinkc that every particle is not fo pan<fiu- 
ally^io be in filled oii. Butmdeed, v^hcri the 
fpcech is carried on Jikea (v«ift itream,ah hough 
if catch m^nyrhings ot all flrts, yet you can 
hold tali bur a htilcj you can Catch but a Utclc^ 
you cai»noc find where you may Conftamly reft; 
but wncncerraine rules are dcliv< red, the Rea- 
der haih, aJwayes, ssit were at every pace, the 
place mark d where he may i.this toof. 

Soms alio there will be, who will con- 
dsmne the care ot Method, andLog»call form 
as Curious and troubicfomc» Bui to them a 
founder jjdgcment is to bcwifticd, becaufe 
they remove the art of undcrlland ng, judgc- 
ment,and memory from thofd things, which 
doc almoft oncly dcf rve to bce-underflooc^ 
known, and commit icd to memory. 

On the otherfide there wiJ not be wanting- 
(omc who will require morecxadncffeofthc 
art ot Logick , whom I could not fully fatisfy 
if I would, ihn)Ugh my ov\n imperfeiflion^ 
neither indeed would I fomuch as 1 could, 
becaulc of the wcaknefTe of ot' ers. limagjnC 
Cherc will not be few who will thinke that 


to fctiforth fuch inftkutions as thefe , after fo 
mady labours of learned n .en in the fame kind, 
ij ^uperfluoiSj and but to doe that which 
hath been done before. Of whofe opinion I 
iKouldfcadily be,if any thingof ihiskind ..^ere 
extant^ which did pleale all in every refped. 

Which notvvicbftandingjl would not have fo 
taken^ as if it ever came into my mind to hope 
any fuch tb ng of this writing- bat beCaufe i am 
not out of hopc,that it may come t > pa(Te that 
tWOjOr thrceor fo, may fall upon this o ; ours, 
who may here find fomething more fit toin- 
ftruift^and flir them up topiecy^then they have 
obfcrved in the more leafned writings of o- The Amhoi 
thcrs? which conjedure if it doe not faile me, I K Vo^ 
fhall think 1 have done a work wortiithe labor. '°J^^_ |""J!y 

1 cannot but cxped to be blamed of obfcuri- '^'"§ '^-"^^ 
ty of thole that are not fo skilful^whom I delire fcure, the M 
' that they would learne of Cyrus ^l^adiomm w; to'appiy him 

* Siapttnii Utis luminihus non tarn effefuayies^thSLt whfch is moj 
^is^ThediffuledbrigbtnefTe of the beames of ^gf ^\ ;;;j^'^jjj 

* the Sums not fo pleafant in iar^e windowes; '^eMi bei 

• I S-vii*i II !• not to read 

certainly a conrracted light , although it may vaine; And 
feem fmall^yet it doth more en lighten (if a man venlhl S 
come neere and obierve3then that which is^as pf^t!" m^jtl 
it v/ere difperfed, by too much enlargement, ""j^ eaik^ai 
ThedrinefTcoftheilyle, and hartfenefTcortionveiypid 

' /- frint. 




fome words will be much blamed by the fame 
perlons.But I doe profcr to excrcife my (elfc in 
that facrefie , that when it is my purpofc to 
Teach^ I thinke I fhould not fay that in two 
words which may be laid in one 5 and that that 
key is to be chofen which doih open befl^ al- 
though it be of wood, if there be not a golden 
key of the fame efficacy. 

Laflly, if there be any who defire to have 
fome pradicall things, elpecially in the latter 
peart of this^V/^r-r^^B^jmore largly explained, we 
fhall indeavour to fatisfie them hereafter (if 
God give leave) in a particular Trcatile, which 
at this time we have an aflPedion to, touching 
ivhichsnowqucflions which arc ufually called *calcs of 

cunt in Latin ^_.f^:^_ ,p 

f 'iiniiKed ^ f there beany who doe yet find fault with, 
it3 the Au or defir.- other things,! would in treat them,that 
-ojuc/"*^ tht^y would vouchfafe candidly to impart to 
nic the ir thoughts , which m y afford dettfed" 
. matter for a jLift apology, or due amendment. 




The firft Chapter. 

of the Definition^ or Nature of Divinity. 

Ivinity h the doSrine of living . to Gi)d, 
lohn 6.6%. The words of eternal! life, /^f?/ 
520. The words of this life, Rem. 6.11. 
Reckon j&ur [elves to be alive unto God. 

3. It is called a dodii ine , not as if the 
namcoflnteHigcncc, Science, Sapience 
Art, or Prudence were not hereto belong- 
ing ; for all thefc arc in every accurate Difcipline, and efpe- 
cially in Divinity : but becaufc this difcipline is not from 
Natnreand humane invention , * ( as others are ) but from di- 
vme revelation and inftitution. /Agr 51. 4. Doftrine flball 
proceed from me, Mat.ii.i^, From Heaven : why did you 
not then believe him ? John §.29. we know that God fpakc 
toc^y?/, gaKiai^i2. The Cofpell is not according to 

_B jnaiii 

f The Nature of Divinity^ 

man i lor neither (ill I receive it from man » neither wait 
taught ic^buc by rt.ev i!ation,M« 645. 

3« The principles of other Arts being inbred in us may be 
f&HJheddHd brought to ferfiUion^ by ftnfc , obfcrvation, ex- 
pcrience^ and itrauAion : but the foUd principles of Divinity 
hew ever they may be brought to ferfeUion bjftudj md mdujirj^ 
yet they are not in Hs from Nature^ Mat. iS^ij. flefh and biood 
hath not revealed this unto thee. 

4. But feeing every Art confifts ef rules, whereby Ibme 
A£t of the Creature is direfted , and feeing life is the moil 
nobkof ail afts^itf that i& DivirfKy) cannot properly be con^- 
veriilBt akoui any other thing then about lifc 

5/ And leeing that, that lifeot the Creature is moftper- 
fefi:, which comes necrcft to the living, and lifcgiviugGod, 
therefore the nature of Divlnity4ite is toliveto God* 

6. M«h live tj» God whcnilieyrHre, accardinptothe#ill 
of God| to the glorji of tGroH , God inwardly working 
in them^ I Tfr.4.2.6 tfeat hemightlive after the will of God y 
according to God. 6W. 2.1^.2^ 1 hat I may l-ve to God^ * 
Chriftiivcsinme. 2 (^or 4.10. that that life of Jefiis might be 
manlfcft in our bodies 7^ W. i, ^a Chrki fliali be magnified in 
my body^whctherby life or death. 

7* This life , as touching itselfenceremainesoneandthe 
(ame, frowits beginning UJtto eternity. Johni^,^6. Sc 'y •24. He 
that believeth in the Sonne hath eternall life^i John 3.15. Life 
eternall remaining in him* 

8» But although in this life there is contained as well to 
live happily as to live well, yet fv(t^,^ to live well, is more 
excellent then Ivtfai^mv ^ to Iwe happily ; and tTiafwhicfi 
ought cheifly and finally to berefpcftcd is not blefledneflc, 
which refpefts our profit 5 but goodnefle , which is referred 
to Gods glory. Therefore Divinity is better defined by that 
goodlife whereby we live to God, then by a bleflcd life 
whereby we live to our fclves ; as it is called of the Apoftic 
A figtirc ccm- by a Synecdochf, The doftrine according to God lives^i 
taining part Tim*6 Sj^ 

for fhc whole. ^^ Moreoverfteiiigthislifefi afpiritnallaftofthewholc 
man , whereby he i^ caried on to enjoy Cod 5 and to doc ac- 
C(»^dingft>biswill9 and it is manifeft that thole things are 


The ffatwre of Divinity. 

proper to the will , it followcs that the prime and proper (tib- 
jcftof Divinity is the will. Tre. 4, 2 3. From the heart 
commeth aftions of life. And 2 ^.26,Givc me thy hearu 

10. But feeing this life and will is truly and properly our 
molt pcrfcft praftife 5 It isoifitfelfemanifeft, that Divinity 
is prafticall^and not a (peculacive difcipline, notonely in that 
common refpe^ 5 whereby other difciplines have their 
iuTTf^cilU^ well doing for their end , but it is prafticall in a pf- 
cuh'ar and fpeciall manner and above all other. 

1 1. Neither indeed is there any thing in Divinity which 
is not referred to the latt end 5 or to the meanes pertaining to 
that end : all of which kind doe direftly tend to Pcad:i(e« 

12. This praftife of life is fo perfeftly contained fti Divi- 
nity , that there is no precept unhrer(aily tnic penaining to 
living well, contained in the difciplines of hoofhold govern- 
Dient,moraltty,politicall government or maidngLaweS|Which 
doth not properly pcrtaine to Divinity. 

1 2. Divinity therefore is of all Arts , the (upreame^ moS 
noble , and the mafter peece^proceeding in a fpeciall manner 
from God, treating of God, ^ divine wu^ers ^ and tending 
and leading man to God , in Which refpeA it may be not un« 
fidy called 02«^J/rf, or 8««/»>»*,as well as e*oAoy;<*, that it a 
living to God, or a working to God , aswellasafpcaking 


Chapter II. 

Of the T)iFlribHtimiorf0rts of Divinity. 

%• TT Here are two parts of Divinity, Faith and obfcrvancf . 
j| 2Tifn.\*i^. Hold the expreuc forme of wholefbmf 
words which thou haft heard of mee with faith and love* 
I Tm.u\9. Having faith and agoodconfcicnCcP/iA 37 .5. 
Troft in the Lord and doe good. Of thoft parts did the Di- 
vinicy ofP^ulconM^ft/iSs 24. 1 4,15, 16. I believe all things 
that are written, and have hope in God rIexercUcmyfclfe 
to have a confcience void of o&nce : the (aae were the parts 

B 2 of 


The kaiure of Divim^l 

fehov.^^ ": w like before iX\z co irmjiUy ani be perfed*. The 
laai^ diChQIiriii rv^q.iircof his Difciples, when befides faith 
he requires that they oblervc all things that he hath comman- 
ded, cJ^f /^28.2 0. ' The fame doth F^ii//handle,in the Eprft, 
totht Ramans ^ wherein tis mmifcft that the fummc of Divi- 
nity is contained. Finally, he would that the fame fliould be 
Uiight in the Churches jr/r.5 8 . thefe things I will that thoa 
affi- me^that they that have believed God, might be carcfuli to 
goe^ before in well doing. 

i* A property of tbisdiftribution ( which is required in 
a gequine diftribution of every art ) is, that it flowes from the 
nature of the objed. For feeing the beginning and fiiU aft 
of fpiritiiilllife, (whichis the proper objeft ot Divinity J is 
faith , and the fecond aft or operation flowing from that 
principle is obiervanccat ncceffarily followes that thofttwo' 
are the genuine parts of Divinity, neither is there any other to 
be fought for^, • ^ : ! . 7>^' • ' i^ : *^i ^ :: 

g. In the old Tcftamcnt ( fitly for that rcgallandfervilc' 
^cftate /Divinity feemes fometimc to be divided into the fearc 
of Goiand obfervingof hisGommandcments^acGordingto 
that Ecclef^ 12.15. The fumme of all is, feare God, and keepc 
hisConiraandements , for this is the, whole duty of man. 
But by a metonymie faith[is included on the former pattjas 
appeares out of Prr.3.5.7. Truft in the Lord with all thine 
hcart.fearc the Lord.and depart from evill. 

4.Thefe two parrs in ufc indeed and cxercifc arcalwayes 
joyned together : yet in nature and precepts thcnaosjJiftjflr 

5. Theyarealfofbdiftinguifhcdih order of nature, that 
faith holds the firft place ^ and fpirituall obedience the lat- 
terifor there can be no vitall aftions brought forth^unleffe a 
4^nciple of life be firft begotten within* 



Of Faith 


Gf Faick 

I T^ Aith IS a reding of the lieart on God, as on the author 
JT oflifeandccernallfalvation : thatistofay that by him 
we may be freed from all evill , and obtabe all good^ £"/>. i c. 
2o.Let him leaneupon lehova the holy one oi Ifradin Faith. 
PfaL^j.'y. Rolle thy W3iy upon Iehova^^ndrvi\& in him^ lere. 
i/.y^Blcfled is the manwhotruftcthin /^/^^z^i^j and whofe 
confidence Iehova\u . * 

2. To believe commonly fignities an a(!l: of theunderfhmd- 
in^ yeelding ajfent to teftimony : bat becaufc the will is wont 
to be moved thereupon , and to ftrctch forth it felfe to em- 
^ brace the good lb .^Jlowedy therefore Faith doth aptly enough 
fee forth this aft of the will alio, in which manner it is 
ncccflarily underilood in this place. For it is a receiving ^ lohn 
i.i2.As many as received him— r— who believe^ 

3,^ Hence Faith is caried unto that gooi vmich hjit isntAie 
ours ^ is an aftof ele^^ion, ana6tofthe wholcman, which 
things doe in no wife agree to an aft of the underftand- 
ing. John 6,35. He that commcth to mc;— he that believeth 
in mce. 

4.Therefarealthough Faith alwayes perfuppoft a know* 
4cd§sjof the GofpclKvet there is no fa ving knowledge in 
any 5 ( a.n(i which dff'.rs from that which is found in feme 
that (hall notbe laved) but what followes this aft of the wilJ, 
and depends upon it. lohn 7. 1 7.85 8.3 1.^2.1 John 23. 

5. Thit truly Ghriftian Faith which hath place in the un- 
derttanding doth alwayes Icane upon a Diyine teftimony, as 
it is Divine :yet this teftimony cannot he received without a 
pious affeftionof the will towards Go d. Ii>hri 3* 3 3« H£that 
rc ceiv^h his teftimony^hath fcalcd th at God istr ue,gg^?w. 4* 
I ^EoTHe was ftrengthcncd in Faith,giving glory to God. 
k,. .61 N^idjcr yet becauleitis'gronnded only upon ateftimo- 
ny^is it the more uncertainc and doubtful! : h:;tmorec^tainc 

of Faiths 

in its own nature then any humare fcienc^ bcciuft it iscarled 
to its objcft undcra fonnall refpcft of infallibility r'ahhough 
by rcafon of the impcrfc&ion of the habit tvhencc Faith 
flowes^thcaflentofFojichiathisor that (iibjeft oft-times ap- 
p^ares weaker then the alTcnc of fciencc. 

7. Now God istheobjeftof Faith^not as he is confidered 
inhimfelfej but as weby himioe llvetvell. 1 Tsm.^ lO. Wc 
hope in the living God, who is the prcfervcr of all men, es- 
pecially of thofe that belie ve» 

8. Chrift as Redeemer is the mediate objed: of Faith ^ but 
not the higheft,for we believe in God through Chrift. Rem. 
d. ii«to live to God by Chrift 2 Cor.^.^we have truft through 
Chrift to God-W£rd 1 Per. 1. 21. Through him believing 
in God. 

9. The fentences in the Scriptures or promifes^doe containe 
and prefcnt an ob jcft of Faith , and they are called the objeft 
of Faith by a Metonymy of the adjunB. The good which is 
propounded to be ootained > as it is (tich^is the end and effe£t< 
of Faith, not properly the objcft it (clfe* 

But that , upon whole power we reft , in the obtaining of 
that good,is the proper objcft of Faith,! Or.i.23.Wc preach 
Chrift, and 2.%. I determined to know nothing among you 
but Jefus Chrift,2 Cor. 5.19. God in Chrift* 

10. With this Divine Faith ^ which lookcih to the will of 
God and our own falvation, we muft not fimply believeany 
man^but God above, Rom.y^.^\zvy man is a lyar. i ^orA^. 
that your faith conjifi not in the wifdorae of men. 

I r^Thereforc the Authority of God is the proper an^ jm- 
mediate ground of all truth in this manner to be believed : 
whence is that (blemne (peech of the Prophets every where , 
the Word of the Lord* Thus faith the Lord. 

12* Hence, the laft refolution of Faith as it fes forth a thing 
to be believed , is into the authority of God , or Divine revc- 
Iatio^.2 Pet. 1. 20.21 . If ye firft know this^that no prophcty 
of Scripture is of private interpretation, &c. John 2.29 We 
know that God (pake to AUfes ^ As the laft refolution of it as 
it notes the aft ofbelieving,i9 into the operation^ andinwaid 
pcrlwafion of the Holy Spirit,i C^.tX^ 1 1. That none can 
call Jcfus Lord,bi]t by the Holy Spirit. 

of Fdth. 

ijr This Faitb whereby wc believe not only a God >|. or 
giTecrcdittoGodj bat belicYe in God, is true and proper 
confidence : not as by this word is (et forth acertaineand 
abfolnte perfwafion of good to come, but as ir frgnifies chu- 
finp and apprehending oFa (iifficientgand fit meanes, and fuch 
is^hcrein fuch a per^afion, and expectation is founded. In 
which fence men a^faid to put confidence in their wi(domc, 
f owefj friends and richcf . 7*/^ 78. 3i. They believed not in 
God nor truftcd in his Hilvation. 

14. This is every where dedarwl in tho(e phrafes of Scrip* 
turc, wherein the true nature of folid Faith is unfolded, 
h'^yj^'VS'toleanHnott^asIfaj 10. ao, and h)A "\y^^ "^ro. 5. 
5. & a^5?M? /^•50-!ah«:i Pr^. J.5. If. %0.\o. i^O T/^/. 

71.^ 7r/r<v«J'iTl -ye/ «V. Rom.lO^ !!♦ 

15. Therefore to bclievein God, is in believing to cleave 
toGodj to leanc on God,to reit in God as in our all^lufEci- 
cnt life and falvation%^i'irr 30«20;hy cleaving^ to him^ tor he 


1 6.Hence that generall aflent, which the Papifls make to 
be Faith, is not Faith,bccaule by their own confeffionjit may 
be without any life. /^^j^ 2kij^ 

1 7. But that fpcciaU afTent 'whereby we refolve that Go4 , 
isourGodinChrift, Ib not the firft aft ot Faith, butanafit 
fl jwing from Faith : for there is no greater ceruinty of this 
truth in thee then in another, Bor a truer apprehenfion oMc 
in thee then another, before thou haft fpccially applied thy 
fclfetoGod by Faith. i?«»r.5.i 2.Bcing juftified by Faith,wc 
hay.e,^gg(Ce toward God, w^ glory in God. 

18. Seeing alfothat Faith is the firft aft of life, whereby 
' we irve toGodj inChrift,it muft needs confift in union with 

God^ which an aflfeftt ^ven f« the truth concerning God c^^ 
in no wiftdoei 

1 9* Fwthcralfo, feeing he that k about to believe out of 
a (cntc of his mifcry , and defed of any deiiverance,either in 
him(elfe, or inot^rs,muft needs caft himlclfe upon God 
in Chrift^as a fufticient^and faithfuU Saviour,he cannot in any 
mtafure (ocaft himfelfe by an aflent of theunderi^anding but 
by a confent of the will. 

20. Although in Scriptnres fomctimc$ an aflent to the 


$ Offaitk 

truth which is touching GodandChrift, hhn li 50,13 ac- 
counted for true Faith ^ yet there is a fpeciall confidence al- 
wayes inchidcd ; and fo in all places uherc there islpeech 
of iaving faith , either a confidence in the Mtjftah is prefup- 
pofcdj and there is only declared a determination , or appli- 
cation of it to the per fon of Chiift : or by that a (Tent confi- 
dence is (ct forth as an cfFeft by its caiiff, lohn 1 1. 2 5^ 2 6, . 
He that believes in me (hall Uve : belicveft thou this ? He (aith^ 
yea Lord,! believe that thou art that Chrift, that Son of God 
W ho (hould come into the World. 

2 1 .But whereas confidence is (aid to be a fruit of Faith,it 
is true of confidence ^ as it refpcfteth God, for that that iS; 
tocome, and it is a firme hope : but as it re(pefts Godin 
ChriftjOfFcring himfclfc in prefcntjit is Faith it felfejHence ' 
arift tho(c titles which theScriptflre gives to favingFaitb^thac 
it is^TTD'flWct, ^i^V/ct^perlwafion^boldneflc.! Cr. 3. 4. & 5, 
6^7^S.Eph.^.i2. iVa.i.i^.ifohr^'y.i^^i^.Tr^^ofi^o^u a full 
pcrfwafion. Romans 4, ai. Co/, t. 2. tiTdmng thc.fubftancc 

22. Now whereas true Faith is of fome placed partly in 
. the underftanding , and partly in the will, that is not fo 
accurately fpoken,becaufe it is one Jingle venue , and doth 
bring forth afts of the lame kinde, not partly of Science,and 
partlyofaffcftions. i Cr^ij.ij. Butthat^blid/iyfl^^fycelded 
to the promifa of the Goipel is called Faith ;and conndence, 
partly becaufe it begetteth Faith as it is a generall a^ent : 
partly becaafc it flowes from that cor.fidence as it is a fpeciall 
and (olid ^/^»^ apprehending the aftuall po(Ie(rion ofjgacc 
already obtained. For fo it refts upon confidence of rfiencarT 
as a mcane, or third argumentjby force whereof fuch a con- 
clufiononclycan be inferred. £.<7. Hec that believeth,! am 
lure he fhall be faved.I believe : Gc. I am (iire I feall be (aved. 
Exrierience al(b teacheth that that particular aflurance of the 
Uhdcrffatiding is wanting in (bme 5 foratimc^whonotwith- 
ftanding have true Faith lying hid in their hearts. 

of Godandkis nff^ncu 

Chapter II I L 

Of GocL^and his E fence* 

I. TN the former difputc , wee have treated of Faith : 

I now order requires, that we treat of God ^ who is the 

JLobjcft of Faith : which that it may bee foraewhat 

more exaftly done, wee will firft {jpeake of the knowledge 

of God* 

^ 8. God as he is in himfelfe cannot be apprehended of any, 
buthimfelfe i Tim. 6.16. Dwelling in that inacceflible light, 
whom never man la w,nor can fte. 

3, As he hath revealed himfelfe unto us, he is conceived 
as it were^ by the backe parts, not by the Face. Exod.^^^2^. 

^Thou Ibalt fee my back-parts, but my Face cannot be feenc, 
• and darkcly, not clearly , that is , after an humane manner, 
and mealurcj I Cor. 13.12. Through a glafle : darkely^ af- 
ter a (brt. 

4. Becauft thoft things thatpertainc to God are ncceflari- 
ly explained after an humane manner ; hence is that manner 
of fpeaking frequent in thefc matters which is called. «*9/^' 
^iD^'flwc^. l,E. \ figure that attributes thofe things to God 
ivhieh bee proper to mcn^ as in humane aflPeftipns fenfes or 
Riember^S.! ^ ! 

^ 5. Becaufe alfo they are explained after our mca(ure, to 
mans capacity, hence many things are fpoken of God accor- 
ding to the way of our conceiving , rather then from his 

6. We cannot know him otherwife , ib as yet to live : 
neither have we need to knew him otherwife that we may live 
Well.£A;<7^,33 ip.2o. 

7. That which is revealed of God is fuficient for as , that 
we may live welljD^^r.29.29. Thofe things which are revea- 
led to us,and our ckildren, for ever that we may doe all the 
words of this Law, a, r- ^ 

8»Now chat which may be knowne of Ood his Sufficiency 

C and 

JO OfG0ciy4*fdkfsBj[fenc6' 

and his Efficiency Rom*^. 21, Being fully perfwadcd^that he 
who had promifedj was able to pertorme. 

^.Thefe tvvojare the Pillars of Faith,the props of comfort^ 
theinciteiTientsofpfetyj and the fiireft markes of true Reli- 
gion : provM by th-e place before Viz. Rom, 4. 11^. 

10. ThedifHcicneyof ^ffi, is that whereby he himfelfe 
hath (ufficientin himfelfe for himfelfe ^ and for us : hence al- 
fohhecalled.M-ftifficknt56'<?>fji7.j.. ... 

i|. This fu^Cieugy pi God 15 the firft ground or rcafon 
ofoprFgUhwhy we belijBVciivhiriijZ'f^. because he is able to 
giveuslife.if<??«*4?3o.9 t,;^ • ].:U 1 i : . 

i2.The fufficiency of (jod is in his Ejfejice^znd Suhfflencr, 
i3.The f/c-^^r^ofGodis, that, whereby he isa being ab- 
folutly firlK//'544^6; I am the fitft and the lafVj befidesme 
there is no Godi. Rev. i .%^ 21.6.^22.1^. Idim^lpha^^nd ^ 
Omeg^ytht beginning and end,thij firft and the laft. 

I4« This £]J^;?(r^t>f God is declared in his name Jehova* 
Now bec^iife the Efe/jcc of Qod is (iich 5 hence it. 
^ follower. 

15. Ei^fl•^thatGQdi5one5andonlyonc.Z?m^tf 4. iTrn^ 
2.^.8'ph.^»6.\ C^r.^,'^.6. Marks i2.'^2.R0m.^.2p,^o. .. , i 
I ^.Secondly 5 that Godis of himlclfc, that is^rieichct from 
another,nor of another,nor by another^nor for another, 
^ r7.Thirdly5fitiaIly hence it is that he is voyd of that power 

which is called paffive , hence he is unchangeable. Tfa.ioi. 
27«28, thou Fcmainefl ; thou art the fame. Rowans u xy the 
glory of the Incorruptible God. lames 1. 17^ With whom 
there is no variablcnefle , nor fliadow of turi^n^^^^^pr 

18. Now bccauft this €{[ertce cannot be fufficiently com* 
prehendcd of us by one Aft it is explicated of us as if it were 
manrfoldj namely by many attiibutes/ 

ip.They ^re called attributes^ becaufe they sre rather (^id 
to be attributed to God, then properly to be iahim , if they 
be taken as the words found, 

20.Tbe(e attributes in God, arconc naoft purc^ and fimple 
aft. Hence the nature of the Divine attrifcittcs^ may be right- 
ly explained b; thefe propofitions as fo many C(?^^ff^/^>, 


Of<^od^andhisBJfeHce^ |^ 

2 1. Fir ft all the attributes of God are truly fpokcn of God, 
as weii ih the abltraft as in the concrete. 

i'a. Secondlyjthofe attributes; which arc in a fort common 
to God with the Creatures , doe in their fubftance belong to 
God in the firft place, to the Creatures (econdarily ; although 
the names arc transfcrd from the Creatures to God , ana fb 
doe fir(t agree to the Creatures. 

23-rhirdly,thc Divine attributes doe admit no inward in* 
tention^extention^remiflTion orimparity. 

24.FourthIy5 the Divine attributes are not contrary one to 
another, but doe very well agree together. 

2 5. Fifthly, all Divine attributes are as it were Divineper- 
feftions:yetfbasthat all imperfcvSion, which accompanies 
liich a property in the Creature^ is to be removed inthisap* 
plication of it to God , and the perfe6licn thereof i.s to be 
conceived with grcateft eminency. 

26. Sixthly, Divine attributes are in God^not only virtually, 
and by way of eminency, but alfo formally, although not 
7 in that manner, that quditics, are in the CreatureF. 

27.Seventhly,theyareinGadas in a fecond Ejfence , be- 
caufe they are not of the foritlall rcafon of the Divine Sffeuce^ 
for we conceive God to be 3 before we can conceive him to be 
juftjand good. 

aS.Eighthlyjtheyarcdiftinguifliedj fromthcjE/^^^f^, and Ratmerathci-^ 
among thera(elves,not only in reafon ( as they fay) re.^foning^ nme^ rmom 
hut alfo reafonrea/(?ned, (6 that the foundation of the diftin- R^tiocinau* 
ftionisin Godhimfelfe. * ' 

^g^Ninthly, thofe attributes , which in their formall ref- 
^pcEFTinclude fomething proper to the Divine Effence^ are 
altogether incommunicable: as Omnipotencyj Immenfity, 
Eternity, and fuch like. 

30. Tcnthly, thofe that are faid to b^ communicated to the 
Creatures 5 doe agree to them by likeneffe , not altogether in 
thefamemanneras they are in God: neither yet altogether 

51. The attributes of God fet forth. What God is, and 

32* What God is , none can perfedly define, but 
that hath the Logickc of God himfelfe. But an impcrfeft 

C « dit 

12 Of ffid dud Us Efencei 

dcfcription which commeth nccrcft to unfold Goda na« 
tare , and naay bee conceived of us , is (uch as this. 

35, Gcdfs a Spirit having life in himfelfe. lohn 4;24> God 
is a (pirit, md (^hap, 5.2(5* The Father hath life in him^ 

34. He is ealld ^SjHrir. i. Negatively , bccaufe he is not a 
body.2. Analogically jor by a certainelikenefle, bccaufe there 
are many perfeftions in fpirituall (ubllances which doe more 
ftiadow forth the Divine natare^then any bodily thingcan- 

35. Heisfaidto be Living, i. Becauft God doth mod 
efpecially workeofhimfelfc, not being moved by another^ 
2. Becaufe the vitall aftion of God is his very Ejfcncc. 3. Bc- 
caufe he is the Fountaine of all being 9 and vitall operation V 
toother livirkg things. AEis 17,25.2 8. He giveth to alUifcjand 
breathjand aH things:in him welive^movCj and be. 

36. He is (aid to live in himfelfe^ becaufe he receiveth nci*- 
thftr beihgnor-lifejfrom any^ in any part. 

37* Hence, the chicfe title of God whereby he is diftingui- 
ftied from all IdollSjiSjthat he is the living God. Deut. 32. 40«\ 

38. Hence our Faith feeking eternall life ^ dodi reft in 
God aloui 5 becaule God is the Fountaine of all life. 
John 5.26. 

^ 3P. Who God is^thofc properties doe fet forth to us whcr- 
by he is diftinguiflied from all other things. 

40. Now thofe Divine properties doe (hcw^How great God 
island what an one he is. 

41. Under the motion of Quantity he is faid to be^ i. One. 
2. Infinite. Firft^inwardly.becaufe he is unmcafurableT^'." 
condly^qutwardly as he U incomprchenfible.3,he is faid to be 

42. He h (aid to be One , not in kinde , but in that moft 
pcrfcftunity^which in the Creatures, is wont to be called 
numerically and individualL 

43* God is infinite , as he is void of all bounds of his 

Effence.' Pfai 1 39,8. If I clime up to Hcaven^tfaou art there : 

or make my bed in the Grave, behold thou art there. 

w \.^^'p^ is unmeafiirable , as he h void of all nutter of 

dimenfion ormcafure.iX/;;^,8,a7.The Heavens, and Heavens 


of Gad and hit E fence. 1 3 

of heavens doe not containe thee. T/i^d.i* Heaven is my throne. 
Earth my foote-ftoole. 

45. Hence Faith doth looke for no certaine meaftre of 
bleffcdnefle , to be communicated from God, but unmeafu- 
rabk glory. 

46. God is incomprehenfiblejbecaufe he is void of any 
bounds to compafle hin% 

47. Hence he is prefent every where ^becaufe there is no 
place whence he is excluded ^ neither is hee included any 

48. God is alfo eternall , becaufe without beginning and 

49.H^nce it is^that our Faith doth apprehend ctcrnalllife 
in Ged* 

50. What an one God is thole properties doc fet forth by 
which he is faid to worke : unto thefe now ought to be at- 
tributed all the properties o(Efe»cf^2Lnd quantity^ fimplicityj 
immutabilityjeternityj and immenfity. 
/* 51. Thefe qualities are conceived either under the reafon 
of faculties or elfe of vertucS , by which thofe faculties are 

52.The faculties are underftandtng and will, whence Faith 
doth le.ine upon him^who knowcs what is needfull for us^and 
is willing alfo to fupply it. 

53.The underftanding of God is firaple without any com^ 
pofition^difcourft or reprc(entation offhapeSoH^^.4,13, AH 
things are naked and open to his eyes. 

54»Theunderftandingof God is unchangeable ;hc knowes 
/'tiurutrrcrwifejnor more one thing then another , nor more 
before then now^ or now then before. %A£ls 15. i8, known 
io the Lord are all his workes, from before all ages. 

55. Tke underftanding of God iseternall : it neither be- 
ginneth nor endeth^ 7^/V. 

55. The underftanding of God is Tnfihite, becauQ he 
perceiveth all truths , and reafons of all things, ^^l^ i lo 
8, 9. The Wifdorae of God is higher then the Heavens j 
longer then the Earth : deeper then the Sea. F/^/. I39- ^« 
thy knowledge is more wonderfull then^that; I cm con* ^ 

ceivc it. 

G 3- 5;^The- 

!4 Of Gods fuhjifitnce^ 

57#The fame way alfoth^ nature of the Divine will ought 
to be conceived of us. 

58. The will of God is fingle and only one in God. 

5 9. The will of God is unchangeable : becaufe he alwaycs 
wilkth therame^and in the famemanner.P/. 3 j.ii.The counfcU 
of the Lord remaincth for ever. 

60. The will of God is ctcrnall ; becauft hec doth not 
begin to will what before he would not 5 nor ceafeth to will 
that which before hee willed. CM^l^ch* 3* 6, I Jehova 
change not. 

6 r. The will of God may be faid to be infinite : becaufe ic 
hath no outward limitation. ^ 

62. The affeftions which are given to God in Scripture^as I 
love,hatredgand the like,doe either fet forth afts of the willjOr 
doe agree to God only figuratively. 

63. A vertue is the perfeftion of the underftanding and 
Will 5 fuch as is wifdome , holineflc , and the like in 

64. Virtue is attributed toGodjasitnotesafcadinefJeofSr 
doing: not under the refpeft of an habit diftinft from faculty 
and aft. 

65. But the vcrtues which in man 5 arifc from occafion 
of finne and imperfeftiangdoe not agree to God^as humility. 
chaftity^fliamefaftneSjand the like. 

• 66. Out of all thefe attributes^that perfcftion of God doth 
refultj whereby hee is called bleflfedt i 7/«r. r. u, and 
6. 15, 

67. Hence our Faith hath a firme foundation , bccauftit 
leanethonGodthe poffeflbr and author of all pef feftfufr ', - 
blcffcd nejfle and glory . 

Chapter V. 

of the Snhfifience of God. 

!• "TpHe Subfiftence of God is thaC one EffcncCj as it is with 
jL its perfonall properties. 

''. 2. The 

Of ihepbfidence of God. 1 5 

2. The (ame cflencc is common to three fubCiicnccs , and 
as touching the Deity, every fubfiftence is of it ielfe. 

I* Nothing morcoveris attributed to the Eflerxe, which Qi/c?/d c^mi^ 
Hiay not be attributed Co every fubliftence in regard of the ^'^^. 
EfTence of it# 

4 But thofe things that are attributed properly to every Tub- ^^odftibfifie-fj^ 
fiftcnce in regard of its (ubiiftence^ cannot be attributed to the ^^'^^^^ 

5# The fubfifteoces are dlftinguifhcd from the EflcQceg as 
the manners of fublifting growing togctncr with the (ame 
Eflcnce are diftinguifhcd from the fame abfolutely ccn^ 
fidcred. oM -! ' 

d.They are diftinguifhcd among themfelves , as Kelatlves 
by certaine relative properties ; fo as one cannot be another j 
yet they are together in nature, neither can they be faid to be 
former^ orlattcr jbut in order of bcginningj and manner of 
iubfifting* , -.'''■■- ; ' ^ > _ . 

7. But feeing thdie relative properties are, as itwcreiridi-'^^^^;wto^ei 
/^viduating in an Eflence that Jives fpiritually and moft per- ^^^^/^^^^^'^^ ^ 

fcftlyt therefore thofe (ubfiftcnccs arc rightly called perfons. imMti(^^^ 
* 8. Now thcfc^properties are not inherent qualities^ but re- 
lath^eaflfeftianSj .lanfo which agrees^ all that perfediori, which 
is found in the like afFeft ions of the Creaturcj but no impcr* 
feftion agrccth to them, 

p.Hencetis that a relative property in God doth make or 
infer a pcrfon , which in the Creatures hath not the fame 

iG.Thofe&bfiftences arc either breathing^ asFather^ ^^^ spirantes fpinfti^ 
"Sonne 5 or breathed, as the Holy Spirit. 

1 1 • To breath , or fend forth is a relation , not fuch as by Emittere. 
it fclfc can make a perfbn , but common to two perfons. 

12. The relative property of the Father is to beget. Pfal. 
2.7, ThoH art 7nj Sonne, this day I begot thee. Iohn'>^^ l6» the 
only begotten Sonne. 'Heb^ 1 /6. The firft begotten. Hence he 

13. The relative property of the Sonne is to be begotten, 
that i^ 5 To to proccede from the Father, that he is partaker 
of the fame Eflence , and doth perfeftly refemble his nature: 
and hence, he is the fecond in order, Hf ^. 1.3. The bright- 



jg of the fubfifieHce of&od. 

ncffe of his glory , and the Charadler of his Pcr- 


14. The property of the holy Ghoft , is to be breathed, 
or fcnt forthj and proceede both from the Father , and the 
Sonne. fohrt.\'^.26NW\\ovnlvJi\l fend to yon from the Fa- 
ther, that fpirit of* truth who proceeds from the Father, 
Komans 8. 9. The fpiric of Chriit. gaL^. 6. The fpirit of the 

15. The difference betwcene (thefetwo^tobebegotten^ 
v/hlch agrees to the Sonne, and to proceed, which is proper 
to the holy Ghoft ^ cannot be explained by us in proper 
wordSj but that the Sonne proceeds from the Father alone, 
3nd the holy Ghoft from the Father and the Sonne , ma- 
king Gae xelative together ^ .Or making together one re- 

16. Yet it may 5 in part , befliadowed out in a fimilitude ; 
namely the father is as it were, ^eus intelUgens Godundej> 
ftanding : the Sonne the expreflc Image of the Fatber,is as it 
were DeHsintelleBtUyGoA underftood; the holy Spirit flow^ > 
ing and breathed from the Father by the Sonne, is as it wer« 
l^em <6/rffi«,God beloved. 

The Sonne is produced as it v/ere by an aft of un- 
derftanding or fpeaking, from the tmderftanding, or fruit- 
full memory of the Father: the holy Spirit is produced by an 
aft ofloving or breathing from the fruitful! will of the Fa- 
ther and the Sonne. Hence the Sonne is called the word, 
V Vifdomcjlmage, which are not affirmed of the holy Ghoft* 
But bccaufe in the Creatures there is found the generati^_of 
a fonne , but there is not any thing found which dotnlotra- 
mediately proceed from two equally perfeft ( as the holy 
Spirit proceedeth from the Father , and the Sonne ) there- 
fore theprocelTionof the Sonne is properly defigned, no- 
ted 3 or fee dow/ie in Scripture: but neither is a fpeciall 
manner of proceeding ^ norfpeciall name abfolutly proper 
given to the thirdperfon. For it is truly (aid of the Fa- 
ther and the Sonne, that they arc fpiriis, and holy, and the 
Sonne alfo proceedeth from the Father by fpirituall gene 

1 7- ThepjropernamcofGod, with his proper titles, is 


OfGodandhuEjfence. I7 

given in Scripture, not oncly to the Fathcr^biUaKbtothc 
Sonne. /^r 2 f. 6. ftbova out righteourncfic, loh» 1. i. T^he 
Word was Goc^« Ror^.p. ^. God blcfTed forever, i lim.^, 
16. Godmanifcft inthcflcfli, /ff'z. 17,14. LordefLords^and 
King of Kingf, It is alfo given to the holy Spirit, e^^// 5, 
354« thatthoulhouldeftly to the holy Spirit, thou haft HcxT 
untoGbdv ^<^/28. 25. with I/^j 6.^. lehova faidj the 
holy Ghoft fpake.i Cor,^. i6.ic 6, 19.2 Con6^i6. the Temple 
of Godjthc Temple of the fpirit. 
iS.Divine attributes are affirmed not only of the Fathcr^but 
alfo of the Son^I/ajf p.^.The moft mightyQod.Fathcr of eter- 
nity. M/^ 2.2 5.He knew what was in man^andj. 1 3. The fon 
ofmanisin Heaven 3 and 8.38. Before Ahahamvf asI am. 
In like manner alfo of the holy Spirit,P/,r jj.j. Whither fluU 
I fly from thy (pirit.i €0.2,1 o.The fpirit fcarchcth al things, 
even the dcepe things of God* HeL^.i^ the ctcrnall fpirit. 

I p. The proper operations of God , are attributed not 
only to the Fathcr,but alfo to the Sonne , and the holy (pi- 
^it. £/^fliV;f is attributed to the Sonne, LMat. 24. 31. His 
elcftj and the eternall counfell of God is attributed to the 
holy Ghoft. //^jr 40.13. Who hath waighedthe ipiritofthe 
^Lord as the man of his counfell^ Creation is attributed to the 
Sonne^Iohn i.3. All things were made by himiand without 
him was made nothing that was made: Alfo it is attributed 
to the holy Spirit ^ P/ii/.33.6.By the Word of the Lord were 
the Heavens made , and all the ftrength of them by the breath 
of his mouth. Upholdingjfc governing of things created is at- 
tributed to the A^onnCj Heb, 1.3. Who upholdeth all things 
by t_har bis mighty Word, Alfo they are attributed to the 
holy ^piri^G^^^. i,2.The fpirit did move upon the face of ths 
waters. Zech.4.6. By my i^pirit faith the Lord of Hofts: 
Proper power of doing miracles is given to the *yon.-^S.4.ic. 
Through the name of Jcfus Chrift , he ftandeth before you 
wholej,& 9.34. Jefos Chrift healeth thce.Its alfo given to the 
holy »?pirit, €>/(3/2.4. They began to fpcake with tongues^ 
as the fpirit gave them utterance. The communicating of 
fpiritualUife, and ofall grace, in vocation, juftification, ad- 
option, fanftificttioo , and glorification , is every where 
given as well to the iJonne and holy i'piritas tothcFather, 
^ D the 

f i OfGod^ andhk Ejfence^ 

theordaining,fending,and bleffing of Ecclcfiafticall Miniftcry 
is given to the .?onne, Efh. 4.8. 11. He gave giftSjhe gave 
fomc Apoftles , &c. Andto the holy Ghoft, iCor. 12. ii. 
All thefe v^orketh one and the fame fpirit. A^s 20.28. Tm 
holy .Jpirit hath made you overfecrs. The very Rcfuricftion 
of the flefti is alcribsd to the iS^onnc , as the author. lohn 
6.54, I willraife him up. Alfo to theholy -i'piit, Roni.%. 
1 1. Hee (hall raifc up your bodies, by his fpirit dwelling 
in you. 

20. Divine honour alfo, and worflii pis given ., not only 
to the Fatherj but alfo to the 5onnc. Hebr. i . 6. Let all the 
Angels of God worftiip him. And alfo to the holy spirit : 
when his Name together with the Father and the Sonne^ 
is appointed to be called upon over the Baptifed^ Mat. 2 8. ip. 
In the name of the Father, and Sonne.and holy Spirit. In 
like manner the Sonne 5 and Spirit is called upon g in that 
(blcmnc forme of (alutation. The grace of the Lord Jcftis 
Ghrift, aed the love of God the Fatherland the communi- 
cation of the holy Spirit be with you all. 2 Cor. 13. ijtAndv 
whatfoevcr pertaineth to worfliip is referred as well to ^ 
Ghrift as to the holy Spirit , in that the true worfhippers of 
Godj asthey arcfuch, are called Temples not only ot God ^ 
theFather, but alfo of Ghrift, Rev. 2 1.22. The Lord God 
Almighty is her Templcj and the X^w^^^. i Cor 3. 1 6. Know 
yee not that yee are the Temple of God , and the Spirit of 
God dwelleth in you and 6. ip.Know yee not that your body 
is the Temple of the holy Spirit^who is in you. 

21. Finally, that authocicy, and majefty, which is proper 
CO God,is given to the Sonne and the fpirit. 1 Cor. a^^^SjHhe 
Lord of glory, i Pet.^. i4.that^ fpirit of glory. All holy^-- 
phecyisattributerltoChnftandthe holy Spirit, i Pet. ^. 
19. Ghrift by his fpirit went and preached to the fpirits. 
thatarein prifon.2'^'r'.T 2 i-HoIy men fpake being moved by 
the holy Spicit- ABi 28.25. The holy Spirit fpake by J/aiah 
the Prophet. 

22. Now that the holy Spirit is propounded to us in all 
thefe as a perfon fubfifting, it doth manifeftly appeare by thity 
that lifcjunderftanding, will and power is given to him every 
whcre^togcther with all ads proper fo a perfon. 


Gods EffickH(y. 5^ 

23. AI(b his diftinftion from the Father and the Sonne is 
deer'Iy taught when he is calledjanother,fent, con^ming/rom 
thcFather and the Sonne. lohn 14. 

24.Hencej<G6d is the objeft of cur Faiihj is every way fiif- 
ficient to impart falvation to us. For all love, grace, and the 
communication of thofe things which pcrtaine to living 
well doe flow from the Father , Sonne, and holy Spirit, 2. 


Of the Efficiency of God. 

!• TpHe Efficiency of Qod is that , whereby he worketh all 
X in all things, £pki.i I. Who worketh all things, Rom. 
^11.36. Of him, by him, and for him are all things. 

2. That EffeSing.workjW^ora^m^ofGody being aftively 
^ taken as they are in God afting, fiot really diverfe from God 

himftlfe. For no compofition , or mutation of power and 
aft can have place ia the mod fimple , and immutable nature 
of Godt Yet it addeth a ccrtaine relation of God to a real! 

3. He worketh ail in all things^ becaufcthe Efficiency of ali 
' and every thing 5 depends upon thefirftcaufe, not only as 

touching its fubftance, butalfo, as touching all reallcircum- 
ftances*^//^^ 45* 7« That I lehova doe all thefe things. Lam. 
3.37. 38, Who is he that faith^and it commeth to paflc, when 
theLordcommandethitnot ? Out ofthe mouth of i^hcmoft 
high proccedeth not evill and good ? 

Alfo whatfoever hath any perfedion in geytere moris in mat- 
ter of manners , is accounted among the workes of God : but 
not imperfeftion or defefts^which are oppoled tothefub^ 
jcftion that is due to God; 

^. In the efficiency of God fliines forth Ijoth his EflTence 
and his fubfiftance. ^* ^ 

5. That Efficiency which pertaines to the Eflence of God, 
is l:Us omnipotency^ 

D 2 6. The 

20 ^^^^ EfficieHcy* 

' 6. The power of God being confidcred as (imply power- 
ful! ) is altogether the fame with his fufficicncy, and pcrtaines 
properly to the nature of God 5 as it is confidered under the 
rcCpcftofa being, and fo is before the knowledge and will 
of God. Kon:% 2i« 23. for God is able to graft them in 

7, But power in afmuch as it is in execution, is in (brae 
fort after fufficicncy^and pertaines to the Efficiency of God, 
and fo doth follow the knowledge and will of God.T/k/. 115 
3.and i55.6.Whatfoeverh€ plealedhc did* 

8. In thefe therefore this order is to be conceived. That 
firft we conceive in God P6>]f>, tobeabk, (ccondly iydr^, to 
know 3 thirdly 7^i?//<f to will; Laftly, Sficere potemer^powcv- 
fully to efi'cft 3 which differs from the efFdftuall will of God, 
but only ratione , in reafon , whence is that Syllogifmeof 
faith, which in A/^r.8. 2,5. is diftinftly explained ; Lord if 
thm wi/t^thou cdtjft : I will. Therefore it is done. Where the 
argument is from the will coaiming to the power. 

9. Hence the very Will of God, asitisanefFe(?Hngprin-\ 
^clplej hatha kinde of power , Rom. ^. 19. Who hath re- . 

lifted his will ; rcither is executive Omnipotcncy anything^ 
elfe , then the €tFe(3ing wiilof God. l^fa/me ^^. 9. Hce 
commanJed^ard it was done, iict ,4.1 1 . By thy will they arc 
and were Created. 

10. Therefore it is an error againft the nature of God 3 ' to 
fay 3 that G ^d properly wiHcth to doe many things, which * 
yet by his Omnipotency he doth not. Epl.\ i • 19.20 The ex- 
ceeding g: eatneflc of his power in us that believe ^ according 
to ih: w rking of his mighty power. -^ - --^ 

IT. The dnnipotency of God is that whereby, he his 
able to effeft all things that he willeth or can will, z C/br.20. 
6. In thy hand is power and ftrength, and none can refill 
thee, Lukj 1.37. With God there is no word which cannot, 
be done.T^//.3. 2 1. He is alfo able to fubjcft all things unto 

12. Hence alfo God Is every where called in the oldTe- 
ftament Ts^l ^K mighty God ^ ffky 9 6. leremy 32. 18. 
Alio ^^^ ht^ God al-fufficienu G'^;r.i7. i . & 3 5 . 1 1. Rutk. 
i.2C«2i. And in the new Teftament heis called ^^^>t/»««'V<c^ 


Cods Efficiencjfi % i 

the Loi d AInrightyj 2 C^r.6.ii, /f<?z'.i.8. &4. 8, And the 
only ^vfa^^m Potentate. X Tim. 6* 15. 

Power is at-cributcd to God adivcly, becaufe he hath 
power to communicate fomethlng to other! , fuch as is the 
power of the caufe* 

13 PotentU^velpoteFl^ cmfdL^k caufing power yet proper- 
ly aftive power doth not agree to God^as if in rclpeft of him- 
fclfe, he were firft idle , and after did put himfelfc forth in- 
to aft : for Godisamoftpure Aftt/4»?f/ 1.17. 

14. Therefore we muft not im^agine fuch an a6live power 
in God, which is a different thing from his E(Icnce , for the 
very Eflence of God is this power whereby he is powerful] : 
As the fame Eflence is mercy it fclfe, whereby he is mcr- 

15, Eat an aftive power agrees to God,iir re(pc(!l: of the 
Creature, which is properly faid to be able to receive , and 
prove that aft of God, which before it did not feeleand 
prove* LMatthew ip. 2d. Ail things are poffible with 

/ God. 

i6. The Omnipotcncy of Godis convcrfant about things 
) abfolutely poffible, whatfocver God willeth , or can will. 

17. It is not therefore cxcrcifed about things which areal- 
togethcr dS^^arct. impoffible, and doe imply a certaine contra- 
diftion^ either in GodjOrin the things created, %Tim.2.i^^ 
He cannot dciiy himfelfe. 

1 S.Hencea certaine diftinftion arifeth of Divine Omnipo- 
tency, whereby it is diftinguiflied into abfolute power, and 
' ordina^e^ or aftuall power. 

1 9. Abfolute power is that whereby God is able to doe all 
things poffible, although they never flball be.i^^r.3 9. God 
can of thefe ftones raife up children unto ^hnJoam^ and 
26.53. Thinkeft thou that I cannot now pray my Fatherland 
he fliall prefently give me more then twelve legions of An- 
gelU T May\^. 10.27. Efh. 3. 20. 

20. The ordi late power of God is that whereby henot 
onlycandoc that which he wiD^ but alfoih very deed doth 
aftually doc , whatfocver he will. ?fd^ Ji5»3« .Sc 135. 6. 

D3 ax. The 

22 Gods Efficiency 

21. The manner of Gods fabfiftence which fliines forth 
in his Efficiency is firft,thc co-working of all perfonj.;feCcnd- 
ly, the diftinft manner of the perfons in working. 

22. Their co*-working is ^ that whereby they doinft- 
parably worke the fame thing : for all cxternall a^^ions are 
common to all the perfons,^^^^ 5'i7«i f^My Father worketh, 
and \ worke. Whatfoever be doth , the fame iikewife doth 
the Son. and i6.i3,i4.That fpirit (hallnctfpeakof himftlfe; 
but whatfoever he (hall hcarej he (hall fpeak. He (hall take of 
mincjand give it to you* 

230 Hence every perfon worketh of hiralelfejas touching 
the cau(all power which he cxercKeth. 

24. Hence, there is no preeminence of dignity 5 in that 
co-working, but great unity ^ and identity of one, and the 

25, HcMce equal! honor is equally due from us to all the 
Divine Perfons. 

2d. The DiftinB manner of working is that whereby e-^ 
very perfon doth worke according to the diilinft manner of ^ 
his (ub(iftence. \ 

27. That dirtinft manner is partly in the order of working, v 
partly in the bounding of the aftion. 

28. As touching the order 3 the manner of working of the 
Father is of himfclfe , by the Sonne and Holy Spirit. Hence 
the beginning of things, namely Creation,is properly attri- 
buted to the Father, who in order of beginning is the firft 

29. The manner of operation of the Sonne is from the Fa- 
ther by the ipirit. Hence the difpenfation of things Is pro- ' 
perly attributed to him, namely Redemption^and thecon^ 
ftiUicion of al the offices in theChurch. Bp. 4 ii.He therefore 
gave fome to be Apo(tles,fbme Prophets^&c. 

3c. The manner of working of the fpir it is from the Fa- 
ther and the Son by himfelfe. Hence the communication 
of things is attributed to the Holy Spirit, as Regeneration. 
Tit. 3 .5. The domroimication of all (piricuaU gifts, 1 ^<?r, 
12. 4. And the perfeftion of natural! things themfelvc*. 

3 1. As touching the termiiutioh of the aftion that works, 
' in 

Decree and ConnfelU 
in which the Working , or manner of working of one perfon^ 
doth chiefly {hine forth is chiefly attributed tothatperfon. 
So Creation is by a fpeciall application appropriated to the 
Father, Redemption to the Sonnej and Sanftification to the 
holy Ghoft. 

Chapter VIL 

Of the Decree , and Connfdl of God. 

li T M the powerfiill Efficiency o^GodythcD ecree of God ob- 
-I taineth the firft place : becaufethis manner of working, 
being of all raoft perfcCl^doth chiefly agree to the Divine 

2. The Diffr^^ of God is his determinate purpole of efFeft- 
^ng all things by his almighty Power^and according to his 
fco\xnCclhSph. I.I I. He doth all things according to the coim- 
\fcll of his own will. 

3. la the Decree oi God theirc appearcth hisconSancy, 
truth, and faithfulneflie. 

4. Conftancy is that whereby the Decree of God remaincs 
alwaycs immutable. Niim.21.2':^. TheftrongGod is not a 
man that he ftiould ly^orthe Sonne of man that he fhould re- 
'ftnu'Prov*i(p.2i.T:htCoHnfell ot the Lord it fhallftand* 

5. Truth is that whereby he declares that alone which he 
hath deqrced , ler. i o. 1 o. lehova is a God of truth. Ront. jo 
4. Let God be true and every man ajiar. For although his 
words may (ceme fometime to found another thing , yet the 
fence of them doth alwayes agree with the Decree. 

6. FaithfulneflTe is that whereby he efFefts that which he 
hath decreed, and as he hath decrecdilfay 46,1 o. My Counfell 
fliall ftand^and I will doe all my plcafure. 

7#Every ^^fr^f^of Godiseternall.i Cor. 2. j^ASls 15.180 

8. To this Decree of God pertaineth C^unfelh £pk la?* 
>f(^/4 28. 
^t, The ^ounfell of God is as it were his deliberation con- 



J 4 Decree and Ceunfill^ 

ccrningthc doing of every thing in thebc0 «anner, after 
that it is of the underftanding and will approved. 

10. Counftll is given to God iflrcfpcft of pcrfcft judges 
mcnt, whereby he doth all things advifcdly /. E. willingly 
andof fet purpofc : not in refpcft of any inquifition upon 
which fuch a judgement doth depend us men. For God (cctb 
and willeth all and every thing togcther^Thercforc it is called^ 
as it were deliberation, not deliberation properly focallcdL 

1 1. Three things concurrc to the perfcftion of this counfeU^ 
!• A (cope or end propoundedt 2. A conceipt of thcminde 
tending towards that ^ope. 3. An intention , and well plea-- 
lingneue of the will* 

12. The (cope or end of this C^unfeJl is the glory of God i 
himfelfe,that is, thatgoodneffe, orperfeftionofGod which 

is made manifefrby bis Efficiency, and feines forth in his 
workSj-Ep fe.i.6.To the praift of his glorious grace. 

1 3. In every artificer, or one that workes by counfell ^^ 
txtra^ outwardly ,there is a platfornae afore baad in the mind 
which when he i« about to worke hee lookes into, that 
lie may fit his worke to it ; fb alfo in God,leeing he wort ) 
cth not naturally nor raftily, nor byconftraint,but with^ 
greateft perfeftion of reafon,//)^<rA a flatforme is to be conceived^ 
to fr^xift bcfere in his mind^ as the exemplary canfcofall 
thing8tobedone.H^.ii.3. Thofe things we fee were made 
of things that doe not appeare. 

14. The platforme of all things is the Divine Ellence, as 
it is underftood of God hirofelfe as iraitable by the CKa- 
turcSj or (b as in (bmc fort the Image of that perfcftion or 
(bme footftcp thereof may be exprcflfcd in the Cccaturcs : 
that is 3 the Creatures themlclves, as they are conceived in 
the Mind of God, are the platforme or image of that nature 
which they have in themftlves. 

15. A platforme in the mind of man,who attaines to know- 
ledge by Analyfis or refolution is coilefted of things them- 
fclvcs: and fo things are firft in themfelves^thcn they come 
untothefcnftsofmcn, and then to the underftandingWjhere 
they can make fome Idea to direft the folio wing^operatlon. 
But becauft God undcrftandeth all things by ^enejis^ or 
compofition,and doth not require knowledge by Analyfis^or 

refolution j 

Be^ree and CmnfeU. 25 

rcfolwtion of things^ therefoi c all things are firft in his mindc 
before they are in them (elves. 

i^S.ln us the thinf^s themfelves arethcex^plcjplatformor 
copy , and our knowledge is th<: Image ; but in God the 
Divine knowledge-is the coppy-platforme^ and the things 
thenifelves theliiiagCj orexprelTcli!<enefle of it- 

17. An^^^f^inmanis firft imprinted and afterwards cx- 
prefled in the things : but in God it is only exprdfing pro- 
perly 5 not imprefled , became it doth not come from any o- 

- H.From this one foundation may all errors of merits and 
forefecnc faith be fufficiently »refced.For li^iny Decree of God 
(hould depend properly upon (uch fore^ghc, then the Ij^^ 
of God ihould come to him from fomething elfe^ which doth 
in no wife agree with his nature. 

ip. The/^^<!rorplatforme, asitisabfoludyconfidered in 
God, is only one, but as it includes divers refpefts to the 
Creatures, it becomes manifoldjfo that it is true, that the 
^Idca of one Creature is not the Idea of another. 

20. There are in God platformes of all perfeftions which 
\ are in the Creatures, becaufe they proceed from the adive 

powerofGod :but not of iraperfe(flionS3if they be formally 
confidered as imperfcftion?. 

21. Therefore the knowledge of evill depends upon the 
denying of good , as the being of cvlU confifts in priva- 
tion of good 3 for every thing as ic hath its being , fo It is 

22. J^i^4/as they are many, (b fbmc of them are Comexa 
.knit together among themlelveSj and depend one upon a- 

nother : whence alfo a certainc order arifeth of former and 

23. /ie/ J- as they are confidered going before \\\t'T)€cree 
of Gods Will, doe reprefent a qnUditj of things^and only 
a poffible exiftence : as they are confidered after the deter- 
mination of Gods Will, they reprefent the fame thing, as 
a<^ually to come,according to their aftuall exiftence. 

24.From that divers confideration there arileth diftinftion 
of Divine knowledge into that which is called, Knowledge of 
iimple underftanding^and knowledge of vifion. 

E (5. Know 

1 26 Decree and CowtftlL 

SikmkfpnpHch a 5. Knowledge of innplc intelligence , is of all poffiblc 
Jmlligenti£. things^ that is, of allandevery thirtg^whichmaybedoneby 

i moftpcrfefl: knowledge in God. 

scictakvifi)nu. 26. Knowledge of vifion , is the knowledge of allfaturc 
_ things, whether they be in tlicir own natBrcneccifary^or free, 
or contingent. 

27. Theft thitigs that Gkxl knowes by the knowledge of 
fimple intelligence or meere undtrftanding,he k now es by his al 
fofficicncy ; but thofe things that he knowes by knowledge 
ofvilion, he knowes by his Efficiency or by t\it Decree oi 
his own will , T/i. gj. 15. He that frames their hearts , ob« 
fervcth all their workef. i/44* 2. Who as I, foretelleth and 
dcclareth it, or ordereth it to me ^ from the time that I diA 
pofed the people for ever ; that the things to come^ and which 
(hall come to paffe may be declared to them 1 
9cimk mdk. . 28. A midc le knowledge by which God is fained of fome 
to have known before the Z^e'cTif^ of his will by fuppofition^ 
foch events to come to pafle,if fuch caufes were put : feeing 
that it doth both determine events to come certainly to puHteV 
independantly from Gods Will, and doth make fume know-r 
ledge of God to depend chiefly on the obied : I (ay (iich( 
a knowledge cannot ftand with the great perfcftion of 
God. . 

29. ThcDmntldeay according to the variety of Notions^ 
which are in the things^doth pyt on divers re(i e(ft?. In rei^ 
peft of the Principles 5 it is called intelligence whereby God 
pcrce veth every fevcrall thing in every thing : in relpeftof 
truth belonging to every feverall thing it is called Science^ 
which as to t he extent of it , is Omnifcience : and as to that 
being which things have in their proper mea(ure5 ^^ called 
Pr^fcience. In refpcft of the dependance of truths which 
they have among themfelves,it is called Sapience^ wheieby h« 
knoweth what is convenient for every things and what isdi(i 
agreeab.efromit : In refpcft of the whole order to heap- 
pointed in praftife , it is called Prudence , whereby he • 
knowes , to apply the fitteft occafions to every thing : 
La^ftfy , in refpeft of pwttin^ in praftifejit is called An. 
Whereby hce fcnowes to cifeft all thiiigs moft skilfiilly. 

30. Theft 

Godi Decree tndCetmfelU ^ y 

■ jo-Thoft worcjs ;arc often ufed promilaioufly in the Seri^ 
turcs, to cxplaine the perfeftion of Divine undcrftanding to 
tfac capacity of thofc , who have an underftanding very im- 
pcrfc&jyet of their own naturcxhey adniit this diffinftion^and 
iiotancieher* . ,. ...,v?,. (.j ^bjiir., Ji^l.^ ,'iO'iuiuV; 

51 . That conye(fldrall feiowledgd wBctt only ibxne doe 
give toGodjabout contingent things to come,doth plainly rc- 
pugne the nature^nd perfcftion of God. 

Of thofi three things vohich Vf ere frofounded, as concNrringt9 
theferfeHionofGois^punfeUy namely y ^ fcofe^con^ 
ceived of the mi/tde , and intention ofypill • The 
Thirdremainestoheconfidered^ n^hich 

u called fiooi pleafure. <^^ 

. 52. The Good pleafisreofGod is an aft of Dhrfctlc wUIj 
jffloft freely and cfFeftually determining of all things* 

5 J. Good fleafure indeed in Scripture doth moft ufiially 
ftt forth the good will of God, whereby he wHlcth, and 
deteroiineth a faving good unto his : yec because all the 
Connfell of God is well pleaiing to him^ it is rightly ufed by 
Divines to cxplaine every Co$mfeU of God| even according to 
the Scriptures* 

34* This will is truly free : becaufe whatfbever it willeth^il 
willeth it not by necefllcy of nature ^ but by Cotsnfci. 
. . 3 5« It is moft frcC) or chiefly and abibtutiy free,dependin^ 
upon na other , but thcfrcedome of the will of men tna 
Angels by rea(bn of that dependancc which it hath on God^ 
is leflcfree paruking of another. 

'•-■ 394Freedon)e in thoCt operations which are oQtward is 
not only concouiitanr,as it is in inward operacionsibut al(b ic 
is antecedent by way of a principle : biecauft that which 
GodwiUcth to worke outwardly, he willeth not outofne* 
celTity of nature, but of jprecedent choiJc : for there is not 
a neceCTary connexion t^tweene the Divine N^ure , and 
ihoic Afls. 

. i^^^Thii will is Effeflhiall : bc'cauft whatfoeww ii willethihe 
cffe^tiiuinitsxime, neither is there any thing tilat is not 

E « donC| 

•^8 DecruaH'4 <!(mn0U. - ) 

done, if he willeth it to be clonc.T/^Ari 5.3* & i ^^.6i.%hwa 
dothwhatfoeverheplca(cth» r v( -^ v ; 

jS. Hence the Will of God is the firft caufe of thing?. 
Rev.^.ii* By thy will they «:e 5 and were created* But the 
Will of God, as it willeth to workc oiKwardly^doth not pre- 
fuppofe the goodneile of the objcft, but by wiUi^ng doih make 
the objeft. latn.^s i .iS.B^caufe he would^he begait uSyRoS* 1 8. 
He hath mercy on whom he will. ;:G^T>?fn 

39. Therefore there is no caufe properly focalled^to be 
given of Gods Will. 

40. H nceitisrighily faidjthat'Goji doth will one thing 
to exift for another ; but not that tbit one thing is a proper 
caufe whereby the Will of God is iiiwardly moved to 
appoint that other thing. So God we)iild that the Sunna 
andftars ftiould exlft, for the generation, confcrvationjandi 
corruptJonof things below ; yet theSunneand Stars 5 aro 
not a caufe why God would that thofe things fiiould be gci^ 
ncrated , conferved , and corrupted. And fo it is in all 
things cut of God, which indeed among themfelves are rao(ea 
and cffefts,even as they depend upon the Divine will^but therj 
is no caufe of Gods Will out of it fel fe, \ 

: 41. Alfo the willing of ©nc thin^g luGod, is not pro- 
perly a caivfecflFefi:ingihat he wil another thing in bimfelfe, 
becaafe the Efficiency of a canfe upon an cffcftj.and d-epen- 
dance of the tfFeft upon a caufe^.cannot be in the Will of 
God 5 which is God himfelfe, truly and (imply willing all 
things togcjhierandr>iiC^aii?ce; i ivith one oncjly jaft i^ycat it Is 
true that the Sch&oM^friiky^i\i^t^)ipA^i attiugency ofthe 
Divine will in rcfpcft of oneHhitjg , : is- a caiifc of a paflive at- 
tingcncy in refpeft of another : and fo m this fence it is truly' 
and pita>(ly faid^thatOod willeth fomeone things becaufe hci 
willeth anothec^ i ^ \ r W ; . : 7 

,42. ^ Therefore although he willet^h many things whidi 
will not follqw bqt upon fomcantecedent aft ofthe£ircaturc^^ 
yet the vcrya<^ of willing in God doth not properly depend 
as aconfequent thing^upon the aftof the ereaturc. Neither 
Is it lawfull under the appellation of an Antfcedentwill^^ to 
g|vf? untcK Qodv thaf ifpper fcft will whiai^^^l^^ 
a wOttWingin-tbe *S(:^^<^Aai Edr it doth iiotragree fo lb 

s .. Omni- 

Decree and Connfelh i^ 

Omnifcicnt, Omnipotcntj and infinitely blefled Nature^ 

4 }. Wherefore that oprnion which determines that God 
doth will fometbing antecedently to the aft of the Grca- 
tmty which fame thing afterwards he wiHcth not towards 
them, but wills another thing ^ is not to be admitted: bc- 
cauft it makes the Will of God mutable and depending upon 
the aft of the Creature,{b that as oftca as the aft of the Crea- 
ture is ch2nged 3 (b often alfo it is changed. 

44. By that opinion alfo ^ that forme of fpecch prefcri- 
bed in the Word of God whcr«ln we commit rur ftlves and 
al ours to God, asl willdoethiSjOrthatjifGod wil, fhoirld 
not be ufed in all things , but turned contrarily , God will doc 
this or that , if man will. 

45. This will determines ofall things 5 grcateft^leaft , eon- 
titigent5necc(rary,frcc, without exception. This the Scrip- 
ture (he wcs of all kind of things : as of Chrift Jefus to be glo- 
rified, and the Church to be favedbyhim. Tfd.7. & no. 
4. & 40. 7,8^9. Heb.'j. i6.2i, £^^5 2?. 2 Tim. I. g. Of 
PW^<?/?. £-W»i- 5» Where God did fodi(pofe all things, 
that he might move PW^^?/? to perfccutc and overthrow the 
pcoplcof i/r^^/;nay he hardened him, that he might per- 
fecutethem : ytt Pharaoh^ and /y^-^^/ did workc freely • In 
like manner of the felling of Jofc^h , wherein all things hap- 
pened freely, and contingently J God determining ofit ac- 
cording te his Will. Of the very heart of man. Pyi/. 33. 15. 
I Sdm. 10.9.26. l^roT. 21.1. Of a man killing another by 
chance. ^xod.2^.i^. Of the Lot Caft into the Lap. Prov. 
I^w33..0f little gparrowes falling to the ground .- Of all the 
haircs of a mans head. Matthew ic.29. 30. OftheLilHcs, 
Flowers, and Graflb of the Earth, Matthei^ 6.2%v*^o. Fi^ 
nally^ of all created things i f oh. ^%^ P/4/./-104. Ifaj 45.7. 

46. If Gcd {hould not dctermtngoif all things,his Will 
fto^ld not bcliniply^ and univern^lly the firft caufe .• and there- 
fore they that thin ke the contrary , muft of neceffity either 
make two firft beginning? ^or more then two, which is very far 
from all truth. 

47. But there is not the (amerearonofwillas thereisof 
Divine knowledge and power , for knowledge knowes all 

E 3. thmg^ 

30 Decree and ComfetU 

things that may be known, and power can docallpcffiblc 
things , and they are ftrctched forth together beyond thofc 
things which a^ually have been, are^and (hall be ; but by 
his prill he willeth not all things he can will , but all things 
which hejudgeth to be willed, and therefore aSually to be 
hereafter ; whence it is that although God tnay be called^ 
Oainifcicntj and Omnipotent , yet he cannot be called Onar 

48. Whatfoever God wilicth in all thefe things^he is uni- 
verfally efFeftaall : io as he can in no wife be hindred, or 
friiftrated, whereby he cannot obtaine what he wiUs.Vox if he 
ftiould properly will any tbiug^^and could not obtaine it , he 
ftiould not be moft perfeft and blefled, 

49^ Yet the fVilt ot God doth not infer a ncceflity upon 
al future thingSjbut a certainty only as touching the event* 
» So it could not be as to the certainty of the event , that the 

bones of Chrift ftiould be broken > becaufc God would that 
they (hould not be brokrn : yet there was no neccffity impoled 
upon the SouldiersSpcares^ and other iecond caufes which 
were prefent* 

$0t Nay it is fo far off^ that the will of God, which doth 
moft certainly attaine to whatfoever it »///(?rA 5 doth urge all 
things with hard necefllty , that it is the prime reote, and ef- 
ficient cau(c of all that contingency , and freedome,which is 
in things : becaufcit dotheflFedually foreordaine fuch efFefti 
to follow of filch caufef. 

5 1. In thofe things which God WlUeth there is a ccrtaine 
order conceived, namely that firft he PFi/leth the chd^ be^ 
fore the meaner Co the end , becaufc he worketh by moft 
perfeA reafon r^nd among meanes, he firft PVilleth thoCt 
things which come neereft to the end : for that which is firft 
ia order of execution, that is laft in order of intention, and (b 

5 2.This will of God,iSjpartly hidden, and partly revealed. 

5 3. Thole meanes by which this ff^/// is revcalcd^are right-^ 
ly called the fFill of the figne^not only metaphorically,becauft 
they declare among men what they would have, but alfome- 
tonyniicalIy,becaufe they are cither efl&dls^ adjunfts, partly 
declaring the proper ^/il of Godc 54. There 

54- There are five figncs put in th«t old vcrfc. Fr^cipit^ & 
frohibet^Vermittit^Confulit, Implet : Hecommandeth,and for- 
biddcth^Permitteth^ounfclIcthjfclfilicth.-but becaufe counfell 
U all one with a command} inftcad of it^ it fliould be better to 
put in Promittit^Hc promifeth. 

Thus farre in genevAll of gods Efficiency ^ rphich together with 
his Suffciency , doth make a fit ^ and ada^mte ohjeElof 
Faithm T*he kinds ef it do follow. 


Chapter VIIL 

of Creation. 

!• f I • He Efficiency of God, is either Creation or Provi- 
I dence* 

X. 2 . Creation is the Efficiency of God where- 
by he made the World of nothing , in the beginning very 

3. Aftive Creation is conceived ^ by the manner of a tranfi- 
cnt aflion 3 in which there is alwayes an Objcft prefuppofed 
about which the agent is exercifcd^ yet ic is not formally 
traniicnt, but only virtually j becaufe it doth not prcfiippoft, 
but make an Objeft. 

4. Paffive Creation is conceived by the manner of mutati* 
on^which is improperly called mutation* 

• 5. Creation refpcfts the whole worldjthatisjwhatfocver 
doth cxift befides God, 

6. Hence , both all things which exift befides God arc 
created, and they are altogether created ^ that is.as well ac* 
cording to matter, as according to formca Rev. 4. 11. Bc- 
cau(e thou haft made all thing?* j^ol.i.i6. For by him were 
niade all things which are in Heaven;^aDd which arc In Earth, 

7 Creation doth produce Originally, becaufe itprodu- 
ccth abeingjootonly as it ft a being, but alfo abfolutly in 
every part* 

8. There- 

^.Therefore before the Creatien^ the Creatiires had no 
reall being either of exiftencCjOr Eflcnce, although they had 
a known being.from eternity in the knowledge of God* 

9. Cri?^^^» then produceth out of nothing, that is, out 
of matter that doth not prascxift 5 that hath a being before^hwx 
co-€xift 5 that hath a being together with the th'iKg created : 
For there was nothing from eternity befides God, neither is 
God the matter or part of any Creature^ but only the efficient 

I o. Indeede fomethings are faid to be created, whofe mat- 
ter did pre-exift : but then Creation refpcils not only that 
immediate aftion^ whereby it comes to paflc that (iieh things 
arc 5 but alfo aniediatc aftion,whereby it comes to pafleihat 
the matter ic felfe Qiould exift of which they are formed : 
fo it was in the Creation of plants and living Creatures, 

!!• Thatnothing, or not being of things, did goe before 
their being : not only in order of nature^^ for (b they might 
co-exift with God from externity : but alfo in order of 
duration 3 continuance, according to our manner oi cotkf 
ceiving* ) 

12. Hence that beginning in which God is faid to creates 
the Worldjwastheend of that duration which nothisg had, 
aad the beginning of that which a the world had. 

ij.Thcrefore God would by the Creation y both Jhew forth 
hisperfeftion, that he did not neede a^iy Creature or out- 
ward thing; for then he had created the world as (bone as 
he could. And alfo his freedome whereby he brought forth 
all things 'without naturall neceffity , for if he had crea- 
ted neceflarily 5 he had done it from eternity. Rez. 4, n^ 
7>/. 115. 3^ 

14, The world neither was made from eternity, neither 
could be created from eternity ^in that difpofition, and order 
of chingSjWhich now it hath. 

i 5, That day had not been , if infinite dayes ought to have 
pone before/or thofe dayes going before had never been en- 
dcd,that that might lucceed themt 

1 6. Hence alfo it followcth that no Creature was, or could 
be a caufe either inftrumental],or principall in the aft of Cr^. 
t*^». 17. Every 

Credtiom ^^51 

17. Every thing created was very goftd, becaufc it Was 
made neither raftly , nor m vaine , but unto the end which 
the Maker did attaine unto- ^eK. i. 31. Whatfocver hee 
made was very good, i Tint. 4, 4* Whatfocver God made 
is good. 

. . iSiGobdnefle of a thingcreated isthat^erfcftion whereby 
itisfictothe ufe it fervcsfor : Now thatufeis^pacticdarjor 
univerlall. ':1ilc'"^^ 

' I $•. The Particular is chat proper operation to which any 
thing fervcs in its proper nature. . 

20, Univerrall u(c, is the ordaining of one thing with 
otherSjfor the pcrfeftioii of the Univeijfcor; whole.yy'i/ 104. 
Sci48.£/4j40. 13. 

^i.By thisgoodneflfe all created things in their naturall 
madiier tend to God from whom they came. For the fecond 
Mng^is from the firftjand for the firft.. Hence thofe phrafes. 
j^om him ^ through him 5 and for* him are all things. 
Aom.} 1.36^ 

22. Now naturall things tend unto:God. r. In that they 
declare Gods Giory.PfaLiQ*!* 2. That they giveoccafion. to 
us to know^and fteke GodiRom.1.20. ASls ij. %6. 3. In that 
tiey (uftainc our life, that we may live well unto God i. ^cr. 
jOtji. 1 7W.4.3. 4* : ' 

23. Time doth co-exift or hath a being together with all 
naturall things^ as appeares in that phrafe in the beginning : 
for then was the beginning of time. ^ 

24. Place al(o doth co-exift , that is, a certainefpace, 
herein the extention of the Creature is bounded. Genef, 

2 5,But thefe arc not properly created, but concreated . or 
anncxedjknit to the things created : bccaufe they have not an 
abfolutCjbut only a relative entitle or being. 

26. Becaufe God created all things of northing, there- 
fore our faith refts in him againlt hope , under hopejtor thofe 
things which arc not^as if they were^/f^^wf 4. 7 1 8. 

27. The Cr^^r/<?» ofthe world is Hillribuced according to 
the parts of the world : for although the world be one ^ b/ 
unity of aggregation , order , and end ; yet ic conhtts of 
parts, diflinguiflied not onely according to the ficuation 



t)Ue alfcr according to the Eflfence ^ and EKiftence. 

285 But the Creanon of theic parts' of the world , was not 
altogether and in one momeat^but it was finifhcd by parts fiic- 
cceding one anothergin the fpace of fix dayes. 

29* Creation then is of the parts of the world , that arc 
either immediatly pcrfcft^or mediatly»P/^/. 33. S. Hek 1 1 • 3. 

30. Creation of things immediatly perfeft is, that where- 
by things were made having their principles^ both materiall 
and formall , at the firft ingencrared in them^ and that in a 
compleat exiftence; 

3i.Henccthofe Creatures of themfelve sate fubjeft to no 
effen ia)i Gbangc^as geneiation, or corruption. 

32. The parts immediatly perfed arc the highcft Heaven, 
and the Inhabitants of it the Angels. 

35. The higheft Heaven, is the dwelling place of Gois 
holineffcjfull of all things which pertaine to eternall blefleo- 
neffe : where the Majefty of God doch prefent it felfe to btv 
fcenc as it were Face toFace.^ i Or.2. 8. Marc. 12.23V i 

34, It is called the third Heaven ^ JEmpjreumdcvy ^The' 
Heaven of Heavens^ and Paradile.^ 1 Kings 8.2 7. Mata 8.10 
Marc. 1 2 . 25 • 2 Cor. 12.2.4^ 

3$.ThisHeavenismcant.G^^^.i.i# Heb.ii.xo.iS. 

36. Angells are Spirits of primary perfcftion, created to 
minifter unto God.. 

37. That Angels were created appeareth^ C^l.u i6.?fah 
148,5. That they were created the firft day with the higheft 
Heavenjappeareth. i. From the likenefle of naturcjthat they 
have* 2. In that they are faid to have as it were applauded God 
in the ^r^^/;V;a of other things. 7(7^.58,7 3, In that they are 
Spirits. H^.1.14. i^^.24,39.Miniftersof God.H,?^.i.7,i4.0f 
chiefe perf eftion^ and of an immortall nature. Luke 20. 3 6. 

38.Hence the Angels doe fo excell in cleere (eeing reaioni 
that chey are (aid to be as it were , full of eyes^ prcfently dif- 
cerning what God would have done by them, and how it is 
to be done : And in liberty of willjthat they performc their 
offices With diligence^ Pfalme 1 o3.20* And in perfeftion of 
ftrengthj that they arc able to doc great things. 2 Teeter 

^■"- And 


2.1 f^ And in greatcft agility, that as if they had wings^thcy 
doe ftfiftly difpatch that which they have in ccmmiffion. 
Et^ech. Is 6* 

39. Their M iniftery is to celebrate the glory of Cod, and 
to execute hiscommands.F/i/.io3.20.Efpccially about thole 
who (hall be heires of eternal! life, Hcbu i. 14. Pfalme ^u 
I !• & 34* 8. 

40. They were created found in holinefle, and righteouA 

41. In number they are very many, unto ten thoufand 
times ten thoufand. "l^afj. 7. io# Heb.12.22. LMat^iS.^^. 
They are diftinguiflied among thcmftlves , in reipeft of tlieir 
OfficcSj & Objcfta^aboHt which they are cxcrrifed.£;»^*l.2 1* 
And they are under the command of God and Chrift only. 

42. By the Creation God is known , but not God the Fa- 
tjker , Sonne and Holy Spirit, becaufe that effedling power 
vhcrebytlie world was created , pertaines to the eflcnce of 
^od^and not to his pcrfbnall fubfiftence. 

43. (/ireAtion of the parts of the World mediately per- 
\feft, is whereby things were made of principles , that did 
/ exift before. 

44. Hence thofe Creatures are (ub/etfl to change and cor- 

45.Thofe things that were mediatly perfcft have a double 
exiftencej firft a rade and incompleatc, then afterwards a 
complcatjdiftinft, and beautified cxiftcnce. 

46. The rude and incompleat cxiftence of things was in 
that mafle which in the beginning was created , without 
formejvoid^and involved in darkncflc ^ which is called Earth, 
Waters^the Decpe. 

47. It is (aid to be without forme ;not bccauft it had no 
formejbut becaufe it neither had beauty , and ornament, nor 
a corapleat a&of thofc formes which were afterwards to pro* 
cecd out of it. 

48.1n the conftitution of the coliiplcat exfftchce of things^ 
two things are chiefly to be refpcfted 5 Namely, the manner, 
and order. 

49. The mantterof conditutioi) contalnes foure thiiigf* 
I. The command of God producing every thing: Let be^ 

Fa M 


ox let this or that be done : wherein the power of God (h^nf s 
forthjthat by his only word or will he did all things. T^(. 
33.9,T/i/. 115. 3. 2, His approbation acknowledging the 
fame thi^ brougkt tbrth as good, God &?v that it was good^ 
Hence the goodnefle of God ftiines forth^that he produced 
all things to a good end and u(e# Pfal.i9*2* 3. His ordinati- 
on <^ffic^ntng to every thing bis nft ; Let it be to this or thac 
cnrJ. , H^ncc the wiiiioirie of God (hines fortfi whereby he 
hath ffiroiti reverailuiesto every thing, in a nioft fit way* 
ffy.iou & 51. 15. He ma e the Earth by his power, he 
Oabiiftied the habitable World by his wiflome.and ftcctched 
0m the Heavens by his prudence. 4 •The eflablifliing of a 
tiWj^ and order , perpetually to be obfervcd in that thiig, 
which is alfojoyncd with ordination. Hence the conftancy 
ofGod (hineth forth.that he would have all Creatures to i^b- 
ferve their order, not for (bmc daycs, or y eares^ but to the erd 
<)fth6 world/ . M ,\; .! .; 

$0. Theft former are not fevcrallyexprefled in fame kini 
of things 5 becaufe their imperfeftion depends upon thbper* . 
fcftion of other things : yet in common reafon they doe } 
equally agree to all. . ,: . ^ i 

51^. The order of conftitutiop. wasHihus filn thfiirft^ay 
after the bringing forth of the higheft Heavens 5 the Angells, ( 
and the unQiapen Maffe ^ the fukileft part of that Mafle J 
being. called forth upward, there was made light , that is, 

; 52» On the fecond day, Of that part which in (ubtilty 
came neereft to the former there was made Aire. • 

53* Onthe third day ,the parts of theMaflc were ib diftri- ^' 
butedjthat the Waters being gathered, in theitc^annels ^ of 
that part which was for the greatcft 5 the Sea|}yas by it fclfe, 
pd'thf^^;';;h^appear^dad^^^ ^ifTrec/?. ;; :> 

... f 4-Pn ^hc^Wtbday 5 ' thfXumif^^^ 
Were made,to'give light upoii the EartK. ' ' " | -. [ 1 ; ' ' ^ '' 

, . 55,pn thefifth day^Fifties^and Bijpd$,that dwell in the^i^r 
and water wcj;cbrQugbcfQrth.^ ^ ^ T 

^6.0n the fixth day, were brought forth all TerreftiiaI|Ii- 
v}ngPre^mres,fi)cftJthely then aftegirard 

foan : and fp the Hieayei]^ and Earth were pcrfeifi:cd;^8c^the 
Hottsbfthcna* ' ^,; ' 57*ln 

/ ^ 

Creation- 37 

iu^^. .In this order the.wifdotDfr, power aDdgoodnqfliof 
Gadiothgreatlyfbio? forth. . :. , . v 

^8iits4dome. 1, Ih ?hac th^e fimple clcnicaM were firft 
CTcatedbcfurething^elemcntaTyorconcrcte, andcompoun- 
"ed. 2. In tb.t amung fimple things the more perfed were 
madclirfivvihich come neercft.iO; the nature pt God. 3. In 
SHtSithr;gs..y.r.firft,created,^W^^^^ . 

henth .ft Khich belidc being'have alfo life; then thofe that 
befide being and life i have alio fence : then lail ot alb fhole 
tht gsSEefide being, lift and fence . have alfp.ea^on. 
I In that in funple things, therrjsas a progrelTe frpp thmgs 
more pcrfca to things leffe perfcft , but mcompoan^, thu^g^: 
itQj\i)r^m$^3t,x,^^^mm^^ y fr^ai plants 

Tp. The pow^r of God (hincd forth in that he firft coated 

the Plants, Herbs and Trees, bcforethe Sunnc , and Stars, 

which arewpntcabeca^fes in ihfir. producing. ^ n • n 

66, Thegoodneffc of .Qx^jfhificd fpt^than that hecreaH 

teddwdlinss,- before inhabitant, food before living Crea- 

• ,tures,thpfe things which lhould.be ufefull for manMorf^ 

man himfelfe. „ . ^ /- ' 1. li 

^i. Man ashe was thq laft of the Crcatijrcs, i fo w^s Iwihc 
C««»W»/*w,a}3ridgementofallQre*tures,>oth imme^ 
and mediatly perfea, partaking the nature ot m Pnci m hi* 
foukiandoftheother inhis'hody^ .. : ,. , ... 

6u He was the end of the Creatures mediatly perfeft, 
^nd fp iifi Pg^s ln|entioi},Tefi)?^e4 Jii thcip,, ..and^^ve 

6 iv'Heriecke i&faidtobecteatedin anotWf m^nnerthat 
'the other Creatures : for they were brought forth by a word 
onlvjlec there be light,let theretc a'firmamcnt.But rtian was 
^r^sght forth as it were swth^grsaf cr couiiieJl,.^nfl dcUberattr, 
ch;I;eeusHiakeman.^/».Vj6.., ,{ \^^ , yj,p ^ '>^ Jf 
" 64 For the body was firft prepared , and afterward the 
foulc wasinfpired.(?e«.».7- Thebody of Elementary matter, 
bucthe foule was produced ofno matter being b«fpre,hut im- 
mediatly by the power of God. ,.'1. 

d.5.Tte ExcdUncy pfix»aBwas|aac5dxfhi?Pj:>W^Ws,thac 

hcWcth* Image of Gefl^o rj • frju} vfl r ;^rn-fi ^''"'^-^'^'^ Tbico 


6S. thi?ce things arcrccpiircd to make an Image I 1. That 
it be like. 2» Th.i- it beexpreflfe , and framed to imkate 
aflother thing as an exemplar ^ or copy. 3. That that 
likenefle be either in its (pccifiali nature , or moft noble per- 

6 J. Hmct it is, that in the inferior Creatures the Image 
of Grod is not properly found ; but only a (hadow, and foot- 
ftcp of it. 

68* But in man the proper reafon of an Image is found .• 
yet not perfeft, which is only in the Son of God. Cc/. lA'y* 
Heb^i \J^ But imperfeft, [not with a privative we, but negative 

^p.This Image then is a conformity of man , according to 
his raeafure^to the higheft pcrfcftion of God. 

70. All this Image was naturall to man , but in a different 
rcfpeft , for it was partly the very nature of man ^ partly it 
flowed from the principles and pcrfeftion of naturc^and part- 
ly it was due to nature in a certaine manner. 

71. ThelmageofGodinman was partly inward, part-, 
ly outward. The inward ^ was the perfeftion of body 

72.The perfe^ion of the body is that whereby it was aWb- 
lately fitted for comlinefle and ufe agreeable to Gods Will* 
Ge77.2.2^.R(m§.6, 13. 

73. The perfe<aionofthe(bule was that whereby it was of i 
an immortall nature , not only in thofe faculties by which it / 
was a free principle of its own aftions, inunderftandingand I; . 
will , but alfo being adorned with gifts whereby man wat I ^ 
made ablejand fit to live well, namely with wifdom, holincfl^* ^ ^ 
and righteoufncs. ^/jA. ^•'^4.10/.^. lo. j^ 

74. The Externall perfeftion of man Was his Dominion -|-* 
over other Creatures ^ whereby he might ufe them freely j 
to Gods Glory , and his own neceffity,^fw/i/ i.26«and i|| 

7.t^. 20. 

75. Hence the tilling of the Earth, and getting of food 
out of the Planes of the Earth , was coranutted to him. 
C7^;;*2. 25. 

76.iHcnce was the comming of the Creatures to him as to 
their Lord,and names by him puc on them ^ as by ihcir Lord. 
Gtn^i.tip. 77.Hencc 

77.Hcncc he tvas placed in the Garden of Edtn as in his 

78. In all thoft things joyned together the pcrfcftion of 
man was compleatc : and from that perfeftionj a ccrtaine 
Image of GodjOr of Divine perfcdlion did arifc, 

79.Tbis ^r<?4r/e?« of man, was, ofthtC^aie, zn^ Female, 
both of them of nothing, as touching the louie. The body 
of the jW^/^, of the Earth 3 mingled with othei Elements. 
The body of the Woman5of ihtMale^ andforthe A/^/^,- 
that nothing might be wanting to his well being, i Cor. 
II. 8 9. 

80. From the confideration of the Creation our Faith af- 
ccndeth above all the order of nature 5 and apprehends the 
light of the Glory of God 5 to be (hewed forth m the Face of 
Jefiis Chriftjbecaufe it is God , who commanded the light to 
feine out of darknefle.2 Cor. 4. 6. 


Chapter I X. 

^ of Providence. 

I. f^ I THe Trovtdence of God is that Efficiency where- 
by he provides for his Creatures now made, in 
all thingSj according to the counfell of his owne 

I by he provides for his Creatures now made, in 
JL a " '"^ "" 

V Will. 

2.This TrovUence is extended to all things, not only com- 
mon,butprop€r.7'MT45a5,i6. Prr.t6.9.3j. Exod.ii^i:^. 
Being properly determined of no caufe , but determining all 
caufesiand hence in their manner ic is the univerfall and par- 
ticular caufe of all things. 
3The Providence of God is either immcdiate,whereby God 
by himfelfe^as the abibhite fole caufe provides for things,or 
niediate,whereby he provides by the u(e of meanes. 

4. God doth all things that come to paflc immediatlyj 
bothbyreafonofhispower^ in refpeft of all being, which 
is found in the e^eft, (for the power of God attaines to every 


of Prcvrdence. 
efFcft.: DeuikS.S* -E^iy aS. 26.^ and alfo byteafori^ofthc 
fiibjcft in rcfpcft of that being it hath aa it is a being 2 for 
God himlilfc who is alwayes and every where prefent 
immediatly and inwardly , doth workc that in all things 

5. Yet in refpeift of thofe things upon which (econd caqfes 
have their influence by force of their owripropcr forme^ God' 
isnotfaidto worke^ immediatly, but mediatly, bdcauft he 
workcth by the meanes of fubjefts and virtues of fecond 

6. God therefore ufeth meanes^not for want of powcr^bot 
thrctagh? the abundanceof his goodnefle ; that naaaely- he 
might communicate a ccrtaine dignity of working to his 
Creatures alfo ^ and in them might make his efficiency more 
percej^veable. 1 Sam. 1 ^^.j. Tis all one to Jeheva to lave with 
many^ or with few. Hence God doth cifcien ufe thofe meanest 
to producethemoft noble efFefts, which ot themftlves , have 
no aptncfle to bring forth fuch cffefts. i Cor* i .27, 28. ityimo^ 
5.9*2.C/jr.2 4.24«Airo he doth often make the moft fitmeans, 
inefFeftuall. T/.33. T^;^ 1 2^a 2rH^/.4. 1 o. 

7. Hence our Faitti doth not properly refpeft thofe me^ns 
which God ufcth,neither depends on thf m ^ but on God on- 
ly, who can relieve all our neceflitics either with meanes i or 
without meanes 5 asitfeemesgoodtohirr* jD^/%3. 17. Our 
Gcjd whom we worfhipfis abletot^elivei us out; Cf t|(^ hot 
fiery Fornace^ and out xiJ^tJiy ha{;(^dQiii» u 
c 8* rhfi 'Vr evidence ofi^oi is ^icibc;jOruiiury an J ufualI,or 
Extraordinary and unudiciH. .' 

9; The ordinary providence 15 whereby God obfcryeth 
that order in things whichu as appointed irom the begui/)i,>g, 
Th^ reafon of which order requires , that ionie cut aiii thing 
goe, before jiandrfrptn fhatibeing put^ fome cc.taiae ch|ng 
follow after. Hof. 2. 22. I will heare tiie Heavens ^ and 
they lliall heare the Earth, and the Earth ftiall hca/cche 
Corne , and the y Vme y and the Oyle 5 and they (hail Uearc 
Jfrael. , .- n . ; j .. , -, ;,-: ■ : ■■' ■ ^ /,.;.. ; 

.v-ia.Ikatclfdcr inonattiiiJI jthi^ ofnacare, 

cbmnaan to all, things or the very nature of things, y^s it is 
fiabliftied in a certainc order 5 arifing from the force and 


of Providence* 41 

efficacy of that never to bee rcvafcpd Word of God given 
in the beginning : Let it be made , Ifet it be , be it fo , which 
exprefling the refpeft of a thing to come , doth (Tgnific per- 
petuity and conftancy, and by its virtue doth cfFcd: all things 
which doc ufuallycoire to paflfcot the fame thingf. Icr. 31. 
35. ^6* The flatutes of theMoon, andof theStarrcs, &c% 
ard 33,20. My Covenant of the day and my Covenant of 

II. Extraordinary providence isthatwhereby Godpro- 
vidcthforthingsbeyond theuluali, and appointed order (ff 
them, in which manner whatfocver is cffefteJ, is by a me- 
tonymy of the efFed called a Miracle* 
' 1 2 . A Miracle is an operation above the order appointed 
whence true Miracles doe alwayes give evidence of the om- 
nipotency of the doer. Hence God only is the Author of true 

13. Men may be morall caufes of Miracles, as they ob* 

taine this of God that he would doe them 3 or as God ufeth 

their help as a figne,or token of a Miracle to be don^by him, 

I yet they cannot be caufts really efficient, norindeed^ inftru- 

, J mentall,much leflc principall . 

^ 14. The Providence of God is either confervation or gu- 


1 5. Conftrvation is that whereby God makcth all thingi , 
bothuniverfall, andfingularj both in their Eflcnce and exi- 
ftence, and in their ftrength , to perfift, and continue. P[kL 
io4.i9,20. AElsij.i^.Heb^i.^. Which is of Schoolemcn, 
not unfitly called tJM^nHtenentia, Dei ^ Gods holding in his 
^^^ hand , becauie by it God doth (uftainc all things as with 
his Hand. 

\6. This conftrvation doth neceflarily conx between 
Cr€^tion,zx\A, government of things created :becau(cwhat(b« 
ever is crcated,is created to forac end,and uft^to which alfo it 
ought to be direfted and governed : but it cannot attaine 
that end,nor be dircftcd to itjunleffe it be continued and con- 
ferved in its being. 

17. Gods conftrvation is neceflary for the Creature be- 
cauft the Creature doth every way depend upon the Qreator^ 
not only as touching its Pieri. i« being to be made, but al(b 

G touching 

touching \U Ejfe^ exlfle^fermanen ^ & oferm. i . Being, 
Exiftencc.Continuance ," d operation : fo that every Crea- 
ture (hould returne into that nothing whereof it was Uiadc, 
if God (hould not uphold it 5 and the very ceffation of Di- 
vine confervation , would without any other operation pre- 
fcntly reduce every Creature into nothing. PpUme 104429. 
If thou hideft thy Face^they are troubled, if thou takeft away 
their breath they die, and returne to their duft. 

18. Some things arc confervcd immediatly^namely fiich 
as are fubjeded unto God only. This confervation is in 
very deed the fame with Creation, differing only in reafon^ 
in that Creation includes a certainc newnes which confervati- 
on excludeSj& Creation excludes a precedent e^iftencc which 
confervation includes . fo that that confervation is nothing 
elfe then as it were a continued C^eatim , and therefore it is 
joyned with Creaticn.Neh.^^.S.Thon haft made,and thou prc- 
ferveft all thcfe things. 

1 9. Gubernation is that whereby God dircAeth and lea- 
deth all his Creatures to their proper ends.P/^^ 29. i o, Ichova 
fits King for evcr^ 

20. The government of allthings ought to be of God- For 
they would never certainly attaine the end to which they 
were created , unleffe they were governed by the fame power, 
by wWdbi they wete createdrai^tti it proceeds from iroperfe^i- 
on^when he leaves the work that he hath made, to be direfted 
by another afterward. 

Sf» This Gubernation includes ijotrin/ecally, not only 
ipeanes convenient and fitting to the end , butsalfo their cer- 
laine efficacy, or the attainment it (elfe. The order therefore 
of this government U certainejimmoveable, and indiflblable, 
fo that the Creature cannot wholly withdraw it ftlfe from 
all order of government^although it may decline Irom its par* 
ticular order.C^^. 50. 20« 

22. This government is common or fpecialL 

23. Common is that whereby God doth govern all things 
In a like manner 5 unto this government bcloDgeth, Firft, 
The Law of nature common to all things^ w hich is a certainc 
participation of the Law, and WiU of God, putintoall 
44pg»^rQmt;hebcgiflmng. Joh^S.i2f Haft thou commaH* 


Providence. ^^ 

ded the morning, and made known to thcday^fpriiTghis 
plactj &c. Secondly, a natural! indiFiationjWhich h aprirr* 
cipleof woifcing according to rh^.t Iwjleb.^, 7, The fparkcs 
fly upward. Tlwrdly, a natarall inftinft : which is a peculiar 
ftirring up of the living Crcitares , to fofne more noble aft^^ 
witJiacert^ncfliew^ndprincofrcafon, T^(}^ 6. 61 Ooe to 
the Pifmhe O (laggard , behold h«f waycs hnd be wife. And 
30,24. Theft fourc are fmall upon the Earth 5 but they arc 
exceeding wiftjth^^i^// 5 th^Mife^ tht Loc^s^Tht Spiders ^ 
Ierem.%.^. The fi^rk^ ihQ Tffrt/e^ thtCr^ne^ dd\d Swallow 
obftrve (he times of their' coniming. foitfthly , A certain© 
obediential! power,whereby all Creatures are apt to obey the 
command of God. 7y;i03.2i.& 14S.8. Doing his plea fure, * 
fulfilling his Wordt 

34. This government (hines forth in the operation of all 
thing?, firft in that they alwaycslooketofomecertaineend, 
andloitisneccflary that they be afted and governed by an 
intelligence every where prcftnt, and omnipotent, that is, 

.of God himftlfe, Ioi*^S.2yAn (ending down raine Co ikisfic 
the waft place , and bringing forth the bud of thr tender 
jHerbe, Ifay 55. lO^ The raine caufeth that the Eattfe bring 
'ibrth feed to the fower , ^nd bread fibr him that eateth. Se* 
condly Jn that the works of nature arc ordained Co accuratcfy, 
and agreeable to rcafon , that they cannot but proceed fiiom 
high^rea(bai Prov. 3 0*2 5, 26,27328. Thirdly ^in that be- 
tides a proper ordination wheticby every thing (eckes his 
own perfeftiouj they doc keepe as it were a common fociety 
and all doe more dcfire the confervation of the whole then of 
....^.^hemfel ves, as it ift to be (een in heavy things which are caried 
upward to avoyd an cmptinefle. 

35. By fbrceof this Gubernation all fecond cau^s ^ are in 
a certainc manner dctenniiicdaforcijtMt is, Fir(l, they are 
fticred up, to workc ^ by an influence , or frevioHs motion, 
m regard that (be(ide the communicating of ftrength, and 
(uftciitation of the fame) there is foroeluchthkig required 
neccflarily to bring forth that into a&which before was in 
thiB power ofthe CSrpatiir^f Sfccdntfly^i ttey are applied to 
accrtaitieobjca, about which they are exercifcd in work* 
ing« Ez^ck%u%i.2iALC* ^ Smf.vi. to. h\![o by force of the 

G 2 fame 

^ SpeciaHGnbernationof Angds^and l^en. 

' fame government they arc ordered ^that is,i. Limits, and 
bounds are fct to their aftions : Job, i. 12. &2.6. &38.tc» 
a. Some good is drawn out of their aftiomC^w. 5©.aot 

^6. Bccaufethe exercife of that ftrengthwhichis inthc 
Creatures depends upon the Will of God 5 hence it is that 
we truft in God alone ^ and not in thofe Creatures, by which 
the kindncflc of God is derived to us. 

Chapter X. 

Qf ffeciall (jHhcrnation about intelligent Creatptres. 

In the former difpfitation common Gnbernmon n^as handled ; 
nqv(> foUowes jpeciall Gubernationt 

I. ^^Vccull Gnbernation is that whereby God doth go-/ 
^^^verne reafonable Cr^^r^r^/ in a fpeciall mannei'» - ) 
Vi^ 2. The fpeciall condition of thofe ^r^^?«^r^/dotli 
caule the difference. For feeingthey are in (bme fort immor- 
tall, and created after the Imagi of G^d, and have an in- 
ward principle of their own aftions proceeding from counftl, 
therefore they arc to he governed to an eternalfftate of hapi- 
pinefle or unhappinefle^ and that agreeably to cpuuftUj and 
frecdomc» ; 

3. Yet this fpeciall ^uberndtion doth not conclude that 
rcail Gnbernation of the rea(bnable Crcature^which is Cofti-^ 
mon to all (yeatures^ut is added to it. 

4* Thismorall government corifiite in teachirt^^^^,^^^^^^ 
filling accordingxb that that befdi^^ he hath taught.^ -Mickh. 
6.8.He hath IhewedtheeOTnanwhrtW^liW Deut. ^O.i'^l. 
Lite and good : Death and Evill. Hitherto properly pertat- 
tieth that revealed Will of Ood which is the rule of doing 
as touching manners, to.the rea(rmahte Crv^fji5^r(f.G6dg^ 
vernes by teachii^g ^ ; partly in m^)xiii^k^^ ffiefta- 

bliftiingit» •; ^- ■ / ^ 

$• A Laiv is made byrcommanding, and forbidding* 


spec/all Gubernation dfAngeU>,and Men. 4 5 

7.A Law is cftablifticd by promifing, and threatning. 
S.God govcrnes by fulfilling 5 wbenhe pcrformesthofe 
things he hat htaught./t^r^w. 32.19. Thine eyes being open 
doclookeunto allthe waycsot men , that thou mayeftgive 
to every one according to his wayes, and according to the 
fruit of his doings. 

9. From this fpeciall and proper way of governing rea- 
fonable Creatures , there arifeth that covenant^ which is be- 
tween God and them. For this covenant is as it were a cer- 
taine tranlaftion of God with the Qre^ture^ whereby God 
commandethjpromifeth^thrcatnethj fulfillcih^and the Crea^ 
ture doth tie ic fclfe in obedience to God thus covenanting. 
Dent. 26.16, 17^ 18, 19. This day lehova thy God com- 
mandeththce. &c. Thou haft avouched this day the L:>rd to 
be thy God , &c. Jehovah hath avouched thee this day »&c. 
To make thee high J &c* And that thou mayeft be an holy 

10. Now becaufe this way of entring into covenant is not 
between tbofe that are equall, but between Lord and fcrvant. 

\ Therefore it pertaincs to government, whence alfb it is moft 
J properly called not the covenant of manjbut of God.who is 
y the authorj and chiefe Executor of it.^Df/^r.S.ij. 18. That he 
may performe his covenant* 

11. By vcrtue of this covenant the morallworkesof the 
intelligent Cre-^r/zr^? , whilit he is in the way , have alwayes a 
refpeft , either to happincfle a? a reward 5 or to unhappineflc 
as a punifliment : but in the iait there is meriting 5 but in the 
other not. 

^^ ^^ Hence the proper and higheft difference of a 2:ood work 
and finne doth fl^w 5 namely in that a good worke is an o- 
peration expefting happincflcofanotherby way ofreward: 
as by the oppofiti5 privation of it ^ evill ^worices^ ^re made in 
their kind extreamlyeviil. ^^ **od?i w 3^ il /i ^ 

. 1 3. Hence arifeth the forccand reafdn of con(ciencfe,which 
is the judgement of an intelligent Creature of It iidfe , as he is 
(ubjcfted to God. : .-::) ^lr rr?^^- ' | *^^J ' h-ic 
- I i 4* Speiciill govef nmcB« iirfrthe rcaibnablc Qreature is of 
Angels aiidtuen.. :-..»: vl,.! . 

.15. Speciall government of Angclls^ is either a fpeciall 


46 Speciall Gnbem^icn ofAngels-^and Men. 

prefcription ^ or ordering the event that folloWcs up- 
on it. 

16. This Was the fame Law as touching the fubftance^with 
the morall Law which is contained in the Decalogue. 

1 7. Yet thofe in the Decalogue are to be excepted which 
eitherpertaineto the nature of mans body 5 or the tondirjon 
ofthisjnortalllifc, which take no place rn them: a? many 
things of propagation pertaining to th^ leventh precept. 
Mat. 22. 30. Alfo many things pertaining to the fife pre- 
cept , of iubjcftion of inferiors to their fuperiors , in like 
ibrt ibme things belonging to the eighth precept of eve; y 
ones getting of food in his vocation : finally many diitit« 
of the fccend and fourth ConHnaBdementtobcfwrformed 
to men. 

18. The ordering of the event , was in forae, a preftrvati- 
on to perfift in obedience. Hence it is that they were confir- 
med in good, and endowed with fiill hapj. inefle,(b t&atthey 
doe immutably clcavi to Cod, with pcrfeiS obedience , and 
fuUncflc ot gloi y. Whence thofe Angdls are called cle&cd. 
I Tim. 5. 2i.Good aTKj \\oly^Lfic.^,z6. BlefTcd alfo, and Aw- 1 
ge!s of lighr.2 (^n.n.i^ \ ( 

1 9. In others , the ^rderiog ot the event was a permiffioHi 
whence it is that they abuhng their liberty did fall into 

2c. Hence it is that from that ^imetheyweneobftioate, 
in evill^and condemned to exti erne mifery. lud. 6 zPeui. 
4* Whencetheevill Angclls, are called impure fpiritSj aad 
angellsofdarkncffc.Z.;/%8,2 &942« : ^ *• * 

2 i.In that different ordcring,tlierc doth manlfeftly appcarc 
the eleftion of fome Angcls,and reprobation of others, by 
God free coiinfcll,and good |ilcaiure. 

22* Touching the time of the h\\ of Angels , it doUi oiAf 
appeare^that it was before ^^^wj fi«ll. 

23. Toucfchig the kind of tbtir fin which was &^ ^com- 
mie ted by thena, it is moft like that it wias pride. , 

24. Touching their punifliment the Scripture witnefi&tb 
th^t it is not y et inii&ed in the higheft degree , but to be in* 
fliiftcdin thcendofthc world*iWiir.25.4M^<wV^.3.' »> ' 

.:irni?).:j? .^j:n .i'^ io :i:2^rntrn:^vo^^l'if: Tims 

Specidl Ghher nation ofAngtU^ and Men. 47 

Thu4 m^ch ef the government of Anaells* 
The government of Man foUovpes. 

^5. In th€ fpeciall government of rnenj T^o things arc 
to be obi[crvcdj as in the government of Angclls , name- 
ly prescribing a Law , and ordering the eveirt that would 
thence follow. Yet there is not the fame reafon of all on ei- 
ther fide. 

26. In prcfcribing a Law there is like reafon. i . In that the 
Law prcfcribed to Men and Angells,was chc fame as touching 
the EiTencc of it : namdy morally thefomme whereof is in the 
Decalogue. 2 . In that that k was written in the heart by way 
of habit^wherein the firft reafon of confcience is placcd,which 
is called Sjynerefis.Rorf .2.1 5. 

27. But the diflirailicudej and difference is diver?. For^ 
Firft, The principles indeed of this Law arc common to 
Angclls and Men , but many (ecundary conclulions arc 
only proper to men : asof Parents^ mariagc, meats , and 
the like. 

j 28.Secondly, feeing m:^n is of a more imperfeft nature then 
-^Angells, and fo needs more inftruftfon and cxerci(c, there- 
fore there was added cp the Law of nature a certaine poficive 
thing^othei wile ofckafame reafon with U : a$ the fanftifying 
of the feventh day. 

2g. Thirdly , becaufe Man in this animaUIife doth undcr- 
ftancl by fences , and (b is as it vvere led by the hand from 
fenfible things cointelligible and fpiritual! , therefore unto 
xhat fpirituaJl Law there were added unto Man outward 
Symbolesi and Sacrament^^toil Juftrate, and confirm it. And 
in thefe Symbt>ks,there was contair^ed, both a certaine fpe- 
c\z^\ ind pofitive Law^and a profeffion of general! obedience 
to the Law of narure befoie put into him and al(b a confirraa- • ^ 

tionofthatfolemnfanftionoftheLaWj which didconfiftof 
promifes^and threatnJngs. 

30. Fourthly J becaufe /tJiam wa« the beginning of man- 
kindj outofwhom^'i Men were to be derived, therefore a 
Law is given to him not only as one private perfbn^ as was 
done in the Angeils > but alLb as a publique perfbn ^ or 


43 Mant Fall. 

[the head of mans nature , from whom all good and evHl was 
[to be derived to his pofterity. ^/f5ls 17. 26. Rom.^aS^ls^. 

3 1 .Fifthly jin the (anfiion of this Law, there was contain- 
ed a promile , of continuing animall life , and of exalting 
it afterward to fpirituaU, asalfo a threatning of bodily death 
which had no place in the Angells. 

32, This interpretation being had* the Law and covenant 
of God with man in the Creation was, T)oe tbis^andthoti 
fi)alt live : If thou doe itnotj thou (halt dye the death. In 
which words there is firft contained a precept ^ Doe this. 
2 a promife joyned to it* If thou doe itj thou (halt live. 3. 
A like threatning. If thou doe it not^thou ftialt dye the 

3 3, Unto this covenant there were two Symbol es , or Sa- 
craments adjoyned , In one of which the reward due to 
Obedience was fealed by aTiee^namely of life^and in the other 
the puniflimenc of difobedience was fealed by a Tiee, namely 
of knowledge of good and evi/l ; that was a Sacrament of life, 
this a Sacrament of death. j 

Chapter XL 

of Mans Apoftacj^&r Fall. 

In the former difpute , we have treated of the firfi part of 
the fpeciall government of Men^ which confiTls inpre^ ' "*- 

fcribing a Law: the other part folUweSy 
'<S^ ' in or dt ring the Event. 

I, TN ordering the Event, at to Man,^ there are two things 

I to be conlidered ttVoT^o-ij • and dpclTaa-ig^ tMans Fall^ 

JLand his reft oring. Rom.^.ig. i Cor. 1 5. a i. 

2. In the Angells there was prcfervation of (bme, and 

JpofiacjofothctSf butDo*Vflt^«^/f reftoringofthoic that did 

Apofiate. But in Man there Could notbebothprefervation 



Mam FalL 4^ 

and apoftafy , together : becaufc all men were created in 
one Adam, as in the beginning/octe^and head : but in one and 
the fame u4daf9f ^ fome men could not be prefcrved from the 
Fal/^ and others Fa//. 

3. In the Angells there was no «V«V-(ir/j or Reftoring. Firft, 
Becauft they Fell from the higheft top of excellency : Se- 
condly, becauie in the F^// of Angells , all the Angelical! 
nature did not perifli , but by the (in of the firft Man all man- 
kind did perifti. 

4. The Ap9flacj of Man is his Fall from obedience 
due to God , or a tranfgreffion of the Law prefcribed by 

5^ In this Fall two things are to be confidercd. i. The 
committing of Uie tranfgreffion. 2. The propagation of it. 

6. The committing of the tranfgreffion was accomplifli- 
cd in the eating of the forbidden Fruit , which was called 
the Tree of the knowledge of Good and Evill: but the firft 
motion or degree of this difobediencc 5 did neceflarily goc 

) before that outward ad of eating , fo that it may be truly 
faid that Man was a finner ^ before he had finifticd that out- 
ward aft of eating. Whence it is that the very dclire which 
Eve was caried with toward the forbidden Fruit, doth ftemc 
to be noted , as fome degree of her fin. Gen* 3* 6. When the 
Woman faw, that the Fruit of the Tree was good for Meate, 
and moft delightfull to the Eyes, and the Fruit of the Tree to 
be defired to get knowledge (he tookc and eat. 

7. Therefore the firft degree and motion of this di(bbe- 
dienccj wsiS an inordinate defire of fome excellency , by the 
lifting up of the mind : which that fhe might attainc, the for- 
bidding of God being laid afidc, through unbelief e,flie would 
make triall 5 whether the forbidden Fruit had fome »>ower to 
confer (uch an excellency. 

8. Hence was the grievoufiieffc of this fin 5 which did not 
only containe pride, ingratitude , and unbeliefe ) but alfoby 
violating of that moft folemne Sacrament, did make (hew of, 
as it were a generall profeffion of dilobedience, and contempt , 
of the whole covenant, AH which alfo were fo much the 
more foule by how much the condition of the hnner was 
more perfeft. 

H ?.In 

so Mans Fall^ 

$• In the committing of this tranfgrcflion two things arc to 
be confidcredjthc caufeSj and confcqucnts of it. 

I o. Caufes were one principal!. And others adjuvant. 

II. The principall caute was man himfelfe , bytheabufe 
of his free-will. Bccle(<j.i^. For he had received that righte- 
oufiieffe, and grace by which he might have perfifted in obe- 
dience if he would. That rightcoufnefle and grace was not 
taken fronrhim before he had finned, although that ftrength- 
ning and confirminggrace by which the aft of finning (hould 
have been aftually hindred, and the contrary aft of obe- 
dience brought forth was not granted unto him, and that 
by thecertaine^wiiej and juft counfellof God. God tberforc 
Was in no wife the caufe of his Tdl : neither did he lay npon 
man a neceflicy of falling,but man ot his own accord, did free- 
ly -FW/ from Gocf^. 

i2.The adjuvant caules were the Dcvill, and the Woman. 

13. ThefirftfinofthcDivellwas pride : From pride did 
prefently follow envy towards God , and Gods Image in 
Man 5 For bccaufe he had loft an orderly Excellency by af-r 
fcfting one out of order, therefore the JExcellency of othersl 
grieveS him , and he was malicioufly bent to oppoft ir# But(l 
theDevill was not the compelling caufe , neither the caufe "^ 
of fufficicnt dircft neceflary or certaine efficacy in procuring 
that fin : but only the ccunfcUing and perfwading caufe^ by 
icmptingjwhence alfo it is that hc.hath the name of the temp- 
ter-. ^/^r. 4. 3, ^ ' 

1 4. The tempting of the Divcll is a fallacy , or fophifticall 
argumentation : whereby under a fhew of that which is trucj 
and goodj he labours to fcducc to that which is falfc : and ih-^^ 
ducc to that which i&cvill. 

15. lo this tentation , the good which he propoundcd,and 
aS'it were promifed^was fliewed to be as it were thcgrcatcft : 
the way to be ufed to attaine that good, was propounded to 
be as it were eafic,and light: that greateft cvill which did hang 
over his hcadjWas hidden from him. 

id.Thc Dcvill is wont to goe tlK like way in all his tenta- 
tioDS ; which he doth infnare mankind with ; yet in this 
tentation a ccrtaine fpcciall cunning is to be obferved which ^^ 
containcs many craf(;s,and thofc very fubtilc. 


Mam Pall. 

17. The firft of them was lo that he cho(e z Serpent^ 
his inftrnment which had a certainc naturall aptnefle, which 
the Devill knew how to abufc. 

i8 The fccond flight was in that he dcaic with the Woman 
iTim.ui^. Whether in the prefencc^erabfcnce of her hus- 
band the Scripture is filent. 

19. The third flight was in that he determined nothing 
at the firft fpeech : but only propounded a certaine que&ion to 
the Woman,as if he were ignorant of tbofc niatters>Hath God 
indeed faid? 

20. The fourth was that his queftion had much ambiguity 
in it, for fo might be underftood that heftiouldnotaskeaf 
Gods command, but of the fence or meaning of that com- 
mand 3 peradventurc not fufficiently underftood by nianj 
If the queftion be underftood of the command it felfe, then 
he might (ccm to have asked whether God had forbidden 
them, that they (hould not at all cat of the fruit of any Tree, 
or as the Woman her felfc anfwcrcd whether he had forbid- 

Jden them the ule of that one Tree^and fo had notiimply given 
them leave for all. 
2r# The jfift was that having firft called the command of 
God into doubt by that queftion^he did fo artifically extcnuat 
the fanftion of it ^ or comasination adjoyned in the conceit 
of the Woman now wavering, that ftie ftiould deny either the 
truth, or atleaft the neceffity ofit. 

22. The (ixtwas thatafterhehad weakned theComman- 
dement, andthe (anftion of ir, he^oth oppofe a prediction 
quite contrary. ^ ' ► 

23. The fcventh was that to confirmethat prediftion , he 
doth both abule the Name of God, and the Name which 
GodhadimpofcdontheTrce. gen.:^.'^. God knoweththac 
what day ye (hall eat thereof your Eyes ftiall be opened, and 
you ftiall be as Gods, knowing G^d and Evill. 

24. Hence it is that the Divell is called a Serpent , a 
Lyer^ ^ Sedncer^z Man^jlajer. Revelations li*^. John S, 4^: 

25. Withthis tempting of the Dcyill thfitt \it2i joy ned 
the tempting of God ^ whereby he did (6 order that bu- 
liagflc, that it might thence be manifeft what was in Man. 

? : •• Ha But 


e2 ConfequenU of the Fall. 

But this tempting of God WM neither Evfll, nor tending 
to Evill. 

26. A third tempting did follow thefc : namely of Man 
towards God , wherein he did in a ccrtainemannermakc 
triall of the truth and Grace of God : namely making 
triall, whether God would preftrve him,although he did not 
cleave to himjOr whether he would certainly doe what he had 

27. A fourth temptation of Eve did accompany that, 
namely towards her felfe 3 whereby (he received the tentation 
or (uggeftion oi the Dcvill^into her felfejand applied to her felfe 
to her own ruine. 

28. From that arofe a fifth, whereby the Woman ferving 
the Divcli , as his inftrumentdid tempt ^dam : and from 
that proceeded a fixe h^ whereby A^/^»? tempted himfelfe,whilft 
he conftnted with a ccrtaine purpofe to the Woman , and 
the Devill. 

2 9. Either all or moft of thefc tentations are found alfo in 
every Mans fins, i 

30. And fo that fin was confiimmated, as touchingthrf 
Tall of Man-kind in j^dam^for ^^*«»^ was properly the be*, 
ginning of Man-kind, not Evt» Unlefle as (he was madc^ 
for him , and with him^did make one and the fame begin- 
ning.Hence it is that we read in Scripture of a fecond ^dam^ 
but not of a fecond Eve, 

Chapter XIL 

Of the confequents of Sinnel 

fn thefcrm^ difputat ion r^ee treated of the Fall^ and 

thecaufesofit : noyp follow the confequents 

of the Fall. 


HE conftquents'of Sinne zre. i. Guldnefle and 
FilthiDcfle, 2. Punifluxientyproperly and diftinftly 


Confequentj eft he FalL 5 3 

2, Gultineffc is tha binding of the Sinner to undergoc 
juft pBbiftment for his fault. Levit.y. a, j^ 4, 5. He is guilty. 
Rom.^.^, We have proved that all are under Sixnr. And 
y^rf. 19. All the world is guilty before God. I Cor. 1 5.I7» 
Ye are in your »yiW^/» 

3. Hence that diftinSion 5 of Gultincflc of the fault, an4 
guilt ineffc of punifihmenc, as alfothatdiftinftionofthePa- 
pifts of reiniffion of the punifhracnt' and of the fault is a 
diltinftion without a difference* 

4. That guiltinefle is not the forme of Sinnc but an 
affeftioUjor a confcquent ad junft^panly {cparablc,partly infe- 

5. Now it followes Stj^ne ^ partly by vertue of the Law of 
God adjudging puniflinient to Sinnes^ in which refpeft it 
hath fome good in it, and is of God : and in thisrefpev^, 
God cannot feparate that guilt ineflfe from Simies. Yet as it 
flowes from Sinne , and is a worthincflc and delerving of 
puniftiment, it doth alfo partake of the nature of it , and 
it is a vicioas thing : and in this refpeft it cannot be iepa- 

J rated from *?/««/-. This double c<)nfideration of guiltinefle is 
intimatedjXo/^.i^Q.Knowing the Law of God^thatthey that 
doe fuch things are worthy of death. * 

64 From this guiltinefle there foUoweth a confcience alto- 
gether evill ; namely accufing and condemning juftly. And 
hence followes horrour,and flying from the prefence of Godt 

y.Filthinefle is that (pirituall pollution, whereby a finner 
is made deftitute of all comlineflc , and honour, and becomes 
vile.il/4M 5. 1 i.Xw* 2 2. II. 

8. This fihhinefle doth immcdiatiy follow the offence 
of t\\tSinne^2XiA remaineth in the Sinner ^ after the aft erf 
Sinne 18 paft and ceafeth to be: it is wont to be called the 
(pot o^ Sinne, Corruption, Defilement^ Deformity ^ DiP 
honefty3Nakednefle,UnGleanneflre;ablot^and ibmtimes Culpa^ 
a fault* 

9.From this filthineflc there followes ;Firft , A turning 
away from God, EJaj i.i5. Which is alfo called abomina- 
tion, and deteftation, l^rov.i.^i. Efpecially in refpeft of 
gvedXet Sinnes/Prov. ^,i6.Icr€m.\6. 18. Secondly , the (haaic 

' H 3 of 

54 Confequents of the Fatt. 

ofaraantohisconfufionC/^r. 3,7. For fiich a fhatnc, is a 
fcarearifingfromthe<:oTifci€nccoffome filthineflfe. Rem. 6. 
2 1. What i^ruit had you of rhofc things whereof you are now 
afhamed ? 

10* Punifhtticnt it an evill infliftcd upon the StnKcr for his 

lu It is called an evill bccaufc it is a privation of good. 
But itis not a privation of an honeft good^as it is honeft, di%fin 
is : but its a privation of the good of happinefle, in refpeft of 
the Sinner ^yNho is puni(hed» 

12. It is faid to be an evill inflifted , not fimply con- 
traded 5 becaufe it pcrtaines to rewarding and revenging 

13. It is faid to be inflided for «y/;^^<? 5 becaufe it hath al* 
wayes refpeft and order to the defart of the Sinne ^ unto 
which puni(hn)ent foUowes from the offence , by reafon of 
the prohibition^ and from the guiltineflc , by reafon of the 

14. Therefore punilliment properly fo called ^ hath no 
place but in Intelligent Creatures , in whom alfo Sinne 

1 5. Becaufe Sinne is reduced into order by punifhment^and 
Sin in it felfe is in fomc meafure againft the goodneflc of God, 
but puniffiment only againft the good of the Creature : thsrci- 
fore Sin hath more evill in it fclfc then punifliment. 

1 6. Hence it u that the leaft Sin is not to be admitted , al- 
though the greateftpunifhmeat might by that meanesbeai- 
voydedjor the greateft good obtained. if (^w^.j. 8. 

17. In the ordaining of punifliment divers attributes of 
God doc flbine forth, chiefly Holinefle, Righteou&efle, 
and Mercy. 

18. The holincflc of God ic the largeft fignification \^ that 
whereby he is free and as it were feparated from all imper- 
feftion*//^. 6.3.if(ft/.4.8. Bat that holineflc of Gt)d which 
doth there properly (hine forth is that whereby he being pure 
from any fpot ofSmne, cannot communicate with any Smne. 
Tfal. 5.5* Thou art not a ftrong God that delighteth in ini- 
quity : evill fliall not dwell with thee. Haki.i^. Thou art 
of purer Eyesthenthatthoumayeft behold Erill. 



Confe^Hents of the rail. 5 5 

2 p. The revenging Juftice of God which here fhincs forth 
is that whereby he inflifteth evill upon them that doe eviJl. 
2.Thef. 1.(5. It is juft with God to render affliftion to them 
thatafflift you. 

20. This Jiiflicc as it doth burnc fimply againft*y/Wfis 
called \jvratb,Rom, 1. 1 S.Eph, 5.6. As it doth more fiercely wax 
hot it is called iurf*Deut.2^.20*\%k doch gi\reiintcnceto be 
executed agdmH a. Sinner ic is called, judgement. Rom* 2. 5*. 
As it doth execute the fentence given ^ it is properly called 
revenge. Hf^, 10. 50. 

2 I.Mercy here fhining forth is that whereby he punifheth 
*?/;?5leflethen thccondignede(ert of it. 

22.This mercy is clemency or beneficencfr 

ag.Clemcncy is that whereby he doth moderate the punifh- 
ments that are due,L^w.3.22. It is the Lords great kindneflc y 
that we arc not con(iimedr . 

24. Clemency appeares in patience, and long (ufferancc. 

2 5.Patience is that whereby he doth forbearingly fufFer Sm, 
andfparesthci*^w^fr/# 2'Tet.^.^. 

i 25. Longfufferancc is that whereby he doth long fu(pcnd 
Jrevenge. Exo.^^.6* 

* 27. Beneficence is that whereby j being rich in good- 
neflcjhe powreth forth many good things,even upon Sinners. 

So much of the Gmltineffe^ Filthineffe^ and funilhment of 
ftnne in generall , now follewes the puni/hment' 
in ffeciall. 

28. The punifhment infli&cd on man for *y/;^«^ is deatht 

^- 29. This Death is a miferablc privation of life. 

50» By the life of man is underftood^both the con junftion 
of the foulc with the body, and all that perfcftion^which was 
agreeable to man in that ftate 5 whether it was aftually com- 
municated, or to be communicated upon condition. Pfaf. 
35. 1 0, With thee is the Fountaine of life^in thy light we (haH 
en/oy light* 

31. Therefore Death is not from God , as he did ordaine 


$6 ConfequentiofSinne. 

nature , but it is from God^as taking vengeanccon Sime j and 
fo properly from Smncyzs the meritorious and procuring 

32tButtiiatDeathis notafimple, and bare privation of 
liic^ bacjoyned with iubjcftion to mifcryrand thcreferc 
IS not the annihilating of the *y/»»<?r^ wherf by the fubjcft of 
miftry being taken away, the mifery it fclfc alfo ftiould be 
taken away. 

33. A certaine Image and repcefentation of this Dciith was 
the caftingof man out of Paradife, in which there was contai- 
Rcd a Symboll or Sacrament of life. Ge^M^.22^2^^ 24. 

Thus much of Death in general : It followeth to 
ffeakeofittnfpecUlL ^ 

34. In Death , or the curft of God that doth lye upon 
Sinners^ there are two degrces;the beginning of it^ and the per- 
feftion of it : and two members ; The puniftiment of loflc, or 
privativejand thepuniflimcnt of (cnfejor pofitiverand thcreare 
two kindsjDeath fpirituall, and corporalL / 

3 5 The beginning of fpirituall Death , in matter of loflcj 
is the defacing of the Image of God, that is, the lofle of grace, "^ 
andoriginalljuftice. Rom.^. 23. They are deprived of the 
glory of God. Efk. 4. 18. Being ftrangers from the Life 
of God. 

36. By this loflTe of grace, man is robbed of all (aving gifts : 
andfonatureisweakned, put out of order, and as it were 
wounded. ^ 

37. The beginning of fpirituall death in matter of fencc^is 
fpirituall bondage. 

38.Spirituall bondage is a (ubjeftion to the power of dark- 
neflcj or of fpirimally deadly enemies. Co/of. r.j^^ Hath 
taken us out of the power of darkcnefle. 2 Pet. 2. 19. Of 
whom, a man is overcotBc, of the fame hee is brought in 

39, This bondage, is bondage of the Divell,and thofc that 
fervethe Devill. 

40. Bondage of the Divcll, is a Cibjc&ion to that power 
of the Devill, whereby he efieSiuaUy worketh in men ^ and 


ConfequentsofSium. 57 

in refpeftofthem he hath command of Deaths A^^ ttf, 18, 

• 4 1. Bondage of the fervants of jthe DiveU, is of the world 
and Stnne^ 

42. Bondage of the world is a fubjeaion to thcentifc- 
mcnt8 which arc fourel in the worlda PhiL^.19. 1 Ioh?j ^,5. 
& 2. 15,16. 

43.Service or bondage ofSinrje^is that whereby a mfin is Co 
captivated under Sifi^ that he hath no power to rife out of it. 

44. By this bondage it comes to pa(Ie,that although free- 
dome of will remaine;which is effentiall to mans nature, yet 
that frccdome which pcrtaines to the perfcfikion of humane 
natnre, ('the property whereof was that power to exercife ads 
(piritually good,and by that raeancs acceptable) is not found 
in his finfuU ftate,unlefrc,Remote,and Dead. 

45 .From this beginning of fpirituall Death, there followet 
the multiplying oi Sin in this life preftnt. 

46. Thofe -^/W that follow, have fomc refpcft of punifli— 
«icat4nrc(peftofthcfirft/».Rt?iw. 1.2& r 
J 47* But this refpcft of puniftiment is attributed to thoft 
^Sinnes^ firftby rcafonofthecffcds or confequcnts ofthem, 
becaufe they further the Death of man , and increafc his 
mifery : Secondly, they are (aid to be puni&mcnti in refpcft 
of that inward fuifering to which man is fubjicied to in fin* 
ning; whereby alfbhis nature is prefled down, and made 
more bale. Thirdly, they are faid to be pusifliments of the 
former /«: becaufe that ioimttfinne was a caufe for which 
man is deprived jof that righteoufnefle , and grace,or Divine 
helpe,by the abfence whereof it comes to paffe, that man runs 
into xho£tfms. Fourthly, they may be faid al(b in a certaine 
manner punifhments of the former/^^becaufe that former fm 
was a caiafe difpofing and preparing Qian to commit the 
following /^^, and in that refpe^ it hath brought upon 
man all thofc 5'i;^x,and whatfbever evills, doe either accom- 
pany or follow them* 

5^ Of^nalfSimeii 

Chapter XIII. 

of Originall Sinne. 

Jn the former diffute (Theft 45 J the mHltiplicatien offnnc 

Jiv!^ given as a cortfiqmntfrom the beginning offpiri^ 

tuall D cathj which v^e mil thus Jhew forth 

in the following Thefes. 

I. f I ' HE -J/^f^^ that followed upon the firft Fall isci- 
I ther OriginaU,or Aftuall. 

X. 2. O* iginall Sinne ^ is an babituall exorbitancy^ 
of the whole nature of man ^ or it is a deviation from the Law 
of God. 

3. Becaufe it is the corruption of the whole man : hence 
it is called in the holy Scripturtt^ The old inan. R^m.6,6.j 
Efh^^.22.CoLi.^. ThhhoAyo^ Sinne. Rom*6,j.2^. A Law 
of the nicmber8,/?(?w.7,23.And the members thcjtti'fclvcs, CoU\ 

4. Hfence alfo it iis that in Scripture ^j zhor^ogeneall cor^ 
riiptibn is attribnted not only generally to thd%holemaOj* 
but al(b to every pare of it : as to tne underftanBing, Gen.S.^y. 
The imagination and thoughts only evilI./?»^«*8. 5,6.7, They 
(avour the thirtgs of the ftefh. To the confciertce. Tit* i» 1 5.^ 
Thdrmind aildpotifcience is defiled. To.thcAfrilr, Gen. 8. 
aik The imagiriaition of the heart of iriari i^ cvill froiii his 
childhood; TbthbaflFeiitrons of every kind.Rom. it24.To un- 
clcanncile in tht: lilfts oftheii: hcartsw Laftly^'to the body and 
all the rhcrtibers df5r.iJd^;6.ip. Your memb^R ferVants to un- 
dt'^nntfft, and ihilqtiity to commit iniqiiityo 

5. This ifffc^ is fllid to be ari exorbitancy , of deviationiof 
man , becaufe it Vs in mart ^n habituall privation of that dlic 
conformity to the Law impofed on man by Obd^ <vherein he 
ought to wali as in his way, 

ft rtcl[i6EJ It is that that feriginall depravation is called 
in the Scriptures ^y/;/;^^ or th^t Sinne ^ by a certainc Tpcciall 


ASutU Snmei 

tppropmtion.R^ttf. 12.7. t 7* <ii^rrURm,y,i. to. The 
L^w 01 Sitsne. 7*%^^ Sinne dwelling in us j, inhering , adhc* 

7. This diforder in man , hath as it were two parts. One 
fonnall,and the other as it were matcriall, Ier.2. 13. My peopU 
have done two evills : they have forjaken me^ &c^ That they 
might dig to themfelveSiCifterncs. The defcription of aftuall 
Sin4o^ cpDtaine the piflturc of originall^as the daughc^er doth 
containe the pifture of the mother. 

8. The formal! part is an avcrfion from good. Rom^ 3.12. 
There is none that dothgood^ no not one. 

9. The materiall part is a turning and inclining to evill. 
jR<?»;.7.23. TheLawof^yi^. 

xcByreafonofthisoriginall depravation, it commeth 
to.paflc, that although the will of man be free in the ftate of 
Sinne ^ at touching all aS;$ which it doth exerci(e, yet it is 
captive and (ervile, as touching the manner of doing, be- 
cauft it is deprived of that power whereby it fiiould will 
well, and that inclination is ias it were a forme whereby it 
comestopaffethatitwilleth amiiffcjCven when that thing is 
good about which it is cxercifcd in wiliing. Kom.^iVi.'j.\6^^ 
jj' 2 Cm'^i^^Iohn 8.34.2 P<^2.Ip. Rom^6. id. 


Chapter XIIII. 

Of ABhMI Sinne. 

I. Thns fnuch of Originall : N$i» foliomtb 
AShaU Sinne. 

2. A Ctuall^S'/^^isaacKorbitancy of mans aftion: er 

f^L a deviation of it from the Law cf God, 1 1(^ 3*4* 

JL AiXt Howes £rom originall 5i)i;f#^ as an zBt from an 

habit : or as the fault of the per&n flowes framthe fault of 

naturei Inwhith refpeftaUb originall i*/;! is rightly called 


^ Therefoce a^uaU i'im^ although tbey «re often op* 

I 2 polite 

^0 A^HMUStmfe. 

pofitc one to another in rcfpcft of tlietr objcfts^and their 
fpccial waycs whereby they are carried towacde their ob je^s: 
yet in rclpcft of that beginning or foundation whence they 
proceedjthcy are indeed tied & knittogether./^^i.io^iTVtdkp. 

4. Aftuall Si^>ies arc diverfly diftinguiftied among them- 
felvc8. Firft, in reipe^ of degree. One Smjie is greater or 
leiTcr then another. £^<rfA.5. 6.&8. Shec hath changed my 
judgements more then the GentiU^themtshcSy & 8. 15. Thou 
(halt fee yet greater abominations then thefe# lohnxg^. 11 • 
He bath the greater Sime : whence alfo puniftiraent is greater^ 
orlcfler. Lnke 12.47. He that knoweth and doth not 5 (hall 
be beaten with many ftripes, and he that knoweth not and 
dothjftiall be beaten with few ftripes.-^^Mi.a2.24. 

5. But this difference ofdegreeSj depends. Firft 3 upon re- 
fpeft of the perfon by whom it is corninittcdt Numb. 1 2. 14. 
Whence it is^there is a difference between Fornrcation^Adul- 
tcry, & Inceft. 2.Upon the kind and nature of the thing, ^^r* 
5.2i.22.He that is angry unadvifedly r he that callethif^r^: 
he that faith,thou foole. 3 Upon the intending, and remit-/ 
ting the Aft. ThiL/^. 6. As concerning zeale perfccuting 
theChurch, iTim.i.^. A blafpemcr, a Perfccutor, and\ 
Injurious 4. Upon the way, and manner of committing : 
for it is done either out of ignorance 5 infirmity , or with an 
high hand. Num.iy2j*^o. If a foule (hall Sime through 
error he (hall offer a (he Goat^ but the fomle which ftal com* 
mit with an high hancJ;{hall be tut off. ^falr^e 19. I3*i4. 
T(^or.6j. There is utterly a fault in you. 5. Upon the cir- 
cumftances of place^time^and the like.T^.ad.io. When favour 
in (hewed to a wicked man, he will not learne rigbteoulhefle : 
is the la>nd of uprightne(Ie,he doth wickedly. 

6. Secondly^the fpcciall difFerenceof aftuall Sinnei is pro- 
perly privativejand doth formallyidepend upon the difference 
of reft itudei,f rom which theft afts doe decline. 

j.Therefoi'e thaiiliftributidrtr b(Sim as they are comrai^ to 
the Gommanderaentof God ,■ is moft proper* . " 

S^ThicdlyjaftualW/Vj isdiftfftguiSicd inrcfpdfibf pafts:mto 
4m9^o(Om^K>nyandShf^<ACjom^ Forftciqg 

there are as it were two part of ciriginall Sihft^ , turning from 
g/^q^g^yjwd a twnipg toittill: aftuall S^he thai flbwes fh)m 
r.t'vr ^^ ^ theace 

A&uaUsinm* 6 1 

ihcnce hath a double refpcft . for where turning from good 
doth moft appcarCj that is faid to be a Sinne of OoiilTion ; and 
where a turning to evill doth moft appeare , that is called a 
Sin of Coromiffion. 

9, Therefore a Sinne of OmilTion is not to doe that that 
ought to be done* /i^iiv^/ 4, 17, He that knowcth to doe well 
and doth it not^to him it is Sin. Maui') ♦ 43. I was an hungry 
and ye gave me no meat, &c. 

. lo.Sinnc of Commi(lionji$to doe thas which ought not to 
be done. 

1 1 .Sinne of Omifllon is mofVdireftly contrary to the com- 
mand of God , and Sinne of Commiffion to the forbidding: 
in a Sinne of Commiflion there is a certainc addition to the 
Law of God, and in OnilTion there is a certaine detrafta- 
tionfrom the Law : both which are forbidden.D^^r.4,2.i2. 

12. This diftribution oi Sinne is not inte the kinds of 
Sinne. i. Becaufe^ Commiflion and Omiflion being about the 
fameobjeftj aud under the (ameformall refpeft, doc no? 
differ in kind^s in covecou(neireo.2,Becau(e to fpeak^ nfK)rally 
there is no Omiflion without an aft going before,oraccom- 
^/ paningic. 3* Bccaule Omiflion cannot be voluntary and free 
J^ without an aft , unto which aft there doth alwayes cleave a 
I S/;?;;^ofGonFimifiion. 

1 3<K. Fourthly, Sinne is diftributed ia refpeft of the fub jeft, 
into Sinne of the heart^of the mouth^and of the worke. So 
that it is, A word^a deed^or a thought againfl: the La w^.^. 1 S. 

14. Fifthly, Sinne is diftributed in refpeft of the objeiffc 
Into that Sinne which is againft God ^ and into that which 
is againft men, Lnk^ 1 5. 18. x S^w; !• 25. Yet it doth not al- 
together in the fame reafon refpeft God and man. For Sinne 
as it is a tranfgreflion of the Law of God, is an offence againft 
Cod only : but yet in a materiall refpeft, as to the wrong 
and loflfe that is often done to men by Sinne ^ ithathre(peft 

14. Sixthly, Sitine is diftributed m refpeft cfthee&ft. 
Into Sinne diftroying the confcience^ and not dcftroying. 
Into Sinne raigning ^ and mortified : into Sinne pardon- 

I 3 abk^ 

jIBhoII Sinne. 
ttble>and unpardonabk^which yet are not properly belonging 
to this place. 

i(5.[From this raultiplication of Sinne there followcs an in- 
creafe of (pirituall death both in matter of loflTe , and in mat- 
ter of fen le» 

17. In matter of lofTe , there is fecurity of confciencej 
and ftupidity ; that is a deprivation of the fence of Sm»^ and 

1 8. This fecurity comes from cuftome of finning , and ot- 
ftinacyofmind in S/«/;^for S;^/ whether they be of Com- 
miffion Or Omiflion 5 being brought into cuftome, and made 
old 5 through dayly multiplication doc beget an cvill habit, 
and doe as it were bring an hard skin over the will and mind. 
ferepf.i^.i^. Can a Blackaniore. change Ws skin , or a 
Leopard his fpots ? then may yec doe good that arc accu- 
ftomed to doe evill. jBpfc.4. 19. Being paft feeling, they jgavc 
themfelves to lafcivioufneflej to comeait all uncleannefle with 

19. In matter of fenccjthereis grcateft terror of confcience 
joy ned with dcfperation. H^^.i 0.26327.9^^.4.1 5. 

20. This terror ariftth from the grcatncflc and multi- 
plicity of gifilt , together with an inavoydablcneOc of immi-^^ 
ncnt puniftiment. 

21. But in this beginning of fpirituall deaths there is a ccr* 
taine moderation ufed by God. This moderation is intemall 
or external!. 

2 It Theintcrnallappcarethin the remainderi of Gods 
Image, lames 3.9. Now thelc remainders appcare both in the 
underftafldingj and alfo in the will. 

23; In the underftanding , by thofe principfcs of 
truth, which direft both the thcorcticail , and prafticaU 

24^Thc theoricall principles | arc both of true^and faIfe,of 
which all men that have any ufc of reafon have ibmc know^ 

2$. Prafticall principles, arc of that which is honcft^and 
diflioneftjjuftjand unjuft^that God is to be worfliipocd , that 
that is not to be done to another , which one woula not have 
done to himfelfe. 


CorpcraUDtath. (J^. 

26. This is the Law written in the hearts of all men. 

r Rom. 2. 1 5. They (hew the effcft of the Law written in their 

I hearts. 

I 27. From thefe principles there arifcth a certaine force of 

'" naturall confcicnce^ Rom.T^i^. Their confciences together 
bearing witneffe , and their thoughts accufing one another,or 
excufing; which confcience notwithftanding together with 
thoft principles^is corrupt^and fo dead.T^r.i . i 5. Their mind^ 
and confcience is defiled^ 

iS^ In the vvilltho(e remainders appeareby a certaine in* 
clination unto good knowen in that manner : which although 
it be vanifhing, and dead , yet it is found in all in fome mea- 
fure : whence alfo it is that at leaft the (haddowcs of vertucs, 
are allowed and embraced of all. 2 Tim.^. j.Having a (hew of 

29. Alfo that re(trayning power pertaineth to the will to- 
gether with the underftanding whereby exceffe of Sime is 
reftrained in mofl: , (b that veen Sinners doe abhorrc die com- 
mitting of many groflfcr Simes. 1 Cor. 5, !• Such fornication 
which is not named among the Gentiles. 

30. The outward moderation of this mifery isby thofe 
^ externall rweancs both politicke and oeconomitke > where- 
1; by the coiic(€ of Sinne and mifery is wont partly to bccsr 


Chapter XV. 

Of Ctn-fordl "Death. 

Thmfarre of the beginning ofjpirituall Death ; n^w ft - 
followes to Jpeaks ^f^^^ beginning of bodily^ eat h , 

I. r I 1 HE beginning ofbodlly death in matter of lofle^ 

I is cither inward or outward* 

Jl 2. Inward is the lolTe of the internall good things 

ofthcbody^as of health and long lifc: I>r;^^ 28,21 •27.35. 

I Ar.i lAO.Mat^ Q.2. 


64 efCorp^tallDeatk 

S ^; Hence is morcalicy) astoocbing the ftale, and neereft 
power to Death. 

4. For this mortality is a diflblving or loofing of that 
band wherewith the foule was Joyned with the body. 

5.The outward beginning of this jOf^rA in matter of loffc 
is the lofle of outward good things , whereby this life was ei- 
ther beautified or (uftained, 

, 6. Of the lirft kindc is. 1. LoiTc of dominion over tt^ 
Creatures : the which after the Fall did put of for the greateft 
part that fubjcftion towards man, to which they were made, 
and became his deadly enemies, unlefle they be brought into 
order by the fpcciall providence of God. lob. 5.22,23. Be 
not afraid of the beafts of the Earth, For thou (halt be in 
covenantwiththeftonesof the Field, and the beafts of the 
Field (hall be at peace with thee. Hof 2.i9.l will make a co- 
venant for them with the beafts of the Field. 2 That igno- 
miny which hcc is fubjeft to , both living and dead. ^eut. 
28. 20. J7. 

7. Of the latter kinde is poverty t or the loflc of thofc 
things which percaine to food^raiment^and poflefBons. ^euu 
28* 17. 18. 

8 .The beginning of this Death in matter of (ence is alfo in^ 
ward or outward. 

9.1nward is in wearinefle^ Ge^t.^. ip. Paine^and difeafesJ 

io.Outward,is in all thofe calamities, to which the life of 
man it outwardly fubje&.D^i//.28.25.48. 

1 1. The moderation^that appeared in this corporal! punifh* 
ment is touching inward, and outward things. 

i2.Touching inward things. In that man hath yet ipace, 
and commodity of life, granted to him by thegoodnefleot 
God* GcH^ .6. 

i3.ToU€hing outward things: in that ke bath certaine re- 
mainders of dominion over the Creatures. Gen. g.%. Let the 
feare of you and the dread of you be upon all the beafts of 
the Earth , &c. So that although man by bis (inne rell from 
all right which he had before , of u^ng the Creatures to his 
benefit : yet by grant and divine indulgence , hee may ofe 
them^ and in that he Hns not ^ that he doth iimply u(e them^ 


of Cor^arall Death. 

although he finnc in the manner of ufing : becaufefblong 
as life is granted , and prolonged to him^with the (ame, there 
18 together granted the n(c of thofe things, which arcnc* 
ceflarily required unto life ^ and in a fort they arc due 
to hitr. 

Hence it is that although the Creatures were (ubjcft to 
vanityandacurle^forthefinof man. ^rf^.j^iy.iS.Rnm.S. 20. 
22 yet they are preferved in that cftate,that Chcy may fiipply 
the neceHicies of mans life* 

Chapter XVI. 

Of the ConfHmnuitim of T)eath* 

u r I ^ H E Confommation of Death is the higheft degree 

I of the punifhment appointed , and to endure for 

JL even As touching the degreeyit is (aid to be in* 


2. But it is infinite only in vtfyt&ioi the loUe and priva- 
tion : becaufe it is the loofingof an infinit good^not in refpeft 
of fenceorpofitivc affliftion : yet it may be faid to be po- 
(itively infinite , in rcfpeft of the thing afflifting , but not in 
relpeft of the manner of afflifting. 

3. Hence it is that there are certaine degrees in this punifh- 
mentjaccording to the variety of degrees^which are found ia 
fin?. Lui^ 12. ^7*^^^. He (hall be beaten with many ftripes : 
he (hall beaten with few ftripef. 

4* As touching the continuance/this puni(hment is faid to 
be eternall or never to be ended. tMare.^.^^. ^6. 48* Where 
their Worme dieth not,and their fire never goeth out. 

5. Now it is eternall. i . Becaufe of the eternall abiding of 
the offence. 2. becaufe of the unchangeablene(Tc of the con- 
dition which that degree of punifhment doth follow. 3t Be- 
caufe of the want of fatisfaftion. 

6. Hence it is chat the incorruptibility ofthe damned is 
their immortality iDdeath, and to death# 

K 7.Thc 

tf4 Confnmmatio* (^ Death. 

J. The confummation of fpirxtuall death in matter of loflfej 
is a totall and fioall forfaking , whereby a man is (eparated 
wholy from the facCj prefencc , and favour of God. Mat.j. 
23. Depart from me. hnA2^,j[i.GoejeecHrfeA 2Thef.j. 
9. Who {hall be puniflied with everlafting deftruftion 5 being 
driven from the Face of the Lord ^ and the glory of his 

8. Hence fcUowes the greateft , and cternall hardningia 
cvill,and defpaire of good. i?/r.i6.26. 

9. The confummation of fpirituall Death in matter of fence, 
U fulneffe of bondage, whereby he is altogether delivered in- 
to the power of the DevilI./J/^r.25. 41. 

lO.Hencc is fulncflc of terrors of confcience, and fulneflc of 
iinne,for the damned doe (in , and will fin for ever , although 
neither the fame fins which were in this life, as Theft , Mur* 
der, Adultery 5 nor altogether of the fame condition , .vf ith 
them which they committed alive. For they offend chiefly 
in hatred, envy indignation^and fuch like zffcdioM , which 
the (harpeneffc of punifliment gives occafion to. AHq thefe 
fins after death 5 have not the fame re(peft ofdefcrt which 
they have in this life , becaufe then tlyre is neither any poC 
fibility to avoyd fin^neither is there place for thrcatning and 
iacreafe of punifliment by them. 

ti •Hence it is that iins themfelves,in the damhed^have more 
wfpeft of puaiftuncnt : but in thofc that live , they hare more 
refpeA of offence. 

IJ. Tef^rorofconfeienceisasitwcrcaworme, perpetually 
gnawing* /J^*9. 44. Efay 66*24. 

i3# The GonfummatioQofcorporall-D^tfffe together with 
fpirituall, is firft by (cparation of the (bule from the body^ 
i^C^n I 5.^.4^.To»which.thatchahgcoffomci»anfweable3 
whtchis^lifcedeach.i:^^??^. 15.51% 52.1 TA^j!)^. 153! tf .Second- 
ly, bycafeig the foule and body into Hell , or that pkce 
which ©od hath prepared', for theextreame torments ot fins. 

I14. Bfenceare^pwms^ andgreatcft vexations both of foiilc 
andbody*Zr«r.i6^ 23. 

i>5* Hence are Lamentation, Bowlings , ©naflbing of 
Tee th^^and fu^b like cfkBss^oi gmm^ vexatioa^X/^. J5« tS, 


i<. But of the place o( Hell , and manner of torturcjand 
xaturc of outward things which pcrcaine thereunto, becaufc 
they are not neccffai y for us to know , the Scripture hath not 
pronounced aay thing diftinftly of them. 

Chapter XVIL 

of the 7r0pafati^ cf Sirtne. 

TTmf jjmch of the tranfgrefpoftn Nsr^ it f&Uimes to treai 
Iff the frofagmon (fir, 

I rnnf His propagation is that whereby the whole pofle- 
, I xity ofman ^defcending from Adam , in a natnrall 
JL manner , is made partaker of the fame condition 
mithhim. ^d.i^.$.PfaL%i.j. Rom.s*^^* £ph.2»S* Thisk 
come to paUc by Gods jaft ordination. The equity whereof 
appearech in Come mcafure among men. !• In naturall right^ 
whereby inbred qualities arc derived from that which be- 
gettech , to that which is begotten, ti. In hereditary right, 
whereby the burdens of parents are transferd upon their chil- 
dren. 3, In the right of like for like whereby the rejedion af 
good, and fulFeringof evill are equally extended » 

2.This propagation oCSinne confiftsof cwoparts.Namcly^ 
Imputation and real! communication. 

5. By imputation 9 the fame fingular adl of di(bbedience^ 
which was Adams^it alfb become ours. 

4. By reall communication the fame (ingplar On is not de- 
tS^red tdus , but the fame in kind , or cf the fame reafbn and 

5 . Originall fin , feeing it is formally a privation of ori- 
inall righteoufneffcjand this privation doth follow the firft 
i^asapuniftimentJicnccit hath the refpeft of a punifhment 
ir^der of nature^befbre it hath the refpeft of a finne# As by 
thiJufticeofGodthat originall ri^teoufncflc is denied^ fb 
fartorthitis a punifliment: As it ought to be in us, and yet 
through mans fault is wanting, fo far forth it is a iin« 

K « ^ Th^r#>^ 


6, Therefore this privation is derived from -^^^w by way 
of dcfert^as it is a punifhmcut ; and by way of a rcall efficient, 
as ithaththerefpcftof a fin joyned to it, for in that that 
any is borne a fon of^damy he is made worthy to be endow- 
ed with ^righteoufneflc : when therefore he ought to have it, 
and hath ic not, that want to himis fin. 

7. Togcthcrwiththis privation, there is al(b derived, an 
unapcnes^and a certaine pervcrfncflc of al the bodily faculties, 
which in their manner are oppofite to that reftitude, that is 
approved of God. 

8. For upon the deprivation of righteoufiieffc whereby all 
the faculties were to be dircfted 5 there followesinthemall, 
fuch a defeftj whereby it comes to paffc, that when they arc 
carried to any moral! thing , that very inclination is morally 

9. Of theft arifcth every aftuall Sin^e : for the mind being 
blind by the privation of light doth cafily admit any errors : 
And the will being now turned from God ^ doth burnc with 
love of it ftlfe, and evill defires without God, 

lO.From Si)^»e thus propagated,there followes alfb^ a pro- 
pagatio of death,both begun & confummateias well touching 
(ence as touching lofie, as well corporailat (pirituall, to all 
the pofterity of Jdam* 

II. Through this apodafic of mankind , it comes to'pafle^ 
that our Faith , whereby now wee believe in God, is not 
fimplyforlife, but for (alvation. For it is not (ufficient for 
man being fallen, that God doe fimplygive him life, but it 
isalfo rcquiredjthat he would give it man being dead m Sinne^ 
Eph.2.i4 And this was one difference betwcene the qucftion 
of the rich young man* Mat. 19. 16. What good (hall I doi 
that I may have eternalllife ? and chat of the Jaylor^ AH 
1 6*3o.What muft I doe to be faved ? 

Cap. XVII- 

JheperJoH of Chriji* 69 

Chapter XVIIJ. 

Of the Perfon of (^hrift ^ the Meih^or. 

aAfter thc^ Full of CMan : it fMowes that wee 
fee his refioring. 

!• ^ I ^HE reftorlng of man is the lifting him up from 

I aneftateoffinncanddcathjUntoancftateofgrace, 

JL and life. 

2. The canfe of this reftoring was the mcrcifnll purpoft of 

God. £pkug. According to his free good will which hce 

had purpofcd in h(nv(clfe. For there was nothing in man^ 

which could confer any force to procure this reftoring : 

but rather much which made to the contrary, as fin, in which 

there was an enmity againft God : which in that refpeft 

^ doth commend this love of God towards us. Rom.'y^S.But 

God commends his love towards us^in that when we were yec 

finners,Chrift died for us. 

3 There arc two parts of this reftoring : Redemption, 
and the application thereof. That is as ic were the firft aft 
of this reftoring : this as it were the fecond aft. That is as it 
Were the matter , this as it were the forme of our falva- 
tion. That is as it were the Sufficiency , this the very 

4. Thefe parts are altogether ofoneand the fame latitude. 

or the end of redemption is the application of it : and 

k prime reafon , rule, and meafure of application is that 

«^e gracious Will of God which was the caufe of Redem* 

pfcn it fclfc. Eph. I • p. 1 0* He hath made knowne to «s,thc 

m^ery of hi^will, according tJ his free good will, which 

he lad foreordained in himfelfc, that in the full difpenfati- 

on cf thofe times before ordained^he might fummarily gather 

together all things in Chrift. 

J»l Therefore Redemption is appointed to all and every 
L K 5 one, 

^nc, forwhomitv^aJiiGudsiiuendmcnt obtained : accor- 
ding to that of Chrlft. Joh%6.yj. Whatlotvertht Father gi- 
veth mc fliallcomeunto me. 

6. Redemption is the bringing of ii^ati into frccdome^ 
from the bondage otfinne, snd thedevill, b> ihe|aymci tof 
an equall price, iTttA. |8. Yee know that yee were not 
redeemed by cormptibic thm^s^as Giver arid gold, but with 
prccions blood, i c;<>r.6.to. Yeearc bv. tight with a price^and 
7. 23 • Yee are bought with a price. 

7. For this freed we W2t not primaiily efF fted by power, 
nor by prayers , ( althouah thefe alio had their force in 
pcrfeftingthis bufincn^,)'^ui fey the payn^cnt of a juR price. 

6. This price feeing if cou d not be paid by man, the helpc 
of a Mediator was necefi^. y,whti (huuld conc^e betweeoeGod 
and man 5 making a perfe.>rcconciliati^ ibecw^n" them. 
I Tim.%.%. #^^/?x 20. 28. The Church ofGod,which heh4^ 
f^rchaftd by his own blood, i T.m.%^6. The man Corift 
JefiiSgWho gave hitnfeife a price of our redemption. 

f. Now m:h a Mediator is iiot given, for one af5e only, 
but for yeftcrdayj to day and for evcr. Heh. 13, 8. Jcfee 
Chrift yeltcrday, to day and is the fame forever :^rc^r/. i|^ 
8. Trie Lambe flaine from the found itioa of the World* Al- 
though he was only nianifeftinthe fulncffc of time. Col. u 
2j.Th. 1. 2. I Tr;4.ic. For this Mediation was equally ne- 
ceiTary in all ages : Al(b it was fuffictent , and e£FcAuall from 
the begiiining^by vertue of God* decree ^ promife, andac« 

lo. This Mediator is only Jefiis Chrift. ftx/H/4. la.Nei' 
ther is there (ajvation in any rther, for among men there/ 
given no other name under Heaven , by which wee muft \ 

1 1 In Chrift two things are to be confidered .1 .The fi tnee 
which he had to pcrforme the worke of redemption. 2. 7« 
parts of the redemption it felfc. 

12. Hi8fitne(Srconfiftsoftwoparts.Thcfirftishisperl>n: 
the fecond is the offioe,impo(cd upon his perfon. 

i^.IntheperfonofChrifl the Mediator two things acta 
be obferved : the diftinftion,of the two natures,and the perfo-' 
nail union of them. 

Theferfm&fCbriJi. - . 7^ 

14. ThediftirxS natures arc : the Divine nature, as it is 
rheleco.id pcrfon of the Deity, and the humane , in all 
things l:ke to our natures ( excepting finne ^ and the manner 
of (Iibifting) cyI^iM.23. £ma»ue/,God with us, lohn i. 
14. That word was mide flefh, &c. The diftinftioo it 
(clfebctweenechole two natures rcmaines : becaufechey re- 
maiiic abfolutely the fame which they were before ^ as well 
touching thei cffcnct as all thcireflcntiall properties : Hence 
neither the Djicy in Gfirift with the humanity, nor the hu- 
manity with the deity is cither changed, or mingledjOr any 
Way confounded* 

15. The perlbnall union , is that whereby the ftcond 
pcrfonofthe deity did take the humane nature, that it might 
infcparably fublift in the Um^pcrConfohm.i/^. 

id For the iecoad perfon of the deity although it have 
but one (ubfiftence^yet it hath a twofold way of fubfiftmg: 
one in the Divine nature fran eternity, another in the humane 
nature rtfter the incarntiont Rom.9. 5. Of whom is Chriff, 
as touching the fle(h, who is above all, G^dblefledfor cver^ 
Amen. Which latter way of fubfifting doth agree to the Son 
of God, inrcfpeft of the union which he hath with the hu- 
^mane nature. 

17- This union to the divine pcrfon and nature, doth ad 
nothing, butacertaine relation : but in the humane nature 
itraakech a change, whilll by this meanes it is elevated to 
higheft perfeiftion : for ic is made as it were a proper adjunft 
of the Divine pcrfon by which it isafllimed : as it were a 
member of the fame whole G jd man* e-^^^ ^ttUx whereof 
tir: divine nature is as it were another part : as touching the 
fiibfiftcnce, it is m^deasit wereancfFeft Angularly upheld 
by the Divine nature : and aKoitis made as it were a fub- 
jeft wherein the Divine nature doth efpecially dwell. 
CoU. 2. ^, 

1 8i Wee endeavour to defcribe this union , by many logi- 
call waycs : becaufe it cannot fufficiently be explained by 
any one. 

1 9* We ufe all thoft terraes wherein the fountaines of con- 
fent, and unity are containcdj that we may (hew the union to 
be moftrnfere. 

7 2 Tke per Con ofChrifi. 

20. Yet wee temper thefcternrics with that limitation, as 
it were, becaufc this union is myfticalJ,attd ftcret,(e as it may 
not be plainly cxprcflTed , but oncly (hadowed forth by 
humane words, and notions. 

21. From this union there foUoweth a perfonall commu- 
nication of properties : which is not a reall transfufion. For 
then the Divine nature (hould take the properties of the hu- 
mane, and the humane fhould take the properties of the 
Divine, and fo the humane (hould be the Divine, and the 
Divine, the humane,or as well the Divine , as humane (hould 
ceafe to be* Neither is it a reall donation from which ftould 
follow, that the humane nature might u(e the Divine proper- 
ties as its own inftruments. But it is a Communion , or con- 
curring unto the fame operations 5 fo that they are performed 
together by each nature , but according to their own diftinft 

32. Hence it comes to pafle that all the doings and foffir- 

ings ofChrift arc referred properly to his perfon as the proper 

Terminum^ bound ofthem : although fome are properly to be 

referred to the one,{bme to the other nature, as to their begin- 

' ning,and proper refpeftst 

13. And hence followcth the Communication of thefe V 
properties, as touching predication , or attribution, where- \ 
by the properties of the one nature are attributed either to I 
the whole perfon , as when Chrift is laid to be dead which 
is proper to the humane nature , and to have becne in the 
beginning which is proper to the Divine nature; Or to the 
other nature, becauft of the perfon, as when Godisfaidto 
be taken up into glory; I'tim.i. 16. To be crucified^ r Cor. 
2.8^ Which doe not properly.agree to the Divine nature,but 
to the humane. And thole things which are proper to the 
whole perfon, are properly attributed to cither nature : as 
when the man Chrift is laid to be the Mediator betwixt God 
and man. i Tim.2.%* Which doth not agree to Chrift as hec 
is man,but as he is God and man. 

24. But jis that Communion doth properly relpcft the 
perfon of Chrift^not the natures confidcred in thcmfclves , fo 
thatcommunicationwhichconfifts in predication doth reft 
peft God^or man in the concrete,not the Deity, or humanity 
in the abftraftc 2 5»Thcre- 

The office ofChriH^ 75 

25. Therefore the conimunicaiion of properties is not 
mecrcly verball , neither yet is it fo reall that the property of 
one nature doth pafle in the other as touching the intrinfe- 
call poflTeflion and ufiirpation. 

26. Thofe examples which arc wont to be brougTit ofthoft 
that thinke the contrary of that communication which is 
betweenc the matter and the forme , betweene the (bulc 
and the body^and betweene Iron and the fire^doe neither agree 
to this miftery, nor prove the pofition it felfe. 

27. There were in Chrift twounderftandings rone Divine, 
whereby he knew all things, lohn 21.17. ^"^ ^^^ other hu- 
mane, whereby he knew not (bmethings as yet. Marl^^^.^z. 
Alfo there were two wilk, one divine Luke^. ij. And the 
other humane^ together alfo with a naturall appetitCj ^hu 
26.39. So there is a double prefence of Chrift: but yet the 
humane prcftncc , can neither be every where, nor in many 
places at once* 

28.Becau(eGodinChri^,God-man , hath reftored life to 
uSjtherefore our Faith is carried wards Chrift,and by Chrift 
toward God » 

Chapter XIX. 

of the office cf Chrijh 

Thm farre of the ferfen of J^hrijl ^ Us office fdltmes. 

I. r I »HE Office ofehrift,is that which he undcrtookc, 

I that he might qbtainc falvation for men : i Tim. u 

JL 15. This is a fiirc (aying, and worthy of all ac- 

ccpution : That Jdus Chrift came into {he World to ftv« 


2. For tho(e that denie that the proper end propounded 
by God and Chrift in this miftery , was the falvation of men, 
they deprive God and Chrift of their honour , and men of 
their comfort* 

-L 3.1n 

The office of Chri ft. 

3,Ih it two things arc to be confidcrcd* The calling to this 
ofBce,anc[ the office it (e\k.Hcb.^.^^^'y^6.NonG takes this honor 
to him feifcjbut he that is called of God, as was jd^cn : So 

:4.The calling is an a&ionofGodjefpccially of the Father, 
whereby^a fpeciall covenant being made, he ordained his Son 
to this office* 

5.This covenant is exprcflcd 5 //^j*53.io, ThatifChrift 
wojld make himfclfe a facrifice for fin , then he fhould fee his 
feed.he (hould prolong his dayes, and the delight of the Lord 
fhoiild profper by him. 

6^ This calling therefore containes in it ftlfe. Chuffng, 
fore-ordiinipg^and fending. Jfay 42.1. Mine cieft. i Per^r. 
20. Which was fore-knowne before the foundation , of the 
World, Iclm 3, 17. God hath fent his Sonne into the World, 
Itis called in Scriptares Icaling. ^tfiS?;* 6.27. San<Sification, 
iuhr} ic.36.Anointing.//i^ 61.1* PjaL^^.S^Helf.i. 9, And a 

7. Chiifmgjtefpefts the end ; fore-ordaining the meanesj 
fending, the execution it felfej of meere grace 5 without 
any condition forefeene , cither in men ^ or in Chrift him- 

8. All things which Chrift either did or fuffercd , even as 
touching all circumftances were foredetermined, Lpikf 22«22. 
The Sonne ot man goeth as it is appointed^ A^s 4. 28* 
Th t they might doc all things whatfoever thy hand,and thy 
coun ell had before determined to be done, 

9. Belt this calling was not inftituted in an ordinary man- ' 
iier , but confirmed wich a folemne oath, to confirmc 
the excellency and eternity ofit. Tfa/me iicj:. Uch^^^J^* 
& 7. 24. ' ^ ' ^' 

10. 1 he office it (eife to which Chrift was called is three- 
fold : Of a Prophetjof a Prieft, of a King. 

I i.Thisnliiiiber,and order of offices, is (hewed : Firftby 
mens necefficyjgrecvoufly labouring under ignorance, aTicna- 
tionfrom God ^ and difability to retnrne to him : the^rft 
of which is healed by the Prophecy of Chrift, the fecond by 
his Pi'ieft- hood, the third by his Kingdome. 

12. Secondly , the^ order of conferring falvation doth 



the office ofChrid. 7 j 

(hew this number alfo which ought firft to be unfolded, 
then obtaincd,and then afterward applied 5 the firft of which 
is the part of a Prophet ^ the fecond of a Prieft and the third 
of a King. 

13. Thirdly,thc fame order alfo appeareth by the fbleinne 
manner of executing it, whereby Chnft did firit teach c- 
thers, declaring the Will of God unto them ; then hee did 
offer hinnfelfe ; and afterward hee did enter into bis 

1 4. The prophecy of Chrift is that whereby he hath per- 
feftly revealed the whole Will of God that bringeth falvati- 
on: whence hee i^in Scripture called not oncly a Prophdt. 
BcHt.i^A'^. A^s 5.22^ And a Doftor, CMat^i^.j. Th^ 
Apoftle of our profeffion. HeL^a. And the Angell of the 
covenant* Afa/ach* ^. u Butalibthevery wifdomc of God. 
I Or.1.24. And the treafureof wifdome and undcrftanding, 

I 5. This prophecy was in Chrift as in the principall caufe .• 
in others whathcrangells, or men as inhisinftrun)entSji Pet. 
1. 1 !• The Prophets did fearch what or what manner of time 
the foretelling fpirit of Chrift which was in them 5 (hould 
decline, &c. And 3. i5?.By which going to the fpirits which 
;tre in prifon 5 he preached. It was in Chrift by way of ha- 
bit fo that he might when he pleafcdj reveale all thefecrcts 
of God. Butinothersby way ofa^ftj and flaftiing or coruf- 
.cation fo that they icould not exercife prophede but at cer- 
taine times when he pleafed./e^r^w. ^i.y, After tendayes came 
the Lord to /^r^w?;. > ' 

16. That he might be fuch a prophet^ it was nccefTary that 
he (hould be God 3 y^/?^ 1.18.&3.13. And wichall alfo, that 
hclhouidbeman, AEls ^.12. Compared with Df^r. 18. 15^ 
Eornnlcfle he had beene God, he (hould neither have per'- 
feftly underftood the Will of God. i,C^r.2. i !• id/Neither 
had he been able to reveale it throughout all ages t unleflc he 
hfcd been man,he could not fittly have unfolded it in his own 
per foti unto men* Hebjui. 

' ly.Thepriefthoodof Chrift is that whereby he hath pur- 
ged by facrifice the fins ofraeB, and obtained the favour of 
Godforthem.C(?/.i,2o.&.22* 2Cor.y\^,Rom.%.\o. m 

:. L 2 iS.This 

7^ The Office ofChrifi. 

iSr This priefthood was not legill j or temporary ^ but 
^ccorAln^ioihtotAi^ Ok AfAchifcd-^ck. Heb.j.ij. Not by a 
carnall Commandernciic biic by the pow^r ot an cndleffe 
life. IbiL Ver. i6. Not by an order that it weakeandlame, 
but ftable, and perfeft. I^'^* Ver^. 1 8. & i g. Not for a time, 
butforc'/cr. IhU. V^rfe 24, Finally admitting no (ucccfTor 
or Vicar, but perpetiiali , andproper toGhriftj and of him 
that cverlivethk Ibid. Verf.2^^.2^^ 

19. InthisofficeChrift himfelfe was tbePricft, Sacrifice, 
and Altar 5 hcc was Pried according toboth natures. Ueb. 
5.6. He was a Sacrifice, moft properly according to his hu- 
riSane nature : whence in the scriptures this is wont to be 
attributed not only to iht perfon ofChrift^but tohlsbody. 
Hebu\2.\:^i \Pcr.2.i^. ^oLi.t2. Tohisblood, C<?/.i.20. 
And to his Soule, iraj 53. ic. MAt.20.28. Yet the chicfe 
force whereby this facrifice was made cfFcduall did depend 
upon the nature of God ^ namely that the Sonne of God did 
ofFerh?mrelfcforus./^(5?/2o*28* ^^w.S 3. He was the Altar 
properly according to his Divine nature. Hebr.g.i^.ic. ijw 
1-0,11.1 5* For it is belonging to the Altar to (anftifie that 
which is offered upon it 5 and fb it ought to be of greater dig*- 
nicy then the facrifice it fclfe. Mat. 2^. ly. But Chrift by his 
divine nature did in a cectaine manner faniVifiehimftlfe ac- 
cording to his hamane nature. M/; 17* 19. 

20. Therefore it doth hence alfo appeare^howncceflary 
it was that Chrift the Mediator ^ (hould be both God and 
man : for unleffe he had been man y he had not been a fit ft- 
crifice : and unleflfe he had been God , thai facrifice had not • 
been of (ufiicient vcrtue. 

21. The Kingdome, of Chrift is that whereby he doth dif- 
pence and adminifter all things with power and authority, 
whichpertainctothefalvationofman. ?/#«/.2.6. Dan.2.j^^ 

22. The properties of thisKingdomeare.Firft,Thatitis 
univerfall. i. Inrefpcdof allagcs, Mat.12.^^.^^^^. 2 In 
rc{pe6lofallkind of men. "2)^^.7. 14. R^'z/.i7.i4^ 3. InreA 
pcft alfo of all Creatures , as they doc in any fort pertaine to 
the furthering , or beautifying of mens (alvatiom Evh. 

22. Si! 

The office of Chriji: 77 

ij.Secondly^that it is over the very foules^and confciences 
Q^mtn.Rom. 14.17. 

2^» Thirdly 3 that it difpenlctb life and death cternall. 
Fuv. I . ! 8. 

25. Fourthly , that it is eternal!. Z)^;;.2 44.& 7.4, 

26. Fifthly, that it brings greateft peace 5 and {.ei fed feli- 
city to thofc , that arc heircs of ic I fay 9. 6. Eph. 2. 16^ 

27. Hence this Kingdome in the Scriptures is every where 
called the Kuigdome of God', the^ kingdome of peace, and 
glory, in the places above cited rand the Kingdomeof 1 ghc 
and glory jthe Kingdome of Heaven, and the world to come. 

2 8, And hence alfo it appeareth how neceffary it was that 
Chrlft the Mediator (hould be G^d , and man : for unlefTe he 
had bin God^he conld not be the Ipirituall King of our (oules, 
dilpenfing life and death cternall . and unleffe hee had 
been man he could not have been anhead of the fame kinde 
with bis body- 

29. Chrift in all his offices had types :Iln the prophetic 
call office he had meo alfo fo (iibordinate to himfclfcthat 
they alfo wcreralled prophets : but his Priefthood and king- 
dome doe not admit (uch a fubordination : neither was there 
ever any by office a fpirituall Pried or King befide Chrift 

30.Thcrcafonorthe difference is , bccaufe that the de- 
claration of the will of God unto men, which is the office 
of a Prophet may in fome manner be performed by a mccrc 
man : but purging of (innes by facrifice before God which 
is the duty of a prieftjand government over the foules and con- 
(ciences of men^which is the part of a King 5 cantiot at all be 
done by a mccre man. 

31 .The Kings of the nations, are not properly (iibordinate 
toChrift in their authority jbut unto Godr 

L 3 Gap^XX. 

78 ofSdthfiUiott* 

Chapter XX. 

Of SatisfaBiofi. 

.j^rTT^Here be two parts of redemption : the humiliation 
I of Chrift as our Mediator, and his exaltation. 
X^ 2. Hiimiliacion is that whereby he is (ubjcft cc 
the juftice /&£ God ^ to pcrforme all thoft things which 
were required to the redemption of man. PhiL 2.8. Being 
found in fliape as a man , he humbled himfelfc and became 6* 
bedicnt unco death. 

3. This humiliation was not properly of the Divine na* 
turc or perfon 5 confidered in it felfe , but of the Media,tor 

4. Therefore the taking of the humane mturejConfidered 
fimply & in it fclfe is not a part of this humiliation :becau(e it 
was the aftipn of God only : but that condition of a fcrvant, 
which did accompany the taking of the Divine nature ^ w?s 
the prime 2|nd proper reafon of the humiliation ^ Yet in re- ^ 
fpeftof this condition^by a relation redounding from thence, 
the Divine perfon is rightly faid to be of no reputa- 
tion. ThiUi.j. Bccaufeitdid exift in that forme , which 
for a time Was void of all glory and Divine Majefty :jfor the 
Divine Majeity did fupprcfle and hide it (elfethroughqiit all 
that fpace of humiliacion ; that it did not conftantly exer- 
cifc that diguity which did afterward appeare in the ex- 
altation^ rj.iu/i twi. '\y.\C ^ . . . . 

: 5. Theefrf^fthistemiliationisfatisfaSionandrneric. 
6* It is called fatisfaftion ♦ as it is ordered to the honouj: 
of God by a ^crtainc rccompeace for the injury done to him 
byourfinne?. /f(5^.3,2 ?• Whom God, hath fct forth tobea 
reconciliation by his blood to fhew this rightcouincfic. This 
is (hewed in all thole places of Scripture ivherein Chrift is 
(aid to be dead for us 5 for that effidency is fct forth in this 
phraife. which cannot be attributed to Taul^^ or Teter in 
their deathj iCor.ii^* Which takes away condemnation. 

SatUfaUion ofchriji. 79' 

/?^w.8.34.Whkh finally brings with it reconciliation tofal- 

vation./?^»^.5 -^o- 

7.1t is the fame alfo which is fignificd where it is faid 5 he 
was made finnc for u?. i(^or.\. 21. For he could no other 
way be made nnne then either by inward pollution ^ or out- 
ward reputation : but he was mod ofall free from pollution: 
neither did the imputationoffinany other way agree to him 
then that hce might for us undergoe the punifhracnt due 

8. In the fame rcfpeiflit is faid thathe bore our iniquities, 
Ifnj. 53. 4. Neither doth that phraife fignifie a bearing of 
patience : for by bearing he toofce away the fins of the world. 
John 1. 19 Ndther doth it only de<:Iare a power of taking a-' 
way fins : for he bore our fins in his body upon the Croffc. 
I Tet.2 34. 

9. The like force is of that forme he paid the price of re- 
demption for U5. Mat. 20. 28. For neither is there a mecre 
delivering fet forth by that phraife, noreveryineanesofit; 
becaufe the pcice it (elte is nonfiinated , and it is intimated to 
be of the like common rcfpcft withthepaimcntoffilveror 
gold for vendible merchandize. I'Tet.i. 18. Andtheappli- 
cation of this price it alfoadded, f/^^.9,13,14,15. Blood 
fprinkling thofe that areuncleane. And 10 22. Our hearts 
purged by fprinkling from an cvill confciencc* So that Chrift 
himfclfe is therefore a Mediator becaufe he hath given him- 
felfe a price of redemption^ i Tim. 1%'ys 6. And wc are there- 
fore made partaker of that redemption, bccauft Chrift hath 
given himfelfe for us, GaL2.2C» And we believein him. hht 
iLi2.Andby himinGodji T<ff.i-. 2ii 

10. Inthei farric fence alfo he is called an offering and (a- 
orifice for cur finnes. Efh.^,7* He gave himfelfe for us an of- 
fering and facrificc of afwcet fmelling favour to God. For 
he was (b triK and proper a f acrifice for finnc , that all other 
facrifices which went before^were but fhadowes of this : and 
after this is finifhedit is neither ncedfulJ, nor lawfull to ofitr 
any 6lher*He'^. 1(J,12*I4. 

II. But this whole myftery depends upon this , that 
Chrift is made fuch a Mediator^as that he is alfo a fiirety; 
Hehiy.22. And the xowimon roote of thofe that are to be 


Wo SathfaUion ofChrijl^ 

rcdecniedjas^c:/^^^? was of chofc that are creatcd,and loft. Rcm^ 
5. 1 65I 7,18, 1 9. 1 ^tfr.i5.22. 

1 2.1n the fame humiliation of Chrift thtrc was alfo^ merit, 
as it is ordered to our benefit J or to obcainc feme good for 
us in the way of reward. This is (hewed in all thofc places 
of Scripture wherein he is faid by his obedience to have pro- 
cured rightcoufncfle form. Ronr.^.i^. Many are made righte- 
ous ; to procure the favour of God for us. Rsrr.^. 1 o. We 
have been reconciled to God by the death of his Sonne ; and 
to procure life eternall for us» RonfA2^. Life eternall by 
Jcfiis Chrift. 

13. The merit and fatisfafiion of Chrift dtfFernot in the 
thing it felfe , fo as they ftiould be Cought for in fundry and 
different operations ; but they ought J n a divcrfe way to be 
acknowledged in one and the fome obedience. 

14. Neither ought any part of that obedience which is 
foundin the humiliation ofChrift^to be excluded from that 
dignity and u(co 

i5^.6ut the exaltation of Chrift^although it be an eflentiall 
part of his mediation^ yet it doth not pertaine to his merir^or 

I d. This Satisfaftion as touching the (ubftancc of thc^^ 
thing was perfeft , in rigour of juftice; yetitpreliippoleth^V 
grace , whereby Chrift was called to performe this worke^ 
and whereby it being performed , it was accepted in our 
name and for our good.* Laftly^ whereby that is performed 
by covenant rewarding which was required in this Satisfafti- 
on. John 3.16. So God loved the world that hee gave his 
only begotten Sonne. /?(?;». 3. 24. We are juftified freely by 
his grace.,through the redemption made in Jefos Chrift. & 5. 
1 5. The grace ofGod,and gift by grace, which is of that one 
man Jefus Chrift^ 

17. Hence greateft juftice^ and greateft gracc^are together 
tnanifefted,andworke in mans redemption. Rom. $. 17. They 
receive abundance of grace, and the gift of righteoufncflc, 
Co that all the fruit of this Satisfaftion arc rightly toge- 
ther called the fruits and effefiks of the grace and mcrcie 
of God. 

iS. This Satisfadion had worth (ufficient • and in Come 


0ftheLifcofChri!i: 8j 

rcfpcft infinite : Firftjromthepcrfonof him that did offtr, 
who was God : Secondly, from the dignity and cxcellcnqf 
ofthe thing offered, for he offered him felfe God and man* 
Thirdly, trom the manner of offering , in which there was 
a cert<iinc divine pcrfeftion i by ttaCon of the jperfonall 

19. For as the grcatneflc of the injury growes from the dig- 
nity of the pcrfon offended, bccaufe there the worth of the 
offended perfon is hart : fo the worth of him that makes 
facisfaftion doth grow from the dignity of him that makes 
Satisfaftion, bccaufc here the yeelding ofhonour is looked 
unto,which depends upon the dignity of him that yeelds the 
honour! ft :i:" -re* ^ :. ;» ^^ /i.i ' 's 

ao.AIfo in (atisfaftion, not the aft only or (uffcring, but 
alfo the perfon it fclfe which doth or (iiffcreth is^voluntari- 
ly (ubjefted to the obedience of him to whom that honour is 
yeelded, alfo the manner of working doth alwayes flow from 
him that worketh with proportion. * 

21. Where this alfo is to be obftrved^that a (ubftantiall dig- 
nity fuch as was in Ghrift , doth more properly confer to the 
dignity of the work, then an accidentary dignity/uch as is in 
' fomemen. 

%%. Fromthisdignity ofebeperibnitcomestopaflfe, that 
the (adsfaftion of Ghrift, was fufficient as touching the fub- 
ftance:'aadfuperabundant as touching cetcaine circumftan*" 
cet which did not at all agree to Ghrift. 

Chapter XXl. 

of the Life of Chrift being humbled. 

t.¥ I 'Hcparts of Ghrifts humiliation aretworhisLifCj 
and Death. 


^. Of his Life there are two parts :thefirftin 
hi» Gonception and Birth : the fecond after hee was 

M 5. Unto 

Ofthe Life ofchrifi. ^ ^ 

3, Unto his copecpticn there were two principles that did 
\y, orkc together pne aftivc^ and another palTnre* 
* 4. The Pailivc was the blelied K/V^i^ Utfarj : which is 
called a paflive principle, not becaufe (he did nothing unto 
the bringing forth of Chrift, but becaufe (he did nothing 
of her felfe^but that (he did adminiftcr that matter of which 
thefle{hofChrift\;7as formed. Neither yet could ftie admi- 
nifter it immediacy fit, ( for (he had no pure matter j but it 
was made fit by a certaine fupernaturall preparation , and 
lancflification. Z^i'.i.35. Becaufe that which fhall be borne 
of thee is holy 3 yet Chrift was truly and really the Sonne 
olMary^^nd the feed ofthe Woman promifed from the be^ 
ginning.Neithcr are there therefore two Son-ftiips in Chrift 
really diftinft , or two fonnes joyncd together 5 for that 
tcmporall Son-Qiip , whereby he is referred to his Mother, 
was a refpedl of reafon only. Indeed the humane nature of 
thrift had a reall relation to Mary ^ as to a caufe , but the 
Son-fhip doth no way agcec to the naoire , but to the perfon 
only : yet there is that relation of the humane nature to the 
pcr^n^andofiliiir; to that nature, that it may be truly and 
rightly laid , Marj was the Mother of God# 

5. The aftive principle of this conception was not a 
mm (whence^ Welled cJtfigry was a Mother and Virgin to- 
gether. Mit:*i.2^. Ifayy.14. ) But the holy Spirit. Neither 
yctcao Chrift he calkd the Stoonc ofthe holy Spirit , no not 
in as much as he is maQ ^ jfbras he is oian, neither is he of 
the fame nature with the holy Spirit , neither doth it agree 
to a nature 3 but to a perioa to iindergoe -the rcfpeft of 
a Sbnncci 

6. In the firft inftaat of this conception , Chrift received 
according to his humane nature^fulneffe of all grace^as touch-* 
liig the firft ad. J^/?^i.i4* Fallofgrace^ and truth. Lhc.2. 
4O0 He was filled with wifdome , yet to as that it might 
bee increa&d as touching the (econd a£ts , and by 
fpreading forth to new ob^s, Lffk? 2« 25. Hee gjfewin 
Wifdome. .| 

7. Hence Chrift^waa indeed enriched Mtir blefleaneflc, 
from the very bftant of ht« conception^ but Co as that ^ as 
travellers doe^he proceeded in it^untill he came to higheft ex- 
altation^ St In 

OftbeLifeofChrifi. g^ 

8. In the birth of Chrift there was humility of grcatcft po- 
verty with an atteftation of gratcft glory : that both na- 
tures, and both parts of mediation , might be declared irora 
the beginning. 

9. All the earthly things which did belong to the birth of 
Chrift were moft humble : But the Angels and Starrca of 
Heaven did declare that glory wherewith all kinds of men, 
Shepheards, wifenenj Herod^ and the Priefti with aH the 
people were moved. Z^r. It 18. J[/^r.2.a,3. 

10. By reafon of this birch he was according to the flefli 
the Sonne of the P^tfrrVcA^i' of all the world, yet fpecially 
he was that feed oi^hraham^m whom all Nations (hould be 
blefled 5 and that Sonne of David who was to pofleflc a 
Kingdomc^not of this,but of another for ever. Johni^. 36, 
My Kingdome is not oft his world. Lhc.i.^^. And he fhall 
raigne in the houfeof /^^<^^ for ever^ and of bis kingdom there 

11. The time, place , and the like circumftanccs, ac^ 
cormpany ing his Birth did make the fame truthmanifcft. 

12. After the birth of Chrift was his life* ftivate and 
publique. -• .'•^^hr, -M ^•'» ^% r: 

13. He lived a private life before a publike.becaufc the con- 
dition of man did fo require, to which he had f»b)edled him- 
fdfe, becaufetheLawofGodhadfodetermined, and foal- 
fo the infirmity of man did require that by degrees the Sunne 
ofrighteoufneiTeftiould appcare unto tl^m, and thatt^they^ 
(hould be lead as it were by the hand from every impcrfeflk 
thing to that which is perfcfl:. 

i4.In his private life, there was his infancy and fobjeftion 
CO his parents* 

1 5.1n his infancy there was his. i. Circumciiion and offer- 
ing. 2.His flight unto JE/jpfj and returning thence. 

^6. Chrift was circumcifed andoflfered, becanfe he did 
{\hysiik himfelfe not only to the eternall and morall Law^ but 
alfo to the CcremonialI,and every Law of God. 

17. Thofc ceremonial! obfervations ^ were fo many ccHi*' 
feffions of finnc. Therefore Chrift who was madefin iov u«i 
was fitly made conformable to them. 

i8. Alfo they were certaine outward meanes belonging 

M2 ' to 

to ravine worfhip : thire^fope Chrift ebftrwd thcm^thathe 
might fulfill all rightcoUfneflTc. 

1 9. L^ftly 3 they were certainc types fhadowing forth 
Chiiit : now that he might fulfill thofc, and by this meanes 
fanftific the fame,he would apply them to himlelfc. 

20f Circumcifion was the;Seale of the Covenant of 

21. Offering was a prefcnting and dedicating the firft 
born unto God : therefore Chrift was fitly both circumcifed 
a;nd offered, becaufe hee was to confirme chat faving Co- 
vetoant by his blood, and among the firft borne , hee was 
oncly perfeftly holy to Godj of whom all others were on- 
ly types. 

2 X His flight Into JE/j/>f ,and his remrnethence,was,i. That 
he might fhcw from the beginning of hii agc^ that ke was 
borne to undergo^ ttiiftry. 2, That according to the condition 
to which he had fubmitted hira(elfe,fae might ipfoYide for his 
life attcr the manner of men#3.That he might withal (hew,thal 
he wac the manjthat (hould bring us out of Ipirituall £fjpt in^ 
Cothe promifed Land. 

23. In his fubjeftion to his parents which pertaincth to 
thefift precept of the Decalogue , he did fhcw that he was 
lubje(ft to the whole morall Law. i . Becaufe there is the (amc 
rcafon of one precept* as of all. 2. Becaufe there is no part 
of morall obedience from which Chrift the Lord of Hea- 
ven and Earth might (eem to be more free^then from fiibjefti- 

O»tomen. . -^ -'vf^ );;-•:= :.; ..■'■:■ - ^-'^^lijyi\jiU 

24. Although that this legall obedience Was required of 
Ghrift now made man by right, of Creation , yet becaufe he 
wai made man^not for himfclfc,bat for us, it was a part of that 
Homiliation^tisfacf^oi^ andimecii^whidvGod required, and 
accepted of him for us* h > . 1^^ "L f j in: i^> r 'li,5 •orti 
i ' 25« In this (ubjeftion thcfe two things are to be obser- 
ved* The exception which hee did fuffer ^ and the cffcft 
which it did bring forth* 

26m The exception was the disputation which he hadwith 
theScribeSjWhen he was b«c twelve yearcs oidf 

27. This difputation was a foregoing tcftimony, of thai 
publick calling whereby he was ordained and (enttabea 
roafter and uacher oilfrAd^ ^8. Tf 


OftheLifiofChriJt. 85 

2*. Ic was alfo to teach , that that knowledge and 
wifcdome wherewith Chrift was endued^ was not gotten, by 
progrcflc of time , but conferred or infufed of God from the 

29. ThcefFcdlofthls ftibjeftion was his labouring with 
his hands, that is, an enduring of that cune of ours, where- 
by it comes to paflc that we eat our bread with that labour 
inthefweatofthe face. 

30. Hi' publique life is that whereby he openly manifefted 
himfclfe to be the Mcjfias. In this life, there was^ i. Thecn- 
terance. 2. The progrefle. 3* The conclufion. 

31. Unto the entrance percaines his Baptiime and Ten- 

32. The BaptiCne of Chrift was his publick inauguration 
to the publick performance of his office : therefore in it , the 
three offices of Chrift are affirmed^an J coafirmed. 

3> They are affirmed by the teftimony ofthe father pub - 
lickcly pronouncing that Jefiis Chrift is his Sonne 5 and fo 
that he is appointed a King by him^ even that King in whojn 
he is well pleafed, that is, achiefe Prieft^ who by his in- 
terceffion (hould take away the (ins of the World, and a 
chiefe Prophcto'L^^^5,i7.& J7.3,Thisismy Sonne in whom 
I am well pleafed^heare him. 

34. The fame offices are confirmed by fignes : namely , by 
opening of Heaven, defcending of the holy Spirit under the 
bodily ftiape of a Dove ^ rcftmg upon Chriftj and an audible 
voycc fent downe from HeaveUjWhereby the teftiniony of the 
Father was Hgnified. 

35. They were alfo confirmed by the teftimony oijoh>2 
who Wis appointed J for a witneflc , preacher, and forerun- 
ner of Chnftj and being certified of Chrift partly by the 
revelation ot the Spirit^^nd partly by thoie fignes before men- 
tionei.he did teftihc of him before otht r s. 

36. MoieoverbytheBaptifmc of Chrift^ our Baptifmc 
was confirmed, andianftified : and wichall the perfon is de- 
clared towhom Baptifme doth (b adhere 5 that all the force 
of it is to be foiight for in him. 

^^T Chrift was tempted^that he might fhcw that be was 
mucn ftronger then the ^xHzy^dam^ and that he could alfo 

M 3 over- 

OftheLifi ofChrid. 

overcome tentationsiand alfohclpe us with a fellow-fccRng. 
38. The progrefle of his publicke life was inpoYcrty and 

5p,The poverty of Chtift was without a Hngular vow, aiid 
without bcggery. 

40. The labour ofChrift was in travailing through divers 
Countries , in watchings , and in grcatcft intention of all his 
ftrcpgch to doe good. 

4i.x.This publique life of Ghrift was performed in preach- 
ing 5 and working miracles 5 unto the preaching ofChrift 
was alwayes joynedg in refpeft of himftlfc^ grace and au- 
thority* Inrefpcft of others either opening, or hardening 
of heart. 

42*Thc objeft of bis preaching was properly the GofpcU, 
or Kingdome of Heaveni4a1?rf #1. 1 4. Preaching the Gcrfpcli of 
the Kingdome of God. 

43 The end of his miracles was.i Todemonftrate thepcr- 
fon of Chrift.2. To confirme his doftfinCf 5. To jfignific hit 
fpirituall operations. ' 

44.Ghrift wrought miracles, in the Angis, in mcnjin brute 
CrcatureSj^ in things without life : in Heaven, in Earth Jn the 
Aire , and in the Sea : in things corporeal!, and fpirituall : 
that he might (hew, hi? univer(all and Divine power to be 
ofcquali force in every kind of thing. 

45.The conclufion of the lifcof Ghrift was in the very pre- 
paration to death. 

46. His preparation to death was in his inftrufting his 
Difcip es and confortiDg them. 

47. I his inftruftlon and confolation was partly exercifed 
in his transfiguration. Z.»f 49.3 1. Mo/ts and S/ioi appearing 
in glory did tell of his departure. And by the fc Sacraments 
which lookc to the death of Ghrift by a certaine (peciall rc- 
(peft^nanlely the paflcoverjand flipper of the Lord ; partly in 
cxample^M;^ i^a'y. I have given you example, that as I hare 
done tOjyou/oalfoftiould ye doc: partly in his laft ScrmoDj 
John 14.& 1 5& id.and partly in his ^x^ytr. lohn 17. 

Gap. XXfL 

of the Death efChrifi. 87 

Chapter XXIL 


I. f I 'He Death of Chrift is the lafl aft of his bnmiliation, 

I whereby he did undergoe , extreme ^ horrible, and 

X. greateft paines for the (ins of men. 

2jt was an aft of Chrift 5 and not a mcere fiifFering ,be- 

caufe he did of purpofe dilpofe himfelfc to undergoe and 

fiiftaine it. lolon i o i ij am that good fliepheard : the good 

(bepheard layes downc his Ji(e for his ftiecpe Verfi 1 1 No 

man uketh it from me, but I lay it downc by my ielfe : by 

ihcrafl:iereaibn aifo It was voluntary, not compelled. And 

out ofpower^not out of infirmity only : out of obedience to 

his Fatherland love to us,not oat of his owne guilt or defert : 

unto fatisfaftion by overcomming , not to perdition by 


3. It did containe greateft puai&ments : becauft it did 
equaJi all that mifcry which the finnes of men did dcftrve. 
Hence is that plenty of words & phrafeSj by which this death 
is let forth in Scriptures. For it is not fiaiply called a death, 
but alfo a cutting oiF , a caftmg away , a treading under 
feet^a curfe^an heaping up of forrowes,and fiich like* Ifay.'^'i* 

* 4. But it did (b containe thcfe punifhments , that the 
continuance of them, and holding under, and fuch like cir- 
cumftancex, which accompany the puniftiments of the fins 
of all the damned , were removed fromthisdeath.«>^/?j2. 
24. It could not be that he could be held under by death, 
TheTea(bnisfirftbccaufcfuchcircumftances as tbefe arc not 
oftheeflenceof the puniftiment it felfc : but adjunfts fol- 
lowing and accompanying that puniftiment in thofe who can- 
net fo fuflfer punimment^ thai by fcffering they ftiould (aiii^ 
fie. Secondly, becaufe there was in Chrift ^ bothworthi- 
ncfle> and power to overcoooc as itwercby thkmcanesjthe 


of theDeahofChriji. 

punifiimcnt impofed. iC<?r.i5.54 57.Dcathi$fwaIIowcclup 
m viftory.Thankes be givcB to God who hath given us viftory 
by our Lord Jcfws Chrift. 

5. But becaufc there wa^ in this death the cotjfummation of 
all humiliation , whereof that alfo was the far grcatcft part : 
hence often in Scriptures by a Syncchdochc df the mem- 
ber, the death it felfe of Chrift is put for all that fatisfaftion 
which is contaioed in his whole humiliation. 

6. Thefe limkations being had ^ this death of Chrift was 
the fame in kind and proportion with that death which in 
juftice was due to the fins of men reprcfenting the very fame 
degrecSimembcrs^and kinds* 

7. The beginning of the fpirituall death of Chrift in mat- 
ter of loffc, was the loofing of that .oy and delight, which 
the enjoyment of God , and fulnefle of giace was wont to 
bring. But he did loofe this fpirituall joy , not as touching 
the principle and habit of ic^ but as to the ad and fence 
of if* 

8. The beginning of fpiritmll death in matter of fence, 
was the tafting of the wrath of God , and a ccrtainc (ubjefti- 
on to the power of darkenefle- But that wrath of God was 
moft properly that Cup which was given to Chrift to be 
Dtunkc.Mat.26.^9. My Father, it it be poffible , let thii Cup 

5>. But the object of this anger was Chrift ^not abfblutly, 
but only as touching the puniflimcnt which is brought by 
this anger ,which he as our furety did undergoc. 

I o. That fubjcftion to the power of darkeneffe was noc 
to bondage ^ but to vexalion, which Chrift did fcele in 
his mind. 

ii.From theft the foule of Chrift was afFeSed with forrow, 
gxiefe^fearcjand horror,in an agony. Mat. 26.^9. John 12.27. 
Heh^^.j.Lfic.2 2.24. 

I2.1n this manner was the (bule of Chrift afFefted not on- 
ly in that part which (bme call the inferior, but alfo in the 
fupcrior part / not only nor chiefly out of a fellow-feeling 
which ic had with the body , but properly and immediatly : 
nor chiefly out of compaffion which it had in refpeft of o- 
thers, but out of a proper fuffcring^ which it didundcrgoc 


of the Death ofChriHi 89 

in QUr^iamc. Laftly,not out of an horror of tcmporaJl death, 
which many of Chrifts (ervant^ alfo have by his power over* 
comc,but ouc of a cercaine fence of a (upernaturall and Ipiri* 
Uidl death. 

13* Thercwcre two cfFcfts of this agony. Firft, a vehe- 
ment deprecation (hewing a mind aliunilhcd and a nature 
flying from the bitterneire of death , yet under condition, 
and with fubjeftion to his Fathers will. Ma>c. 14. 35. He 
prayed that if it might 'be that houre might p?ffe from him. 
Iohn^i2.2j. My foule is troubled ^ and what (h.ill I fay ? Fa- 
ther keepe me from this houre : but therefore came I untc this 
houre. Secondly, a watery fweat having clutters of blood 
mixed with it dropping downeto the ground, Luc.ir.^^ 
Being in an agony he prayed moFe earneftly. And hii iweat 
was like drops of blood falling downe to the ground. 

^^ In this beginning of fpiriruali death there was a cer- 
taine moderation , and mitigation 5 that in the meane while 
there might be place for thole duties which were to be fini- 
{hedbefore,hisdeath,namelyprayer85 conferences, admoni- 
tions, anlweres. 

1 5.This moderation was inward or outward. 
. 16. The inward was by fpaces of time upon the flacking of 
the prcflure and vexation which he did feele in his ioule. 
Hence in his underflanding he did attend unto the courft of 
his ofiicc undertaken , to the glory that would thence arife 
to his Father , and to himfelfe, and to the falvation of thoft 
whom his Father had given to him. In his will alfo hee 
did chufe and enibrace all the miferies of death to obtainc 
thole ends. 

. 17. The outward mitigation of this death was by an An- 
gcll who did ftrengthen him in talking withhim. L/rr*22. 
43. And appeared to him an Angell from Heaven comfort- 
ing him. 

1?. There was no inward beginning of the bodily death of 
Chrift befidcs that natural! mortality and weakening which 
the outward force did bring. 

ip.The externall beginning was manifoldjboth in matter 
of loflcjand matter of ftnce. 

20t In matter of IqAc , he was rejcfted of his own people, 
N counted 

of the Death efchrift. 
counted worfe then a nwrthcrec , forfaken of his moft in- 
ward DifciplcSj denicdjand betrayed of aU kind of men > c(^ 
pecially of the chiefe ones , and thofc who were counted the 
more wife, he was called a mad man> a deceiver , ablafphc- 
nier, one having a dcvill ^a great man and invader of another 
mans kingdome,he was ftripped of his garments, and deftitute 
ofneceflTity food. 

2 i.Intnaitec offence there was.Firft^fhamcfcjll apprehend- 
ing. Secondly , a violent takins; away ; injuft judgements, 
both Eccleliafticall, and civiil. Fourthly, in working^whip- 
ping^and crucifying,with reproches^ and injuries of all kinds 
joyned with them. Yec there was fome mitigation of this 
death. Firft,by manifeftationof the Divine Ma jefty , to the 
working of certaine miracles : as in cafting the Souldiers 
downe to the ground with his (ighc and voyce, and inheal- 
itig the earc oiMalchtis. Secondly , by operation of the Di- 
vine providence, whereby it came to paffe^ that he was jufti- 
ficd by the Judge, before he wascondcmned.2W^r.29.24. lam 
innoctnt ^fthe blood of thisjnfi man. 

II* The confummation of the Death of Chrift was in 
the highcft degree of the punifhment appointed : where is 
to be coilidered. The death ic felfe , and the continuance 
of it. 

23,TheconfummatIonofrpiritnall death in matter of lofle, 
waSjthatforfaking of the Father whereby he was deprived of 
all fence of confolation. 0^^.27.46* LMjGoi^ mjGodi^hy 
hafi ^hou forfdks*^ me? 

24*Theconrummation of the death ot Ghrift in matter of 
fencewasthecurftj whereby he did endure the full fenfe of 
Gods judgement upon mans finne. G^Aj.ij, He was made a 
curft for us* The hanging on the Croffe was not a caufe and 
reafon of this cur(e,but a figne and (ymbolc oiiijhid. 

25« The confummation of bodily death was in the brea-- 
thing out of his foule with grcatcft torment, andpaineof 
the body. 

26. In this death there was a feparation made ofthefonle 
from the body 5 buc the union of both did remaine with the 
Divine nature, fo that a diflblution of the perfon did not 

37, Thif 

Oftk^xaUationofchriJi. pi 

27*This death of Chrift was true , not feigned : it was na- 
turalljor from caufcs naturally working to bring it^not (uper* 
natural! ; it was voluntary^noc altogether compeHed 5 yet it 
was violent 9 not of inward principles : It was alfo in a cer« 
tainc manner fupcrnaturall , and miraculous, becaufc Chrift 
did kccpe his life, and ftrength fo long at he would^and when 
he woulcl.,hclayd itdown,M// 10. 1 8, 

28. The continuance of this death was, inrcfpeftof the 
ftate of ioweft humiliation , not in refpe(ft of the puniftiment 
of affltftion,for that whichChrift (aid^ it is finiftied, is under* 
flood of tbo(e punifhmcnt?. 

2 p.Thc continuance wa5 the remaining under the domini- 
on of death by the (pace of three dayes , ji^s 2. 24* This 
ftate is wont properly to bee let forth by defccndirtg in- 
to Hell, 

^o.Chrift being buried three dayes, was a witneflTc and cci*-* 
taine rcprefentation of this ftatc# 


Of the Exaltation of ^hrifi* 

j,rTn»He Exaltation of Chrift is that whereby hce did 
I glorioufly triumph over his and our enemies. Lnc. 
X 24. 26. Ought not Chriil to have fuffcred thefc 
things, and fo to enter into glory ? Eph.^^S. When he afccn- 
ded up on high, hcled captivity capttve.Ci?/. 2.1 5. He hath 
(polled principalities and powers , and hath made ajfliewof 
them openly ^and hath triumphed over them in it* 

t. He overcame death by enduring it, finne by fatisfying, 
the Dcvill by fpoiling him , or taking the prey out of 
his hands* 

3. The perfeftion and manifeftation of this viftory is in 
his Exaltation. Therefore although there was a virtuall tri- 
umph, and triumph of merit in his death, and in the Croflc, 
in which Chrift is faid to be exalted, or extolled^ Iffhf 3. 14* 
Not in iituation and place only^ but alio in v^me^md merit : 

N 2 yet 

of the Exaltation ofChri(L 
yet the aftuall triumph as touching the Rate of it , was not in 
his humiliation,but his Exaltation. 

4.Ghrift did triumph in the Croffe, as in a Field o f vifto- 
ry ; but in his Exaltation, as in the kingly feat , and Ghaiiot 
of triumph. 

5 .The glory of thif triumph was^a changing of the hamble 
forme of a fervant , and that mod abjed condition which 
inithedidundergoe, intoblcflcdneflTej altogether Heavenly. 
TiiA a. p» Wherefore alfo God did highly eKdkbim, and 
gave him a name above every name. 

6. Inrefpeft of the Divine nature, it wasonely ana<5ive 
manifeftation ; li rcfpeft of the humane nature , it was a 
reall receiving with fatable a<Sions flowing from itr- 

y.The humane nature received all thofe perfedions,which 
a created nature could take.Fcr in the foulc there flour i(hed all 
kind of fulnefl'e of wifdome and grace , not onlyinrefpeft 
of the principle and habit , but allb in refpeft of the aft and 
exercile : his body alfo was adorned with grcatcft purity, 
agility jfplendorjand ftrength. Hehr. i2.2» For the joy that 
was (et before him, heenduned theCroficj P/^Z/.j. 21. Who 
(hall transforme our^ile body^that it may be life to his glori' 

8, Butasthefoule of Chrift being now exalted, didfiill 
retaine the nature of a foule , fo alfo the body glorified did 
in no wife lay downe the effcnce , and eflentiall properties of 
a body : therefore it can neither be every where, nor together 
in nwny places , nor in the fame place with another body 
Penetrative. Which indeed all that have eyes to (ee may 
cleerly perceive in thofe phrafcs of Scripture. Being taken 
from them he was caried up into Heaven. Luke 24.5 1. He is 
not here,he is viCeti^Mar.22.6' And many uich like. 

9. There were three degrees of Exaltation oppofite to as 
many degrees of his extreame humiHarion : namely his R^- 
(uireftio from thedead>eingoppo(cdto his death jhisafcen- 
ding into Heaven oppofed to his defcending into the Grave^ 
and to the loweft place of the Earth 5 and his (itting at tfce 
rjght Hand of God oppofed to his remaining in the GrAvC;> 
axid in the ftace of death or in Hell. 

lOcXhrifts Refurreftion was of hir whofc humane na*^; 


of the Exaltation of Chriji. 93 

lUre which before had fallen by dtath. In refpeft of the foufc 
h was from Hell , or from the ftatc, and domin'fon of death, 
rowhichthcfouleas it was a part of the humane nature,was 
fiibjcft.In refpeft of the bodyjit was fromth^ dead, and fronj 
ihe Grave. 

1 1. The fbuk is faid improperly to have riferragaine t but 
the body and humane nature properly. For the body, and 
the man , did properly recover his perfcftion : but the 
Ibule did recover the aft^ and nootion of its perfeftion in 
the body, 

IT. There arc two parts of his Refurrc&ionj the firft is 
an internall aft, namely a reviving reftored, by the uniting 
of foale and boiy : the (econd is an extcrnall aft, namely 
his going ouc of the Grave to the manifeftation of li^ 

15. Unto this Refurre.ftion there did give teftimony. i; 
th« Angclls. 2. Chrift himfelfe by divers apparitions ( ten 
whereof at leaft are reckoned up in the Scriptures ) and alfo 
bydtvers proofcs taken out of the Scriptures* 3*Mtn;whio 
were certified of it by fecing^hearing, and handling him. 

14. ButChrift did rife not by the power or leave of ano- 
ther 5 although this operation be attributed to God the Fa- 
thtx.ASls 2*a^.But bv his own \>o^tulohn 2 .ipvDeftroy this 
Temple^and within three daycs I will raifc it up, and 10. 18.' 
Iliave power of taking up my life againe. 

15. The time of RcfiicreAion was the third D^y after 
his Death and Buriall, Mat^iS.i. Lnks 24.7. ABs 10.-40V 
lOr. i5.4« 

1 6. The end of this Rcfurreftion was. i. That he might 
be declared to be the Sonne of God , Rom.i.^. Declared 
wightilytobetheSonneofGod by the Refurrc(flion from 
the dead. 2. That he might feale a full viftory of death .1 Ct?ra 
1 5.57.Thanke$ bete God who hath givenus viftory through^ 
ourLordJefu^Chrift. 3. That he might fulfill thofe parts 
ofhis office which did follow his death, Row.j^.2$. He was^ 
raifed againe for our juftification. 4. That he might fhew 
Wmfclfe bbth juflifiedj and juftifying otherSti ^e?r.i$.i7. 
IfChri(Vb€notrifen,your faith is vaine : yeeareyctinyour^ 
&iiies.5. That he might be the fubftance, example, and 

N3 entrance^ 

of the Exaltation of Chrili* 
catratice of our fpirituall, and corporall Rcfiirreftion." Fi-rjC 
20.21.23* Oi the fame Chapter. He is made the firftfruics 
of them that llccpc In Chrift (hall all be made alive. 

17. For Chrift as God is the caufeabfolutcly principal] 
ofourR*e(Lirreftion:as fatisfying by his humiliationjand death 
be is the meritorious caufe : but as rifing from the dead 
he is the exemplary caufe , and withall a demonftration and 
an initiation. 

i8. The afcending of Chrift intoHeavcn^ isamiddlede- 
gree, or rertaine progreflTe of exaltation , whereby leaving 
the Earth he afccctfls up into the higheft Heaven as into his 
throne of glory. <iAfls i.ii. He is talcen up from you in- 
to Heaven 9 Ephef. 4. 10. Hcc afcended farre above all 

j9.This afcenfion was of the whole perfon ; yet it doth noc 
agree to the Divine nature, but figuratively , namely as it was 
the caufc of afcending ^ and was joyncd with the humane 
nature, in excellency : manifcfting alfo his glory in it^where- 
ofhe had as it were emptied himlclfe^when he defended in- 
to it by the incarnation : but it doth moft properly agree to 
the humane nature J becaufe it fuffered cnange from a lower 

zo.Thc time of his afcenfion was 40 dayes after hts Refur- 
reftion JBsi,^. notfooner : becaufe the infirmity of the 
Difciples did require the delay of this fpace of time^ihat their 
faith might be confirmed by divers appearings, and they 
might alfo be more fidly inftrufted in thofe things which per- 
tainetotheKingdomeofOodt ABsi.^. Not later ^leaft he 
ftiould fccme to thinke upon an earthly life. 

2i,The place from which he did afcend was mount Olivet 
jifts I. 12. Where alfo he entred into dcepeft humiliation. 
Lhc.2%.:}9^ That he might teach that his fuffcring^and afcen- 
fion did pertaineto the fame thng. 

22. The place into which he afcended, was the Heaven of 
thebleilcd, and whichisnotan vhi^marj Hcsis^n^ as fomc 
doe imagine ^ fo as that afcenfion fhould only be a change 
of condition, and not of place, but it is the higheft above 
alithc other Heavens. Efh,^.io. The fcat^houft or manfion 
of God* lohn 14. 2% So that in relpcft of locall prefence 


of the Exahathn of Chrift, ^ 5 

Chdfts hiimane nature is rightly and truly faid not to be with 
us in Earth, Mat. 26* it* Although he himfclfe in refpcft of 
his perfoujand that fpirituall efficacy which doth depend up- 
on the humane nature,is every where with his unto the end of 

23. The witncfles of this afcenfion , were both many men, 
and Angels* /^fl^/.T, 

24. In refpciftoforder, he was thefirft of all thofe who 
afcended into Heaven, in priority of nature: becaufc his af^ 
cenfion was a caufe by vertuc whereof others doe afccndr 
f/^^.^.S.But others had a(cended in their foules before in time- 
CcLi, 2G. And fome alfo ( as it is moft likcj in their bodies. 

2 5.The caufe of this afcenfion was the fame which before 
was of the Rcfurrc(!1:ion : namely the power of God^whkh 
is the (ame both of the Father and the Son :hence in refpeft of 
the Father it is called an afllmiption which in refpeft of the 
Son is called an afceijfion.^^i^. I.I i.Biit there was added more- 
over the condition of a glorified body; which is carried as 
well upward as doivnward. 

26. The ends of his afcenfion were. i. That he might 
place his humane nature now glorified in the manfion of 
glory, 2. That he might (hew himfclfe to be him who could 
pierce into the Heavenly and dcepeft counfels of God. lohn 3. 
i3.How{hallyeebeIieve5if.I tell you heavenly things? For 
there is none that alcendeth into Heaven, but he who dc- 
fcendcth from Heaven ; namely , the fonnc of man who is in 
Heaven. ?• That he might prepare manfions for all his in the 
honfe of his Father, fohni^,'^. 4. Thatheemightinth^ 
name ofhis own take poffeflion of the heavenly Kingdorae. 
Eph.246^ Hath railed us up together 5 and hath made u^fit 
together in Heaven, in Chriftjefus. 5.Thatby hisintercef^ 
fionahd power he might take care for thofe things which 
were to be performed for their falvation% Ioh?7. 1 6.j. If I goe 
fromyou^ I will fend the Comforter unto ^01% 6. Th'atwc 
may have a moft certaine argument of our afcenfion into 
Heaven. 1 Cor. 1 5. 2 0. He is made the firft fruits of them rfiiac 
fleepe.y.That wee alfomight in thoughtjgfFeftion and convcr- 
fation follow after Heavenly things. C^^*^* tPhiL^.to.SecW 


0/ thcEXaltatwHoJChrtjt., 
thofc things that arc above where Chrift if. We carry oat 
fclves as^Ciiizcns of Heaven : from whence alfo we looke for 
a Saviour,thc Lordjefiis Chrift. 

1 7. Sitting ac the right Hand of God is the higheft degree 
of his Exaltation , whereby heenjoycth the higheft glo^y of 
bis mediation. Hence Refurreftion , and Alcention arc (no- 
tions tending to this fitting : hence alio Rcfurreftion and 
Alcenii -^n in a certaine manner common tons with Chrift j 
but fitting at the right hand of the Father agrees to none,buc 
toChrift only. 

,a8. That higheft glory wherewith Chrift is endowed by 
this fitting is properly and formally a kingly glory, eyftis 2. 
56 Let therefore allthehoufcof 7/r4<?/ know for cercaine, 
that God hath made (his man a Lord. 

7,9. This kingly glory is a fulnefle of power and majefty 
wl^rcby he govcrneth all things for the goodof his.T/i/.uo. 
I. I Coui 5.25. For hemuft raigneuntill he have put down 
all his enemies under his feett 

30. This majefty and power doth properly agree to the per- 
(on of Chrift the Mediator : in refpcft of which it is alio 
truly faid that the humane nature of Chrift hath now fo 
mu/:h^minency of dignity and ruledome 5 that with power 
he is above 3 and fet over all created things Epha^ 20* But 
from this eminency of dignity 5 to conclude that the hu 
mane nature of Chrift ( which was created and remaines 
finite ) being abfblutely and abflradedly confidcred^hath the 
fame omnipotcncy^and omnipre(ency withGod himlelfcit is 
iio other thing then a certaine ftupid madneflc^ anditis.not 
iar from blafphcmy. 

31. Unto this kingly dignity pertaines that power 
whereby Chrift was made the judge of all men ^ and 

32 This kingly glory of Chrift doth alfo redound unto o- 
dier of his offices^ fo that he exercifech a kingly Prieft-hood, 
and a kingly prophecy. 

33. The kingly prieft-hood is^ that whereby he doth plead 
owrcaufe, not byfuffering, and humbly fupplicating as it 
were with bended knees, but by reprcfenting glorioofly thofe 
xhings which he did and lufiered# H^^. $»2^. Chrift is en- 


it ^' 

of the Application ofChrift. 
tred into Heaven it fclfc, to appcarc before the Face of God 

34. Chrift doth exercife a kingly prophecy : whilcft he 
powrcs out his fpirit upon all flefti : vvhileft he fends his Em- 
bafladorsjworkcs together with them , and confirmes their 
word by fignes that follow : laftly whileft he gathers his own 
out oftheworld,proteft.%buildsup, and preferves them for 
ever.C^*ir.28,i8ji9j20. Marc.i6*20. 

Chapter XXIIIL 

of the application of Chrijl. 

So mnch of Redemption : The application of the 
fame Re^mptionfollowes. 

I. f I (His application is that whereby all thofe things 
I which Chrift hath done , and doth as Media*- 
JL tor,' are made aftually effeftuall in (bme certaine 
Men. * 

2« This application by a fpeciall appropriation is attribu-* 
ted to the holy Spirit, i ^(?r,i2. 13. Ryone fpirit Wc arc 
all baptifed into one body : yet it doth depend, i. Upon 
the decree , and donation of the Father^whereby he hath 
given (bme certaine men to Chrift to beredeemed^and (aved. 
John d.36.This is the will of my Fathcr^chat of that he hath 
given me I ftwuld loft nothing, for all thofe, and only thofc 
whom the Father hath given to Chrift, doe come to him* 
Ibid^Verfe.ija^ Upon the intention of Chrift whereby he 
hath determined his (atisfaftion for the good of thole, wnom 
he hath appointed to him by his Father. lohn 17.9.11,125 
19. I pray for them whom thou haft given me,becan(e they 
are thine. 3. Upon the accepution of the Father, whereby 
he doth accept and ratifie that (atisfadion for the reconcilia*' 
tion5& falvation of the fame perfons.2 Or. 5. 19. Namely ^that 
God was in Chrift,reconcilingche world to him(elfe,not im- 
puting their (ins unto them* 

O , 3. This 


The applkalion ofchrift. 

3. This trinfafkion bctwecne God and Chrift wasaccr- 
tainc fore-going application of our redemption , and dclU 
vcrancctooiirfurctyj and to us in him : which unto the 
fiaiftiinsofthat fecundary application in us, hath the refpeft 
of an effeftuall example, lo as ^that is a rcprcfcntation of this, 
and this is brought forth by vertucof that. 

4. Hence our deliverance from finne and death ^ was not 
oncly determined in the decree of God , but alfo granted^and 
communicated to Chrift , and to us in him, before it be per- 
ceived by us. Rom.% .10.11. We were reconciled to God, by 
the death of his Son. By whom we have now received a re- 

5 • Hence both the Father and the Sonne arc faid to fend 
the Spirit to performe this application, lohn 14. 16.&C16. 
7. The Father (hall give you an advocate,! will fend him un- 
to you. 

6. Hence every good giving , and every pcrfeift good it 
faid to defcend from above from the Father* James i.ij. 
And all faving things are (aid to i>e communicated to' us, in 
Chrift 3 as in the head. For Chrift as obtaining jt|by his 
merit and through Chrift , ase&£hially applying it* Efh. 

7.Hcnc€ alio application is the end & effeft of impetrationi 
But feeing the end is intended Jby God the Father and Chiift, 
ic hath a certaine connexion with impetration as with 
its meanes* For if the redemption o\ Chrift were of incertainc 
event, then the Father ftiould appoint the Sonne to death, 
and the Sonne alfo ftiould undergoe it , being yet incer- 
tainc, whether any would be faved by it or no 5 then alio 
all the fruit of this my ftery fliould depend upon the free will 
of meq. 

8. H^ce application is altogether of the fame latitude 
with redemption it fclfc, that is, the redemption ot Chrift ii 
applied to all and only tbofc, for whom it was obtained by 
theintention of Chrift and the Fadier^yet for their fakes the 
fame temporall benefits of Chrift doe redound unto others 

9. And in this fence, namely in refpcfk of the ihtention 
of application ic is rightly faid : Clirift 4id oncly (atisf^ 


The applicat iofi ofChrijl. j 01 

for tho(c that are (avcd by him : although m rcfpcftof chat 
Sufficiency which is in the mediation of Chrift^it may be 
rightly faid aifOjChrift fatisficd for all , or every one : and 
becauIethofccounfclltofGodarc hidden to \x%y it is agree- 
able to charity^to judge very well of every one, although we 
may not pronounce of all together collcftively, that Chrift 
did equally plead their caufc before God. 

10. The way of application whereby God doth with 
greatcft firmncfle pcrforme that , which was contained in a 
covenant formerly made, and broken j is called in the Scrip- 
tures a new covenant. H^^.8.8.1 o. A covcnaat of lif(?,(alva- 
tion, and grace, Ront. ^\6.GaU^. |8. Which in the fame 
fence alfo is called the GofpclL Rom. i. i6, Tiie good Word 
of God. Heh%6.<y. A faichfuU ^ying and worthy of all ac- 
ceptation^ I Tim»i.is. A good doftrine. i Tim. ^,6% 
The Word of life. Thi/^%. i6. The Word of reconciliation^ 
« C^r.'y. 1 9. The Gofpcll of peace* Epl^^ 2* 1 7. 8c i. 15. 
The Gofpell of (alvation , and the Word of truth, £^. 
I.I j.The ArmcofGod.7/^7 53.1. The favpur of life to life, 

I i.Ic is called a covenant becau(e it is a £rme promise, for 
in the Scriptures every firme purpofcj although it be of things 
without life,is called a covenant, lerem.^^. 20»2$. My coyc-* 
narit of theday,and my covenant of the night :if my covenant 
be no: with day and night , if I appoint not the ftatutes of 
Heaven and Earth. 

1 2« Yet biecaule it confifts of a free donation j and is con* 
firmed by the death of the giver,it ii not fo properly called a 
covenant as a teflament,H^^. 9.1^. Which feeing it is not found 
in the former, that is not fb properly called a teftament as a 

ijiBut this Dew covenant differs from the old many wayes. 
I. In the kind, for that was aiit were a covenant of friend- 
fliip betweene the Creator and the creattu^ : but this is a co-^ 
venant of reconciliation between enemies. 

14. 9. In the efficient: for in that there was an agreement 
of two parties, namely God and man : bat in this God onely 
doth covenant. For man being now dead in linne , had no 
abilky to concraft a ijpitataall covenant wuhGo^^ But if two 

O a pardcf 

I G a Of the ^fpUcathn of ChriH. 

parties after the manner of a covenant are to be appointed, yet 
then God only is the party afluming, and conftituting, but 
man is the party aflumed. 

15. 3. It differs in the objcft : for that is extended to all 
men 5 but this belongs to fome certaine ones in a fpeciall 
manner. For although the promulgation of it be oftentimes 
propounded promifcuoufly 3 after the manner of men, yet by 
a {jpecial propriety it belong8,and is direfted to thofe to whom 
it was intended by God, who arc therefore called fonnes and 
heiresjofthispromifeandof falvation»G'^».l5.i</7. 1.39.& 3. 
25./Ztf.4 i6a5.& 9. j^'&^GaL^. 21. ap. 

16. 4. In the beginning or moving caufe : for there God 
according to his foveraingty did worke out of his wift and 
juft counfell : but here mercy only hath place* There indeed 
there did feme refpeft of grace (hine forth , in appointing 
a reward due to obedience : yet it was not properly dire&ed 
by grace : and fo not this covenant ofgrace, but that was 
accompliftied 5 that is, it did aftually lead man^ to happi-*. 
nefle. .bc\> .^» 

17. 5* In the founilation, which in the former was the 
ability of man himfelfe ; but in this,Ghrift Jcfijs* 

18; 6. Jn the matter or good things promiftd : for in that 
God promifed life only ^ butinthxshe prami(etbrighteou& 
neneal(Q,andalithemeanes of life r becaufe to man being 
dcad^notthe continancc qt perfeAion of life, butreftoring 
wasneceflary. > . 

' 1 9, ? 7« Jn the con<Mons : for that reqtured perfefl: obe- 
dicncfe ofworkes> which was alfotobcperlbi^ bj^ man. 
(Sfhisdwn ftrci^th before any ciieft of the promife, that it 
might haverefpeA of n^eritunto it : but this requires not any 
condition properly fo called, or going before, but only fol- 
Ipwing after dfcomming^ctweenc, : and that itb be com- 
mhnicated by grace^ tbatritmlghttK^.amcianestopcr^rctho 
lame grace: whtchistheproper nature of Faith. r ',^:rii 

20. 8. Intheeffcfts:for;thatte?tiheth-ahd fticwethwhat* 

is righteous, butthis.beftowes rightcouftTci& it felfe , in that 

tbeiewas adead iett»c^ anddeadiy ta>a4im]er: : but ifKthisa. 

i^ickriing^idG/t hfii^h w »ii 5?' r:d nuiu i.li jngurva-) ihr^b 

2 1 »HeAce that never brought (alvMion to any man , nei^ 


OfTredejiinsHon. 103 

tbcr could bring any thing to a linner, butoncly death : but 
this doth not properly and of it felfc bring death or condem- 
nation to any , but it brings aflurcd falvation to all thofe of 
whom it is received. 

22. 9. In the adjinft of continuance : for that is anti- 
quated in rcfpeft of thofe who arc partakers of this new ; but 
thisiseverlafting^ bothinrefpeft of the countenance it hath 
in it (clfe , bccaufc it admitts no en JjOr change, touching the 
fobrtance^and alfo in refpeft of thofe to whom ic is communi- 
cated, bccaufe the grace of this covenant doth continue for 
ever with them, who are once truly in covenant*^ 

Chapter XXv. 

!• Tr\Ecaufe this application of redemption is made to 
|%romecertainemen, andnottoalljfothat itftieweth 
jLJ A manifeft difference betweene men, in refpeft of the 
di(pcnfation of grace ; hence it doth make the preiefti- 
natiori of God concerning men appearc to us in the fir ft 

, 2f Predeftination indeed was from eternity 5 £ph.\. 4, He 
hath chofen us before the foundations of the World were 
Uidr 2. Tf>i».x.9^ Which grace was given us before all ages# 
And it did alfo worke from the beginning of the workcs 
of God : but it makes no inwarddifFerencein the Predeftiriate 
t-hemfelvcs before the a(ftuali difpenfation of this applicati- 
6ri» jfipfc.2. 3# And we were by nature the children of wrath 
as wcUas others* i Cor.6m\\. Thus yee were indeed. For 
Predeftination before the application of grace doth put no- 
thing in the pcrfons Predeftinated^but it doth lie hid only in 
him that doth predeftinate. 

^. This Predeftination is the decree of God of manifeft- 
ing his fpeciall glory in the eternall condition of men* Rom. 
jl.21^2^. Willing ta (bcWc hi^^wrathand to makchis power 
.-pi : O 3 knowne 

104' Of Predefiinatiofi. 

ktiownchefiifFcrcdwith much long fufFcring thevefTells of 
wrath, prepared to deftmftion. And to make knowneche 
riches of his glory towards tlie veflTels of mercy v^hich he 
liach prepared unto glory. I Thef 5.9. God hath not appoin- 
ted us to y^rath, but toobtaine iDercy. 

4. Iciscallcddeftination cbecaufeit is a ccrtainc determi- 
nation of the order of raeanes unto the end. But becaufe God 
had determined this order with himfelfe , before any aAualt 
cxiftencc oi things, therefore it is not fimply called dcftina- 
tion,but predeftjnation* ^ 

$ . It is called a decree : becaufe it containes a definite (en- 
t^jncc to be executed by certaine counfell. In the fame 
fence alfo it it called a purpofe, and counfell, becaufe it pro- 
pounds an end to be attained unto, as it were with an advifed 

6. Hence predeftination hath grcatcft wifdomc , frcedomc, 
firmencflCj and immutability joyned with it : becaufe tbefeare 
found in all the decrees of God. 

7, Therefore the realbn of Predeftination is unmoveablc, 
and indiflTolublCj 2 7Vw,2# i p. The foundation of God ftand« 
etb (lire having this feale. The Lord knoweth who are his. 
And under that refpeft the number of the predeftinatcd, ^ not 
only the formall number , or number numbering ^as they 
%cake ) that is, how many men at length fliall be (aved, and 
how many not ; but alfo the materiall number or number 
numbredj that is, who thofe feverall men arc ) is certaine 
with God , not only by certainty of foreknowlcdge^but alio 
by certainty of order of meanes.Z^aio.ao.Rejoycc that your 
names are written in the Heavens* 

8. For Predeftination doth not neceflarily prciuppofe 
either its limit^or objeft as exiftlng^but itmakech it to exift : 
I0 that by force of predeftination it is ordered^ that it (hould 
ht.\,?eui.20.0flhrijl for ehjtorpm before thefonndations of the 
world were laid. 

9. Hmce alfo it depends upon no caufe/reafon orout^ 
ward condition , but it doth purely proceed from the will 
of himthatpredeftinateth. LMat.11.26. Even (b Fatherjbc- 
caufe it pleafed thee. Rom.^.i6.i%. It is not of him that 
willetb , nocjof him that runneth ^ but of God that fheweth 
;. * ' mercy: 

of Prcdefiination. ro5 

fncrcy:hc hath mercy on whom he will, and whonci he will he 

to. Hence it is neither neccflary nor agreeable to the 
Scriptures either to appoint any fore- required quality in man, 
as it were the formal] objeft of Predeftination : or foto.;(Iigne 
any certaine condition of man ^ that the reft (hould be exclu- 
ded :forit is fufficient touoderftand that menaretheobjccl 
of this dccrte,(b that the diiFcrencc of the decree doth not de- 
pend upon man, but that difference^ which is found in men, 
doth follow upon the decree. 

ii.In order of intention there is no forc-knowledgc>fore-re- 
quircdjOr ought to be prefuppoi^ unto the decree of Predefti- 
natioHsbefidee that fimple intelligence which is of all polTible 
things : becau(e it depends not upoii any reafon , or cternall 
condition 5 but doth purely proceed from the will of him 
that doth prcdeftinate. Eph.i.^.p. He hath predeftinatcd 
u$ according to the good pleafurc of his owne will. Ac- 
cording to bis free good will which he had purpoftd in 

12. It is properly an a(ft of Gods Will whereby it is cxer- 
cifcd about a cwtaine obje(5k which ic determines to britig 
to a certaine end by certaine meanes. Efh.i.ii* We were 
chofcn,when we wercprcdeftinaCed,according to the purpofe 
of him that workcthalhhings according to the pleafurcof 
his own wil!# 

13. This decree as ic doth exift in the mind of God prc- 
fuppofing an aft of the will is called fore-knowledge : whence 
it comes to pafle that forc-kno^vledgc fignifics as much 
(bmetime as Predeftination 5 but lefTc properly ^ Romans 
I It 2. Hee hath not caft away his people whom hec fore- 

14. There is only one a6lofwilI in God properly jbecauft 
all ^ings in hkn are together , and nothing before or after^ 
and fo there is oiiiy one dea«e about the end and mcanes : 
but after our manner of conceiving , God in order of inten- 
tion doth will the end before the meanes. Ro/k.^.^o. Whom 
hehathpredeftinatedj thofc he called : although in€)rderof 
execution 5 he willcth the mcanes firft before their direftion 
totheend% 2 Thef.2. 13. He hath chofen -us tio falvation 
through fanftification,and faith. 1 5. Some- 

io6 of Prtdeflimticn* 

15. Some things are the ireanes, and the end , and the 
cauiesalfoofothdrmeanes. M^ 6.37, Whatfoevef the Fa- 
ther givcth me (hall come to me, and him that ccmmcth 
tome I will in no wife caft away, yet they are not caufes 
of the ad ic fclfe of Predeftination , nor of all the cffe6ls 
of ic. 

i6i There are feme meancs which oftheir own nature are 
ordered to the end of Predeftination : of which fort are all 
thofe things which pertaine to the grace revealed in the Gof- 
pell 5 but other things in a certaine outward refpeft arc 
fubje^ted to this order: fuch as are naturall good orcvill 
things which above or beyond their nature through the 
over-ruling dircftion of grace doe workc together to our 

17. OfPrcdeftination there are two kindcs, Eleftionand 

18. Eleftion is the predeftination of fome certaine men, 
that the glorious grace of God may be manifefted in them* 
£^^.1.4,5, 6.Hehathchofen u8, he hathpredcftinatcdusto 
the praifc of his glorious grace. 

i9.Ele£tionisana(5^ofthewill, which in God is only one 
and fimple :y et after cur manner of conceiving ic fees forth(by 
Synecdoche) by divers aft«. 

20; The fir ft aft of eleftion then is to will the glory ^ 
of his grace in the falvation of fomc men. 2 The^a* 2. 
13. God hath chofed us from the beginning unto fal- 

21. The (eeond aft Is to appoint (bme certaine men who 
(hal be made partakers of this falvation.i«T/w»2.i9.The Lord 
knoweth who are hif. 

22. But the proper reafon of eledion is in this fecond 
aft,whichaft containes theie three things in the conceavrng 
ofit» i. Lose^Rom.^.i^. i.Lovewithrcfpefttoafuperna- 
turalland chicfe good, ^rr.31.5. EfL%.2^. 3^ Love with a 
feparatingfrom others : in which comparative manner, there 
i^ contained a certaine virtuall intention of love* Rem. 9. 1 5, 

23. The third aft of eleftion is a purpole or intention of 
preparing and direfting thofe meanes by which men clcfted 

. are 

C^ PredefifH4thm. 

areccrtainely lead through to falvation asco ah cnd.But theft 
mcanes are properly rcdemptionjand application of redempti- 
on! Iohn6.:^j. 2 The^. 2*131 

24. This third aft m a fpccrall rcfpeft is called prcdeftf- 
nation : which is fometirac in the Scriptures diitinguiftcd 
from cleftion^vcn as it reipefts the cleft above, R^rt^S.iy. 
Epki 4.&5. Whom he did fore- know, thofe hcallopiecic- 
ftinated* As he hath chofen us. Who hath prcdtltinated nu 
Although otherwifcbya fynecdochc it is uicd in the fame 
fence with eleftion, •i^' 

25. Hence Prcdeftination is fomerime faid to.be accord- 
ing to his purpofc. Eph.iAh And his purpofc according 
to eleftion, Rcm.^. 1 1. And eleftion alfo according to pur- 
pofc, thecounfell, and goodplcafurc of the WillofGod, 

16. There doth a certaine knowledge particularly accom- 
pany theft afts of will in eleftion in the mind of God, where- 
by God doth moft certainly know the heiresof et^rnail life : 
whence alfo eleftion it ftlfe is called > knowledge or fore- 
knowledge. Rom. 8.29. But this knowledge ofGodbecauft 
with greateft firmn^flfe it retaines the diftinft names of thofe 
that are to be faved , .and the good things appoioted for 
them , as if all were written in Gods Booke, therefore it 
is called the booke of Life. T/^Z/^^^p. 29. Revelations ^^'y. 
and 1 3.8» 

2 7. This eleftion was ojily one in God in refpeft of whole 
Chriftmyfticailyconfidered, thatiSjofChtift, andofthoft 
who are in Chrift, as there was one Creation o^f ail man- 
kind ;yet as a certaine diftin^ftion may beconceived according 
to reafoUjChrift was firft clefted as the Head , and then (omc 
men as in embers in him. f)?^. I r4. 

28. YecChrift is not the meritorious, or impulfivecauft 
in refpeft of the eleftion of men it lelfe , although it hath 
the reafon of a caufe in refpeft of all the cffi^fts of 
of eleftion, which follow the fending of Chrift him* 

29. Chrift kimfclfe in the firft aft of eleftion as touching 
the wbrkc of redemption is rightly (aid to be an cffcft , and 
meanes ordained to th^jEalvation of man, as the end ^ as this 

P (alva- 

cjq3 Of fridtfiinatkn. 

fo^Wiicibn is the aAion of God, lohn 1 7. 6^ Thine they were, 
•iat>4 tlwu gaveft them me. Yet asthisfalvationis our good, 
Chrift is not the effecftjbut the caufc of it. So it may be right- 
ly faid in rcfped of the fidl aft of elcftion^that Chrift the 
redeemer was the leflfeft and fubordinatc meanes^ but in the 
third aft of ekftion he is to be confidered as a caafe,^/?/?. i ,5^ 
He hath bkffcd us with all fpirituall blcffings, in the Heavens, 
in Chrift. 

30.Reprobation is the predcftinating of fome certaine menj 
that the glory of Godsjuftice might be manifcftcd in them. 

3 1 .Three &fl:s ^rc tobe conceived in rcprpbation^as before 
ineleaion. 1:: ficij 

3a. The firft a^lis to Will the ietting forth of Juftice.Thcre- 
fore the end of God in reprobation , is not properly the de- 
ftruiiionot tbeCrfature^but the Juftice ^fGod,wfa£:h (bines 
forth in deformed deftrudtion. 

33. Hence is the firft difference in reafbn betwecne eleftion 
and reprobation 5 for in eledion not only the glorious grace 
of G6d b^thtber€fpcftofanend:butaIfo theialvattonof 
men themfelves : but in reprobation damnaticm in it felfe hath 
notthcrefpccflofknend, orofgood. '^ t : ..; : 

34. The fecond aft is to appoint thoft certaine men 
in whom this Juftice of G o d ftiould be made manifeft. 
Jnie 4. . ^ 

^5. Thataftcannot^properly becalled eleftion : becaufe 
itisnot^rtdfUovejneither doth it biding the beftowing of 
any good, but the privation of it : Therefore it is properly 
called reprobation , becanft it doth rejeft or remove thole 
aboutwhomitis exerciXcdj from that love wherewith the 
cleft are appointed to (alvation* As therefore in eleftion^ 
therei^dovewithdifcerningfo in reprobation there is fecne 
the dentall of love with putting a difference. 

36. But bccaufe this negative fctting apart which is fctind 
in reprobation, dpth depend upon that(cttingapart::iwhich 
is in eleftion : hence the remote end of reprobation is: the 
glory of that grace which il^mianiFefted in ekftion..ffi2>^. 5^22, 
aj.He (fifferedthdveflck Qfl«7rath,thattiemighrmake known 
the riches of hi^ glory toward the stSAz of mercy* 



of Calling* 109 

37» Bccaufc of this fetting apart, whereby God will not 
communicate bkiledDefle upop ^n^^ £^^^9*^ 9 ^ *^ there* 
fore faid to h^te them. Kow*^. 13. Thie hatred ,i& called nc- 
gativcj or privative^ bcca:xifcit denies ekftion : butic includci' 
a pofitive aft whereby God would that forae (hould be depri^ 
vcd of life etcrnall. 

38. Nevertheleflc in this is the (econddiflferenccofrea- 
fon , between election and reprobation , that the love of 
ele&ionj doth bcftow the good on the Creature immediate 
ly, but the hatred of reprobation,doth only deny good^doth 
not bring or inflift cvill^but the dclert of the Creature com- 
ming bctweenr 

39*Tbe third aft of reprobatio is an intention todireft tboft 
meanes whereby Juftice may be manifcfted in the reprobate* r, 
The moft proper meanes of this kind are permiflion of fi% 
and living in fin, Rom.^jS zThejf.i.iiyXt. 

40. In this aft there is the third diflperence of rcafon be- 
tween elcftion and reprobation^ that cleftion is the caufej not 
only of falvation , but alfo of all thpfe things which have 
theconfideration of a caufe unto falvation :but reprobation is 
not properly a caufcjcither of damnation, or of finwhich de* 
fcrves damnation, but an antecedent only. 
, .41.^ Pence ^^Ifo foUowesa fourth diiparityj that the yery 
meanes have not alwaycs among themftlves the refpeftof^, 
c^ufe and efFeft : for the permirtion of fin is npt the caule 6i 
forfaking hardningjpuniftiingjbut fin it (elf(p. 

' vC ^* i i •■'•-►"' -^-'^ V .;^ .* .» /i ' - - * _^ 

-y;^ ^ J '\ \ . J^ I .^^ >.'' . - o . "* — r" '■ • ' ^' ^. . '.I ' rr » 

of Callini. 
Hitherto cf application : The farts ofitftl/owl 

i.^TP'HE parts of Application arc two. Union with 

I Chrift, and communion of the benefits that flow 

A from thatUnion* PhiL^.^. That I may be found in 

him^having the righ:eoufnc0c that is by the Faith of Chrifto 

P a a.This 

to This UnioD is that fpirituall relation ' of men to Chrift 
whereby they obtaine right to all thofc Meflitrgs which arc 
prepared in him. r lohn 5 A2mHe that hath the Sonne hath life : 
Am.ik^^^ H^ iwelleth in bim^ and he in him. 
j.This Union ts wrought by calling . 
4. ForCilUng is a gathering of mcn'togethcr to Chrift, 
chat they may be imited with him. 1 7^^.2.4, 5, To whom 
comming , EpK 4. 1 2. For the gathering together of the 
Saints for the edifying oi the Body of Chrift. From which 
Union with Chrift there follwes Union with G o d the Fa* 
ther. I T/;<?/-i. i,&^*i.i.Tp the Church which is in God the 
Father,and in our Lord Jefus Chrift. 

5» This therefore is that firft thing which pertames to the 
applicationofredemption. Efh*!*'^^^^. In whom we have 
redemption, &ۥ After he made known imto us the my ftery 
of his will : and ici« that firft thing which doth make a man 
aftually elefted in himfelfe , that is the firft aft ofeleftion 
which IS ihewed forth and cxerci(cd in man himfelfe : 
whence alfo it is that Calling and eleftion are fometime taken 
in the Scriptures in the fame fence, i Cor.\.i6^2'j, 2%. Tee 
fee your CaUing'. God hath chofen foolifli things and weakc 
things. - rr 

6. Hence the Calling of men doth not in kny ibr t depend 
ilpon the dignity , honefty , induftfy , or if\j ittdcavowrof 
the called,but upon eleSion and preJeftination of God only.' 
ASls 2.47. The Lord did ad to the Church fuch as fhould 
befaved. And 15.48. As many as were ordainedtolifebc- 
lieved.5^;» S.30. Whooihcpredeftinated, them alio he cal* 
led : T/V,3.$ . Hat by. works of rightc^lheffe, but of his own 
mercy, lames 1 18. Of his owne will be^at hem bj they^ri 
of truth. 

7. The parts of Calling are two; The offer of Chrift, and 
the receiving of him. 7^^?74. 1 1, Became to his owtvand his 
own received him riot.^uf to as ttiany as receive him^ he gave 
tothem>&c. _ 

8. Theoffeoisanbbjeftlve propouncHng of Chrift, as of 
a meanes Efficient and ncceffary to falvatibn. 1 Cota .>5,2^, 
We preach Chrift, the Power of God and the Wifdofn^^ 
GoD.^ Hebr^y.2^. He is ablj^ pcrfeftly to (avc thofc t|fe 

OfCalUng. Ill 

conac to God by him. ABs 4. la. 'Neither is there any other 
name under HeaYen,which is given among men^ by which we 
muft be favcd. 

9. But theic is nothing propounded 5 nor ou^ht to be pro- 
pounded of Chrift, in the Calling of men 5 to be believed 
as true 3 which is not (imply and abfolutely true. For this 
is both againft the nature of a tcftimony , as itis anobjeft 
of that Faith which is in the underftanding , theforraall 
rcafon whereof is truth ; and alfo is againft tbe nature of the 
Gofpell it IcIfCjWhich by an excellency, is called the word of 
tiuch.Ff^. I i:j. 

10, TheofFer of Ghrift is out ward, or inward* 

1 !• Thcoutward is a propounding, or preaching of the 
the Gofpell or of the pro miles of Ghrift, y4<??rp:i5,That 
he may bcare my name in the fight of the Gemdts. 

12. Yet that man be prepared to receive the promifts, 
the application of the Law doth ordinarily goc before to 
the difcovery of fin , and incxcufabknefle tnd humili- 
ation of the fiuner : Row. 7* 7. I knew not finne,but by 
the Law. 

ij.Thofe promifts as touching the outward promul^tionj 
are propounded to all without difference , together with a 
comt^and to believe them , but as touching the propriety 
of the things promi(ed 3 which depends upon the intention 
of him that promifeth , they belong only to the elcft , who^ 
arc therefore called the^onnes and hcires of the promift. 

r4. The inward offer is a (pirituall cnlightningj whereby 
tbofe prom ifes are projpcunded to» the hearts of men, as it 
Were by an inward word. John 6.\<^^ Whofoever hath heard ' 
of tbe Father and hath learned , commeth tome. E}>h. 1.17. 
That be might give unto you the fpirit of wifdome and reve-» 
lation, the eyes of yoiir mind being enlightened, that ye may 
know w4iac is thlt hope of your calling. 

15 TWs alfo is (omeiifne, and in a certaine manner gran- 
ted to thofe that are notelefted. Hcbrtvpes 6. 4. 8c K).2p* 

16. If any one oppofe himfelfe out of malice to this 
illumiflationjhe commits a fin againft the Holy Ghoft^ which 

P 3 is 

112 ofeSittg, 

is called unpardanablcj or unto death. Beh.6.6*ic ia2^« i 

17. The receiving of Chrift is that whereby Chrift being, 
offered is joy ncd to niaH,and man unto Chrift* lohn 6.'y6. He 
abides in me^ and I him. 

18. In refpeft of this conjunftion we fay that we arc in 
Chrift,^ C^r. 5» 17. And to put on Chrift. (7^/*3^27.To be dwel- 
led in by Chrift* Eph^^.iy, The houfe of Chrift. Hebr.^.Cs 
the Temple of Chriftj 2Cor^6A6. To be efpoufcd to Chrift. 
J5/>A.5.23.BranchesofChriffy/fl'/7» 15. 5. Members of Chrift, 
1 Cor. 1 2. 1 2. And the Name of Chrift is in a certaine manner 
communicated to us. : I ^(^.i2.i2.So alfo is Chrift. 

. I?. By reafonof'thisreceiving, Calling is called conver- 
fioip^ ABs26*20. B^cauft all they who obey the call of God, 
. arc wholly converted from fin to grace, from the world to 
follow God in Chrift : It is alfo called regeneration as by 
that word, the very beginning of anew life^ of a new Crea- 
tion, of a new Creature y is often fet forth in the Scrip- 
tures, lohrf U 13* & 5« 6. r John 3. p. i Tet. I. 23. & 22. 
As in refpeft of the offer it is properly called 3 Calling , as 
Go D doth effeSually invite and draw men to Chrift. 

^o- Receiving in rcfpeft of man is either paftive^ or aftivc^-^ 
Phiiippram ^. 12. That I may apprehend : I was^ apprrf-o 

i I* Pa(£vc receiving of Chrift is that whereby a fpirituall 
principle of grace is begotten in the will of man. Ej^^ a;5 . 
Hchathq^!ckned^,l^n I'Knjni ji ar' i^T: : :' / :. i 

! 22. For this grace is the foundation of that revelation 
whereby a man is umccd with Chrift , I^hr^ 3. 5. Except 
a man bee borne againe^ hee cannot ftc the Kingdome of 

G O D. 

a3^But the will is the moft proper and prime {uhjeS:oi this 
grace, becaule the converfion of the will is an effeftuall 
principle of the converfion of the whole man. T^hil.2. 17. It 
isGod that wotketh in youboth to willand to doc^of hisowti 
good pleaftirc. ..^ 

14. The enlightning of the mind isnotfufficicnttopro* 

ilwcthisefFeA , bccaufe it doth not take away that corrup* 

A tion 


OfCalling. H3 

tion which is in the will , neither doth it communicate ui^o 
it any new fupcmaturall principle, by vcrtuc whereof it may 
convert it fclfe. 

2$ . Yet the will in refpeft of this fir ft receiving, hath not 
the confidcration either of a free agent ^ or a naturall patient^ 
but only of obedient iall fubjeftion. 2. Ctrr.^.S. Becauft God 
who hath faid that light ftiould (hine out of darkencfle, he it 
is who hath (hined in owr hearts, 

26# AL(5tive receiving is Atipts elicttu^^zn ad of Faith drawn 
forth , whereby he that is called doth now wholly Icane 
upon Chrift as his Saviour 5 and byChiiftupon God 5 lohn 
3,i5.i6.Whoroevcrbelievesinh5m3i Pet. 1.21, Throughiikn 

27.This a(?l of Faith doth depend partly upon a principle 
or habit of grace ingenerated, and partly upon the operatien 
of God moving before and ftirriiig up, lohn6.^^.^ Noqecaa 
come to me^unleffe the Father draw nlmi t .r r 

28. It is indeed drawen out and exercifed by man free- 
ly, but certainly unavoydabl/j and unchangeably, lohn 
6. 5 J. Whatfoever my Father giveth mee (hall come un- 
to mce. -# .c ;L:ri.: ; .>o :;,'^!JW3•T 

2^. With this Faith wherewith the will is turned to tbe lit* 
ving of the true good ^ there i« alwayes joyned repentance, 
by which the fame wiU is turned alfo to the doing of the 
true good 5 with an averfneffe 3 and hatred of the contrary 
evill 5 or finne. Aits i^./^* CMarc. 1,15. Repent^ and believe 
the Gofpell. 

3C.ftepentance""haththe fame eaufes and principles with 
Faith/or they are both the freegifts of God. Eph.2.S. Faith 
is the gift of Godi^ T'/«7*2.25. Whether God will atany time 
give them repentance. They have the (ame fubeft, becaufe 
both have their feat in the heart or will of man. Ropr. 10*9. 
I Kip7ffs 8.48. With the heart manbelieveth. Theylhallre- 
turne with all their heart. They are alfo begotten ^at the fame 
time* Butj firft, they have divers objefts, for Faith is'pro- 
perly carried unto ChWft^and by Chrift linto God : but re- 
pentance Is carried to God himfelfe who was befof«<)fFen'' 
ded by fin,' ifS/ ^20.2 !.- Repentance toward Godjand Faith 
tovrard our Lord Jeftis Chrift. Secondly ^ they havedivers 


H4 OfjH^ificatioH. 

ehds for Faith doth properly fecke reconciliation With God, 
butrepentancc a (utablencffe to the will of God* Rom.^. 25. 
A reconciliation through Fait bin his bloud. ARy 26.10^ 
That they (hould turne unto God doing workes mccte to 

3 1 •Repentance In refpeft of tft at care mine flcjand anxiety & 
terror ariling from theLaw which it haih joy ned with it,doth 
goc before Faith , by order of naturc^as a preparing and dif- 
poling caufc .' but in rcfpedl of that ^c&uall and kindly tur- 
ning away from tin , a^ God is offended by it 5 (6 it foliowcs 
Faith 5 and depends upon it as the effeft upon his caufe, and 
herein is proper to the faithfulK 

32* Although this repentance doth alwayes bring griefc 
withit for fins paft and ^relent, yet it doth not (b properly 
or eflentially confift in griete, as in turning from , and hatred 
of fin^and in a firniepurpofe to follow after good, -^;w(?j 5 ♦i^, 
1 5. Hate the evilly Love the^ood. 

.3 3. 1 hat repentance is not true and (bundj which doth not 
turne a man from all known fin, to every known good: neither 
that which doth not virtually continue , and is aftually re- 
newed as often as need is , from the time of converfion to the 
end of life* 

34. Repentance is wont to beperceivcd before Faith : be^ 
caule a finner cannot eafily pcrfwade himfelfe that he is re- 
conciled to God in Chrift, before he fcelehimfelfetohave 
forfakcn thofe fins which did ftparate him fron^ God. 

Chapter XXV IL 

Of JtiTlification^ 

-J, X^Ommunion of the bleffings flowing from Unioa 
I with Chrift is that whereby the faithfull are made 
- . . ;%^-/pai'trfk€rs of all thole thinjgs they have need of^to live 
j^cU 5 ;and blcffedly with God. SjJo. 1.1^. He hath blefled ns 
*vkb all rpirituall blcffings. Km.^M^iMt who fpared ngt his 




of Jufiificatien^ 
own Son ^ &c. How fhall hciiot fredy with him give as all 

•a. This comrnunion therefore doth bring a tranflation 
and change of condition to believers, from the ftatc of fin 
and death, to the ftate of righteoufnefle and life eternall. 
I lohn 3** 14* Wc know that we aretranflatcd from death 
to lift. rii>ii/:n^iflv;'^ 

5/ This change of ftatc is twofold 5 relative, and abfolutc 
or reall. 

4, A relative change of ftate is that which confifts in Gods 
reputation. Rom*^,%. And hethat worketh not,but believeth 
in bifm that juftifieth the ungodly, his faith is imputed to 
him for righteoufiieflcji C^r.^^li^ God was in Chrift recon- 
ciling the World to himiclfe : not imputing to them their 

offences* ' 

5, Hence it admits no decrees ptoperly 10 Called, but it 
is together and at once perfeft in one only aft, although in 
refpcft of the manifeftation. fence , and effefts^ it hath divers 
degrecs.Hitherto pertaines juftification and adoption. 

60 Juftification is a gracious fentence of God , wherebjr 
forChriftsfakc apprehended by Faith he doth abfolve the 
believer from fin and death, & accounts him righteous unto 
life. R(m.'^*22.%^. The righteoufnefle of God by Faith of 
leftis Chrift in all, and upon all that believe : as they who arc 
freely juftificd by his grace through the redemption made by 

7.1t is the pronouncing of a fentence, as the ufe of the word 
dedares, which doth not fet forth a phy ficall^or re.^l! change 
in the holy Scriptures : but that judiciall. or n^orall change 
which confifts in pronouncing of a fentence and in reputa- 
tion ProvAJ^i'i* He that juftifies the wicker^. Rnn?.S.^^. 
Who ftiall lay any thing to the charge of Gods Eleft ?Itis 

God that Juftifies. t , r / 

8. Therefore T^^»^^ with his followers doth fowly erre, 
who would have juftification as it were a phyticall motion, 
by a reall tranfmutation from a ftatc of unrightoufnefle to 
aftateofrightecufnefTe^fo as that the terme from which is 
fin the terme to whicb^is inherent righteoufnefle, and the mo- 
tion is partly remiffion of lin^partly invdion of righteouftes. 
^ Q^ 9«lhis 

i ib OfluJiiJicaiiGn. 

9. This fefitencc was. i- As it were conceived in tkc 
mind of God by a decree of juftifying.G'<^/;5.8. The Scripture 
forefecmg that God would jiittifie the ^^«r/7<r J- by Faith* 2. 
It was pronounced in Chhit our head 5 now rifing frooi the 
dead* 2 Cor. 5.19. GodwasinChrift reconciling the world 
tohitnlclfcnotiraputing their fins to thecn* ?• It is virtually 
pronounced upon that firft relation which arifcth upon Fiaith 
begotten, Rom^^.u There is therefope no condemnation to 
them that are in Chrift Jefus. 4. It is cxprcfly pronounced by 
the Spirit of God *itneffing unco our fpirits oitr reconci- 
liation with God. Rom^'y.'y The Iwe of God is flied abroad 
in our hearts by the holy Spirit tbac is given fou^ In this 
teftimony of the fpirit juftification it felfe doth not fo proper- 
ly confift, as an aduall perceiving ofthat before granted as it 
were by a rcfleftcd aft of Faith. 

10. It is a gratious (entence^ becauleit is not properly 
given by the Jufticeof God5but by hisgrace^ Rom.:^^^ Free- 
ly by his grace. For by the fami5 grace whereby he called 
Chrift to the office of Mediatory and did draw theeleftto 
Union with-Ghrift, he doth account them being already 
drawn and believing. to be)uft by that Union* 

11. It is for Chrifts iak^, a Cor. 5.21. Thatv^re mayiip 
made the righteoufnefle of God inWin » fqr the obedience 
of Chrift is that rightcouihefTc in refpeft whereof the grace 
ofGoddothjuftifieus, noothcyviife, then the difbbedience 
of Adam was that offence in refpeft whereof the juftice of God 
didcondemneus./tr#5,i8. ,. 

II* Therefore the righteo\ifn^fle ojfChriftjis imputed to 
believers in juftification. "P^rV.j.p. That I maybefoundln 
h im not havi ng mine own righteoufnefle which is ot the Law, 
but that which is by Faith of Chrift^the righteoufnefle of 
God through Faith. -. j. m^ •• 

15. But becaufe this righteoufnefle is ordained of God 
tothatend^andby hisgrace is approved and confirmed :fb 
that.finners can ftand before him through this righteout 
neffc 5 therefore it is called the righteoufnefle of God. 

Rom.10^2. . • T} rT ., - 

14. But this Juftification 13 fbr Chrift , not abfolutely 
co^niideredj ia which fence Chrift is^ alio the caufe of vo- 


Ciiion, but for Chrift apprehended by Faitb^which Faith 
doth follow Calling a3 aneffcft, and followcth righteouf^ 
ncile , by which bclog apprehended juftification fol- 
loives : whence alfo righteoufneffe is faid to be of Faith. 
R^imj^ns g.^o^ 8c l;0« l6» And juftification through Faith^ 

15 •; This juftlfyitig Faith is not that general! Faith where- 
by in the iinderftanding we yield affent to the truth revealed 
ia the holy Sewpcures : for that doth neither properly be- 
long to tiiore that are juftified ^ neither of it own nature hath 
itapy forcein kieUVtojuftifie, ncicberdoth it produce thofe 
efifc&s whichiar^ ev^ery where in the Scripture given to juftify^ 
big Fakb* ^ 

x^. Neither is it(to (peake properly)thae fpcciall confidence, 
whereby we doe apprehend retniffion of fins, and iuftificati^ 
on it fdfe t tor j^iiifying Faith goeth before juftification 
hfsil^ 1 u xh^ caufe goeth before the effeft^but Faith appre* 
beoding juftificattoa^ doth neccflarily prcfoppofe^ and foilo w 
/uftification, as an aft: foiiow^i the objeft about which it it 


^^7^ That Faith, therefons ii properly called fuftlfyingi 
whereby we reiy upon Clirift for remiiSon of fins and for 
falvation*For Chrift bthe ada^^atc objeft of Faith as Faithi 
JiUftify€th»Faith alfo doth no otherwilc juftifie^ then as it 
apprehends that righ^eouCieffe by which we arc Jiiftified s but 
tl^t righteouih^flre is not is the truth of Comt fentenceto 
which we yi^fct ai&ni^ tet in Chrift alonr^ who is made 
fimne for usj thai wee mi^ bse rtghteoufnefl§' in him ^ t 

il# Hence are tbofe Sermons (o often repeated in the 
nc^/Tfiftament^wbkkdot &ew that fuftiiication Is co be 
fOHgl^lor 10 CkUVdoji&:/«ib i^^f^.&^.i^a^f «tMo« 

, ;i 9i ,TbR juftifying Faith of it own nattiredoth producej, 
aprf fcrhath joyii^ with It a fp^eiall and cercaineperlwafion 
o^hfigcacflaftdmeroyof Ood in ChriO^ t whence W^jn'M- 
iwfti Faith it ofteiftiQiei^ Wl anrffli'.dtel^ 
thodon by diis p§rfwaiion^ iipecially when thcydoeop* 

of lufiification. 
pofc that generall Faith to which the Papifts afcribc all 
things: bur. t. Thisperfwalion as touching the fence of it^ 
is not ahvaycs prefcnt. For it may and often doth come to 
paflTe, either through weakcnefle of judgement, or through 
divers tentations and troubles of mind, that he, who truly 
believetb,aad is by Faith juftified before God , yet for a 
time may thinkc according to that which heefeeles,thathc 
neither bclieveth^nor is reconciled to God. a^There be divers 
degrees, of his perfwafion, fo that neicher all believers 
have altogether the fame affurance of the grace and favour 
of God, nor the fame believers at all times : which yet they 
cannot properly affirme of juftifying Faith without a great 
deale of detriment ofthatconfolatiou and peace which Chifft 
bath left to believers. 

2o.JufUfication abfolves from fin and death not immediate 
ly by taking away the blame, or flaine, oralltheefFedsof 
fin : but that oblation and guilttoundergoccternall death. S#. 
8.i,33,34.Thcre is n© condcmnation,who (hall lay any thing 
to their charge 'i who (hall condemne ? 

21. Neither yet doth it fo take away the guilt, as that 
'it takes away the defert of punifliracnt from the fin, wMch 
( thefinnc it felfie remayning, ) can in no fort be taken a- 
way 5 but it fo takes away the guilt, that it takes away the 
revenging purfuit of the defarc of it^ or the deadly effcfts 
of it. 

21^ This abfolution from fins is called in a divers rcfpeflt, 
but in the fame fcnc^in holy Scriptureg Kemi(fion , Redem- 
ption, and Reconciliation, Efh.\.6^j. For as the ftate of 
fin is eonfidered as a bondage , or certaine fpirituall captivi* 
ty in rcfpeft of the guilt, fo his juftification is called Redem- 
ption , but as the fame ftate is eonfidered iaa a (ub)cftion to 
doe puniihment| fo itiscalledremiiribn^asalfoapaifingby^ 
a^pttingout,^ adkburdening, d taking away,acaftiDga^ 
way, a removing, a cafting behind the back, K(?ffl;.4.7i CoL 
2.iq..tMkh.';,iS. Ijaj 43.12.38. 17. Pfa/.^2^i.7. And a« 
the fame ftate is eonfidered as a certaine enmity againft Ood, 
fo jaf^ficatipn is called r 9 reconciliation. Romany 5.I0. As 
alfo a ccrtaipjc irioWogat fin^ Nm^k^if^ A coveringof fin. 


Ofluftifcatitm * i i^ 

23. But not only the fmsofjuftifiedperfons that arc paft 
arc remitted, but aUb in feme fort thofe co come* Nnmb. 23. 
25. He fceth no iniquity in lacoh^ nor pervcrfncflein Ifrael^ 
bccaufe jfiftification hath left no place to condemnationj 
lohn 5.24. He that believeth hath eternall life,and (hall not 
come into conden" nation : and it doth certainly and immc- 
diatly adjudge one to eternall life. It alfomakcth all that 
rcmiilionj, which was in Chrift obtained for U6,to bcaftu- 
ally ours : neither can fins pad and preftnt be altogether and 
folly remitted, unleflc fins to come be in fomc fort remit- 

24. But there is this difference , that fins paft are remitted 
byaformall application, by fins to come onely virtually : 
fins paft are remitted in themlelyes^fins to come in the fubjcft 
or perfon finning. 

25. Yet thofe that arc juftified doe dailj defirethefor- 
givencflc of fins, i. Becaufc the continuance of this grace is 
neccflfary to them. a. That the fence and raanifeftation of 
it may be more and more perceived ^ as (cveraUfinnes re- 
quired. 3» That the execution of that fentcnce which in 
juftificJatioh is pronounced , might bee matured and for- 
thered. ' 

%$• Befides the forgivencflc of finnes there is required alfo 
imputation of righteoufncflcj Rom.^.iZ.Rev.ig.^.Rom. 8, 3. 
Becaufe there n^ay be a totall abfence of fin ,wherc notwith- 
ftanding there is not that righteoufnefle which nuft comein 
place of Juftification* 

a7.But this righteonrncflc is not feverafly to be fonght in 
the purity of the nature^birth^and life of Ghrift : but it arifeth 
out ofall the obedience of Chrift together with remiffion of 
fins^ as the fame difobedknce ofhdam^ hath both robbed us 
of originali righceoafnefle^and made us fubje^ to the guilt of 

0^3 Gap, XXVIII. 

no ofA6iopUcn> 


Of Aipftior. 

I. A Doption is ^bc gracious fcatcacc ef God whereby 
aA he accepts the faichfqll for Qhrifts fake , unto the 

JL jLdignityofSons. M/^ i»i2. As many as receive him^ 
to them he gave power tp be ma,{^e the Sons crf^God, to thoft 
that believe in his Namet 

2. It is called a gracious (entence of God : becaufe it doth, 
manifeft the gracious will of God toward men : i lohn 3 j.See 
what love the Father k^th (k^^.tqus, xh^^ ?iftftpv4<J b^ci* 
led the Sons of God. . .^e^b iin^-^'' .1 > mI : > -> - 

3; This fentence is pronounced with the ifame diverfity of 
degrees as juftiiication ; for it was iirl^ In Gods predefiination* 
Eph.i.%^ He hath predeiiinated qs^^that Ij^e might adopt us 
tp be Sons. Afterward it.was in CJi.yft^ ^^^•4*435*God hach 
fent forth his Son^ that we might receive adoption. After- 
wa^fd;;t WAS iq b^ievers therafelvcs , The fame Gh^ptier 
ferfe 6. And becaufeyee areSonnei God hath fent forth 
the Spirit of his^ Sonne into your hearts^ ^^ying^t/^^^n 

4. It is properly convcrfantab^Qt the faithfuy that are c«Ii- 
kdand^/nftified, M^^d^i^^For by adoption we ape not made 
jali ; which would neceflarily follow, if adoption wtm parr 
pn^ftifi^^^^^Pfl^t ^4^9^51 fpmewoy^^ .• neither Is It a 

c^Uingjiinto Chrift, byt a cervine ^cellene digtjity flovilog 
from tTie application of hkp. li^m^fi $^ *?• Heirei icf ^tli^ ; 
H^ith Chrift. 

5* Yet calling and Juflificadon have the rcfpeft of a 
foundation to this relation of Adoption : for the right of A« 
doption is obtained by Fakb>and the righteoufnefle of FaitL 

XohnHiz^ , ..;. ; <^. 

6iBut although Adoption follow upon Faith : yet it doth 
not foimmediatly foiiow^but juftification comes betweene : 


of Adoption. 121 

{at Adoption df its ownc nature doth forereqiiirc ^ and pre- 
(iippotc that reconciliation which is found in Juftification^ 

7. Hence all the faithfull doe expeft Heaven as it were by a 
double title, namely by the title ot redemption which they 
havebyiuitification, and by the title as it wereofSon-fiiip, 
which they have by Adoption. 

8. Which yctoQght fo to be underftood thatthetitJeof re- 
redemption is a foiindacion of this right5 and Adoption doth 
ad a certaine manner of excellency and dignity* 

f. Hence ari(eth the firft difference betvveene Divine A- 
doption and humane : for humane Adoption is ofaperfon 
thatisaftrangefjWhich hath no right to the inheritance, but 
by force of Adoption : but the faithful! although by naturall 
generation they have no right to the inheritance of life, yet 
by vertiie of regeneration, Faith and juftificationjthcy have k 
ad judged to them, 

lo. Hence alfo the (ccond difference followeth,that hu- 
mane adoption is only an extrinfecall denomination, and a 
communication of thofe things which are externall : but 
Divine adoption is a relation fo really that it is alfo founded 
in an intrinfecall adion^ and in the communicating of a new 

U.T his- Adoption is made for Chrifts fake : bccauft Chrift 
did not only dcferve it as Redeemer, (7^/.4v5. That he might 
redcemetbem, to receive the adoption of Sonr. But alfo as 
being already applied by Faith^he is the bond of this Union 
jfI<;w«8.i7*29,H€iresof GodjCoheires with Chrift.To be con^ 
formed to the Image of his Son. 

12. For as Chrift in juftificationis applied as a garment 
to cover our fi«S' : fo in Adoption he is applied as a brother 
and Prince of our falvation. H^^r. 2 • i c* i t,i 2, 1 3. Many Sons. 
The Prince of falvation. He that fanciificth, and they that 
arefanft^fied are all of one. He is not aftiamed to call them 
Brethren. Behold I and the children which God hath gi- 
ven mee. 

13. This application and conjunftion is fo neere, that 
although Chrift is properly the only natural! Son of God, 
and much more the firft begotten of God : yet by this grace 
of Adoption, and communion with Chriflj alltbt faichfiill 


1^2 Of Adoftion. 

alfo arc (aid to be the firft begotten of Godt HebALti^. Ycc 
arc come to the uaiverfall aflTcmbly and meeting of the firft 
borne who arc written in Heaven* 

14. Whence alio it appeares that believers are in a far diffe- 
rent manner the Sons of God then Ad^im was in thchrft 
Creation : for although ^</^»^ by reafon of tfcatdependancc 
which hec had of God together with that fimilitude and 
Image to which he was created , might be called racta- 
phorically the Son of God; yet he was not the Son of God by 
this my fticall con junftion and communion with Chrift who 
is the naturallSon of God» 

15. Hence ariftth the third difference bctwcenc humafic 
adoption and divine , for humane adoption was brotight in 
upon want ofa natural! Son : but the divine Adoption is not 

* from any wantj but out of aboundant goodnefle , whereby a 
Iflccnefleofa naturallSon, and a my fticall conjunftion with 
him is communicated to the adopted Sons. 

16. That dignity which this Adoption brings with it, 
doth not onely far exceed that common relation whereby 
God is faid to be the Father of every Creature : but that alfb 
which we had before the fall : because that was weake, but 
this by reafon of the band doth rcmaine for ever , John S.ja. 
The fcrvant abidech not in the houfe for ever : but the Son 
abideth for ever. 

17. Hence the Name ofGod and ofChrift is named upon 
the faithfully by a fpeciall right and rcafbn. I yfi'/?^^ 3.1. As 
Jacob taking the (bns oflofeph into adoption would have them 
called by his name. Ge^.^S. 5. 

1 8. Hence alfo the faithful! are taken as it were into Gods 
Family^ andareofhishou(hold% GaL6.ic. That is , that 
they may be alwayes under the fatherly tuition of God, de- ! 
pending uponbimj for nourifliment, education, andpcrpe- 
tuall confcrvation : as in old time among the Hehrcwes a- , 
doption oftentimes was no otherwifc teftiiied then by the ' 
nurtirring and education ^ of their next kindred in blood. I i 
Jieji. 2, J. I I 

< ip.Togcther with the dignity of fons there is joyned alfo I 
the condition of hcircs, Rom.S.iy. If fons^thenalfoheircs.- ' ^ 
But this inheritance to which the faithful! are adopted, is 

bleffedneiTe . 

of Adoption. 
bleflcdncflc cternall : whence adoption doth fometinieg in 
Scripture comprehend all that glory which is prepared for 
the faithful I , and is expefted by them in Heaven , Ron?. 
8, 23. Looking for our adoption, the redemption of oijr 
^ r 20. Therefore etcrnallbleflredneflcpertaines to tht iaith- 
full,and is communicated to themj^HOt of juftice for their de- 
fcrtf , but from that grsce whereby they are taken into the 
number of fonsii Gal.^.^9. If yee are Chfifts^then are yee yf- 
hrahams fee i,and heires by promife. 

21. Hence arifcth a ccrtaine fourth difference bctweenc 
humane adoption and divine :for humane adoption is ordain- 
ed for that that the Son might fucceed the Father in the in- 
heritance : but divine adoption is not ordained for fuccefiion, 
but for participation of the inheritance affigned; becaufe both 
■ the Father and his firft begotten Son liveth for ever^aad fo ad- 
mittethno (ucccffion, 

12 • A proper adjunft of this adoption is the tcftimony of 
the (pirit which is given to the faithfaU whereby this dignity 
is^aJcd together with the inheritance which is to be expeO:- 
ed from it, and it is called the (pirit of Adoption, Rom.%.i 5. 

23. But the Spirit is laid to be communicated to the faith- 
fully not becauft Faith goeth before all operation of tiic 
Spirit , as (bme unskilfully gather : for the very firft regenera- 
tion and converfion is plainly attributed to the holy Spirit 
by Chrift. hhnj.^^yS^Z, Borne of the (pirit : but becaufe 
believers onely after they have already believed , doe receive 
this operation of the holy Spirit whereby they are lealed , as 
withanearneft of their inheritance. Efh.ui^.i^^/^. 30. 

24. And hence alfo it doth (ufBciently appeare that aflii- 
ranee of falvation is not properly juftify ing Faith, but a fruit 
ofthat Faith: becaufe the Apoftlc cxprcfly (aith. After yee 
believed,ye were fealed. Eph.ui 3. 

25. The firft fruit of adoption is that Chriftian liberty. 
Whereby all believers are as fet at liberty by a roanumiffion 
as it were from the bondage of the Law , (in and the world. 
John 8, 32. 3 6. If the Son ftial fet you fi:ec,fc(hal be free indeed* 

R Riw. 

i?^«f.8.a2. Being freed from fin. we are made fcrvants unto 
God. Gal.^. Itttdakm which is ibove is frec,whichisthe 
mother of us all. Hcbr.2.1%. That he might fet at liberty 
thofe who for fearc of death were all their life time fub/cft to 

°" d! The fccond fruit is that the faithfuU partaking of the 
dignity of Chrirt,arealfoby him^as it were, Prophets, Priefts, 

indKings:fi<r?.i.^. ,,/-,. 

The third fruit is, that all the Creatures and thofe things 
which are done by them 5 arc either fubjeft unto the domi- 
nion and pure ufedhhe faithful!. r/M.t5.. I Or.3.2i.a2, 
Or doe pcrfor me the office olMiniftery forthem,as it is affirm- 
ed of the Awgclis. Bek 1,14V Or at leaft doe tome to their 
good* Rom, 8. 18. 

Chapter XX:i}t. 

• Of SanHifiiatiort. 

S$ WHch of the relative change of the condition (^f he fafthfiiU 

^'w^fufiifcatiar^.and Adoftion : the re all change folloTPa 

'• Tvherehj that former « manifefied^and as touching the 

^p^s^ as it werecormnittedto 


I, f I IHE reall change of ftate is an alteration of qukli- 
I tics made in man himlelfe. 2 Cor. 5, 17. Old things 
JL arepaftaway,allthings^are become new. 

2. Biit becaule it doth not confift in relation and refpcftj^ 
but in reall cfFefting ; therefore it admits divers degrees ^ of 
bcginningjprogrefic^and perfe(Sioni2 ^or.^,i6. The inward 
man is renewed day by day* 

3. This alteration of qualities doth either refpeft that good 
which is juft, andhoneft, and it is called Sanftification : 
pr that good which is profitable and honorablc^and it is cal- 
led glcrification. Ron:.6.22. Yec have your fruit in holinefle, 
and thcendcyeriafting life* ' 


4. S^n^jificatia n is a rcall change of a iran froni the filtlMt 
neflc of (in 5 to the purity of Gods Image* ^p^-^^^2 2.2^^2^; 
To put off as touching the old converfation , th^toidman, 
which doth corrupt it felfe in the dcctivabIcluLts:and tobe 
renewed in the fpiric of your mind ; and to put on that r:ew 
roan , who according to God is crcvited to righteoufnefie and 
true holinefle. 

J. For as by juftification a believer is properly freed from 
the guilt oi fin 3 and hath life adjudged to hirUj the title of 
which life is as ic werejdeterrhincd in adoption ; fo by fanfti* 
iicatioa the fam« believer is freed from the filthineflc and 
ftaine of iinne and the purity of Gods Image is reitored 
to him, 

6. For here by Sanftification is not underftood thefepa- 
ration from a common ufe and confecration to fome fpecxall 
life , in which fence the word is often taken in Scripture, 
fomctime ietting forth onely the outward, foraetimc alfo that 
inward and cffc^all feparation j for fo it may be extended 
to calling or that firft regeneration whereby Faith is com- 
municated as a principle of new life I in which fence rcge* 
neratiqn and Sanftiflcation is wont to be confounded by 
moil'; but by it is uad^rftood that change of a man , whereby 
i believer hath righteoufnefle and inherent holinefle commu- 
nicated to them. 2 Thejf.2.1^. Through Sanftiiication of 
the Spirit. ♦ . ^ . 

7. For God himfelfe doth raanitcftly witncffe that holi- 
nefle is a gift of grace inherent, /<?r.3 1 . 3 |.l will put my Lawcs 
intotheirmind, and in their he^rt will I write them, Ezech. 
^6.26. ay. I will give you a new heartland a new fpirit will 
I put into the midft of you. 

8. But thiifanftification is diftinguifhedjfrom that change 
of a man which is proper to the calling of a man in Faith and 
repentance, In that that Faith there isnocconfidcred pro- 
perly as a quality, but in relation to Chrift : neither is re- 
pentance there confidcred as a change of difpofition j for fo 
itisallonewithfandification : but as a change of the pur- 
pofeandmtentofthemind. But here a reall change of qua- 
lities and difpofitions is looked unto. 

9.ltU called a reail change^ thatittnaybediftiiiguiihed 

R 2 not 

of SanifificatioH* 

not onely from juftification,but alfo from that fanftification 
which is by Juftificatibn ^ as is the Sanftification of the 
fevcnth day : or alfo that which is by relation of a fig ne, as 
IS the San^ification of the elements in the Sacraments , or 
laftly^ that which is by manifeftation , in which manner 
God himfclfe is faid to bee (anftified by men. i ^eter 
3. 14. 

I o Jt is of the whole man ^ not of feme one part, i The^^ 
5 . 23 • Now the God of peace himfelfc fanftifie you wholly^ 
and your whok fpirit , foulc and body be preferved blameles 
unto the comming of our Lord Jcfuft Chrift. Although Co 
much of man 5 TantHm& totnm or that whole that is in man 
is not prcfently changed. 

I I • But although the whole man be partaker of this grace^ 
yctitfirftand chiefly agrees to the (bule^and afterward from 
the foule is derived to the body, as the body of it is capable 
by that obcdientiall power wherewith together with the 
foule it is (tibjefk to the will of God. So alfo in the foulc firft 
and properly it agrees to the will, from which it is derived 
into other faculties according to the order of nature. Detit. 

^0.6. The Lord thy God fhall circumcife thy heart, and 
the heart of thy iced , to love the Lord thy GodwkK^all thy 
heartland with all thy loule,that thou raaift Dve.2!:(?w.2.2^4Thc 
circumcifion of the heart. 

12. It is a change ofa man from fin^ to diftinguifli it from 
that fanftification which is^A contrArio mere negativo fromthe 
meere negative contrary^ foch as that was which is attributed 
to the humane nature of Ghriftj which is faid to be (anftified, 
or made holy^although the nature of Ghrift was never defikd 

13. The tcrmc from which this is,is filthineflc, corruption^ 
or the blot of fin, a Cor.j*u Let us purge our felves from all 
filthinc(Ie offleih and fpirit 3 perfedtingholincflTe in thefearc 
of God. 

i^Thc tcrmc to which,iathc purity of Go Is Image^whicb 
is faid to be framed or created againe in knowledgt^ righteouf- 
aefle and holincfie. Efk^.2i^ Or a conformity to the Law 
oiGo&.Jani.i.2^. Newnes of life, Rom.6Jj^. The new crea- 
l«re,2 C(^.5«ii5r(7^6a54& the Divide natlir^^2T^M.4» 

^ i5*Biit 

OfSanSification* 127 

i 5.But it IS called the new and Divine creature. !• Becauft 
it is not produced of thofe principles which are in us by 
nature, as thehabic of all arts are brought forth which are 
gotten by induftry and learning , but out of a new principle 
of life , communicated by God unto us , in our calling.2.Be- 
cau(e our naturall difpolition is altogether of another fcinde 
then it was before. 3* Bccaufc in its meafuix it reftmbles that 
higheft perfcdion which is found in God. 

1 6. There be two degrees of this fanSiticationj one in this 
life, which is called in generall an infancy, i. Or. 13, 11, 
I z£ph, 4. 14 2 Peu2.2* Becaufe although that variety be 
foundin this life,thatiffome of thofe that are (an(3ified be ^: 
compared with others and with themfeives at divers times^ 

then fome may be rightly called infants , and others men 
growen^whilft they live here, H^^. 5. 13, 14. Yet the higheft 
degree which we attaine to in this lite is oncly a beginning 
of holinefle promifcd and to be expefted. The other degree 
is called mans age and perfcft age. £p^.4.i4. i Car.13.11. 
Thi/.^.i2. Becaufc in the life to come the motion and pro- 
greflc of fanftificacion ceafeth, there is onely found reft, and 
pcrfe^ion, (b that in this life we arcmorepropcrly (aidto 
have fanftification then holineflejand in the life to come ; ho- 
linefle only,and not fanftification; 

1 7. Sanftification therefore hath two parts rone in i efpcft 
of the terme from which, is called mortification ^ and the o- 
ther in refpeft of the terme to whichjis called vivifiQtion and 
refurrc&ion.S^w.S. 5,6. 

18. Mortification i« the firft part of fanQ:ification where- 
by fin is wafted5Cc/.3 3.5. Ye are dead^morciySie therefore your 
earthly member?. 

19. The meritorious 5 and exemplarycauft of it is the 
Death of Chrift. Rom.6.^. 6. Being grafted into the likeneflTe 
of his death : knowing this that our old man is crucified with 

to. The caufe principally working is that fpirit of God 
who communicates to the faithfull the efficacy of hit death. 
it<?w.8. 1 3.1fby the fpirit yce mortifie the deeds of the body, 
yccftialllive* * 

2 i.The adminiftring caufe is Faith it kl(c^Rom^6*i7. From 

R 3 the 

of San&ificathff. 
the heart yee have obeyed that tormeof doftrlnciinto which 
ytewerc dcliveredt 

22. From this mortification there followcs in all that sire 
fanftifiedadeniallot thcmfdveSj and the World, Lfic.^.2^% 

2 3. Hence arifeth that inward difference which is bet- 
wcenefin, which remaines in the taithfuU from that which 
remaines in others : In others (in is raigning. prevailing, and 
predominating : in the faithtuU it is broken 3 fiibduedand 

24. Vivification is the fecondparcoffanSification wher- 
by the Image or lite o£ God is reftored in man.Cc?/. 5,10. Epk. 
4•24.^e^'. 1 2. 2. Having put on the new man ; be ye transform- 
ed by the renewing of your mmd» 

2 5.Th« exemplary caufe of it is the Refurreftion of Chrift, 
CoL 3, 1 . 2. Ye are rifen with Chrift. 

26. The caufe principally working is the Spirit of Godj 
which railed Chrift from thcdead, iiiPw.S.ii.If the Spirit of 
him that raifed Jefus from the dead dwelleth in you. 

27. The adminiftring caufe is Faith, Ga/.2.2o. The life 
which I now live in the fleih ^ I live by the Faith of the Son 

4>f God. 

2§.From this vivification there arifeth a ftrong tye in thofe 
who arc fanftificdj of thcmfelves to be addifted wholy to 
God and to Chrift. 2 Cor. 8^ 5. They give themfelvcs to 
the Lord. 

20. Becaufethis {anftification isimperfcdwhileftwelive 
here as infants, therefore all the faithfullare informed as it 
were with a double forme ^iin arjd grace * for the perfeftion of 
fanftification not found in this life 3 unlcfle in the dreames of 
fome fantaftick pcrfons. i fobn i.S.If wee (ay we have no (in^ 
wc deceive our (clves^and t here is no truth in us. Yet all th^t 
are truly fan£tified doc tend unto perfeftion5^^/^.5.48. a Cor. 
13.11.2 P^/.3. 18. 

30. Sinne or the corrupted part which remaines in thofc 
that are fanftified, is called in Scripture!, The old man 3 the 
outward man,the members , and the body of finne. Grace i 
or the renewed part is called the new man , the fpirit, the f 
mindj&c. f 


of Glorification. 129 

51. Hereupon there foUowes two things, i. Afpirituall 
war which is made continually betwcene thcfc parties. Gal. 
5.17. For the flefn huls againft the fpirit,and the fpirit againft • 
the flefti : and theft are contraxy one to the other. 2. A day ly 
renewing of repentance. 

32,Thatfle{h which reraaincsif^thcregeneratejis not only 
in the vegetative , and fenfitive appetite, but alio in the will 
andreafonitfelfe,! Thej[,'^.2^. 

33. The flefh or this concupifence hath the true and pro- 
per realbn of linne in the regenerate themfelves. ^om^ 7. 

3 4. With this corruption even the beft workes of the Saints 
arc infectcd,fo as they have need of fome remiflioii. 

35. Yet the good works of the regenerate are not to be cal- 
led finSjbut defiled with fin. 

36.That defilement of good workes, ( by reafbn of Juftifi- 
cation} doth not hinder but they may be accepted of God to 
be rewarded. 

37. That fight which is found in wicked men betwecne 
confcience and the will , is not the driving of the fpirit 
agaitiftthe flefn , but of the flcfli fearing againft the flcfli 


Chapter XXX- 

of gi&rtficatioro 

iHthe former diffumion we fpak? offAnBijication which it one 

fart of the alteration of qualities , which did refpe£l that 

good that i^juft andhoneft : the other part foUowes^ 

mmelj Glorification which refpeUs that good, 

that is profitable and honorable. 

!• ^glorification is a reall tranfnnitation of a man , from 
f — Tiifery or the punifhment of finne , tmto happincfle 
VJeternall.i?^»j?/8. 30. And whom hee juftified^thofe 

hecaloiified. ^ 

I JO . of Glorification. 

2. It is called a reall tranfroatation,that it may be diftin- 
guiflicd from that bklTedncfle which is either vircuallonely, 
in Eleftion, Calling, Juftificacion, and Adoption, or decla- 
rative in holy workcs^ Rom 4 6. D^vid declares that nian to 
be blefled to whom God imputeth righteoufnefle^ &c, T/Jr/. 
($5. 5. Blefled is hee whom thou chufeft 3 and bringeft 
to dwell in thy Courts. CMatthtw 5. Blefled are the poore in 

3.1n refpe(3; of ihc termc from which^x^/^^mifery or the pu- 
nifhment of fin,it iscalled a redemption. i C<?r. 1.30. Eph.i. 14. 

4. This redemption is a rcall delivering from the evills of 
puniftimenc : which is nothing elfe in very deed but tlic exe- 
cution of the (cntence of Juftification : for in JuiHfication, 
as wee arc judged to be juft , fo we are Judged to have lifet 
Now Glorification makes that life that wa? judged^and pro- 
nounced ours by rcaU communication.to be ours aftually and 
by poflTeflion. 

^5. It is faid to bercall, that it may be diftinguiflied from 
that redemption which is in the paiment ofthe price of re- 
demption, and in application of the fame Co jui^ificationi 
whereof mention is made Efh. 1.7.O/. !• 14. 

6. In the Scriptures alfo it is wont to be called deliverance, 
and prefervation from the wrath of Godjfrom death and from 
the kingdome of darkeneflc* 

7. In refpea of the terme to which, it is called, beatifica- 
cation,, bleflingjlife eternall, gloryj Glorification, the kind- 
dome of our Lord and Saviour Jefus Chriflj and an immortall 
inhcritancc^ff /?. i.3.M» 3.36.& 6.47,2 Teu !• 3, 1 1. iPtt. 

8. The firft degree ofthis Glorification begun , is thcap- 
prehenfion and (cnce of the \ovq of God ftiining forth in 
Cfarift, upon the communion which the faithfull have with 
him.iJ(?.5.5.The love of God is flied abroad in our hearts 3 by . 
the holy (pirit which is given to us. 

9. Hence there arifeth a ccrtainefrFendfliip betwecne God, 
Chriftjand thefaithfulljM;/ 1 5-i 5-1 have called you friends, 
becaufc all that I have heard of my Father have I made known 
unto you.Uma 2.2^. Ahaham was called the friend of God* 


of Glorification. 1 5 1 

la The (ccond degree is undoubted hope and expc'ftati- 
on, of the enjoyment of all thoic good things which God 
hath prepared for hi^.Rom.'^. 2. We rcjoycc under the hope of 
the glory efGod. 

ri.Henceis freedome to come to God wich boldmffk.Evhi 

12« Hitherto pertaines the aflurance of perfeverance and 
(alvation alfoj Rom.^.:^'^, 

13. For this aflurance as touching the thing it felfe which 
is called a certainty of the objeiftjis fealed to all true belie- 
vers: but as touching the perceiving of it, which is called a 
certainty of the fubjedjit is not alwayes prefent to all 5 yec 
it may bee gotten by any without (peciall revelation, and 
it ought alfo to be (ought for by all : fo as this certainc 
confidence rightly grounded hath nothing common with 

14. This certainty is grounded upon^ and confirmed to 
thcfaichfuUby the word, theftales, by oath, and by the 
earned ofGodhimfelfe.Hr.6.i7.God willing abundantly to 
(hew to the hcires of the promift rfie immutability of his 
Coan(eIl, he bound it by an oath: that by two immutable 
things we may have ftrongconfolation* Efh. i. 13. Yceare 
fealcd with that holy Spirit of p^romife which is the carneft of 
our inheritance. 

I %. This truth is perceived,and made certaine to us. i. By 
a certaine (pirituall fence whereby the grace of God now 
being pre(cnt , doth make its preftncemanifeft^ and evident 
to the believcr.2. By the gift of di(cerning whereby believers 
doe diftinguilh true graccfirom the (hew of it. 3 . By di(cour(c 
and teftimony of confcience whereby grace and (alvation is 
no Icflc (eale to the faithfull,tbcn fin and death to unbelievers. 
4. The Spirit of God himfelfe doth (b confirme all the(e 
wayes of perceiving, that they have the (ame certainty that 
Faith hath, Rim.%.i 6. The fpirit it felfe witneflcth with our 
(pirit, that we are the Sons of God. i C^r.2. 1 2« Wc have re- 
ceived the fpirit which is ofGod,thatwe may know thethingi 
which God hath freely given us* 3 CorA^^^. Try your (elves 
whether yet be in the Faitb,eicaminc your felves. i John 4. 16. 
We know^andbelicveithe love which God hath towards us. 

S i6.Thi« 

i6. l^\\h certainty doth follow upon the p«rceivmg of 
Faith ^hd Repentance 5 where the fice covenant of God is 
rightly underftood. 2 ^^r.13.5. 

17. If either of thefe be v/anting, this certainty is taken a- 
vvay as touching the perceiving of it ; fo that hec that doth 
rightly underftand the prornife of the covenant, cannot be 
fare of his falvation , unlefle hec perceive in himfelfe true 
Faich and repentance : neither can he that tceles himfelfe tru- 
ly to believe , and repent, be furc of his perftverance and lal* 
vation, unlefle he alio underftand by the covenant that God 
will mightily preferve thofc that believe and repent^evento 
the end. 

1 S.Therefore certainty of falvation is not of anyjuor other* 
wife perceived 5 but thofe who together with Faith keepe a 
good confcicnce , and that whilft they kccpe it from any 
grievous wound ^ which by tho(e (ins is brought which are 
wont to waft con (cience. 

X 9. Hence as Faith , and a good confcience doe florifh 01: 
Iangui(h in men^ (o alfo this certainty is either confrmed, or 

20#They therefore that w ithout any fence or care of Faith^ 
;tfid repentance doe certainly hope for (alvation^in prefumipg 
they hope,and hoping they perifh. 

a I. From this certainty arlfeth confblation, peace, and Joy 
ttDfpeakable.iJ^w^^ 5.1.3. i Pet.i .^.Ro.i^.xy. z Qq> . i.j. Which 
are thefirft fruits ot glory^iJ^»^.8.23. 

22*Conlolation is an eafing of fearc and oppreffing griefe. a 
Cor, i,4.Yet it containes lometimes by a Synecdoche all fal- 
vation begun. CtfA2.2* 

23. Peace is a quieting of the mind, which arifeth partly 
feom deliverance from evilb, and partly from the preftace or 
hope of contrary good thingf»?Ai/.4.7. 

24. When it is joyned with grace in thcApoftles (ahitations, 
then it lets forth all that felicity which is communicated ta 
the faithful! by the favour of God. 

2^ Joy is that delight which is perceived from the con* 
jucwflioPj, and communion of the chiefe good. 

26. Hence eternail life itfclfciscalkd)oy. 0^^/,25.2i. 


of GlorificaHm. T 3 3 

17. The third degree is in partaking of the fpirituall gifts 
of gi ace with abundance, or overflowing. ^<?/. J.a.j.i o. With 
all riches of the full afTurance of underftanding.Abounding in 
Faith 'Complete. 

28. Hence the abundance of grace is faid to minifter 
a large entrance into the Kingdcmc of G o d. 2 I'eter 
I, 8. II. 

29« The fourth degree is in experience oftbe good will or 
kin ^neflc of Govi. Pfal.^u20. How great is thygoodneffc 
which thou doft lay up for them chat feare thee ? Pfal. 6$. $• 
We are facisficd with the goodnefle of thy Houlc, with the 
things of thy holy Temple. ^ .^^^ 

go.Hithcrco pcrtaineth that fatherly providence of God 
whereby he watcheth alwayes over the faichfuU for good, 
ashewatchethoverthe wicked for evil! : in which relpcft^ 
iii Scripture the good Hand of God is faid to be-with k'i$t 

} I. Hence all things workc together for good to them that 
toveGod,i^(>^t8* 28. 

32 .From the fence of all thefe, the faithfull are rooted^and 
grounded in the love of God. Efh.^.ij. 

Pcrfeft Glorification i% in the taking away of all impcr- 
feftion from loule and body ^ and communication of all 

This Is granted to the Coule immediatly after the fepa- 
ration of it from the body. 2 Cor.^, Verfc 2. ThiL 1.2^, 
Hd.2. I2«2$« But it is not ordinarily granted to the foulc 
and body joy ntly before that laft Day^ wherein all the faich^ 
full (hall bee pcrfcftcd together in Chrift. £phe/l 4. i j. 

S ^ Cap. XXXL 

of the church myfiicaUy cpnjidered. 

I - ■ I ■ ■ ■ I 


Of the (^hnrch myfikalljf conjuiered. 

Thus mHch of the affUcation of Redemptiotuconfidcred in itfelfe: 

The ffebjcEl to vphichy and the manner by r^hieh this 

application is madf^doth follow. 

iJ I »H E Subjcft is the Church. i5/»/?. 5.2 '^^26^2j.C\\n& 
I loved the Church^and gave himfclfe for it : that he 
JL might fan^iHe it being purified by him with the 
wafhiBg of water through the Word : that he might make it 
to himfclfe glorious , that is , a Church not having fpoi or 
wrinkle or any (uch things but that ic might be holy and un- 
blameablc : whence Election, Redemption, Vocation, Jufti- 
fication^ Adoption, Sanftificatien^ and Glorification doe in 
their propriety belong to the fame fcbjeft, that iy^to the fame 
Angular men 3 which make the Church. I^hnij.^.io^iiii* 
I pray for them 5 I pray not for the World , but for them 
whom thou haft given mee^ becaufe they arc thine,' Rom. 2. 
29.30^ For whom hee hath fore-knowne, them hee did pre- 

^ z. Y^t the Church hath fo the confideratign of a fubjcft 
in refpcft of this application, that it is alfo aneffeftofthc 
f ame applicatiba : for it is not firft aftually a Church>and 
afterward made partaker of Union and communion with 
Chrift } but becaufe it is united to Chrift,therefore it is the 
Church of Chrift. 

3. And this is the reafbn why we can neither explainc nor 
underftand the nature of the Church , unleflfe thofe things 
whichpcrtaine to the application of Chriftj be firft explain^ 
and perceived. 

4. The eleft before they be grafted into Chrift are in them- 
felves no otherwifc of the Church, then that power which 
m its owne time (hall certainly come into aft, byrcafonof 


of the Church myflically conpdered. 13 5 

Gods intention and his tranfaaion with Chrift : becaufe that 
remote power which is common to all men, inrclpeftofthc 
elcftjis certainly determined in God. 

5. Therefore thofe orthodox Divines, which define the 
Church a company of eleft ones, doc either by elcft ones un- 
derftand , thofe that are called according to elcftionjor^ they 
define the Church not only as it doth aftually cxift, but alfo 
as^it is to be hereafter. 

6i That firft thing which doth make aSually a Church 
is calling : whence alfo it hath taken both its name and 

7. For the Church is a company of men that are called. 
I Cor. i%2 4. With I a3 2.Called both levrcf and Greekss. To 
the lei^es ^ to the Greekes, and to the Church of God. But be- 
caufc the end of calling is Faith j and the workc of Faith is 
ingrafting into Chrift ^ and this Union with Chrift, doth 
bring with it communion with Chrift, hence it is defined, 
in the very fameftnce^a company of believers, a company of 
thoie who are in Chrift; and a company of thofe that have 
communion with Ghrift^^ 

8,But as Faith doth Co refpeft Chriftjasthat by Chrift alfo 
it refpcfts God 5 fo this Church,which dothexift by Faith is 
both referred toChrift as to the head,and by Chrift untoGod: 
whence the Church is called the body of Chrift. ^^/.i. 24^ 
And alfo the Church of God» iC^r.io. 32. TheKingdome 
of Chrift, Co/ofo i. 13. And the Kingdome of God, 
t Ronj.i^. 17. 

9. It is called a company : becaufe it doth confift proper- 
ly in a multitude joy ned in fcUowftiip together^ or a commu- 
nity of many, not in Tome certaine one that is called : whence 
Sph.^.i6. It is called a body fitly joynedandcompafted to- 
gether^of divers members 3 and by the fame reafbn it is often 
called in Scripture an Houfe, a Family, a City^ a Kingdome^ 
a Flock, &c. 

10. This company is reftrained to men; becaufe the good 
Angels^althoughin fbme refpe&they pertaine to the Churchy 
by reafon of that Union they have with Chriftj and the grace 
of confervation communicated by hira^yct they arc not ho??ici-' 
gent all members of the Church redeemed^ 

S3 1 1. The 

of ihe clutch myftictilty ccnfidtred. 

If. The forme or conftuuting caulc ot this Church ir«ft 
needs be fuch a thing which is found alike in all the called:bat: 
this can be nothing ci{e then a relation , neither hath any 
relation that force btlidc^ that that conilfts in achiefeand 
ifirimate ;?itcttiontoChrift : but there isnoiiich iu man be- 
fides Filth : Faich therefore is the foiircof the Church. 

12 For Faith as it is in every believer, difti ibuiivelyjis the 
fornne of thofe th^t are called : but as it isconfidciedinail 
coile&ively, it is the forme of the company ol thofc that arc 
called,thatis the Church. 

i3» For the fame, believing men^ who being in fcvcrall 
diflributively^confid red arc the called of G A . are aiio tbq 
Church oi Godjas they ar^ Jc^} ntly or collcftivcly confidcred 
in a company. 

14. Hence all thofe promifes of God which arcmadeco 
the Church in the Scriptures, and doe con aine in themftlvcs 
cflcntiall biellings.doe alio pertaine t ? every believer. 

1 5 . This relation is fo reere^tl a in refpefk of it^, not only 
Chrilt is the Churches 5 and the Church Chrilh, Cant.t. 
VerfeiS. But alfo Chritt is in the Chutchjand the Church 
in him. John i ^Verfe.^. l Ivhn ^^Verfe 24 So that tht Church 
is myftically called Chrift. i C^r. 12.12. Andthcfullncflcof 
Chrift.<?p^* .23, 

16. Hence the Church by a metaphor is called the bride, 
and Chrift the Bride-groome : the Church a Clty,and Chrift 
theKing^rhc Church an Hou(e,anu Chrift the Houfe- holder; 
the Church the brancheSj and Chrift the Vme : finally the 
Chu' ch a body,and C rift the head. 

17* But by thefc comparilbns, there is fignificd not onely 
the Union and Communion which is betweene Chrift and 
the Church , but alfo the way of order whereby Chrift is 
the beginning of all dignity, lii:e,powcr5 and pcrfedion, to 

18. This Church is myftically one, not generally^ but as 
it were ih^ Species Specialijfima j or Individuum : bccau(e it 
hath no kind properly io called. 

• \g. It is therefore called catholique,not as catholiquc 
(ignifics a C^^^^ or fomc gcnerall thing ^ but as it fets forth 
fomething integrally univi^rialL) ( as when we fay the univcr- 


of the Cbnrch $9tjifiicalfy confidered. i^y 

(all world) bccaufc it con taints the faithfull of all Nations, 
of al places^and of all times. 

20. ThercForc no p^rt of the Church can truly be called 
catholickjbut as it doth profciTe that Faith which xi the 
Faith of thccachoiick Church , in which fence the Ancient.^ 
did not oacly call that pair of the Church which was at Romcy 
but other Churches alio. As our Church at Fy-Ane^-yj^m^y be 
rightly called catholic.':, as it doth proiciTe that Faith which 
belongs to the catholick Church. 

31. The Church is dcvided into members according 
to the degrees of c'omiTiunioa which it hath with Chrift^ 
in which refpcft ic is called eicher Militant, or Trium- 

32. Th: Church militant is that which is partaker oncly 
of communion begun: and Gj doth wraftle as yet with enemies 
in the field of this World. iCor,i:}.g.i2 We know in parC5 
and prophefie in part : for we fee now through a OlaflTc and 
darkly. 3 Coy.io.^ The weapons of our warfare. Eph.6.i 2, 15. 
Wee wralile , therefore take to you the whole Armour 
of G O D. 

25. The church triumphant is thatwhichisalready pcr- 
fated. J/)^^4*i5#LIntillweallcemct6aperfcft man^ to the 
Bacafeife c^the full ftature of Chrift . i C'ora J. After commctb 
ihat which 18 pcrfeft. 

24. The militant Church is both invifible and vifible^ 
aamely with outward fight or ience. 

35. Bucthisdiftinftionisnotadiftribution of the ^enf^s 
into the Species , as if fo be there were one Church vifible, 
and another invifible ; nor of the whole into the members, 
asifonepartof the Church werevifiblc, and another invi- 
fible : but a diftinftion of the adjunfts of the fame fubjecfVj 
becau(e invifibility is an affe£Wonor manner of the Church, 
in refpcft of the eflentiall, and internall forme : vifibility is an 
afFedion or manner of the Church in refpeftofthe acciden- 
tal l,and outward forme. 

26. The eflentiall forme is invifible ibecaufc it is both a 
relation , which doth not come into the fence, and alfo fpi- 
ricuall, andj ib reoxrved more irom feirccihen in many other 


158 of the Church my(ti catty conpiered. 

ay.Theaccidcntiall forme is vifible, becaufe it is nothing 
clfe then an outward profeflion of inward Faith , which may 
be eafily perceived by (cncc. 

28. This vifible profcffion is that vifible communion of the 
Saints which they have with Chriftj and among themfelves. 

29. The afts of communion with Chrift are thofe vifible 
afts, by which they prefcnt themfelves to God in Chrift to 
receive his blcfllngs, and to give the glory of them to him. 

30. The ads of communion among themfelves arc all thofc 
aftsjby which they ftady to doe good each to other ; but ef- 
pecially thofe which direftly make to further their <:ommuni- 
on with God in Chrift- 

3 J. Many afts of this latter kind arc to be cxerciftd alfo 
toward thofe who as yet are not members of the Church: 
bccauft by a certaine power they arc to be judged to belong 
to it. 

32, This Churchasitisvifibleinitfclfejisinrefpeftofo- 
thers and comparatively alfo diftinguiftied into the Church 
lying hid,and manifeft. 

33. That which is manifeft is when the number is greater, 
and the profeffion more free and more poblicfr, 

34.That which is hidden is when the number is leflfe, and 
profeffion leflc op>;n : which is wont to come to pafle by rca* 
fon of herefies, perfecations, or prophanc manners abound- 
ing abroad. 

3 5.1n the (ame refpcft alfo the Church is purer and impur- 
cr, as the profeflion is more or lefleperfeft. 

36.But this profeflion doth not depend upon confefllon on- 
ly and preaching of the Word, but alfo upon the receiving of 
it and religious obedience to it. 

37. But although the Church be fubjeft to fuch changes, 
and may leave any part of the World»yet it hath never totally 
failed , or (hall f aile from the beginning of the gathering it to 
the end of the World. 

38. For Chrift mufl alwaycs have his Kingdome in the 
mids of his enemies, untillhee (ball make his enemies his 

39. Yea the Church doth never wholly ceafe to be vifiblcj 
for althougk fometimc there fcarfe appeare a ChiH^ch any 


of the Church Infiitnted* i ^ij 

where fo pure, that one may fly unto k in communiou of 
the fame worftiip in all things : yet the Church doth in 
fome fort abide vifible in that very impurity of worfhip and 

Chapter XXX II. 

Of the Church Injlituud. 

I. / I *HE Church as it lives upon Earth^although it be 
I not wholy vifible together, yet it is vifible in its 
JL parfs, both dividedly in the feverall members, and 
joyntly in companies or Congregations. 

2. The former vifibility is by mens perfonall profeflion 
which doth not make a Church limply vifiblc^butincertaine 
members 5 or vifible members of the Church, although the 
Church in ic felfe cr in its integral! ftateisnot vifible in the 
fime place. Alls 19 i P^///came to £/?^^//^ where he found 
ceitdine Difciples 

3. That vifibility 3 which is in diftinft companies or con- 
gregations, doth not only make a vifible Church^but touch- 
ing the outward forme doth make fo many vifible Churches 
0IS there are diftinft congregations. RcvcLi.^. The feven 
Churches, 2 Cor.%. i.ipm The Churches oicMacfdoma^^iU the 

4. For thofe congregations arc as it werefimilary parts of 
iht cathoHck Church^and £0 doe partake both of the name 
and nature of it. 

5. Therefore a particular Church in refpefl of that com- 
mon nature which is found in allparticularChurches, is a 
Spfcies of the Church in generall, but in retpeft of the catho- 
lick Church which hath the rclpeft of an ^whole , it is a mem- 
ber compounded of divers (everall members gathered to- 
gether I and fo in refpeft of thofe members it is alio an 

6* Such a congregation or particular Church is a fbciety 
of believerce joy ned together by a fpeciall band among chem< 

T fclves, 

140 OfthtChtfehlnitimed* 

ftlves , for the conftanc exerd(e of the communion of Saints 
among themftlvej. 

7. It is a (bciety of believers :becau(c that fame thing in 
profcffion doth make ' a Church vifible , which by Its in- 
ward and reall nature doth make a my fticall Church, that 
iSg Faith. 

8. Bjt becaufe true Faith hatlr holineffe joyncd with it^ 
which it doth efFefluallyworkcj Acts 15. 9, And fothepro- 
felfion of crite faith cannot be disjoyned from the profeflTion of 
liolineffe, the^-eforc the Church is promifcuouflyand in the 
fame fenfe called , a fociety of believers 5 and of Saints. 
Sph.i.i. To the Saints which arc at EfhsfmznA faithful! in 
ChriftJefiiM Cor.ia* compared with, 2 C or. 1^1. Rem ^i.j. 

9. Hence viiible and particular Churches alfb,by reafon of 
this Faith which they profeflc , are rightly faid to be in Go J 
the Father 5 and in the Lord Jcfus Chrift. i Thef[. !• i. 
2 Thefj.i, 

10. It is alfo very probable that there is no fuch particu- 
lar Church in which the profeffion of the true Faith flourifh- 
cth,but in the fame alfo there are found fome true believers 

1 1 .But thofe who are onely believers by profeiTion^folong 
as they remaine in that fociety are members of that Church, 
as alfo of the catholick Church as touching the outward (late, 
not touching the inward or eflentiali ftate.l lohn 2.^c|. They 
went out from us,but they were not of u?» 

I at Among believers there are to be accounted as members 
of the Church the children of thoft believers who arc in the 
Church: iCor.j.i^ Your children are holy. For they arc 
partakers of the fame covenant, and the fame profeffion with 
their parents. 

13. Yet infants are not fo perfeS members of the Churchy 
as that they can cxercifeafts of communion 5 or be admitted 
to partake of all the priviledgcs thereof^ uoltflc there doe 
firft appeare an increaft of Faith : but they are not to be 
excluded from thofe priviledges which pertaine to the begin- 
ning of Faith and entrance into the Church. 

14. Believers doe not make a particular Church^ajthqagh 
peradventwe many may meete and live together in the 

of the ChrchltfftHyted* |j^l 

fimc place , unleflfe they be /oyncd together by a fpcciaU 
bond among thcmfelves ; for Co fomc one Church fliould 
ofceh be diffolved into many , and niany alfo (hould be con« 
founded into one. 

15* This bond is a covenant, either exprefle or inipiicite, 
whereby believers doe particularly bind tnemfelves^ toper- 
forme all thofc duties 3 both toward God and one toward 
another, which pcruine to the refpeft and edification of the 

16. Hence it is thatinthe oldT^ftamentweedoeforthe 
moft part fo often read of the renewing of their covenant | as 
there is related any folcmne reformation of the Church* 

i7.Hence none is rightly admitted into the Church,but by 
coafelfion of Faith and promift of obedience. 

18. This joyning together by covenant doth onely Co far 
forth make a Church as it refpcfts the exercifing the com- 
munion of Saints : for the fame believing men may joy^e 
themfelvcs in covenant to make a City or fomc civill fociety, 
astheydoeimmediatly re{pcft a common civill good 3 bat 
they doe not make a Church but as in their conftitution 
they relpeft holy communion with God among them- 

19. Hence the (arac men J may make a City or poIitJcke 
fociety and not aChurch;or a Church,and not a City;or both 
a Church and a City. 

20.Hence it is that thofe meetings that are formally Ecclc- 
(iafticallyare faid to be had in the Name of the Lord. Mat^ 18. 
" 10. 1 Cor.%.^0 

2 1* Neither yet doth (bme fuddaine joyning together^ 
and excrcifc of holy communion fcffice to make a Church: 
unleffc there be alfo that conftancy 3 at Icaft in intention, 
which brings the ftatt of a hodj^ and mcmberi in a ccrtaine 
fpirituall politie. 

22. This Church is inftituted by God and by Chrift^H^^* 
3.3^4^ He that btilded the Houfc, for every Houfc is bulk 
by fome^ and in this refpcft it differs from the myfticall 
Church, the gathering 0^ which together into one is not 
prcfcribedunto mtn, but performed impiediatly by divine 
opecation ^ bm the gathering together into an inftituted 

T ;& Church 

of the Church InfiitHted. 

Church is fo performed by God , thac his command and 
mans duty and labour doc come bctwecne. Hdr. lo, 25. 
Not forfeking the aflfembling our (elves together, 

23. But it IS ordained by God and Chrift onely,becau(c 
men have neither power oftbemlelvestoiRftitacey or frame 
a Church unto Chrift ^ neither have they by the revealed 
will of God any fuch power committed to them : their 
grcatcft honour i5,tbac they arc fervants in the Hculc of God. 
Hc!\ 3.5. 

24. It is nottherefore in the poorer of man either to take 
away any of thofe things which Ghri!l hath granted to his 
Chiirch^or to ad other to thcnvof the like kind : although he 
may and ought by all lawfull meanes to provide, that thofe 
things which Chrift hath ordained may be farthcj^ed 3 and 

25. But Chrift hath fo inftituted the^Church^thatital- 
V?ayc6 depends upon hirafelfe as upon the head, fo that 
if it be didinclly Gonfidered without Chrift , it is not a com • 
pleat body. 

26, Hence the Church itfelfemay notproperly make new 
LawcB to her fclfc of new things to be ordained, butftce 
ought onely tocare for this^that ftieedoe well find out the 
will of Chrift,and obfervc his ordinances in order and decent- 
lyjWith grcateft fruit of edification. 

27. But beciufe the ordinances of Chrift have alwayes a 
bleffingof God joyned with them , therefore here are divers 
promifes of God o^ade to the Church of the prefencc of 
Churift. Mat.iS.io^ I ^<^r.5.4. So as in a fpeciall manner 
hec is faid to be converfant and to walke in the Churches. 
ReveU 2. I. Efay 31. 9. And of the prefence of the Holy 
Spirit, EJaj 59.21*80 that a more ample and cert aine blcffi ig 
of God may be cxpefted in the Church of God inftitut^d^ 
then in any folitary life whatfoever. 

28. They therefore that have opportunity to joyne them- 
felves to the Church, and ncgled ir,.doe more grievoufly 
fione, not onely againft God in refpec^ of his ordinance but 
alfo againft their owne foule in refpcft of the blefTing ad joy- 
ned. And if they d ^e obftinatly perfift in their carclcOcneffe, 
whatfoever they doc othcrwUc profcfli^ tinsy > can fcarce 

;:- be 

Oftk txtraordimr/ Minifiers ofChrifi. 1 43 

be accounted for believers truly feeking the Kingdomc 
of G o D. 

2p.Theproreflionofthctrue Faith is the moft eflemial! 
note of the Church. 

3a This profcffion raay in (bme company goe before the 
folemnc preaching of the Word, and adminiftradonofthe 

Chapter XXXIII, 

Gfti)^ extraordinary tj^inijlers of the Chnrch^ 

I. f m <Hus far of the (ub^ft of application,The manner of 

I ic follower* 

JL 2. The manner of applying confifts in thofe 
things which aremcancs oftheipiric apply ingChrift with all 
his benefits to us for our falvation. 

3. The which (pirit it felfe doih apply all iaving things un- 
to us , internally and moft neerely^and fo in his manner im- 
mediatly, neither is any externallmeanes capable properly 
of that vcrtue whereby grace may be really communicated 
to us : Therefore though thoft doe morally concurrc and 
operate in the preparation of man to receive this grace,yec 
they doe not properly confer the grace by themftlves, but the 
fpirit which woi kct^i together with them.i C^r^^.j. Neither 
is he that plantcth iny thing^nor he that watereth : but God 
ivho?iveth power to increafc. 

4. The two principall meanes of this fort arc the Mi- 
nifieiy and the holy Signcs : unto which notwithftand- 
ing there is neccflarily to bee joyned (bme Ecclcfiafticall 

5. TheMiniftery is an EccIeGafticallfunftion whereby a- 
man being choien out dcthdifpcnfe holy things offpeclall 
right.2.C<??-,4.i. We have this Miniftery, as wc have obtain* 
edrcercy, \C0r1.2. Letamanfoaccountofusas iifthcMi^ 
mftersofChriftjanddiipenfersoftheMyfteries of God. 

6 At is called a Miniftery^bccauie that power which is com* 

T 3 mittcd 

OftodtMfdimry Uim^m ^fthe €hurch. 
mitted to Ecclcfiafiicall meti J isapowerofdoingocelyby 
Che command of Chrift , and mccre obedience toward hin:* 

7. A fpirituall or regall power of govcrnmeot whereby 
one workech of his owne libmy and will^is not belongii^ to 
jncn, but to Ghrift alone. 

8. Hence a Minifter of the Church is bound to execute hij 
office by himftlfe, as one that hath not power to appoint any 
vicar in his place 5 for this (hould norbcanaftionofobedi- 
cncc,but of command. 

9. Therefore one that is a conftanc Minifter of divers 
Churches which are neceflarily to be provided for by Vicars, 
is not of Gods Ordaining, but of mans ambition and pre- 

« o. The power k not abfolute^but relative, that is, it doth 
notconfiftinansbfblutepower to doe any things but in a 
right 5 whereby one hath power to doe that rightly and law- 
ftilly which he might not before fo doc^ and therefore it is 
ToteJlasJHru^z power of rights 

1 1. But it is of fpeciall right ; bccauft it refpefts fbmc fpe- 
eiali duties unlawful! to others , and it doth undertake fomc 
common duties in a certaine fpeciall manner* 

I i^Thc right of the Miniftcry depends upon calling,Hr^. y. 
^.Neither doth any take this honour to himfclfc^but he that is 
called of God^as was Aarotf. 

1 3. A calling is an adion whereby an office is comitted to 
any with authority to Miniikr. 

14. Therefore they arc very ridiculous who doe (b ordainc 
the calling of Minifters, that they girc them not power to 
pre^h the wordjUnlcfle they have Ibmc new grant. 

15 • A EKcefTary adjunft of a calling is ficncfle to the 

1 6. Hence thofe who are altogether unfit to fulfill the Mi- 
niftery, if they be called to it by men , are the Minifters of 
nicD,notofGod» H^4.4Becaufethou haft dcfpifed know- 
ledge,! Will alfo defpifc thee, that thou (halt not be a Prieft 
unto mce. 

17* This fitneflcarifeth from a fit iBcafure of gifts, and a 
ready wil to undertake and execucf the officei 

181 From 

of extraordinary Mimjiers of the Chnreh. iac 

18. From th« Miniftery there arifeth a third ftate of the 
Church : for as by Faith it hath its cflendall ftatc , and by a 
combination its intcgrall ftatc : fo alfo by the Miniftcry it 
hath a cercaineorganicall ftate : becaufe it is now made fit to 
excrcift all thole operations which pertainc to the good of 
the whole, 

ip.Thccoarleand dirc(5l ion of thefc operations, isEccle- 
fiafticall polity. 

20> Ihe forme of this polity is altogcthermonarchicall 
in refpeft of Chrift , the head and King ^ but as touching the 
vifible and vicarious adminiftration , it is of a mixt nature, 
partly as it were ariftocraticall ^ and partly as it were dc- 

21 . Hence in the lawfiill Miniftery of the Churchj Hier- 
archy holy principality hath no place^but rather Hieroduly^ 
or holy Service. 

22. Therefore one Minifter t$ not fub|efted unto the power 
of another in his difpenfation , but ail doe imcnediatly de- 
pend on Chrift : as tho(e Angells which are inferiors in office 
to others 3 are ioKnediatly fubjed unto God , not ta other 

25.Thi$ Miniftery i^ either extraordinary or ordinary. 
2 4. Extraordinary Miniftery is that which hath a certaine 
higher, and more perfeft direSion then can be attained to by 
ordinary racanesr 

25.Hen ce (cich Minifters have alwayes gifts and aftiftance ex^ 
traordinary,fo that they doe Minifter without error. 

16. The right of an extraordinary Minifter isbeftowed 
properly neither from man,nor by man, but from God alone 
by Jeftis Chrift and the holy Spirit. G^/. i»i. 

2j. Hence the calling to fuch a Miniftery is immediate, 
28. Yet every extraordinary callings is not fo immediate 
that it excludes all Miniftery of men ; asappearcs in the cal- 
ling of Elifeu^y and Matthias ; but it excludes onely that Mi- 
nittery which is deftitute of an infallible dircftioii; 

29 This extraordinary Miniftery was very ncccflary for 
the Church, becaufe that will of God which pertaines unto 
living wdl to God , could not be found out by humane in- 
^liftry and ordinary meaner 5 as all otho! Artsand Sci^ces, 

146 of the extraordinarj/ Uinifimof Chrifi. 

buticdidrequiremcnftirrcdupandfentbyGod, to whom 
he hath tnaniteftcd his willjthat they might be to us in (lead 
of God himfclfe. Exod.^,1^^1 6. And be ihou to hitn inftead 

oi G O D» ^"^ • 

3aGod hath revealed bitwill to thefe extraordinary Mini- 
ftcrs.i .By lively soyct.Re. i.icUnto which was often added 
an apparition and (peaking to of an Angell orChrift himfelfe, 
as ot the Angel of his covcnant.2.By vifion^vvheicby together 
with the word the iy/?faVi of the things to be declaied were 
rcprelented to their eyes waking , 5. By dreaines whereby 
fuch like things were propounded to the minds of them be- 
ing a (leepe. 4. Sometime alfo by a certainC fpcciall famili- 
arity as it were mouthtomoutb^ without parable, Numb. 
12 6,758. If there be a Prophet among you^I will make my 
ielrc J^hova knowHc to him in a vifionj and will fpeake to 
himinadreamc. My (ervant C^(?/r/ is not (b : with him I 
fpeake mouth to mouth even apparently, and not indarke 
fpeechef^and the (imilitude of the Lord (hall he behold. 

31. The manner of this revelation was (o powerfuU , that 
it did draw men oftentimes into an cxtafic or trance^where- 
by they were fo caught above theitifelves, that they perceived 
nothing be(ide that that was propounded, neither all that 
thing it felfe according to all its circumftances ^ 2 Cor. 
13. 3- 4- . 

32. Yet it is fo certaine 5 that the divine truth ofit is often 
confirmed , and ina certaine (peciall manner fealed to them 
to whom it is r^evealed : (6 as it need not another confirma- 
liom GaL\.i'j.2^2.6. Neither did I rcturne to thofe who 
were Apoftles before me. . They who were in eftimation ad- 
ded nothing to mee : Although fometimes alfo for the 
more abundant confirmation miracles are added. J^dge 6. 
36. 37. 38. 

53. Thisextraordioary Miniftery isdther ibrthefirftin- 
ftituting of a Church , or, for the (peciall and extraordinary 
conlcrvaticn of a Church^or finally for the extraordinary rc- 
iloring of a Church being fallen. 

' 34* The Miniftery of inftituting a Church hath al wayes 
a te(timony of miracles joyned with it : Heh.2,^^^, Which 
at firft began to be fpoken^ &Ct 3od al(b bearing them witr; 

of the extrdcrdinary Miffifier/ of the Church. 147 

neffcj with figncs and wonderSj^nd with divers miracles, and 
gifts of the holy Ghoft according to his will. 

35# Yet miracles doe not fo give tcftimoHy to the doftrinc 
of any, as that it may bee prcfcntly believed. For that 
doArine which doth not conlent with thcknof^newillof 
God ought not to be admitted, although it fecme to be con- 
firmed with miracles. Z)^'/#M 3^1,2,3. Although that fignc or 
wonder come to paffe which he foretold thee ^ ^y^ngj Let 
us goe follow other Gods. Haricen not to the word of that 
Prophet. C^/.i.S. Though wee or an Angell from Heaven, 
preach another Golpell befi Je that we have preached>let him 

36. The Miniftcry of confcrving,and reftoring a Chtircb, 
although it be extraordinary, and is alwaycs confirmed by 
miracles 3 yet it doth not alwayes or neceflarily require a 
teftimony of miracles : as appeares in many in the old Tefta- 
ment,and in ^e?/?;^ the Baptift. 

37. Extraordinary Minifters were Prophets, ApoftleSjand 

38. fVicllffe^ Luther, Zwin^/ins^and (uch like^that were the 
firft reftorers of the Gofpell , were not to fpeake properly ,cx- 
traordinary Minifter?. 

3 9» Yet they are not amifle called extraordinary by (bme. 
I. Becaufe. they did performe fomething like thole thing* 
which were done by extraordinary Minifters of old, 2^ Be* 
caufc in refpeft of degree they received iome lingular gifts 
from God,as occafion did require: which alfo may be affirmed 
of many among the more famous Martyrs. 3. Becauft order 
at that time beingdifturbed and decayed, they were of neccf- 
jfity to attemjpt ft>n>e things out of the common courft. 

4c. It is therefore ridiculous , to require miracles of tho(e 
men 5 to confirme that doftrinc which they propounded, 
feeing fuch an atteftation is not neceflary , no not in all ex- 
traordinary Minifters. 

V Cap, XXXini/ 

^the btfy stfiptmtt. 


Of the holy ScriftMre} 

I. "f"^ Xtraiordittaty Minifterstvcre raifed up by God^ m 

wA inftrnathcChurch not onely by lively voycCj hue 

JL->airoby Divine writings, that there might be a per- 

petuallufc, and fruit of ih'^s Miniftery in the Church^cvcn 

when foch Minifters were taken away. 

2. For they oncly could commit the rule of Faith and 
manners to writing, who by reafon of the immediate and in- 
fallibie direftlon which they had from God, were in that bu- 
fineflc free from all error. 

3. They received a command of writing from God, 
partly cxternallyjboth generally when they were commanded 
to teach, and fpecially fomctimes, when they were com- 
manded to write, Z)wr.3* 19. RevtU !• ip. Write ycc the 
SongjWrite thofc things which thou haftfecnc, and partly 
hy the inward inftinaofthefpirit.2'?^.i, 2?. For prophe- 
cy came not in old time by the will ofman, butlholymcn 
f^keasthey were moved by the holy Spirit. 2Tini.2.\6. ^]1 
Scripture is infpired by God. 

4.Thcy wrote alfo by the in^iration and guidance of the 
holy Sphk/o that themen them fclves were as it were inftru- 
4Rents of trbs fpirit. In the place before, ^erem. m^^ Behold 
I put my words inthy raouth , ABs 2S.25, Well indeed (pake 
iChc holy Spirit ty Efaias the Prophet. 

5» But Divine infpiration was prefcnt with tfaofe writers 
wkh iome variety , for ibme things to be written were be- 
fore ^together unknov/ne to the writer, as doth iiifficlcntly 
appcare in the Hiftory of the Creation paft , and in fore- 
tellings of things to come : but fome things were before 
knownc 'Unto the wjiter , as appeares in the Hiftory of 
Ghrift , written by the Apoftles ; and fome of theft they knew 
by a naturall knowledge, and fome by a fupernaturaJl ; In 


of the hi/ Smpiwet^ j^a 

xh6& tbingdtfaatVDrere hidden ^nd unknowne ^ Divine infpK 
ration did pojforaic all by it «eJfc r m tbofe things which 
wee kntwen , cr the knowierfge whereof might be ob- 
tained by ordinai::y meanes ^ there was alio added a reli- 
gious fttidy,Giod fa a£fting them} that in writing they might 
not crre. 

6* In all tho/e things which were made known by ftper- 
nitufallinfpiution, (whether they were matters of right, 
DC £ji£i ) he did infpirc not onely the things themfelvcs,^ 
bui did^ di(flatc and fuggcft all the words in which they 
fhould be written : which notwithftanding was done with 
ihafcfw€etc attempering , that every writer , might uft thdfc 
maners of (peaking which did mod agree to his perfoR and 

> HeOise the Scripture is often attributed to the holy 
Sfuk as to the author^ making no mention of the Scribes* 
ihhc7»erio.i'^. Whereof the Holy Ghoft alfo is a witneflc 
to IH. 

S. Hence alio 5 although in the infcriptions of the holy 
Bookes it is for the nioft part declared by whofe labour they 
were written, yetthere is (bmetimcs deepe filence of this mat- 
ter , and that without any detriment of fuchbookeSjOrlef- 
fening their authority. 

9. Neither yet doth itfuffice to make a part of holy writ Jf 
abooke be written by (bmcextraordinary (ervaniof Godj 
and uponcertainediredion of thc(pirit:unlcfleic be al(b pub- 
lickly given to the Church by divine authority, and fenftifed 
^to be a Canon or rule of t lie fame. 
' 10. The thing it felfe which they Committed tb wti- 
ting, as touching the (iimme and chiefe end of the matter, is 
nothing elfe, then chat revealed will of God^which is the rule 
of Faith and mancrs. 

IX* Hence all thofe- things which in the flrltdifputation 
were fpoken of the doftrine of life revealed from God, doc 
properly agree to th6 holy Scripture. For the Scripture is 
nothing clfc then that doftrinc 5 with the manner of writing 
joyncd te it 5 which nuanncr was not to be handled thereout 
inthispkce. ^ ' f v '' 

1 2. Hence the Scripuire in refpeft of the thing and fubjea 

V 2 meanings 


meaning, that is , as ic was the doftrine revealed from God, 
it was before the Church : but in refpeft of the manner in 
which it is properly called Scripture , it is after the fitft 
Church. / ^ : 

13. It if called the holy Scripture , and by »«/ l§o j^w the 
Scriptur&j and the writers them(elves are called holy, part- 
ly in rcfpeft of the fubjcd , and objeft matter , wh? ch is (b 
called, the true and faving will of G o d , and partly in re- 
(peft of that dircftion whereby it was committed to wri- 
ting, Romans 1.2. Ephc.^^'y. 2Tetcr 1.21, & 2.128c 3.21 

1 4. But although divers parts of the Scripture were written, 

upon fome fpeciall occafion , and were direftcd to Ibme cer- 

tainemcn, or aflTemblics : yet in Gods intention, they doe 

as well pertaine to the inftruAing of all the faithful thorough 

all ages, as if they had beene fpecially direSed to them : 

whence, H^^. 1 2. The exhortation of Solomon , which is 

ufed in the Proverbs^i^ faid to be fpokcn to the HebreweSyVtho 

lived 'v\ the Apoftles time,)as to children^and 2 Pet.i^. i ^.Panl 

is faid to have Wrote to all the faithfuU in that he wrote to the 

Romans.Ueb. 13. 5.That which was laid to ^<?/^//^ is faid to be 

fpokentoalithe faithful!. 

!$• All things which are neceflary to falvat ion are con- 
tained in the Scriptures, and alfo all thofe things which are 
necciTarily required to the inftruftion and edification of the 
Church. > 2 T/Vw. 3.1 5,153 17. The holy Scriptures can make ^ 
thee wife unto falvation , that the man of God might be per- ^ 
fe&,,perfe5ttyfurnifhed to every good worke* 

16. Hence the Scripture is not a partiall,but a perfeft rule 
oCFaitb , and manners : neither is here any thing that is 
conftantly and every where neceflary to be obferved in the 
Church of God , which depends either upon any tradition, 
or upon any authority whatfoever aad is not contained in the 

17 Yet all things were not together and at once com- 
mitted to v^rlting, becaufethc flate of the Church and the 
wiidomeofGoddid 1 tharwift require : but fronl the firft 
writing thofe rhing!? were fucceffively committed to writing* 
which werenece0ary in thofcages. 


Oftheholy ScriptHi^ef. l$l 

i8# Neither did the Articles of Faith therefore incrcafe 
according co fuccclfion of times jin rcfpcft of the cflTcncc \ but 
only in fefpcft of the explication. 

19. As touching the manner of deli very the Stripture doth 
not explaine the will of God by univcrfall;^ and fcicntifical! 
rules, but by narrations, examples ^ precepts, exhortations, 
admonitionF,and promiics : bccaufc that manner doth make 
moft for the common u(e of all kinde of men, and alfo moll 
toafFeftthewill, and ftirre up gcdiy motions, which is the 
chiefe fcope of Divinity. 

20. Alfo the will of God is revealed in that manner in the 
Scriptures, that although, the things themftlves are for the 
moft part hard to be conceived , ^et the manner of delivering 
and explaining thcm^efpecially in thofe things which are nc« 
ceflary^iscleereand perfpicDous. 

21. Hence the Scriptures need not efpccially in necefla- 
ries 3 any fuch explication whereby light may be brought to 
it from Something el(e : but they give light to themlelves, 
which is diligently to be drawne out^y men^ and to be com- 
municated to otliers according to their calling. 

27. H^ncc aUo there is onely one fence of one pi ace of 
Scripture : becaufe otherwife the fence of the Scripture 
ftiould be not onely not clcere and certaine,but none at all : 
for that which doth not fignifie one thing, fignlfieth certain- 
ly nothing. 

23.For the determining of controverfics in Divinity jtherc 
is no vifible power as it were kingly or prctorian , appointed 
in the Church : but there is laid a duty on men to enquire ; 
there is bellowed a gift of difccrning, both publicfcly and 
privatly : and there is commanded a defire to farther the 
knowledge and pra^ife of the known truth,according to their 
callifag^unto which alfo is joy ned a promife of direftion, and 
blcffing from God. 

24. But becaufe the Scriptures were given for the u(e and 
edification of tb^ Church, therefore they were written in 
thofe tongues , which were moft commonly vulgar in the 
Church at that time when they were written. 

25. Henccall thofe bookeswhichwere Written before the 
comming of Chrift were written in Hebrcrfi : for to the 

V 3 hrpcs 

Ofthehol/ Scriptwref' 
Jtwes wtrc commhcd the Oracles oi God, Rsm.^^l.^ ^.^l 
And upon like rcafon they that were written afterward were 
delivered in the Creeke tongue, becaufe that tongue was 
mod conunon ia^ tWe p^is where the Cburch did feft 

%6. Hence there is (bme knowledge at leaft of thefe tongues 
ncceflary to the exaft uaderftanding of the Scriptures : for 
the Scriptures arcttoderftood by the fame meancs that ot^cr 
humane writings are , many by the skill 5 and ule of L9gick^y 
Rhetoric^ji grammar y and tho(e tongues in which they are 
expceflted : except in this, that there is a iinguiar li^ht of 
the fpirit alwayes to bee fought for by the godly in the 
Scriptures. iv^u'k - 

27. Yet the ScriptMte is not (b tied tathoft firft tongues, 
but that it may and ought alfo to bee tracflated into other 
tongucsjfor the common u(c of the Church* 

28.Bu£amongiarerpreters^neitherythofe feventyjwho tur- 
ned itinto Cjreeke^ot Hiercme^viot sttiy fiicb like did performe 
the office ofa Prophet^ (b that bcfliould be free from errors in 

29. Hence no perfbnsare abiblutely authcnticall,bnt fo far 
forth only as they doe expreffc the foantaines, by which alfo 
they ar e to be tried^ 

30t Neither is thci^any authoriiDy in Earth whereby any 
verfion may be made (imply authenticall# 

3T% Hence: the providence of G od: in preftrving the 
Fountaines, bach beene alwayes fjamous^ and to be ado^ 
red J not oncly that they did not wholy peri(b, but alfo 
that they ftioiild boC be main^d by the lo(Te of any bookc, 
oc deformed by any grievous fault^whcn in the meanc while 
there is no one of the aUHcient verfions that remaines 

32. Neverthelefle 3 from taofe humane verfions there may 
be all thofe things perceived which are abfohitly ncceflary ^if 
fobethey af^ceewiththcftmntainesin the eflentiall parts^ 
all chofe verfions that are received in the Churches are wont 
to doe, although they differ^ and are defcftive in the fmaller 
things notafenv 
i53r Neither iliercfbrc moft wee alwayes reft in Mie vcr*^ 



of iheh§yi Scripinr)^^ lijj 

fion that is received : butwc muftmoftrcligioufly provide, 
that the maft pure and faultlcflc iftt^rpr^atkm bt put upon 
the Church. 

34.0Fali tbo^ bookes^being ddijwcrcd from God,and pla- 
ced , as it were in the Cheft of the Church^therc is made up a 
pertcft Canon of Faith and mannerSj whence alfo they have 
the name of Canonicall Scripture, 

35. The Prophets m ide the Canon of the old Teftimcnt, 
and Chrift himfeltc approved it by his TclUmony.The Canon 
oi tht new Tc&aTnent together with the old, the l\"poftic 
Ji7/?/^a.p.pPoved and fealedup beii^furniihed with Divine au- 
xbority* /J^z.l2.i8^ip, Forl'doc wdtneflexo^tiicr^gdcvery 
Dne.thnt'hcafies the WGkrd!8 of .the propfaerfy of this iwofcc : if 
any (hall ad to theft , God (hall lay upon him the plagi4c8 
written in this J>ooke vand if any (hdl take away arty thing 
from the book* of his^prophefic^God (hall takeaway thi« part 
out of the booke of life. 

516. Tthofe^ookes wjhich commonly iwe call apocryphal], 
jdoc not pertaine to the divine CaBoa,ncither were they right- 
ly enough joyned by nien of old to the canonicall booKes, 
as a certaine iecundary Canon : for <irft in fome of them there 
are raanifeft fables told and affirmed for true HiftorieSj as of 
Tpi^iih^ Indith^ Snfanna , ^r/, the Dragon , and fiich like* 
Secondly,, bccaufe tiiey coiitradifi both the facred Scrip- 
ture and thcmfdvcs. Oftentimes. Thipdly , they were not 
written in Bebrevc^nov delivered to the lewijh Church,or recei- 
^ vedbyit, to which notwithftanding God committed all bis 
^ Oracles before the commingof Chrift^ R^m. 9. 4. Fourth- 
--' ly they were not approved by Chrift,bccaufe they were not 
amongtbofebookes which he fet forth when he comman- 
ded his to fearch the Scriptures. Fifthly , they -were never 
rcceived.citbtrby tfhe Apoltles or the firft Chriftian Church as 
a j)^rtx>fiCthcrDwine C^^on. 

of the ordinary Minifim and f reaching- 

Of ordinary LMinrflers , and their Office in 

I. •"^Rdinary Mniftery is that which hath all itsdi- 

■ 1 rcftion from the will of God revealed in the Scrip- 

^^fci^ cures , and from thofc meanes which God hath 

appointed in thcChurch , for the perpctuall ediication of 

thcfam^* i 

2. And hence they arc called ordinary : becanfc they may 
and arc wont to bee called to Miniftcr by order appointed 
by God. 

5. But becaufe in their adminiftration they have that Will 
of God which was before rev-ealed by extraordinary Mini* 
ftersforafixed rule unto thcmt therefore they ought not to 
4propoundordoe any thing in ihe<!ihurGh which they have 
not prefcribed to them in the Scriptures. 

4. Thesiefore alfo they depend upon extraordinary Mi^ 
niftcrg, and are as it were thieir fucccflbrs: for although in 
refpeft of manner and degree extraordinary Mintfters have no 
fucceflbrs ; yet in refpcft of the eflence of adminiftration, or- 
dinary Minifters performe the fame office toward thcChurch 
as extraordinary did of old, ^ 

: 5*Thc right ofhisMiniftery is wont to be communicated ^ 
by men.and in that rcfpcft the calling of an ordinary Minifter 
is mediate. 
^ 4« But t his is fo to be under flood 5 that the authority of ad- 
miniftring Divine things is immcdiatly<:ommunicatcd from 
God to all lawful! Minifters , and the appointing of pcrfons 
upon wbichit isbcftowedisdone by the Church. 

jr. ^ gut bcca^ufe the Church can neither confer gifts ne- 
ccmry for this Miniftery nor prefcribc unto God upon whom 
he (hould bcftow them , therefore (hec can only chuft thoft 
whom before flie feci fitted, for not as extraordinary Minifters, 


Cftke ordinary Mmifierf dnd Preachiptg. I j 5 

Co alfo ordinary arc made fie by their very calling, when they 
Were unfit before. 

8. Hence in an ordinary calling it is neceflarily required 
that a lawful! triall goe before the calling it felfe. i Tim.^. 
10* Let them be firfl tried, then let them Minifter if they 
be blamelefle. 

9. Ordinary Miniftcry is for the prefervingjpropagating, 
and reftoring the Church by ordinary meaneSa 

10. There arc two parts of this Miniftery. i. That in the 
Name of God he doe thole things whicli are to be done 
with the people. 2. That in the name of the people he doe thofc 
things with God which are to be done with him. 

11. But in thefc the preaching of the Word doth moft ex- 
cell, and fo it hath bcene alwayes of perpetuall ufe in the 

12; The duty of an ordinary preacher isto propound the 
Will of God out of the Word^unto the edification of the hea- 
rers.i Tir^. 1.5. The end of preaching is love out of a pure 
heartland a good confcience,and faith unfained. 

13. Butbecau(e there is chiefly required a (erious defire to 
edify the Church^thcreforc he cannot be a fit preacher, who 
hath not prepared his heart to (eeke the Law of the Lord^and 
to keepe it > and to teach Ifrael the ftatuccs and judgements* 
For he that teacheth another ought before and when he 
teacheth»to teach h\m{c[k.Rom.2.2 1. Ocherwife he is not fit- 
ted to edifie the Church« 

14. This duty is to be performed not only univcrfally in 
refpeft of all the hearersin common , but alfo fpeciallyin 
refpeft of order and agewhatfoever, as of old men, young 
men, fervants.71r>.2.&3. Of teachers, 2 Trr.i.ia^&c. Yea 
of every one, iThef.2.11, We exhorted, and comforted, 
and charged every one of you , not publickly onely, but 
privatly alfo. ^£is 20 20. Publickly , and from houfeto 

15.HC ought to have this fcopc of edifying fo alwayes be- 
fore his eyes, that he diligently take heed he turne not afide 
from it 3 to vaine laughing, i Tim.1.6. To ftriving about 
Words. 2. T/».2.i4. To unprofitable controverfics, orfpe- 
culatioBis of (ciencc falily fo calleda Kin.6. lo.'&ai ihew hin- 

X fclfc 

of ordinary Mimfierf AndpYeacUng. 
felfe to be an holder faft of the faithfiill word which tends 
unto doftrinc. Tiui. 9. And which cannot be condemned^ 
Tiiuz. 8. 

16. But becaufe the Will of God is to be propounded 
outofhis Wordjto this end therefore h^ is not fit for his 
Miniftery^ who hath not his fences exercifcd in the holy 
ScriptnreSj even beyond the common fort of believers , fo 
that he might be faid to be with ^A^ollos mighty m the Scrip- 
tures. AUs 18. 24. Hee muft not truft to Poftils and Com- 

17. That the Will of God may be propounded with fruit 
of edification thefe two things,are nccefiary to be done.i.That 
a declaration be made of thofe things that are contained in 
the Text. 2. That application of the fame be addrefled to the 
confciencus of the hearers as their condition doth feeme to 
require.' i Tm^ 6. 17. Charge thole that are rich in this 
World that t-hcy be not high minded , nor truft in unccrtaine 

i8. They deceive their hearers^and altogether forget them-' 
(elves J who propound a certaine text in the beginning ^ as 
the beginning of the Sermon to be had, and afterward doe 
• Ipeakc many things about the text or by occafion of the 
text , but for the moft part draw nothing out of the text 
it felfe* 

19* In declaring what truth there is in the text ^ firftit 
ought to be explained , and then afterward what good doth 
follow from thence. That part is (pentindoftrines, ordo- 
GUmetots , this in ufe or derivation of profit from thofe 
doftrines. I.Tim, 3. i6* All the Scripture is prefitable for 
doftrine, for reproofc, f or corrcftion ^ and inftru6tionin 

20. They who invertand confound thofe parts ^ doe not 
provide for the memory of their hcarerSjand doe not a little 
hinder their edification : becaufe they cannot commit the 
chiefe head of the Sermon to memory 3 that they may after- 
Ward repeate it privatly in their families, without which exer-- 
dfe the grcateH: part ofthatfruit.dothperifh which would by 
Sermons redound unto the Church of God* . 

2ii Doftrine is a Theologicall Axiom, either copfifting in 



Of ordinary Minifitrs andpreaching. I ry 

ihc cxprcfTc word of Scripture ^ or flowing from them by im- 
mediate conftquencc. 

22. A doftrine muft firft ht rightly found ontj and then af- 
terward handed. 

23. ThefindingitcmisbyLogickAnalyfis, unto which 
Retorickealfo and Grammar ferveth* 

24. Analyfis depends chiefly upon the obfervatlon of the 
fcopcor purpofc. and the meanes by which it is attained, ac- 
cording to the aft of Logick. 

25. Unto this muft be (ubjoyncd for confirmation the 
interpretation of thofe things whicli are doubtfull in the 
Analyfis : but manifeft things, and fuch as are perfpicuous of 
themfelves doe neither require ,, nor admit a needelefle in« 

26.Handling ( of a doftrine ) doth partly confift in pro- 
ving , if ic may be q^eftioned by the hearers 5 ( for it is unfit 
carefully to connrme that which all acknowledge) and part- 
ly in illuftration of the thing Efficiently proved* 

27. Proving oughi: to be taken out of the more cleerc tefti- 
monies of Scripture^reafons alfo being added where the 
nature of the thing wiil fofFer.But here that meadire is to be 
keptjwhich the commodity t)f the hearers^ will diftatc. 

2§ JUuftration may be drawcn almod from all places of in- 
vcntion.butdiffentaneous, acd comparate arguments have here 
the chiefe place. 

29. Every doftrine being now (ufficiendy explained mufi 
prefently be brought to u(c, in which part alfo, unleflTe fomc 
(peciall reafon doe othcrwife require , we muft mod infift : 
becaufc it containes the end and good of the other and is more 
joyned with the chiefe fcope of the Sermon namely the edi- 
fication of the hearers. 

30. They faile therefore who ftickto a naked finding out 
and explication of the truth and negleftingufeandpra(flift5 
in which Religion qndfobieflcdnefle doth confift, doe little 
or nothing edifie the confcience, 

3t. Neither yet arcallthcdoftrines which may be drawn 
out of the t^xt 5 to be propounded ^ nor all the ufes to be in* 
€ulcatcdbut thofe are to be chofcn out which thccircum- 
ftances of pla^c 3 time and perfons ^ (hall teach to be moft 

X 2 ncceffary. 

of ordinary Minijkrs Andfreachittg. 
ncccfrary^andofthofcfiichcfpcciallyarc to be chofen which 
make moft to ftir up or confirmc the life of Religion, 

32. They faile therefore 5 who care not much what they 
fay 5 fo they may fceme to have obferved, and fpoken many 
things : nay they doe this not feldomc , that they may ex- 
tort many things out of the text which arc not in it, and of- 
tentimes draw from other places unto it, bringing every thing 
out of many things : whereby indeed the (ubverfion rather 
then the edification of the hearers , efpccially thofcthat arc 
more unskilfulljdoih follow.^ 

35. Both doflrine and u(e as much as may be ought (b to 
be framedj that they may have fome connexion among them- 
fdveSj and doe alio (hew it. For the niinde is not drawen 
from one thing to another without di(profit : neither is there 
any thing doth more helpe memory then order of dc- 

34. An ufc fs a Theological! Axiom, drawnc from the 
doSrinCjftiewing the profit goodnefle or end of it* 

35, Thereafonofthededu^ionistobe opened,ifitbenot 
very plaine : unto which alfo muft be fubjoyned probation,or 
illuftration^as the ncceffity of the hearers, and prudence of the 
fpeakcr (hall adyife. 

^6.1hii ufc cither pertaines to the judgeraent,or to praftifo 

37 Jn the judgement there is Information, and Reformati- 
on of the mindc. 

gSJnformation is the proving of (bme truth. 

39.Reformation is the confutation of (bme error. 

40. But although every truth may be taught upon occa- 
fion, yet every error is not every where to be refuted. For 
old hcrelies which are already buried , are not to be digged 
up againe that they may bee refuted, neither are wicked 
blafphemies eafily to be repeated : this doth trouble and 
offend^efpecially when they arefolemnly norainacedjexplain* 
cdj and refutedJ 

4T. In praftife of lifethereisdireftion^whicbconfiftsof 
inftruilion and corrt&ion. 

42. Inftruftion is a dcmonftrationofthatli/cthatis-tobB 



OfordinaryMiniflers andpre^uhing. 1 59 

43* Corrcftion is a condemning of that life that is to be 

44. After declaration^application ought to follow, whick 
hath (b great agreenrcnt with derivation of ufcs, that it may 
often be mingkd with it. 

4 J.To apply a doftrine to his ufe^is (b to whet and put on 
feme generall truth with (pcciall accommodation, as it may 
pierce into the minds offuch asareprc(ent>witha movingof 
godly affeftions. 

46. Men are to be pricked to the quick, that they may 
fcele in every one of them that of the Apoftle, namely that the 
Word ofthe Lord is a two edged fword, that peirccth into 
the inward thoughts and affcftions , and gocth through un- 
to the joy ning together of the bones and the marrow. Preach- 
ing therefore ought not to be dead , but lively and efFeSuall, 
(b that an unbeliever comming into the Congregation of 
the faithfull he ought to be affeftcd , and as it were digged 
through with the very hearing of the Word, that he may 
give glory to God. i Cor. 14. 25. And fo the hidden 
things of his heart are made manifcft : and (o falling down 
on his faccjhc will worftiip God, and fay that God is in you 

47. But this application doth either refpeft amindeop- 
preffed, as confolation, or fainting in t^e profecution of 
good,as exhortation 5 or in avoydrng of evill^as admonition. 

48. Confolation is the application of (bmc argument^ 
^either to take away, or to mitigate griefe and opprcfling 


49.1n confolation^markcs are profitably joyned, by which 
the confciencc of a man may be aflured that fich a benefit peri 
tames to him , with the confidcration of which the Minifter 
doth comfort the confciences of believers, adding occupati- 
trons , and refutations offuch things as a pious and troubled 
mindcrray bring and tthinke of to the contrary* 

50. Exhortation is the application of an argument, either 
to beget^cher ifii^and excite fome inward vcrtue, or to fiirther 
the exercise of it. 

51. In exhortation to vertuc it is very profitable to (hew 
tlie meancs which doe tend to the begetting that vertuein 

X 3 as^ 

1 6o of ordinary Miniifers Md preaching. 

us 3 but let all be proved by places of Scripture and exam* 
pies , or by reafons which have a firme foundation in the 

52. Admonition isthe application of an argument to cor- 
rcCkfome vitioufnefle* 

53,Inadmonit2on5 or dehorration from vice, there may 
be remedies ad j oy ned out of thofe places which are moft like 
to prevaiic againll thofe vices. 

54* The manner of working in all thefe muft be (uch that 
it have no oftentation of humane wifdome, or an cnter- 
minglingofcarnallaffeaions, but thedemonftrationofthc 
fpirit every where manifefted. i Cor.i.iy. ^caf. 2.1. 4.13. 
Not with skill offpeaking leaft the Crolfe of Chrift (hculd 
be made of none effeft. Not with excellency of fpeech or 
wifedomernot in parfwading words ofmenswi(edome but 
in fpirituall and powerful! demonftration. Not in words 
which mans wi(edome tcacheth but which the holy Spirit 
tcachcth J for it is the word of the fpirit 5 the word of life 
which is preached to edification of God which is by Faith; 
unto which if any thing he not fitly (foken or done ^ icisas 
vaineashay andftubble.1 C^r,3.r2. 

55. Therefore neither ought humane teftimonies what- 
foevcrthey be , norHiftories known only to the learned, to 
be intermingled ^ unlefle very (eldome ( thecaufe al(b be- 
ing iignified which couftraineth fo to doe ) when urgent 
neceffitie or certaine hope of fruit doth feeme to require fuch 
a things much Icfle words or fentences of Z^r/W, Greeke^ or' m.^ 
Hehrew^^hXch the people doe not nnderftand. ^ ^ 

56. The purity, perfeftion, and majclty of the word^ 
of God is violated , whilft it ftemes to want the mixture of 
humane words 5 and withal] there is a icandall given to the 
hearers 3 who being accuiiomed to fuch humane flv unfiles, 
oftentimes, contraSing itching eares, doe begin to lothe^the 
fimplicity of the Golpclij and will not (uffer wholefome 
doftnne.2 7;>w^4.3. 

57. Tlje example oiPat^l (who cites a very few^and briefe 
(ayings of heathen Poets , not naming the Authors 5 to 
convince the Gentiles to whom they were knowen and ap- 
proved 3 and that very fcldomej and but by the way ) this 


of ordinary Mmi/iers and preaching. i6i 

example I fay doth nothing enforce that neceffity or pro* 
fit, which they urge , who doe obtrude humane teltimonies 
frequently, and of purpose , commending the authors with 
the fame folemnity almoft wherewith they ufe to cite the 
names of the prophets, and that among Chriftians, who doc 
onelydefiretoheareChriftj to the end to (hew forth foine 

58. Neither al(b are u^neceflTary, and far fetched Proems, 
or perfwalive words of Orators to be followed : neither muft 

•^ they love digreffions , or excurfions. They doc favour an hu- 
mane fpirit^ fpend time, and (hut out other things which 
would more edifie. 

59. But if there be ufed any EKordium , pertaining to the 
prefcnt matter^that hath his proper place.eitherin thedeclara-* 
tion of the text or applying it to u(e. 

6o.The fpeech and aftion ought to be wholly fpirituali 
flowing from the very heart ^ (hewing a man much conver- 
fant in exercifes of piety who alfo hath before perfivaded 
bimfelfe, and throughly fetled in his confciencc , thofc 
things which he endeavours to perfwade others toiinto which 
finally there is ZealejCharityjMildnefrejFreedomejHumility, 
with grave authority. 

61. The pronouncing of the fpeech muft be both naturall, 
familiar, cleere, and diftinft, that itmay be fitly underflood : 
as alfo agreeable unto the matter that it may alfo move the 
affeaions.G'^/.4. 2 o. I would now be prefent with you, and 
^change my voyce rbecaufe I am in doubt of you. 
'^ 62. Among others here arc two voyces moft to be blamed 2 
the one which is heavy, flow, (inging, droufie, in which not 
only the words in the fame diflindlion of a comma , arc ft- 
parated with a paufe , but even the fyllables in the fame 
word 3 to the great hinderance of the underftanding of 

63. The other voyce which doth here moft offend is 
that which is hafty and fwift^which overturnes the cares with 
too much celerity fo that there is no diftinft perceiving 

64. That fpeech pronountiation and aftion which would 

be ridiculous in the fenate in places of judgeraent, in the 



Qmtt 5 that is more to bee avoydcd in a Scrmoiu 

65. Theefficacyofthe holy Spirit doth more clccrclyap- 
pearcinanakedfimplicity ot words, then in elegancy and 
iieatncfle : hence P^ul faith that he was i'«f/o7)jj Koy^i^ rude in 
fpeech* 2 Cor. i !• 6. Ycc if any have a cercaiae outward 
force of fpeaking , hee ought to ufc it with a Genuine 

66. So much afFcftation as appeares , (b miJch efficacy and 
authority is loft. 

6j. The fummeiSj that nothing is to be admitted which 
doth not make for the fpirituall edification of the people, nei- 
ther any thing to be omitted whereby we may inaftrcway 
attaine to that end. 

68. An appendix of the Sermon is Prayer ^ both before 
and after. 

6g* In Prayer going before 3 thofcgenerall things ought 
to be propounded , whereby the end and ufe of the word 
and preaching^and our wants, unworthincflc,and duty, to- 
gether with the gracious promifes of G o d may bee (b 
brought to remembrance , that the minds of all may be ftirred 
up humbly to fcekc , and faithfully to obftrve the Will 
of God. 

70. In Prayer following after, giving of thankesis al- 
wayes to be uied^and the chiefe heads of the Sermon (hould be 
turned into petitionst 

Chapter XXXVI. ^ 

Of the S^ramcnts. 

Thus much of the manner of application 3 in the firfi part tf 
if^ namely in the LMinifierj. 

!• ^ I 'He mannerof application in the other part of it is 
I in the fignes. 

X «♦ A fignc is a fcnfible thing which befides that 
(new it caricth pmcdiatly to thcficBlcs^makes another thing 


of the SacrammU. 

withall come into the mind : and in this (encc the confidcra- 
don of a figne is as large as of a Logicall argument* 

J.Signes are fome natural!, feme by inftitution- 

4.Yetbetwecnethcfe two there is (o great diffcrcncc,that 
they cannot be confounded without foule error. 

$.Thcre is alfo a figne ordinary and perpetU4ll,and another 
extraordinary and temporary. 

6. Inrefpeft of the thing fignified, ic is either of things 
pad J ind ithcallcd ^^^^^^^^^U<^nf<^woranvurf^, A figne of 
remembrance ; or of things prcfent , and ics called ^t^yv'^Tiy.if 
DcmonftrativHWy a demonflrativc figne ; ofthingstocome, 
and it is called fr^iK^vtKh TrjtnuncUtivumy a toretelling ligue; 
or finally confiding of all thele/o as it (et$ forth things pre* 
fcnt^paft^and to conie. 

7. In refpeft of the end and ufe , it either ferveth for the 
underftanding,and is called Notifcans a notifying figne ; or 
the memory, and is called Commonefmens^ an admoni/hing 
figne ;or for Faith alfo^and is called Obftgyjam.gi Sealing figne, 
or laftly for all thefe together. 

8.Hence an holy Signc is cither a bare fignejOr a feale alfo. 

9»Abar€ figne is that which onely reprelenteth : a fealc 
is that which not onely rcprefenteth^but alfo exhibiceth by 

1 0. A feale fealing the Covenant of God is called a Sacra- 


1 1 . For ic is a figne^of remembrance, demonftratiogjfore- 
telling^notifyingjadmoniftiingj and Sealing. 

I a. A Sacrament therefore of the new Covenant is a Di- 
vine inftitution, whereby by fcnfible fignes , the blclfings of 
the new Covenant are reprefentedjexhibited and applied. 

1 3.Hence fuch a Sacrament hath the refpe^fl of a (ccondary 
Divine teftimony, whereby that primary teftimony which is 
contaiaed in the Covenant it (elfe^is fpecially confirmed in 
refpeft of u$» 

14^ Hence that fpeclall application ofthe favour and grace 
of God, which arilcth from true Faith,is very much confirm- 
ed and furthered by the Sacraments. 

15. In a Sacrament therefore there is a fenfible thing^and a 

Y id.Thc 


i6f Th€ fenfible thing is a figne cither rcprefencing , or 
applying : the fpirituali thing is that which is rcprefented 
and applied. 

17. Yet by the name of a Sacrament,ufualiy and moft pro- 
perly the outward and fenfible thing it felfe is wont to be 
fct forth. 

18. The Sacramentall figne hath not thar fpirituali thing 
to which it is referEed either phyfically inhering or ad- 
hering 5 fo^ fo the figne and thing %nificd {houM bee 
tt>geth€r. ^^ifcOF. r;]fi'';: 

19. Neither yet are they bare declaring and reprcfenting 
fignes, but communicating the thing it lelfc, teftitylng, and 
exhibiting the thing to be more communicated^ 

20. Hence none can inftitutcfuchanholy figne,bu£God 
only : feccaufe no Creature can beftowthe thing fignificd, 
or niake the communication of it certaine to us, or finally ad 
that vertue to file h fignes, whereby they may be mukdefitto 
confirme Faith , and Confidence 5 or to ftir up any fpirituali 
grace in US3 more then any other thing. i* v.:^ vi^it^ 

21. The thing it felfe which is fct apait a»id ^ai^ted 
to fuch an holy u(e is properly called a repreftnting fignc^ 
as Bread and Wine in the (upper , but the ufe of thefc 
things is called an applying figne ; as diftributing, reo^iviug, 
eating, drinking. ^:i»".niv > ) 3d> :: iilcil 'yn^ A .':> v 

22. Hence Sacraments doe not propcrly>«iift out bfth«k 
tirfe 5 that is neither before, nor after they arc applied to ihcir 
ufe^are they indeed Sacraments. 

25* The fpiiituall thing wliich is fignifiedby the Sacra- 
ments of the mw covenant is the new covenant it icifcr thac 
is 5 Chrift with all thofeblcffing^ which in him arc prepared 
for the feithfull. r 

14; Yet fome Sacraments doe more cxprelly repreienta 
wanner oribmerefpeft of his Covenant, then others^ which 
dop alto more fct forth fbme other manner. 

25. But all have this common 5 that they (eale the w4ioIc 
Covcnafit of grace, to the faitirfuU ; neiticr have they i4iii5 
uCc at that only time whdft they ar^ admiiirftred , b»t 9o the 
tndofHfe. usii yii ^nl .?! 

26. The forme of a Sacrament is that uiJon whi^ is^bc^ 
Wveen the figne^and things^fignified* 27* This 


of the Sacrament f. 1 5 j 

27.Tbis union is not corporallj neither yet is it Imaginary, 
but it is a fpirituall relation by vertuc whereof the thingj 
fignified are rcailycomtipunicatcJto thcfc^ who doerigbtly 
ufe the (igi:es« 

28. For neither doe all thofe partake the fpirituall thin^ 
it refte,who are m^de partakers of the fignes ^ neither is there 
the (ame minner and meanes of partaking both. 

2p. From this Union followeth a communication orPra> 
dication, whereby Firft^ the fignc is predicated of the thing 
fignified, as whrnSanftification of the heart is calling cir- 
cumcifion. 2, Th« thing fignificd of the figne, as when 
circuTicifioa is called the Covenant ^ and bread the body. 
3. The effe6lofthe thing fignificd is predicated otthefigne, 
as when Baptifme is faid to regenerate. 4. A property of 
the figne is predicated of the thing fignified , as when break- 
ing which agreeth to the Bread is attributed to Chrift. 5. A 
property of the thing fignified is attributed to the figne, 
as when facramcntall eating and drinking is called fpi* 

30. The foundation of this relation ariftth^ Firft , from 
the fimilitude or proportion of the figne to the thing fignifi- 
ed .for fuch a likcncflfe although it doe not make a Sacra- 
ment , yet it is required afore to tbofe things which doc 
make a Sacrament, and is laid as a foundation to them. Se- 
condly, from the word of inftitution , which confifts of a 
command and a promiie. the command doth impofe a duty 
ofufing the Creatures to that holy end. The promife (foth 
giveus to belicvethat we fliall not (b ufe them in v^he. But 
this word of inftitution diftinftly applied with fit praycrSi 
is called the word of conftcration , of blcffing, the word of 
(anftification , and fcparation. 3. It ispcrficedwithobfer- 
vation, and the ufe it (cite prefcribed , of which here is (b 
great force,tha£ for default of it thatjs not a Sacrament to this 
or that petlbn b^ing prcfcnt in body or receiving j which to 
others is moft effcftualf. 

3 f • The primary end of a Sacrament is to ftale the cove- 
nant, and that not on Gods patt cncly,but confcquently 
alfoonours, that is,not oncly the^^raceof God, and pro- 
mifes are fealcdto us,butalfooiir thankfulncflc and obedience 
towards God. Y 2 32;, There- 

of the Ecckfiajlkall Dijciplwe. 
32. Therefore myftlcallfignes of holy things cannot be. 
inftitutedby min, without prejudice and violation of the 
Sicraments , although they doc fet forth mans duty ooly^ 

33# For although fuck fignes are not properly Sacra- 
ments 5 yet they are fignes SacramentalUhat is, they pcr- 
takc the nature of Sacraments,and (b cannot be inftitutedby 

34. A (econdary end is profeflion of Faith and love : for 
there are reprefented in the ufe of thcSacraraents , both that 
union which we have with God in Chrift , and that conni- 
n:iunion which we hold with all thole who are partakers of 
the fame union,crpecially with thofe who are members of the 
fame Churcbf 


OfEcclefiaJUcall "Difcifline. 

An adjunSl of the PVord and Sacraments is Difcipline : 

which in rejpelt ofthefumme efthe matter hath b^ene 

alw ayes one ^and fo may fit/jt be handled in 

this one place. 

I. y X^'7 ^^^^*P'^"^ ^^ ^ perfonall application of the 
I 'I Will of God by cenlurcs, cither for the prcven- 
JL-. Xcmg, or taking away of (candals out of the Church 

of God. 

2. For in the preaching of the Word, the Will of God 
is propounded and really applied to beget and iacreafe Faith 
and obedience. In the administration of the Sacraments, the 
Will of God is al(b perfonally applied by the (calcs , to con- 
firme Faith and obedience. In the exercife of Difcipline, 
the Will of God is perfonally alfo applied in the cenfures for 
the removing of thofe vices, which are contrary to Faith and 

3. Hence it is that Difcipline is wont to be joyned with 
the Word and Sacraments by the beft Divines^ in the notes 


of the EcckJ?aJiicall DifcipUne- 
oftheChurch, for though ic be not a notcfimply cflciniall 
and rcciprocall ( as neither the other two ) yet ic ought 
neceiTarily to be prelcnt to the complete cftateot a Church. 
4. This Difciplinc is ordained and prefcribed by Chiit 
him(clfe. Mat..i6^i9. & 18.15,16^17. And fo is pliitdy of 
Divine right: neither may it be taken away 5 diraini(hed, or 
changed by men at their plcafurc. 

5 Nay the (ins againft Chrifts, the aothorj and ordainer^ 
whofoevcr doth not fo much as in him is to cftablifii and 
promote this Difcipline in the Churches oi God. 

6. The pcrfons about whom it ought to be exercised arc 
the members of vifible inftitutcd Churches , without any 
exception. Mat.i^.i^^ 1 (^or.^.n. And not others : There 
Ferf. 1 2. For it pertaines to them,and only them that have 
right to partake of the Sacrament. 

7» Unto thofe^perfons it applies the Will of God, that 
is, thole meanes of fpirituall reformation^ fuch asChrift 
onclyhath given to his Churches. 2 C^r.io. 4, Therefore 
puniftimcnts and vexations to be endured by the body or 
purfe, have no place at all in Ecclefiafticall Dilcipline. 

8. Itrc(pefts fins and fcandalls in thofe perfons:for it 
is an wholfclbme hcalifig plaifter of thofe wounds and difeafes 
to which theiheepeof Chrift are fubje(5^. iCor.^.'y. 

9* It forbids and takes away thofe offences : becaufeit doth 
cffeftually and pcrfonally apply the Will of Chnllj the im« 
pugrdng and abolifting of them. 
^ IC But becrule it doth lo effieftually urge obedience 
K- toward Chrill , therefore not without fingular reafon a 
great part of the Kingdome of Chrift as hee doth viiibly 
governe the Church is placed by the beft Divines in this 

i|. And this isthctru^ rcafbn why the Difcipline of Chrift 
is folidly conftitutcd and cx^rcifed together with doftrine 
in fo few Churches , becaufe moft even ofthofc who would 
feeme to know Chrift , and to hope in him doe refufe to re- 
ceive the whole Kmgdomc of Chrift^ and to yceld thcmielves 
wholly to him. . 

12. But as it is a part of the Kingdome of Chrift, (b alfo it is 
by the fame reafon a pare of the Gofpeli : for it is an holy 

Y 3 manner 


1 68 of the Ecckffajimll bifcipline. 

manner of protnoting the GpfpcU ordained in theGofpell: 
They therefore who rejeft difciplinedoc neither receive the 
whole Kingdome of Ghriftjnor the whole Gofpcli* 

13. But bccaufe both every part of the Kingdome of Chi ift 
is necefTaty in its meafute, and that chiefly which doth re- 
preflefin, effc(9:i3ally , therefore men doe not (afcly enough 
content themfelves, in Churches wanting Difciplinc, unlcffe 
that publick defeft be m^de up by a private ckxc^ and watch- 
ing one over another. 

1 4« The parts of this Discipline are brotherly corrcftion, 
and excommunication. 

15. For it doth not either only or chiefly confift in the 
thunderclaps of Excommunications and JiiiaihffMs , but 
chiefly in Chriftiancorreftior. 'i '^ 

16. Neither is the proper end of rcproofe that there might 
be then an entance made to Excommunication ( although 
by accident that fometimes doe folIow)but that the nectfficy 
ofExcommunicatingif it canbe , might be prevented, and 

— the finner may bee by tinfiely repentance retailed in ttie 

Church. ilii H '31. / , g a av^ri , 3ni 

17. Correftion, increpation oradmanirioftj cug;httobc 
ufcd in every finne unto which the medicine of Di'^cipl/nc 
agreeth , yet in a divers manner according to the difference 
of the fin fecret 3 and krrowen^ For in hidden n'm^thofe 
three degrees are to be obYerv^d which Chnft hath in order 
prefcribed.cJW^^. 1 8.155 16. 17. ^"^ ^" pubiick Cns luch a gra- 
dation is not necelTary, i TVw.5,20. 
' 18. Thefe admonitions ought alwaycs to be taken out of "^ 
the word of God , not oiit of mens decrees : othcrwife they 
v^ill not pierce to the confcience. 

19. A plenary excommunication is not to be ufed^unle/Je 
contumacy be added to the fin, Af^r. 18. 17: Forthcfinner 
rightly admoni(hed,of neccffity muft app^arc penitent^or ob- 
ftinate^but the penitent is not to be excommunicated 3 there-* 
fore only he that is obftinate. 

20. Yet in the more bainous ofFences fo much patience 
and delay is neither neccflary nor profitable^ toexpcft re- 
pentance^and to the difcerniog of contumacy ^as in more nfu- 
alifeultf. : 

2£. When 

OftheEcciefialiicdlDifcipline. 169 

21. When the thing it fclfc may fuflfer delay, it \% agree- 
able to Scripture and reifon, that excommunication be firft 
begun by fufpenfion or abftcnfion from the Supper , and fuch 
like privileges of the Church, which is wont co be called the 
leffer excommunicatian, 

21. Yet wee muft not ftay in this degree, but by this 
meancs and in xhi% fpace repentance is to be urged ^ and there 
being no hope of it, we muft proccede at length to a com^pleat 
fevering from the Comoiunion of the £aithfull,which is wont 
to be called the greater Excommunication.^ 

23.Bnt brciufean obftinatc (inner cannot be (eparated from 
thefaithfuil/inlefic the fakhfull be Separated from him, and 
this alfo mokech for their wholeiom rfiame.2.Tifjf.3. i + Thcr- 
fore they who arel^wfully excommunicated , are to be avoy- 
ded of all Com municants, not in refpeft of duties fimply mo- 
rallj orotherwife ncceflary , but in refpeft of thofe parts of 
converfatian wti ich are wonx co a ccompany ap prub ati ur i a nd 
inward familiarity.^ . ;. .. ,,^ . 

Wich the fecludedj^neither confer, nor pray 
Salute, nor teaft^nor cat with day by day. 
24. From the bond of E^ccommutiication none that is 
not penitent ought to be loofed ^ neither ought it to be de- 
nied to aay that is penitent* Bat it is not a fuiBpierH/epen- 
taQce,if ORke (ay it repents mtji will doc {q"^^ snoce y ^^k^ doe 
not'otherwilefhew trm? Repentance : but iuch judgeii^iits, 
^^of ftrious repentance ought to appcace sts the Church is 
^ bound to bee^ iitisfied in them \ otherwife hypocrifie 
is nourifhed , and the Church is mocked , atad Chriift 

25 • Yet in foine-fins a wca&c repentsiicc (^fodt appeal^ 
ti!ue)may be admivced them in other fin^ j * • fl i 

. 26. Tfee power orf thb Difciplinc iji refpeft of the right 
It fclfe pertaincs to that Church \n common , whereof the 
loflFcndbris, a meaiber ^ for it pertatnes to her ;to caft cut 
to whom in belongs to admit at firft ; and the confervation 
(W* cutuing off of mtmhcrs concernes the whole body 
•cjuilly^ : it iwHcpefore to be committed to execution with 
the confent of the Church (and thai: nafecMielythcGhurch 
'i; permit- 

170 Of the admnijlration of the etvemnt htfore Chrifi. 

permitting, but alfo approving and appointing.) 

27, Yet the Elders have the chiefe parts , in theafting 
and exercife of it. And that not onely in direfting the pub- 
lick aftion^and pronouncing fentcncc, but alfo in admonici- 
onsforegoing.inwhichtheymuft makeup that which they 
fee was neglefted by private pcrfons. 

aS.Theufuall cenfurcs^ofthcT^?;^^?/, of pontifical! Bijhopi 
and their officers 5 doc thcmfelves deferve a grievous cenfurc : 
for they are prophanationsof ^hc Name of God^ props of an 
un juft govcrnmentjand fnarcs to catch other mens money, not 
fpirituall remedies of fiich fins« 

29. Indulgences., Commutations, and humane tranf- 
aftions, in thofe things unto which Chrift hath ordai- 
ned the Difcipline of the Church , arc wages of the great 

Chapter XXXVIII. 

of the ftdminiftrAtion of the Cvvenimt of grace 
before the commi/tg of (thrift. 

If . A Lthough the free, and faring Covenant of God 
/A hath bcene onely one from the beginning , yet the 

JL JLmanncr of the application ofChriftorofadmi- 
niftring this new Covenant, hath not alwayes bcene one' 
and the fame, but divers, according to the ager in which the ^ 
Church hath been gathered. 

2t In this variety here hath bcene alwayes aprogreflc from 
the more imperfeft ^ to the more perfeft. 

S.Firft therefore the my ftcry of the Goipel was manifeftcd 
generally atid more darkly , and then more (pecially and 

4- This manner of adminiftring is double : one ofCfarift to 
be exhibited, and the other of Chrift exhibited. 

StFor the old and New Tcftamcnt are reduced to theft two 
primary heads : the old promifeth Chrift to come , the New 
teftificth that he iscome. 

6.¥qv \ 

of the adminiji ration efthe Covenant l^spre Chrifi^ ^ji 

6. Whileft Chdft was to be exhibited, all things were 
more outward and carnalL afterw^^rd more inward and fpi^ 
xiiyxAX^John 1.17. ThcLavv v/asciclivercj by Af^y/i'/.gr^ce 
and thJth came by ChriJ}. 

7. Yet at chat time there vjjlS a double confideration of 
the Church, i. As an heiie, and 2. as it v^as an infant, 
C^alatians 4,i« and following : So long as theheirei^anin- 
fantj heenothlng differs from afervant^thoughheebceLord 
of all. 

8. As an heirc it was free * as an infant it was in a certains 
manner (crviie. There. 

9. As an heire it was fpirituall : as an infant carnall, and 

I o.As an heire it had the fpirit of adoptionjai an infant the 
fpij it of fearc,and bondagc.R(?r». 8. 15. Yee have not received 
the Ipi it of bondage againc tofeare, but yee have received the 
fpirit of zAdoption* 

1 u The manner of adminiOration which refpeftsChrift 
to be exhibited was one, before M^fas^ and another from 

Mofei to Chrift. \ ,■ . ■ - 

1 2. Before Aiofts the polity of the Church was rude and 
loofc . as being in infancy : there were (b many vifible 
Churches as there were Families of godly perfons : the Mi- 
niltery was almoft alwaycs extraordinary by Prophets : the 
matters of Families^ and firft ^borne had right to adminiftcr 
fome holy things , as ordinary Mirufters, according to that 
dirtft:on which they receaved from the ProphetSt 
' 1 3. Yet there were feme difference of the dilpenfation from 
^dum to Abraham^ and from that which was after Abraham 
UntiJl CMo'eSm 

14. From Adam to ^Abrah^.m^ Firft, Redemption by 
Chritt.and the application of him was promi fed in general J, 
to be pfirformcd by a feed of the Woman^ to loofe the workes 
ofthcD^vill, that is, fin and death. ^^.3.15. Rom.i6.20^ 
I lohn 3«8. The feed of the Woman (hall breake the Serpents 
head. The God of peace (hAi tread Satan under your feet 
(hortly.TheSonof God was manifcftedtodiflblvethc works 

15. 2. Calling was exercifed ia that diAinftion which 

Z was 

1 72 of the actminiflrAtion of the Covenant Chriji before- 

was between the (ccd of the Woman and the (ced of the Dc- 
vill , between the Tons of God and the fons of men 5 Gerj^6. 
2.3« The way of juftification was fet forth by expiatory 
facrifices offered and accepted for fin?. Ifl^. 5. 2. Chrift 
hath loved us and given himfelfe for us, anoffringandfacri- 
fice to God for a fweet fmcUing favour. 

16. 4. Adoption was declared both by the title of fbns at 
that time common to all the faithfoil , and by the tr anfla- 
tion of Enoch into the Heavenly inheritance , Gen. 5, 24, 

17. 5^ SancSification was both exprefly inculcated by the 
Prophets and typically (hadowed out by oblations and rites 
of facrinces.yW i^,RGni»i2*i. 

18. 6 GlorificatioOj was publickly ftaled both by the ex- 
ample of i?;^^r^, and conftrvation of iV^^c^^ith his family 
from theflood«iF(?r.3. 20^21. 

19. In this period of time the building and conferving 
cf the Arkc in the flood, was an extraordinary Sacrament. 
Beh. 11. Verf.y.i Pet. ^.20 2i. 21. Therewas no ordinary 
Sacrament : but that in many (acrifices here was fomething 
that had the refpeft of a Sacrament : for in that tboft that did 
facrificc for the moftpart were made partakers of their fa- 
crifices in an holy banquet ^ in an holy place with joy be- 
fore God. JEx€(i.iS.i7. This did fcalc to them in fQme fort 
that grace of the Covenant which is exhibited in the Sa- 

20.From the time of Abraham the Church did chiefly con- ^ 
fift in his family and poftcrity, 

21. In that period of time all the benefits of the new 
Covenant were mor« cleerly and difiinftly fet forth then 

2^. I. Elefticn was reprcfcnted in the perfbns of Ifaae 
and faceb , beloved before Ifmael and Efan^ Romans 9. 
115X23 13. 

23, 2.Redcmption togcthrr with the application of it was 
inoft excellently exhibited in the perfon 'and blefling olMel^ 
chifedecJ^^ alfo in the promife and covenant of blelEng tocomc 
to all Nations by the feed oi Abraham. 

14. 3, Calling was exercifcd by Uzdmf^ionh Abrairam 


^the adminiftration of the Covenant before Chrifi. \ 73 

out of Vr of the Caldees to a certainc new and heavenly 
Countrey^H^^, 1 1.8. 9 . i o. 

25. 4. Juftification wa? illuftratcd by the exprcfle t^la- 
mony of God > that Faith iV4S imputed to ^h-Jiam for 
rightcoufneflc, as the Father and pacterne of all^.h tiTioiild 
believe, and by the Sacrament of circuoicifion, which was a 
feale of the famerighteoufncfTe, 

2(5. 5. Adoption was fct forth by calling of theNameof 
God upon Abraham and all the (bnsof the pr omife 3 and by 
affigning of the inheritance to the fons of the promifes 
begotten of the free Woman , through gV2iCt* GaUtUns 4, 

27.6«Sanftification isras figured by circumc^'fion which did 
fet forth the taking away and abolifhing of tht corruption of 
fin and of the old man , that a new Creature might be fettled 
in itspiace*C<?/.2.ll./>ir^/r. 30. 6. 

28. y.Glorification was (hewed ivi the bleflfing promUed, 
and in ttie Land oi Canaan^ which was a type of the Heavenly 
Country. • -^-'^ 

2p. From the time of Mofes unto Chrifi, all thefe fame 
were further Qiadowed^by meanes both extraordinary ^and al- 
io ordinary. 

30. Redempcioa and the application hereof was extraor- 
dinarily fignified. I. By the deliverance out of E^//?t by the 
Minifteryofc^<3/^iasatypcofChrift. LMat.2.i'y. And by 
^ the bringing into the Land of Carman by the Miniftery of 
y J§fMAh, as of another type of Chrift. 2. By the brafcn Ser- 
pentjby the beholding whereof ^ men that were Hie to dyie 
were reftored to health* felon 3, 14, 1 2, 32. 3. By the cloudy 
whereby the Ifraelites were covered from all the in; iries both 
of their enemies^and of the Heaven. And moreover they had 
light 3 together with refrcQiing of their ftrength admini- 
ftped by day and by i{\^\t.i Car. 1 0.2. E fay 4.4. 4. By paffing 
thorough the red Sea , whereby they had away caft up to the 
Land of promi(e 3 their enemies being overwhelmed and 
deftroyed. i G^r*x 0.2. ^.hy MannahitomHtdNtn^ and 
Water oDt of the Rock , whence they received continuall 
nouri(hment,a8 it were out of Gods Hand* i ^<?rt 10.3. & 4. 

Zz i^i.Ordi- 

jjA Of the adminijiration of the Covenant bsfore'Chrifi. 

31. Ordinarily ChrJft and redemption by hiei was (had- 
dowed out by the high preiil,thc authors , and facrificcs for 

32. Juftification was {hewed in many facrifiies, wa(hingi, 
and the Sacrament of the PaflTcover. 

33 Adoption was fnewcd in the tirft bornej who were dedi- 
cated to God. 

34,San&ification5in all the offerings and gifrs, and inthoft 
obftrvations which had any (hew of cleanlinefle. 

35. Glorrficationj by the inheritance of the promifed Land, 
and by that communion which they had with God in the 
moft holy place, 

jdiThe Church of the lewes in&kiittd by Mofes^in rc(peft 
of the outward gathering together was only one , becaufe all 
that folemne Communion, which wasatth^ttimeprefcri* 
bed, did depend upon one Temple, and there it was to be exer- 
cifed by publick profelGon and with certainc rites* 

37. The Synagogues were not compleate Churches, be* 
eaufethe whole worfhip of God and the whole holy Com- 
munion at that time prefcribcd could not be exercifed in 

38. Therefore the Church of the fewes was a national! 
Churchy and in fbmc rcfpeft catholick^or univerfall^ as the be* 
licving'?rtfyr/j'^^^ of every Nation under Heaven, were bound 
tpjoynethcmiclvcs to that one Church. A^s z.^^S^^.^^io^ 
11.&8. 27. ^ 

39.TKe primary Minifters were the Priefts , of the family^ 
oi A0.rony in a continued liaeoffiicceirion, to whom were 
joyned the other Levjtcs. I^nm.^.dy.S 9. 10. 

40. Yet neither Priefts nor Lsvites were admitted to Mi- 
nifter^unleflie they were firft tried ^ and that as they were able ^ 
in body »age , and the gifts of the mind. 

41. The pifcipline of that tifnc that was merely Ecckfi- 
afticalLwas for a great part ceremoniall ^ yet fo as all kind of 
holy things were to be preferved pure. 

Cap. XXXIX, 

Adminifiration of the Covenant ftnce ChrdL 1 7 5 

Chapter XXXIX. 

Of the adfnwiftratinn of the Qovcfia'ot fr$m Qhrifi 
exhibited to the eni of the fVor/d* 

1. r m ^He manner of adminiftration now Chrift is cxhib- 
I ted is double^ one uncill the end of the worlds and 
JL the other in the end it felfc. 
2.From Chrift to the end of the world , there is an admini- 
ftration of one raanner^and that altogether new : whence al(b 
it is called the New Teftament* 

5Jt is ofone manner without end or alteration, becaufeit 
Is pcrfe^ijO thatthcre is not another to be expefted^ta which 
it fhould give place as to the more pcrfcft. 

4. It is the New Teftament , in refpeft of that which was^ 
from the rime ol- Af^/^j 3 and in refpedrofthepromifcmadc 
to the Fithers : not in refpcft oi the cflence^but in refpeft of 
thcmaf nerjbecaufe in them in rcfpeft ofthcmanncrof ad- 
miniftring , there was lomerepclcntat ion of the Covenant 
of workes , from which this Teftanient doth eflentially dif- 
fer; and {o feeing there didn^ t appeare an integral] diffe- 
rence, of the New Covenant from the Old, but in that ad- 
miniftration which is moft properly called the New Covenant 

) and Teftament. 

5. But it differs from the former adminiftrationjifl quality 
and quantity. 

6» That wherein it differs in quality is cither cleernefle, or 
' frcedomc. 
^ 7^Clcerencfleconfifts in this^firft that the doftrine of grace 
and falvation by Chrift aiid Faith in him^together ivith thoft 
thingsannexedtoit, h oiorcdiftinft andexpreffe, then be- 
fore it was ; Second! y^that it is not declared in types and ftia- 
dowes.butin a moft manifeft manner. 

8.inboththe(e rcfpefts, Chrift before is (aid to be pro- 
pounded before underavailc, but now to be offered with 
open arid unvailed face* a^f r.3. >i. Wc u(e great evidence 

Z 3 in 

WjS ^d^im/?.r4thH of the Covenant Ji»ceChrJfi. 

in fpeakirg 5 neither arc we as ^<7/}/whoputa vaijeoverhis 
face, ttiat the children oi I fr^.el could not fee to the end of that 
which now as unpraficable is taken away. 

p Freedome doth confift in this. Fitft, that the govcrn- 
nientofthcLaw, or mixing of the covenant of workes^which 
did hold the ancient people in a ccrtaine bondage , is now 
taken away : wh-ence alfo the fpirit of adoption, although 
it was never wholydenycd to the faithful!, yet molt pro- 
perly it is faid to be communicated under this N^w Tcfta- 
ment , in which the moft perfeft ftate of believers dorfi moft 
cleerly appears, Gal.^.'^. After the fulncfle of time came, 
God fenc forth his Son — that we might receive the ?idop- 
tionoffbns^ &c. Secondly^ it con{iftsinthis,thatthcyok^ 
of the cereraoniall Law, as it was an hand-writing againft 
finncrSj as it did forbid the u(e of things in their nature in- 
different 3 as it did command many burdenfome obfervation^ 
of them, and as it did vaile the truth it fclfc with manifold 
and carnall ceremonies , h now wholy taken away y CoU 2. 
14. 17, Which arc a fhadow of things to comejbut the body 

lo.They therefore offend againft that liberty which Chrifl 
hath obtained for us ^ who obtrude upon the Chrifliaa 
Churches either lerpiih ceremonies g or other of the like na- 
ture with them^religious , and myfticall. For divine ceremo- 
nies are not taken away, that humane (hould fuccced in their 
roomc ; neither is it likely ^ that Chrift would leave fuch 
my fteries to the will of men, after his comming,when he per-^ ^ 
mitted no (uch thing to his people ofold, especially feeing 
he might (b eafily in this kind provide for us 9 if he had judg- 
ed any religious and myfticall ceremonies nece£fary or pro- 
fitable for his , befidcs thofc very few which he did by name \ 
prcfcribe.or at Icaft (hew in certaine Tables^to whom he 
did grant fuch an auchority^which he no where did. GaL^.u 
Stand faft therefore in the liberty wherewith Chrift hath 
made you freehand going back againe be not entangled with a 
yoke of bondage, 

1 1 .In quantity this adminlflration differs from the focmerj 

fedth intenfively and cxtenfively. . r 

12. Intenfively, firftj inthattfee application by the fpirft 


Adminiftrathn op he Covenant Jlncz chrifi. 177 

is more effeftuall ^ aid the gifts of thefpirir are more perfeft> 
then ordinanlj they were under the Old Tcftament , whence 
the old adminiftration is comparatively called the Letrcr^and 
thencwtherpiri..2 C^r.3.6. Secondly^in that it begcttctha 
more fpirituall life. 2 (^or 3.18. 

13. Extenfively, firllin refpeft of place, becaufeitisnot 
concraft^d to tome one people, as before, but is diffiifcd 
through the whole world. Secondly, in refpcAof time, 
in that ic hath no termc of duration before the confum- 
mation of the whole my fticall Church. 2 Coriyithiayts ^.11. 
£/?6.4.i3Thac which remainethjUntill we all meet unto a per- 
feft man , unto the meadire of the full ftaturc of Chrift. 

14. But becaufe this new adminiftration is fo perfeft, 
therefore it ism elite al(b , that the communion of Saints in 
the Church under the New Teftament bee ordained raoft 
per ft ft. 

1 5. Therefore in every Church of the New Teftament the 
whole (blemne and ordinary worfhip of God and all his 
holy ordinances may and ought to be obfervedjfo that all the 
members ofthat Church may ordinarily exercife comnauni- 
on together in them. 

16. For it is not now as it was ordained of God in the 
Church of the /<?k?^/ that fomemorcYoIemne parts of Divine 
worftiip may beexerciled in one place^&other in other places, 
but one particular Church is ordaincd,in which al holy office* 
are to be performed. 

) i7.Hence all Chriftian Chiurches, have altogether one and 
tlie fame rightjthat one doth no more depend upon another, 
then another upon it. 

18. Hence alfo it is moft convenient that one* particu- 
lar Church doe not confift of more members thea may 
4neete together into one place to heare the Word of God , ce- 
lebrate the Sacraments , offer prayers , and exercife Difci- 
plinc, and performc other duties of Divine polity , as one 

19. For it is an Aberration not void of all confufion^tkat 
in fome greater Cities , although there be more believers 
then that can exercife that Communion together , yet they 
ircnotdiftributcd into divers Churches, but doc make one 

178 Adminiflration of the CovendHt fmce Chrifi. 

fo to abound , that the edification ot every one cannot be 
rightly taken care for and furthered. 

20. I hereforc the Church inftituted fi^ce Chrift exhibited^ 
n not one catholickChurch,fo as all the faithf jll throughout 
the worl ) fhould be joy ncd together in one and the fame out- 
ward band among themfelves , and (bould depend upon one 
andchcfameA^iriblepartoF, or company of paltorS; but there 
are fo many Churches as there are companies 5 or particular 
CctigiegationSjof thofe that profefic the Faith, who are )oy- 
ned together by a fpcciall band tor the conftant excrcifeof 
the communion of Saints* 

21. For although the my fticail Church,^? it is in its mem- 
bers-, is no other way diriributei then inco the adjuncfls, 
and fu^tfis, in which refpeA Mt call ihe Church of TSelgia^ 
of Brit any ^ of France ^ ^s we cdli th«' Sea iCCorH^ngto the 
ftioreswhich it Waflicthto, thi Bv)^, Lk,Eri :fh , hrtixh Sea, 
altht ugh it be one and the lawe Sea : yet the inUi?uted 
ChuicheSj arcdivcismolt Tpccial! Spe.ie^j or lidiviJudnf^ 
partaking ot the Un.c ccmmun natt;/e. as divers fountaines, 
divers Schooles , divets Fani ir& : although many or aU per- 
adventure might be called oj c Chuich in refpcft of iome 
one aflPedion which they have in common , as many Fa- 
milies of fome noble ftockc, are otten let forth by the 
name of one Famil; ^ as the Family of theHouic of NaJ^ 

22. Neither is this Church that i» inftituted by God pro- 
pcrly nationall^provinciall.or Dioeccfan» which rormes were^ 
brought in by menfrom thepateincot civill government^eli 
pecially the Romane : but it is Parochially or ot one corgrc- 
gation, the members whereot are combined among them- 
(clve5,?nd doe ordinarily meete into one place to the pubiick. 
excrcilc of religion. ^ 

2 3. For fuch a company, and not larger, is properly fignK 
fied by the word l-^hnrla ^burch^ neither hath ic a larger fig- 
nification in the New Tcftament when it is referred to any 
vifible and dcfigned company, neither alfo among prophanc 
authors who are the more ancient. 

24,Hence divers fixed Congrcgation8,of the fame Countrey 
and Province arc alwayes called Churches in the pluraii 


ddminifirdtian of the e^vtnantjtHce Chrift. 1 79 

number not one Church , even in /W.r^, which was all be- 
fore one nationall Church, i Thef 2. 14. AEls 14. 23. & 
I'it^l* Remans l6.^.%* 16, i Car. 16. j .if. 2 Or.S.i.iS.ip. 
(74/, 1.3.12. 

25. Alfo thole particular Churches which are reckoned up 
in the New Teftament were wont to mecte together Et! t$ 
otVi into one.e^(3il.46.& 5.1 2.& 14.27.8c15. 25. & 2 1.23. 
I Or.5.4.&i4.23-36«& ii.i'/mZ^. 

26.Neither is there any thing read in all the Newleftament 
of the inftifution ofany largerChurch upon which Icflcr con- 
gregations fliould depend.ncither is there any worfliip or holy 
ordinance prcfcribcd which is not to be obftrved in every 
Congregation, neither is there any ordinary Miniftermadcj 
who is not given to fome one fuch company. 

27. Yet particular Churches, as their Communion doth 
require, the light of nature and equity of rules and exam- 
ples of Scripture doe teach, may and oftentimes alfo ought 
to enter into a mutuall confederacy and fcllowfliip among 
themfelres in Claflcs ^ and Synods, that they may ufe their 
common confcnt and mutuall belpe as much as fitly may be, 
in thoft things efpecially , which are of greater moment ; 
but that coBibination doth neither conftitute anew forme of 
a Church, neither ought it to take away , or diminifti any 
way , that liberty and power which Chrift hath left to his 
Churches , for thedircfting and farthering whereof it onely 

a8. The ordinary Minifters doe follow the forme of the 
Church inftitutedjand arc not OccumcnicallsNationall, Pro- 
vincial!, or DioeceCm Bifhops, bat Elders of one Congre- 
gation, who in the (ame (ence are alfo called Biihops in th6 

29. Thofi tranfcendent members of the Hierarchy were 
meerly humane CrcaturiBS brought into the Church without 
any Divine precept or example : They cannot fulfill the of- 
fice of a Paftor in fo many Congregations. They rob the 
Churches of their liberty , whilft they exercife as it were, a 
regall, or rather tyrannicall dominion over the Churches 
ihraifelves, and' their Psiftors, they have brought in with 
them the Roman Antichrift himfeife,as the head, and Chan- 

A a cellors^ 

1 8d Atimini^ration of the Covtmntfinet chrifL 

cellors, SufFraganes , Arch-deacons , Officially and the like 
props of the Hierarchy, as the taile of the fame fort^ ( whole 
very natncs are Apocryphall 5 and altogether unknowcnto 
the firft Churches j to the utter oppreffing of the Chutchei 
of G o D. 

30. The right of calling an ordinary Minifter is in the 
Church it felfe to whom he muft fcrve. ^£ls 74.23. 

3 1. Yet hei e chey need the dir€<flion and helpc of the Elders, 
both of the (amc Church , and very often alfo of the neigh- 
bour Churches^ 

31. The eflcnceofthe calling is in eleftion of the Church, 
and acceptation of the ele6^ed. 

33* An antecedent adjunft of it is, examination, or triall. 

34. A confequent, and confummating adjunft is ordinati- 
on, which is nothing elfe then a certaine folcmne entrance of 
the Minifter already elefted ^ into the free execution of his 
funftioniwhence it comes to pafle that X^S'o'" w,ordaining by 
eleftion 5 and ;^«f-o9g(r/<t Impofition of hands doe often fignifio 
the fame thing among the ancients, 

5 5. The Epifcopall ordination of a Minifter without title^ 
that is , without a Church to which and in which he (hould 
be ordained , is as ridiculous as if any (houid be fained to^bea 
husband without a wife. 5>i-- Oi n jrt? !;o rMn^n /{jwA^.a 

3d* A Minifterfo called to (bme one Chlirch • Can neichdf 
forfake it at his own will 5 or be caft out from it without juff 
caufe : neirhcr can another undertake the like care ef the 
Gfaureh,oTneglearthat which he hath undercjken 5 by volun- ( 
tary ribn-rcfidenc);^, withdtit ftcrikgicw^break^^ hut 
corenanr. '"'^ -»^*'^ ^?»(rc>riiid i^i-b-^xiO v) .iUnaiv 

37. Ordinary Mfttrtfft#ate-t*&i^Paftcwlaiid Teifchers^^ 
ruling Elders , to whom are joyned thofe that take<:arfc of ch6 
poone'^that is DeaconSjDiacoiieflss or Wido^es* • - 

38. By thefeofficei Cbtift^fe^th fuffidentlJL^rovi^ded fer^^^ 
the ncceflrties of thef nietnb**^ of the Church , namely thag 
they may be chiefly in ftmfted in the kttowledg ofthe truth b)r 
TeachcrSjftirredup chieflly tothepraftife of piety by Paftbrs^ 
prefervedmthateoUrftdf Rfe^andciilledbacfc to repentance 
fdirifitis^b)^#em^dthiB Rttieri^andib^ £le}]^dd^gainr^pov«)tf 
*■" "^ "icons. ;• ^ "-•-. ■lunhlr : •' ,, 

- Ca^p. XL. 

OfBaptifme and the Supper of the Lwd. jfii 


OfBaptifme anJ the Suffer of the Lord. 

I. A Fter the nature of the New Tcftament, the Sacra- 
AA mcntiofthclarHcdoefoUowrj for they are for nuni- 

JL JLber few, to be obtained, and obfervcd eafy^ and in 
their fignification muft perfpicuous. 

«. They were fanftified and inftitutcd by Chrift himftlfc : 
for ajtheugh the one Sacrament Was firftufed by lohn'Baf* 
tiSii yetin that very thing he was the forerunner of Chrift, 
that he might (hew, what Chrift himfclfe afterward would 
allow and inftitute ^ neither had ic the refpeft of an ordinary 
inftitution by the Miniftcry of lohn ^ but by the inftitution of 
Chrift himlelfe. 

^. Thefe Sacraments are Baptifme, and the Supper of the 
Lord , for neither were there either other Sacraments or fa- 
cramentall fignes delivered to the Church by Chrift or his 
Apoftles : neither can there other be appointed by men in 
tli Church. 

4. In refpeft of Gods Inftitution, there liethgreateftne*- 
ccfBty upon the faithfoll toufe thcfe Sacraments j tfiligently, 
and religioufly | yet they are not fo abfolutely neceflary to 
' falvation, that the abfence, or mecre privation of them dothr 
bring a privation of this inftitution : neither ought they in 
that refpeft, to be celebrated either of thofe that are not law- 
full Miniftersjor out of a Church aflfcmbly. 

$• Baptifme is the Sacrament of Initiation or Rege- 

6. For although it doth feale tlie whole covenaat of grace 
together to the faithfoll , yet by a (peciall approbation it 
doth reprefentj and confirme our very ingrafting into Chrift. 
*<?w.6,3.We are baptifed inro Chrift Jefus,and Verfe 5. Being 
planted together with him. And i Ccr^i2.i 3. We are baptifed 
into one body. -^ 

1 7# But becaufc upon oat €rft ingrafting into Chrift by 

A a ^ Fairh 

l8 2 OfHsptifme and the Sup^r of the t&rd. 

Faithjthcrc doth immediatly follow a relation of our Juftifi. 
cation and Adoption : therefore Bapiifnie as the Sacrament 
of the ingrafting it felfe, is unto remiflion of fins. M^rci. 
3, And it is alfo a reprelentation of ado|)tion, whilft that by 
it wee are confecrated to the Fathcr,Sonnc, and holy Spirit, 
and their names arc called upon the baptifed. 

8. Bccaufc alio holincfle is alwayes derived from Chrift 
into whom we are ingrafted , unto all thefaithfull, thercforfc 
BaptiCne alfo is the feale of our fanaification*TiV.3.5 Jlchath 
favcd us by the laver of regeneration, and the renuing of the 
holy Spirit.X^w.6*4,5.6. 

9. And becaufc Glorifijcation cannot be (eparated from 
true holineffe therefore it is withall the ftale alfo of cter- 
nail glory. Tit.^.j. That we might be madeheircs, accor- 
ding to the hope of eternalllifco. ^^iwx^/ 6.8g If we be dead 
with Chrift , wee believe that wee Qiall alfo live together 
with him* 

10. But bccauft tho(c benefits arc (caled according to the 
meaiure of initiation in Baptifmc 5 hence^ Firftj Baptifmeis 
but once to be adminiftred, becaulc there is but one begin* 
. ning of fpirituall life by regeneration , as there is but one be- 
ginning of naturall life by generation. 

11. Hence alfo. Secondly, Baptifme ought to be adraini^ 
Urcdtoallthoftto whom the covciiant of grace pertaines, 
becaufc it is the Qrft fealiog.Of tb^QovenivM; it fel& powArft 

1 2oPut thatxhe inftnts of the faithfull arenot to be forbid^ 
4en this Sacrament, it appearcth* it. Becaufc if they be par- 
takersof any graec^it is by vertuc ofthe covenant of grace,^nd 
fo both the covenant, andthefirftftale of the covenant alfo 
doth pertainc to them 2* In that the covenant in which thc\ 
faithfull are now contained^is the fame with that covenant 
«\'hich was made with Abrahdw. Rom.J^.i i . G^^/. 3,7^83 9#Bui 
that did exprcflcly extend unto Infants* 3. This covenant 
which is now adminiftred to the faithfiill^doth bring more 
large and full confolation to them , then of old It could be- 
fore the com nvng of Chrift. Bdtif it ftiould pertaineonely 
to them 5 and not to their Infants , then the ^ace of God 
4^ their iConrplationfhoiddb^ oipre narrow, smd contra^cd 

•i; '•• £ i.h after 

ef B^pH/me and the Snpper 0f the lord. l8j 

after Chrift is exhibited then before it was. 4. Bccaafe bap- 
tifmc luccecded in the place ofcircunicifion.(ftf/,i* ii.i i^And 
fodoth pertaine as well to the children ot believers as cir- 
cumcifion it (elfcr 5. Jccaufein the very beginning of re- 
generation, whereof baptifme is a fcale^man is meerely paP* 
five ; whencealfo there is no outward a&ion required of a 
man either to be circumcKed or bapti(ed , as in other Sacra- 
mentSjbut only a paffive receiving : therefore Infants ^ arc as 
capable of this Sacrament in refpe^ of thechiefeufeof it,as 
theft of age are* ' ' V • 

1 5. Faith and repentance doe no more make the covenant 
of God now then in the time oi Ahrdham ( who was the 
Father of the faithful!) therefore the want of thofe afts ought 
no more to hinder bapti(me from Infants now, then it aid 
forbid circumcifion then* 

I4« The figne in this Sacrament is water, not fimply,but 
as it purgetb the uncleane, cither by dipping or (prink<^ 

1 5; But therefore water was chofen, bccauft there is no- 
thing in uft that doth more£tly reprelcnt that (piritual wafti- 
ing, which is performed by the blood or death of Ghrift, 
neither is the (pr inkling or application of the blood of Chrift, 
fo fitly exprcfled by airy thrng, feeing that now fiocc the 
death of Chriftjthcrc ought to be no iife of naturall blood in 
holy thipgs*: 

i5*The fupper of the Lord is the Sacrament of the nourift» 
^ in^ and growth of the faithfuU in Chrift» 
: i7« Hence it ought oftentimes to i>e adminiAred to the 

18. Hence alfo the fupper is onely to be adminiftred to 
/ thofe 3 who are vjfibly capable of nouriOimenc and growth 

in the Ghurch : and (b not to Infants^ butoncly to thofe 
of age. 

19. But becaufe moft full and perfeft nounOiment h iealed 
in Chrift,therefore here is uied not fome one and fimple figne 
(/nouri(hing,but of a double kind ^ as the nouri^meet oi the 
body doth require,uamely 5read and Wine. 

:: ; 2o*Thcy therefore who take away one of the(e fignes from 
the faithfull in the adminiftratioa of the fupper, dot de« 

Aa3 craft 

i84 .OfRiphfmemdthe Supper of the Lord. 

traft from the wifdomc of God, make lame the inftiturion of 
Chrift, and grievoufly leflcn or take away the conlolation of 
the faitbfull. 

2i» But bread and wine are therefore ufcdjbccaafc except 
the eating of flcfh ( which hath noplace in holy things now 
the facrifice of Chrift is finiflied ) and the drinking of blood, 
from which not only religion^but mans nature abhors : there 
is nothing doth more conveniently expreffethat ncercft union 
which by degrees wee enjoy with Chrift , which is found- 
ed in ths facrificing of his body and (h^dding of his 

2 ZsTo faigne any tranfubftantiation, or confabftantiation 
in this Sacrament more, then in baptifme, is a cerraioe blind 
and ftupid fiipcrftition. 

23. For it is not required to fpiricuall nourifliment in this 
Sacrament, that the bread and wine be changed into the 
body and blood of Chrift, nor that Chrift be corporally pre- 
sent with them , but only that they be changed relatively in 
rcfycBt of application and ufe ^ and that Chrift b^ ^itually 
preient vf ith them who receive in Faitht 

24. This tranfubftantiation » and confubftantiation is a^ 
gainft t he nature of a Sacrament in generally againft the ana« 
logy^our other Sacrament, orbaptifme, againft the moft 
ufiiall phrafes in the Old Teftamenc againft the humane na- 
ture ot Chrift againft his ftate of Glorification^and againftlthc 
revealed will of God> which (aith that Chrift fhall remaine in 
Heaven untill the day of judgement. 

2 5. As touching the wcards of Inftitution,This i« my body, 
they are ncceffarily to be underftood , as other (acramentatl 
phrafes , which every where we mcete with in the holy 
Scriptures, of which we have God himftlfe a cleerc interprc- 
tcv^gen.iy^io^iuThisumj Covenant. Thatitmay beafigne 
of the Covenant betwcene me and you. 
\ 26. As touching the manner of opening the words of tfaii 
phra(c according to artjeamed men doe diflfer among them- 
(elves. Moft of our interpreters would have a trope in the 
wordSjthat h^z metaphor or a metonymy. 

27. The Lutherans contend that here is no trope to be 
found, but only an unudxall predicadon* 



of Baptifmt md the Snpfir Of the Lord* 1 8 J 

2 8. There are not a fcw^ and tho(c new Interpretcrg ^ who 
deny ^ that there is either any proper trope , or unufuall 
predication, but they; noake it an improper and myfticall 

29. But no fufficient rcafon is brought why we may deny 
that there is a trope in the words : which may be thus dc- 
monftrated. If it be an improper or unufuall predication 
;is they would have it , this unufuall or impropcr'way: ought 
to be (hewed in fomcword: which if it be done, tlien of 
neceffity it is that that word be fomc way tranflated f?dm his 
natural! fignification and ufe : if that be fb, the word takes the 
nature and definition of a trope. 

30.. But the trope is neither m the Article going 
before , nor in the proper (^c}}/4U y atf in the word' is ; but 
in that which foHowes, thaci% in the word body, for body 
irput for a figne of the body 5 not that a tru^ and proper 
boay is excluded out of that fentence, but rather inclu- 
ded , by a relation y which the figne hath to thfc^^ thing 
fignified. 41.^. \ .:.. v.^^\^^-- 

31. But there is not onely one frt)j)c , h6i thrtlefol* in 
this word, the firftia a metaphor, whereby one thing lifce 
is put for aaother unto- which t mctOHymic of tiie adjun'ft 
adheres^ arid is ihingled. For th^ bread is hot oAely like the 
bodyof Ghrfift i bat alfo by Gbds iriftltution ii is ma^de 'an 
• adjun(9:ofit : thcftcoiid is a Synechdoche of tfie partfo? ^ 
the whole, whereby the body of Chrift is ptit foF whbli * 
^hrift ; tbc third is a metonymy oft he (ubje^fc for tlie ad- 
> juriftsj in that Chrift is put for all thbfc benefits alfo which 
arc derivcd'from Chrift to us. In the other part of' the Wine^ 
^ei^e are other tropes fufifciently hnanifeftedf 

Chapter XLL 

.f.i.s:.vr^,0£.£ ' -^'^ 


1 35 Ofihttnd of the mrld. 

Chapter XLI. 

To the end of the World. 

I, rTT^Husfarofthc adminiftration whicih is before the 
I end of the World : in the end it felfe that applica- 
JL tipR (hall be perfcifted , which is onely begun ia 
this lite. 

2.Then the end of calling (hall be present to all the called ; 
for we are called to the eternall glory of GoA i Tet. 5 . i o. 
Wherein alfo the end of Faith is faid to be contained, that is, 
the falvation of foules.i Tet. i • ?• 

3» Then that declaration of JuftiHcAtion and RedemptioHi 
which is by the effefts , (hall be compleat,in refpeft whereof 
the faithfull are faid in this life, to expeft Redemptioni Zuc. 
2iA^*Rom.^,2'i* Efh.i.i^. 

r\ 4; Then all the adopted (hall enter into thcpoflcfTionic 
felfe of theinheritanc^in which (ence the faithful! are faid in 
this life to expeft their zdopxXon^Rom.^.z^. 

i ,5^ Then the Image of God (ball be perfeded in all the 
Saints. f/^A.S^ 27. That he might prefent it to himfelfc glo- 
riou8,not having fpot,or wrincUe^or any fuch thing,but that 
it might beholyandunbiaraeable. 

6. Finally then the glory and bleflcdnefTe hoped for, (haH * 
fiune in all kind of fulne(ie, not only in the (bule, butalfb 
in th? very body. ThilippUnf ^^21. Hee (hall transiigure our 
meane body .that it may be madeconformable to' his glorious 
body. - V 

7. Butbecaufe the ftate of the Church at that time flball be 
a (tate of pcrfcdion, and not of edification, therefore the Mi- 
nj^ftcrysSacramcntSjand Dilcipline, together with the inftitu- 
tid jd^durchesut hemfelves ftal ceafe ^and the my (licall Church 
(hall remaine in immediat communion with God* 

8. Hence alfo this end of the World ought withdefircto 
be cxpefted of all the f aithfull. Phil. 3, 2 oXit. 2. 13. We ex- 
peaaSaviourJcfusChrift. Expcfting that bleflcd hope, and 


of the end of the World. \ 87 

that glorious couiming of the glory of the great God and 
©ur Saviour. 

9. 1 hcperfeftlon of this finalladminiftrationdoih require 
the comming and pcrlL>nall prefence of Cbrift himlelfe* 

10. The (econd comming of Chrift in this (hall be like the 
firft, that it (hall be real], vifibleand apparent. /i(f7/ j,i i.Bjc 
ii) this unlike, that it (hall be. !♦ With greateft glory and 
powcr./W^/.24 30, Tit.t.i^. 2. It (hall be with greatelt ter- 
ror in refpeft of the ungodly^ and with greateft joy of all the 
godly.2T/?^/. 1.7,8 p ic. 

> I. H.nce there are two A^s, ihatfcrve for the laft difcer- 
ning between the godly and ungodly i.Rclurrcftion and the 
Ia(t judgement, z.Cor.'^.io. ^ 

I i.Refurrcftion is of that which fell: but becauic ma« fell • 
from life , by the (cparatiun of the foule from the body,ther- 
fore that he may rile againe, it is nereflT^ry that the fame 
foule be agame reunited to the fame body, that by the rcftorcd 
uni n of both^thefamemanmay exift; 

ij.Thatfuch a Rcfurreftion is polTible to God kappcareS: 
becaufe (lich a reparation of man doth not exceed that* 
power whicn was manife(tcd in his firft Creation. T/7/7,3.2 !• . 
Accordiag to that efFcftuall power whereby he is able to iub- 
due all things to him(elfe. 

14. But that this Refurrcftion (hall aftually be^it can* 
not bee certainly demonftrated by any natucall reafbn, 
i^either^ A priori^ nor Afofierivri^ but it is properly of 
• Faith* 

1 5 Neither the nature of the loule, nor of the body, can be 
the caufc of Ele(urreftion : forthe forming againe and railing 
Ap ot the body , out of the du(t, is againft the wonted courfe 
ofnattirc, which when it is perfeftlydeftroyed,i8 not wont 
tQ be repaired by nature : and the infeparable union of the 
foule wi h the body by which man is made immortalljis above 
th^i ilren^th of nature. 

\6. Therefore the raifing up of the dead doth properly a- 
greeto Chrift God-man : the principle of it is the Divine 
omnipotency of Chrift^whereby it may eafily be accompli(h*. 
cd^cycn in an Inllanti 

B b i7.Thc 

1 88 Of the end of the Worlds 

tj. TbeMinlftiry of the.AngelSjfhall not be properly to 
raifc the dcad^buc tog^echer the pans to be raifcd^aiidto gat hi* ' 
ther^/CtigkhWb^ifigrsirc^ - • » 

18. Bui althmigh aH (h^U bje raiCed by Chrift , yet not in 
one and the fame way : tor the Relurreftion of tbefaithlull Js 
unto Life, 6^lt !^ ^xco^ttpli (lied by vertueofth 
they hkvfe wifcGft!ift,f^^With-thcir LL^c. CrAj.f.r Thef. a^ 
1 4. And by tlie operati6Vrbf Ri? c|U'ckning fpirit which dwcls 
in them. Ro^ 8.1 i.Heftiail al(b quicken your mortall bodies,^ 
by his fpir it dwell! g in you : but the Refurreftion of others, 
is by that power otChriftjW hereby he txecuteth his revenging 
Juftiee. ; '' ' ; -' ' ' - ,; ri • , 

19. TheteforetheRefurreaion of the faithfuU is frdti:? the 
lifeofChrift , as from a begmtnng, unto thcrrlife, a^the 
friiitand efFeft:and tlierefoic it is called the Refurreftibn 
of life : 2nd the railing up of others is from rheientcncr'of 
d^ath and condemnation;^ d death and condemnation it lelfe^' 
and therefore it is called ,' the rclurreAtoh of cohdcmnaddr!* 

- 20. The laft judgement ?rtxercifed^^ Chrrift'-ar By a 
King : f or the power of Judging is part of the office of it' 

• 2 1 \ln rcfpeft of the faitlrfiiH it comc<ffrom grarcc,aitd iVih^ 
office of the Kingdome of grace ^ eflenttall to Chrifll*th<f 
Mediator: but in rcfpeft.of unbelievers, it is an ojiide of 
power onely and dominion , granted of the Father ^ be-^ 
loi^ihg to fbmc perfcftion of mcdiatltin , biit riot xffkntij 
all to it. ' 

22. Hence the fin3 of the faithfull fharll not come into judge-' 
ment : for fteing that in this lifcth^y arc covered and taken 
away by the ftntence of Juftification, and that laft jadgemcnc\ 
ffiaH be a confirmation and manifeftatitin oTtfrat jfenfeiice , it 
\^ould not be mecte j'that at that timd they rtioaTd againe be ' 
brought to light. 

23. The place of this judgement ihall bee in the Ayre. - 
iTS/jf..4.r7. 1 *\ ■'.,',.* '' ; 

24.Thcdayandyearcofit isnotVcvcaleidihSlfrrptefe^l^^ 
(bmaynotbcfctdowniy mW- v(- - ? ;. 

25. The fentencc prefcBtly to be fulfilled ^ (hall be givcni 


Of the end of the World. i ^ 

of eternal! life or death , according to workcs forcgoiag. 

26. Bgt the femchcc oMife^ inrclpcftoftheele^j fhair 
be gWcn.accordi.ig to their workesjnot as raericorious caufcs, 
bjit^s efSsftsceftityingof irue.caufts. 
K i^^B'Jt th^ (enteiice of death in rcfpc(ft of thereprobateifliiil 
B^ given acconiiqg taiheir wor^cs^ as r he truccauies. 

28. Cbrift God-man is thejjdge, as it w^re delegated : 
yet in rcfpeft of that Divineauihoricy and power which he 
"hath^and upon which depends the ftrengchofthefentcnccj 
her<i is tbe-js^iincipall Judge. ^^- : , , - •-- : 1 r-^ 

«>TKe faithfiril allp fbaH ji^ge wich C^ifti alfiftlng^Ticlt', 
con{ulting,buc approving^as well in their judgment and wiilj 
as by comparifon of their life and workes. * ' 

30* Judgement (hall be given not onely of wicked men, 
buti-al^ Q^-e^lI Afifjglls. She^fopi. tbc' ififittg ^ y ^and 
jud^^, or wic ?€# menio be ^p4e by ^hi*i[f | (io€K|no m6rc 
argu^[ che'^ur^eH^il j^demp^ok, J2j^^ thiSa of Jhc 


;i. The £f£-tlut is appointed ^opuf^^nd renew the 
World , ihall not,goe before the judgement ^ but (hall 
follow. 1 >5 - T4 AUr . 

j^i^Pur^atprjfisjnomorc ncceffk before the day of judge- 
ment then after : feeing therefore there fhdl be none after- 
ward, bythe^0Rfefllap^tb<9?pa^i^^^^^ neither is 
there any now bclPore.: 

3 ^.Thc elements (hall not be taken away^bnt changed. 
^, ^, Ghcift alfq iftet the day of judgement ftalljeiiiainc 
King and Mediator forever. 

Bb 1 The 

^.•A ' ^»5rrtf*:"^ t'J^ 'V^fj!'V)f 







of Oj^fervance ingenerait. 

Tbffs much sfthefirji fart of Theology^ or ofFdth < * 
in God : the other partfollowet^'which is Ob- 
fervancc toward God. 

I • SBSS^^Blervance is that whereby the Will of God 
is performed with (iibjtr&ion co his glory. 
2. It refpefts the Will oi God as a 
pattcrnCj and a rule, asappeares by the 
thoi^e words of Cbrift, wherein al(b he de« 
fcribes our obedience j let thy Will 
be done as in Heaven , fo alfo in Earth ; and did alfo ex* 
plainc his own obedience. Mat. 26^^ f. Not as I will, but as 


obedience in general. 1 ^i 

thou wiltiand Ferfe 42. Let thy will be done, Co P/aL 40, 
9.1 delight to doc thy willjO my God : and thy Law is writ- 
ecu in my bowell5. 

3. Butitrefpcftsche WiilofGod not as it is frcrcc, and 
powerfully efFcftu^l , or ordaining ; for To even all other 
Creatures and ungodly men 5 and cVic ^'ery D-viI>8 al(u chCiT- 
(tlvcsdoe pcrforme the Will of God^wich that obediential! 
vertue which is common to all C:e4tures : but it refpeils that 
Willof God which prefcribcs our duty to us. Deut.29. 29. 
Things that ai'c revealed , arc revealed, that wee may doc 

4. It rclpcfts that will with fubjeftlon.fi^w. 8,7. Bccaufc 
it applies our will to fulfill the Will of Godjas it commands 
us any thing according to his authority. Rom.S.y. Icisaoc 
fubjcft to the Law of God. 

5. Hence it is called obedience: bccaufc it makes the will 
ready to commit the command oJ" God to exccutionj being 
heard, and in (brae meafure perceived. 

6. Hence al(b it hath in it felfc (bmc refpeft of Service to- 
ward God 5 whence it comes to paffc^that to obey Godjtnd to 
(ervehim^ found one and the fame thing. Luc.uj^. Rem. 
6.16, Andtoferve God is altogether the fame with fcrving 
of obedience and righteoufhcfle. There Fer/e itf. i8, 22. ^c- 
ca u'e that to doe the Will of God with (ubjeftion, is to 
fervc God. Eph.6. 6,y. As ftrvants of Chrift, doing the 
Will of the Lord irom the heart^with good wil doing (crvicc, 
as to the Lord. 

7. For our obedience toward God^althoogh in rcfpcft 
ofrcad^neflcof mind ii ought to be the obedience of fons : 
yetinrefpeAofthatftfidobigaiion to (ubjcftion, it is the 
obedience of ftrvants* 

8. From this fubjeftion to the Will of God, there doth 
ncccflariiy follow a conformity betwixt the Will of God 
and ours. Rev. 2.6. This thou haft/hat thou hateft the deeds 
oixXit NicoUitflns^\fih\ch\ a](b hate. Andacertaineexprcflc 
refemblancc of that Divine pcrfeftion which God hath re- 
vealed and propoimded to be imitated by us. 1 P^M.4.That 
we might be made partakers of the Divine nature , for he 
that doth truth, his wotkes are faid to be done according to 
God.M^3.2. Bb 3 $• Hence 

, f. .Hence the'^rne obedience wlucb is c^lkd obedience, 
bccaufe it refpedh the Will of God with fubicftion ; and 
lighteoufnefl'e , becaufc it performcs that fubjeQiion which 
is due ; is alfd called holineflfe bccaufe it rcfpeAs the fame vvil 
vyitK conformity and pure likenefle.i Vct.i.i^.i 5. As obedi- 
ent children — as be that hath ,called youisholyj^beyeairo 
holy in all manner coaverfation. 

I o^ Obedience lookes to theglory of God, i Cor. 1 o, 31. 
Doe -^11 to the glory of God : as it doth acknowledge hii 
chi^^c: authority and power in commanding, i CvrS. 2Ci Yee 
are bought with a price : therefore glorifie God 3 &c,And 
alfoasirhath in part relation to, and doth reprefent the pc: 
feftion oFG d. i Pt;r.2.^9^That yee may (et forth his vcrtuesr- 
in the mamfcftationofwhichthingsconfifts thatglory whick 
may be given to him of us. J.cO ^' •/./: 1 a\\ o^ ii. clj 

: t\m Alfbjb this (iibjefti3W3thctie ik' i rcfpeft of fefcre > as 
the Authority and Power of God is acknowledged : whence 
alfothe feare of the Lord is in Scripture often put for whole 
ob£»dknoe/i?7^6cf^.;4iiii2, j{ will teach 70U the feace c^ the 

.\-t^ltT^t)siuSoi%^]&tokk^tQV^^ God istfce 

iUilceiiiti^ and as jice is the Objcft^of It^. and^lfaashdeiB 

<)3 ig^iliiifc^riaCipiaofi«f6Gi€xitcauft6f it by wayvof^a inwafd 
^iii jfljaercr^Xfiniaaipie ^ is modiady-F^tK^^ and imiwidiiitJy 
j6aifti%injp(5rracel. :;••;; ^-''' A'.ui-atii^i i:v-i.in:.\[-ii; ■■> 1117* 

14. For Faith doth both prepare a way fopusto G<^d.iF3?<ri. , ' 
Ao;3r* L'et!»sxliawbigll bysiffuranceofFaich , and fower 
itaigoe (tjo ladm^ d >^m ii> 04^% Faith* ycc ftand r wbertct 
ixbedierice if nillad theiob©di^ce of Paith^ R^it^t. 5. Antl 
the raithfiill are called the children ofobcdicnce,^ P^MVi4J \ 
d-n'V Now Faith doth fcHng fortfc <>f>edfence in a three- 
fold refpcft,! .As itdoth appr^end Chrift who i^ the Foun- 
raii>e ok JLife^ ai^ theSpringiaf ail po^wer t^^doe well , and 
rft^AsitarecerwCBandreft^iflJthbfe^^^ Wzhlch G^d 

4i«ti!t i^b^pobtidcr* to cfe In-^c^ptikie to perfwtfde obedi^ 
tiocd^ gamely by promlfes-and rhreMfringr.3, As it hath pcywer 
tio obtaific all giaoeyl a^jb that gr^ce whereby obedience 
fil,jpcrfb«Decbf:uijrdu3.biiii '^y '''■■ k .. ;: * - 

of obedience in generall. 1 9 \^ 

Id. Bat (anftifying grace is chat very povTcr whereby vrs 
arc liued up^ co afipl^ our will to the wrall ohGod. ■ Whencef 
alfo ne^ obedience is alwaycs included and tinJeriloGid, ia 
Sc r ipturc, when t here is mentfon m!!de6f ihcTiew mail ^ arid 
thenew creamre.5/?^/4.24/Cy'^/.6f IT* 

17 Fora nhing cau be pei forciR'^f by mati^'firrceninnc ii en- 
traJ,acC(3piable ti) Gi^d^, as itcooies from him, or as a woric \ 
ot^ f7>ri«»aH liVj 5 unldTe, it be pci loirried iti Ghiilt by Faith 
aiifl the grace of (^ndC\iiX^ax\on-J^hH 15.4; 5. Without m^ 
yieccandoc nothing. ' '* - 

i8.Yache(exlucic8 ^re not^thcrero^re to be omitted by a 
man thandothnod yet believe ;btfcaufc they age in ^hen?>ftl?leid 
good 5 they hiiidcr the i jcrcafe of iinne, and paniihrnetifs 
ot rin'»*n , ffayxhey sfet>ke^recortiipiAlki t^icb'^^drs be- 
nctics trom God , although nbt by forCe of any^ detdrmij}ed 
L;w 3 buc by a c^c^itte'afcrundfeiic add f€€Fet-fc?iKiAcBe 

I 19*; The a(i*uvarit"€aMfi*l^y^i»ovi!igfe;«i^' Thi^digt^ity'an^^ 
111 jelty of God in it fdfeti^ bcbbferved.;^ IX/)J^^3l.3. Afdi^rlf*' 
ycc greatncfli to our Oddv^P/^^p. !av OiV'* uhtot^riortf 
the glory of his nanfib. ' 2. The kinAlefle of God toward Us^' 
in which refpccft we d^e te hint v\Aatfoever is ifl us, I C^r. 
6.20. Know yee not that yce are not your owne---^i(rfcich' 
areGodrJ lR.o^.t2^ 5ythem€r<:ycJ?Gdd,'^b^i[icialfo^^ 
that our ab^diifice is nothing elfe th^n thankrulnefle due to 
Cod, and itisrighcly exphined by Divined ttndfe' that name. 

\^. Thd authforieyof God cOttiEtiandifig>'Vi?hi^h hath uni- 
verfali and fuil dominion aver ii&, Jafneji^.211} Tfaci^e isbfie^ 
liaw-giver who €an (ave artd deftroy* 4, Tbc^ equity ^ntf 
profit of the things commanded, which doe both a^ree With 
greatefi reafon ^ R$m^l, i 5* Thiir tt^nfcienc^cf t^Dgethe-r bca-; 

^ ring witncflS 5 and aj(& percaifw toour pcrfeftron'and bleffed- 
nelie. ^Di'^^j2*47. ftily^Ur tife^ 5. The reWsIrd a?nd pr^o^ 
mifes by which ^btdi^nce is ptriWdde^* 2 GVr.^. i^ ^^cfng 
ive have thclc promifes^Icc us pwrge our fclvcs , &c. 6,The mi- 
(ery which they that d6eothcrwift dd^incurrc, P^m*. 28. 16% 
jEfci.fi. 26. Cuifedthaltthoubi.- FbrourGadisa'confar- 
mingfire; " / • ;^ 

" 20. The HKitter .of obedience h tbat Very thirig ^ich ir 

com man- 

obedience in generdlL ^ 

commanded by God , and fo is furamarily contained in the 
Decalogue : for otherwifc the Law of God (hould not be 

21. Tberciore the Law of God, although in rcfpcft of the 
faithfull it bee as it were abrogated, both inrefpeft of the 
power of juftifying which it had in the ftate of integrity, and 
in refpcft of the condemning power which it had in the ftate 
of fmne : yet it hath force and vigor, inreipeftofpowerto 
dircft 3 and (bme power alio it doth retainc of condemning, 
bec^^ufe it reproves , and condemncs fnnc in the fai hull 
thenifelvcs , although it cannot wholy condcmne the faith- 
foil tbemfelves , who are not under the Law, but Ui.dcr 

22 The forme of obedience i* our conformity to the Will 
of Godjthcrefore revealed thatic m «y be fulhllcd by us.Adichm 
6.8. Hii hath (hewed thee O man^ what is gooc^. 

23. For neither iS the fecret Willof Ooi , themleofour 
obedience, nor all his revealed will , for ^^r^^^^w finned in 
ta^ingihe Kingdomc of Ifraelj although the P( ophet told 
him th4t God did in forrc ibrt will it. i Kwgs 1 1 . 3 1. with 
%Chror.i:^.'^.6^j. But that revealed will , which prefcii- 
beth cur duty is therefore revealed^ that it may be rul61- 
led by U£. V: Ou. 

24. But this Will ofGod in this very refpeft, is (aid to be 
good, perfeifl and acceptable to God. Ron!.i2*i. Good^be- 
caufe it containes in it lelfe all refpeft of that which is honeft: 
perfeft , becau(c there is nothing to be (ought further for 
the inftrud^icn pf life : acceptable to God , bccau(e obedi- 
ence performed to this will ^ is approved and crowned 
of G o D. 

25. The knowledge of this will is neccflary to true obedi* 
ence. Prov.^A:^. Take hold otJnlhuaionj and let her not 
goe : keepcher, for (hce is thy life, and J^er^e 19. The way 
of the wicked is daikencile, they know not at what: they 

I . Therefore thedcfire of knowing this will of God is com- 
manded to qs, togethef v^ith obedience it fclfe. iVc^^.5.1.2. 
Attend to wifdom.irX'ine thine eare to underflanding .where- 
of a gic^^t \ia ^Ifg i:-,whca itrefpeSs praftifc^ as on the 



of Okcdience in generdlL i p ^ 

Contrarj,all ignorance of thofc things which wc arc bound 
to know and doc, is finnc. 2 T/^^jf.i. 8. Rendring vengeance 
to thofe that know not God^ and obey not the Goipcll ot our 
Lord Jcfus Chri(t. 

a6. With knowledge of the will ofOod in this life^thcre 
ought to be joyned a trembling and fcare to tranfgrcflcir. 
Pre. %i7.i:^ict^.\6, I wirdomejhavewithmethcrearcof 
the Lord. The wile man feareth and departcth for evil/. 
Chiefly indeed in refpcft of offence : but alfo in refpeft of the 
anger and puni(bmcnc moft of alias itfcparates fromOor^^ 
Neither oufijht (iich feare to be called fervilc^whea it refpefts 
not puniftimcnt only. 

27. The chiete end is Gods glory ; for We tend unto him 
by obedlence^upon whom we leanc by Faith : otherwife obe- 
dience (hould not flow from Faith. Seeing aUo that Faith 
is our lifc^asit doth joyne us to God in Chrift, it is ncceflary 
chat the aftions of the (ame Faith ^ which are contained In 
obedience, (hould bee caricd alfo to God ^ that is , to his 

28* The lefie principallend is our own falvation and blef- 
fedneflt. Row. 6 22. Being made fcrvaiits to Qod^yce have 
your fruit in holincffc^ and the end cternall lifc.Hr^.i.i.2.For 
the joy that was fet before him he endured the Crofle. 

29. For although that obedience which performed oncly 
for fcare ofpuniflimcnt or cxpcftation of reward , is rightly 
called mercenary : yet that any (hould be Secondarily ftirred 
*ap to doc his duty, by looking on the reward, or for feare of 
• punifhment al(b ^ this is not ftrangefrom the Sonncs of 
'God , neither doth it in any part weaken their folid o^ 

/ 30. But our obedience is not tkc principall or meritorious 
.caufeoflifeetcrnall. For wc do both receive the priviledgc 
.ofthisUfc, and alfo the life it fclfe^ by gr^ccj^ndthcgiftof 
',God for Chrilts fake apprehended by Faith. Rom. 6. 
23. The gift ofGod is cternall Life in Jefus Ghri(^ our Lord. 
^ But our obedience is m a certaine manner^ the Minatring, 
^helping and farthering caufe toward the poflcflbn cf this lite, 
"iihe right whereof wc had before 5 in wljich refpcft ij,is called 
the way wherein wc walke to Heaven. £pA, 2 a ©• 

C c ji.But 

196 ef obedience in generdl. 

ju But It furthers our lifc.both in its own naturejbecauft it a 
fome degree of the life, it fclfe alwayes tending to perfeftion : 
and alfo by vertue of the proinife of God who hath promiftd 
life eternalltothofethat walkeinhis precepts. gaiatiansS. 
8. Hcc that fowes to thefpirit, of the fpirit fliali rcapclift 

32. For although all our obedience iwhilft wcc liviBjherc 
is imperfeft and defiled with fome mixture of finne. Ga/4. 
5,17. the flefti lufteth agajnft theTpirit j yiet in Cbrift k 
is fo acceptable to God , that it is crowHed with the giea* 
tsft reward. 

33. Therefore the premiss made to the obedience of th« 
faithfuli,are not legall^but evangchcall,alchough by lomeiliey 
are called mixt./l^^r. 5.3. ' 

34. Themannerof obedience is in fubjc^ion or homijfty 
largely takcjwherby the creature doth fubmit himielf c6 G(^^ 
to receive andexecutc his commands : unto which thereolbgiA 
alwayes to be joyned, I* Sincerity, whereby all mvxtnre<rf 
a ftrange intention and affeft ion is removed, fo that the wbofc 
nwn 18 applied to this^ducy. i T^^jf-S * 23. i |^r.56.io. And 
2. Zeale^that iSjtbe highcft degree of a pure ^iflfeiftioni GgL 4, 
iS.'it is a good thing ta love ^r^ntlf^imio'^Ai in a good 
thing alwiaye^ ■ - ■ ' > ' ' - ^ : , ^ ^ ! 

35.-Thc chi^fc fubjeft of obedicike as alfo Wlivily Faith 
is th^ will. Ti/.2;1 J, It isOod ttoat worieth in you both to 
wi!I,andtodoc. ['■'- ^ . 

46. ^ Btft becaaft the fiftcerity of the will approvfeg doth 
iftoftappearein readineffe^ Macnty orchcerfulneffej^f^fnindj * 
cherforc that cheerfoUies doth ttioft of all pertai^e to the very 
cflTenceof obedience, 2 ^(^r.p. 7. "D^^r. 28. 47. G&dloves-a 
-'Cheerfull giver ; bccaufe feHo\^^idtt not fervethy God in jcj^ 
^'j^ndchbcrfdrln^fleofhearrv Soasolteri it isple^fing and at- 
•O^tabliefo God, akhbugh ch^ tv^rke it felfcrhar iS'fH;opoun- 
•dcijbc not perf6rmed.2 Or*S.'t 2. For if there be firft a £ea^ 
•fiiind,one is accepted accorcfifqg to that he bach. ? ^ 

37«And becauie the i^e^ebf the ^511 doth chiefly confiS ki 

tioveand haftn^^ therelore affo thb^t % nectflafily requir^ to 

i^bedience acceptable to G^d^,alove^t4iegoGd,andhatred'6f 

evU!. F/:4S'8. Tfcpti taft loved r^teoafBtfie^arid bated Jrf- 

^mty. aS-Tht 

38. The cfFcft and fruit is not oncly a dcclaration^but alfo 
a confirmation of Faith and Hope.2Tiw.i ,1 9«Kccping Faith 
and a good confcicncCjWhich being put away^fome have made 
Shipwrack of Faith. 

59 . An adjunft that accompanies it is a confciencc quiet, 
joyfuliand glorying. H^^. 13. 18. 2 C^r.i,i2. i fohn^.1^,21. 
For wc truft that we have a good confcience , dcfiring to be- 
have our felvcs well ill ailthingf. t.Our glorying is this, the 
tcftimony of our confcience^by this we (haU afliirc our hearts* 

Chapter 1 1. 

Of Venues 

If rTp'Hcrcbctwo parts of obedience. Vcrtuc, and the 

I aftion of Vertuea. Tet. 1.5. Ad to your Faith 

JL Vertue, Sea For if the(e things be fvith you and 

abound^they will make you chat yee Ihall neither be barren 

nor untruitfiill in the knowledge of our Lord Jefus Chrift. 

2.This diftribution is of the whole into members ; for theie 
two are in their own nature joyncd together , and doe make 
one and the fame obedience, 

) 3. Hence both vertues and their anions are fei forth by 
the lame namey afid are explained alfo by the fame defini* 
tion , bccaufc they are altogether of the i^me nature : even 
a3 arguments of Logicke^ are of the (ame name and na- 
mrc^ whechcr they be confidercd alone and by themfelves, or 
>in Axioms, and Sy Uogifmes. 

^. Vertue is an habit whereby the will is inclined to 
doe well. 

5» It is called an habtt^ notasitisdiftingni(bed fromdif^ 
pofition,and fignifieth a confirmed and perfeft conftitution of 
mind : for fuch a degree of vertue isfcarft granted to men^ 
while they live heere : but generally , as it containes both 
a; .pcrfe£t and alfio imperfed degree of Vertue 9 and ftat« oi 

C c 2 63ut 

198 OfVcrtue. 

6. But it is called an habit, not oncly bccaufc it is had» 
but alfo bccaufe it makcth the fiib jcft which ic is in to have 
it fclfe in a ccrtaine manner, that is, ic determinei the fe- 
culty to gojd 5 which ochcrwilc is not determined » in 
which fence this word is found, Hthewes^.i^Mhobyte^^ 
fon of habit , have their fences excrcifed to difcerne good 
and evil!. 

7. Ic is in the will. Firft, becjufe the will is the proper 
fubjcct of Theology as it is the proper principle of life, and 
of moral! and fpirituall a(^ion?. 2 Bccaulc the will is that 
faculty which is properly carried unto good that ishoncft, 
Rom. 7. 1 9.2 1. 3. Becaulc vertuc is an habit that is "rpocu^riKU 
orcleftivej the proper, and immediate operation whereof is 
voluntary elcftion* 4. Becaufe the will doth commend the 
other faculties ^ and fo Vcrtue doth moil agree to it^that all 
maybe direftcd aright. 5* Becaufc the will is neither by it 
felfe, norbyreafon luffi iently determined to good j^dions, 
and fo it hath need of its owne andintcrnalldifpoli^jonto 
worke aright. 6. 5^aufc the bthcr faciiltife rtiayb^ com- 
pelled, and by confequciice one m^y wl^thet* he' wifror no 
lofe vertuCj if ic(h)uld have tht proper and fixed feat , in 
them. 7. Bccaiifc that praifc is moft properly due to the afti- 
ons of the will , and to the operations of the other facaities, 
fo far forth as they flow from. anc{ depend upon the will 5 but 
that it is proper to vertue to be praife-wotchy^ not cnely tht 
Philofophers teach, but alib^ the ApoMe, ^^htlipfiaiif 4^8,1 
If there be any vcrtue, if any pray {c.8i ^ccaoft neither the 
underftanding can be the fubjcft of vertue, becaufc intclleftu-. 
all habits , although they bee moft perfcft ^ yet they do€ not 
makca man goad, nor any fenfttivc appetite, bccaufe true 
vertuc is found in Angels, and the foules being fepara ted frorn^ 
bodies , which are void of this appetite : yet there are often 
in the fenfitivc faculties feme difpofitions , which caufe 
th^t the will commanding aii^ht is more eafily obeybd , 
and in that refpcft they have a certaine refcmblancc of 

: S.Vc tu- is fai ? toincUne toGod.Firft,thatit may bcdiftin- 
guiOied from a vLtious habit whereby men are inclined to cvilL 
Re.y.i 7.2o.»3.l. That it may be diftinguiflied alfo from thofi 

of Vtrtne. 199 

pcrfcftions of the mind^which indeed doc bring Iigh(,whcre- 
by t he will may diicft it fclt'c as well doing, buc not incUnc it 
to due right. 

9.Hence,Firft5truc and folid vcrtucs,doc alwayesmake him 
good in whom they are : not that the very difpofitions that 
doc inhere in us , arc the grace making us firft accepted with 
God, as the Schoolemcn fpeake , for that pertaines to Faith ; 
but becaute they are reciprocated with a good man,and good- 
neflc is derived from them into our aftions. 

10. Hence alfo none can ufc vertue amiflc, as being the 
principle of aftion ; when notwithftanding men may^and are 
wont to abufe any habit of the mind. 

1 1 . Therefore thofe vertues which are wont to be called in- 
tclleftualljihave not an exaft refpeft of vertue. 

12. Moreover vertue IS fa id to incline sotonely to good* 
but al(c> to well doing : beciiule themannei of action doth; 
chiefly flow from vertue. 

13. But as the rule ofwcll-dolng^lb alfo the rule of vertue . 
isthe revealed will of God, whichonly hath the force of 
acertainc irijic in thofe things .which pertainc totbe^ii^cfti- 
onoflife. ruh^ . ":j::nr' ?>. ■ ih 

X 4« That is a LesbUn ruleof vertue ^hichAriflotle puts to 
be the judgement of prudent men : for there are never fuch 
wife men , to whofe judgement wee may alwayes ftand? 
neither if there were 5 they could not bee alwayes knowrie 
or conlukcd with by thofe who cxcrcife thcmfelvcs in 

1 5 That which is faid to be right reafoci, if abfolute refti- 
tude be looked after^ it is notclfc-where to be fought forthen 
where it isj that is, in the Scriptures : neithcrdoth it differ 
from the will of God revealed for the direiSion of our life, 
Pfal.ii 9^66. Teach me the excellency of reafon and know- 
ledge : for I believe thy precepts. But if thofe imperfcft no* 
tions concerning that which is boncft, anddifhonefl be 
underftood, which kic found in the mind ofmanafter^he 
fal! ; feeing; they are imperfca and very obfcure^they cannot 
exaaiy informe vertue ; neither indeed doc they differ any 
thing from the written Law of God^buc in imperfcaioa and 
obfcurity only. 

Cc 3 i(5,There. 

1 6. Therefore there can be no other difciplinc of vertuc 
then Divinity ,^ which delivers the whole Will of God revea- 
led, for the direftitjg of our reafon will5and life. 

17* They-^hat thirike ^hcrwifcj doe bring no rcafous, 
uAibh may ii>a?c an underftanding and found man. They (ay 
the end of Divinity is the good of grace : but the end of 
Et^ickj is a moral! or civ ill good. A^if no n»orall or civill 
good were.in any refpft^ agood of grace and ffirituall. 
As if the proper good, bleffcdnefic, or end of mm, were 
manifold^ orasifthatftiouldbc avertneof a man,^ which 
doth not lead a man to his end , and chiefe good. They (ay 
that Divinity is excrcifed about the inward afFciftions of 
men ; but Ethicks about the outward manners. As if either 
Etbicks ( which they define a prudence to goveme the- 
will and appetite) did not refpeft the inward affedion : or 
that Divinity did not teach as well outward , as inward 

They would have it that Ethickes arc concluded in the 
bounds of this life, but that Divinity extends to a future. A^ 
if a blefled life werenot ^mt\ 6v that of one and the (ame IHe^ 
there were one rule, as it is pre(cnt, and another as it ii Co 
come. They (ay thefiibjeftof-E^^^Vi^^i isaman, approved,^ 
good aiid honeiS: ^' but the(nbjedV of Divinity is a godly anJ 
religious man ^ when notwithftanding the Apoftlfdoth 
expr^fly teach that Divinity inftru£ls as to live not only 
pipufly and religioufly , but al(o temperatly 9 and /nftlj^ 1 
that is, approvedly and honeftly , Tit.i. 12. Ad to the(e, ' 
th^ the moft eager defenders of the contrary opinion, doe 
acknowledge and contend , that morall vcrtues are the image 
c^<)od in nrtan^ndfo a degree of Theological! veftuc 5 and 
that morall virtue compared to (piritiaajf is as warmth to ) 
heat^and the morning light to the noone light. As therefore 
warmth andheat^ morning^ and noone light are taught iq 
t^e fame aft i fo alfo vertue morall and fpirituall. 
'j8. Therefore that judgement, and Wifhofthatgrfcatcft 

* inaftcc oC 2iXi^ Peter R^mns^v;^^ no leffe piou^ then jprudent: 

* If I (hould wiSi for that which I would obtaine,! had ra- 

* tfacr that this learning of philo(bphy were delivered to chil- 
'dren out of the Gofpell , by fome Divine that is learned^ 

•1 ^ -nj 

OfVertw^ 2© I 

^ and of approved maoncrs 5 then out of Arifi^f,/^ by a Phi* 
Mofopher* jfi child will Icarncmiayiixipictiesoutof >fr/y 
^ fiotU^ which it is to be feared ^ that he will forget too latc^ 

* That the beginning of bleiTedneflc , dqth ari(e out of menj 
•thattbeendofblenedncfle is bounded m man : that all vcr- 
*tuc8 are wholy contained in mans power 5 that they arc 
^obtained by mans nature, art, and ioduftry* That though 

* thefe workes, arc great and Divioie, yet that God k never 
Vuftd to theaijCither as anaidcr,orw<>rkemans.t;hit Diyin^ 
•providence is removed from this theatre of huiBanc lite : c^ 

* Divine Juftice , that there is not a word fpoken : tbi^tnwflp 
*blcfledncflc is placed in this ftaUe Life &c. , '/-L.^ . 
ij.But the fame habit which is called verttic^as it dothJnclinc 

in hi^ manner unto God^i^ alfo called a.gifc ^ ;as ic is &ivf:aQf 
God^nd infpircd by the holy Spirit : and it is called gtacc^aj 
it is freely bcltowcd^by the fpeciall favour of Godiipou us^al-p 
foin a:efpcft of the |)er{eftion. which it hatb^togethcr with thic 
iprofiCitnd ivncttiofSk , wfiicb is p.ercrivedrfrom it,^ il is c^llp^ 
fruit:and in refpeft of thshopcitbringsofilifejetomitit isf a*- 
fedlJefJcdnefrcbyfomc. A f vr; : ■ ! -- 

. . 10. Xhey therefore doe weary thcmfclvcs in vaine, whb 
;make fevcn gifts of the fpiritoat of Ifay 1 1 . 2, Upon whopi 
ihli (piric oSiJ^hofua (hall reft- Xhe Spirit of*wiidoni€and 
underftanding, theipirit.of'counreliandofniight^ tbefpkit 
^gf knowledge and of the feare of Jehova : and doc carefully 
iliftinguifii them from vertucs, and have enough to doe todc- 
\ rmonltrate the proportion of every of them to (bme vertue* 
Fox neither are there only fevtri gifts of the fpiric . although 
there are no more ( nay but fix ) reckoned up there ; becauic 
thereonly thfcchiefe and moftkirigly gifts in refpeft of the 
fiibjcdl are remembred;(for it is there fpoken of Chrift,^ other 
gtfcs by a )Synecdoclic beingunderltood : neither tholcgifts 
tfachilelves whereof there is mention made thcrc^arein very 
deed diftiiiigu ftied frdm * crtws, tut they doe by a metonymy^ 
fee forth allyertucs by thdir cauies. 

21. For although thofc x^j^Vfurat Oraces^ whereof there 
is mention, i Cermham 1 2 ♦4. arc in very deed diftinguifli- 
td from virtues: : yet Grace .when it notes an inherent per- 
fc<ftioEi in u.%doth either let forth fomeoiie \crtue;arar}Oy^^lv 
as it were in his rootc. 2 jjn 

202 OfVcrtue. 

2 2# In vainc alfo are there twelve fmits of the fpir it gather- 
ed out of Gal.% 21. The fruit of the fpirit is Love. Joy, Peace, 
Long-fcfFering, KindncflTcj Goodncffc, Faith, Mcckneflc, 
Temperance, together with the addition which is found in 
theconimontranflation : and they are compared to vertue?, 
as is aforefaid of gift« ; for neither are they only the fruits of 
the fpiritjwhich are there exprefled upon the prefent occafi- 
on, and arc explained in that place with the names of the 
vertues themfelves : becaufe vcrtucs are fiuits/uch as arc re- 
quired and cxpeAed by the husband-man 3 and doe agree 
to the nature of the feed which he did fow, and alfo bring 
profit and (wectneflc 5 with them, when they are perceived: 
all which doeagrce to virtues , and their aftions in a certainc 
manner in refpcft of God j but the profit chiefly in rcfpeft of 
us : whence alfb ic is that holineffc with all vertues is not only 
called a fruit of the holy Spirit , but alfo our fruit, Rom.6.22 • 
But this profit together with the fweetneflc is (hewed in that 
place to the GaUtians^in as muchas joy^and peace are reckoned 
tip^as fruirs of the fruits. 

23« They alfo ufe the fame judgement , who thinke they 
have found eight beatitudes in the Sermon of Chrift. LMat. 
5. For there isbutone bea itude, but feeing, it hath divers 
fignes , namely all iblid vei tues/ogethcr with the operations 
or them, the Lord doth propound certainc fingalar virtues, 
or operations of vertues , which doe moft agree to his King- 
dome,and arc very remote from humane fence.and doth part- 
ly perfwade them by thepromileof bleflTcdneflc, and doth*^ 
partly al(b defcribe blcfledneflc, or bleflcd men, by the ftudy 
and profeffion of them. 

24Thc c^mraon afFcftions of vcrtue, are thofe foure which 
are wont to be called Cardinall vertues. v 

25. For they doe not make foure kinds of vertucs,as the ^ 
moft have hitherto thought, who doe manifcft violcnceboth 
to vcrtue and reafon it felfe^whilcftchcy will con(trainedly 
refer all fingular vertues to thoft heads : but they are foure 
conditions, whichare neccflarily required in that difpofition 
tiybich defcrvcs the name of vcrtue. 

%6. The hrft of theft is called Juftice in that generall fenfe, 
whereby it fcts forth an inclination to doe rightly ^ giving 
A'/ 3 every 

OfVertuc. 20J 

every man his own, and it may be called thercftitude of 
vcrtuc: for in that dcfcription of vertue which the Apoftic 
doth propound in a certainc heap of words, Phif,^,S. What* 
foever things arc true, whatfoevcr things are honelt, uhat- 
focver things are )uft, whatfoevcr things are pure, vvhacfb- 
ever things are lovely, whatfoevcr things are of good report, 
if there be any vertue , and if any prailc, akhrugh truth, 
Jurticc , purity doe fet forth one and the fame nature of 
vertue, yet Juftice doth moft intimately (cc forth the cffencc 
of it. 

27. The focond is Prudence J whereby all theftrengthof 
reafon is u(cd to find out that which is right , and to direft a 
right all the meancs of it : ic is therefore the alone difcerning 
of thofe things which pertaine to right doing : and it coa- 
Caincfi in it (cifc the force of understanding, knowledge and 
and wifedome ; fo that all thole perfcdions of the mind 
which arc wont co be called intelleftuall vertucs,in this refpcA 
alone doc pertaine to vertue, fofar forth as by the power of 
then? the wili«dircftcd in doing well. 

28. It is called in the Scripture Spirituall underftanding 
and wiiedome, O/ i^. Where underftanding doth feemc 
to fet forth a gencrall perceiving of good, and evill 5 and wit 
dome notes out the fame perceiving as it is applied to (cverall 
things coniidered with their circumftances , wherewith chcy 
arc clothed : fo that underftanding coniidering doth as it 
were fay , It is lawfull : wifdome faith^ It is expedient ; ac- 
cording to that diftinSion which is, i Corinthians .6. 12. 

' & ID* 23. To this is oppo(cd,Fooli{hneflc,£/^^(?/f^^/5.i7, 
Be not therefore unwife, but underftanding what the Will of 
the Lord is. 

* And Ignorance, Efk^.i^. Being ftrangers from the Life 
of God^by rcafon of the ignorance that is in them^ It is al- 
io called Judgement, i C^. 2.1 5. And Difcerning, Phil.i.io. 
To which is oppofcd vanity of mind, Eph.^.ijAnA a mind 
voyd of all Judgement,ii^»7.i.28. 

29. This Prudence ought to be cxercifed, i. With cir- 
cnmfpeftion , caking heed and due diligence,which are often 
in the Scripture commended under the name of Watchful- 
ncffc. Marc^ 1 3.33«Take heed, watch and pray : unto which 

D d is 

204 OfVertue^ 

is oppofcd that drowfic flecpineflc which is (aid to have 
fcilcd upon the fooliih Virgins. Maut^.^.i^. Secondly, 
witheleftion upon a due proportion ; fo as the greater duties 
be preferred before the leflcr , and in every one a covenient 
mcafure be kept according to the intending of afFccflions and 
ftrength. Mat.6,'}^.i Ce?r.i2.3i.&a4.i.Seckefirft the King- 
dome of God and the righteowfnefle of it. Affeft thegrca- 
' ter gifts : but rather that yec may propheiie. 

30. The third generall affeaion of vcrtue isforCitude,which 
is a firme perfifting in doing rightly , enduring and over- 
comming all thofe difficulties which may arifc either from 
the continuance of the aft which is required^ or from other 
impediments whatfoever. Hence it is that vertue in the i^^- 
^r<?>j? is fet forth by the name Chriftjeven when it is aicribed 
to Women. Prov.^uio. And a mighty ftrengthning is re- 
quired in every vertue. £ph.^,i6* It containes therefore, i. 
That confidence which is commended, nA^is 4. 29. To 
which feare is oppofedj Phil. i%i^ That they are bold to 
fpeak the word without feare. Secondly, prefeverance and 
conftancy, RevfI,2.26»VJhoiotvcv (hall overcome, and keep 
my workcsunto the end. To which is oppofcd a fainting 
of mind and wearincflc of weldoing^ 2Tbef^:}.i^. Cfd.6m 
g. Heh.\2*^.i2. Let us not be weary* Be not weary. Lcaft 
ye faint in your minds. Raife up the weake hands , and feeble 
knees. Thirdlyj It container (ufferance or patience.Za/s^f/.- 5, 
7.8.f/^^» 10.3d. Be of a patient mind^and ftablifti your heartat 
For ye have need of patience. o^* 

31. The fourth is TcmperaiKe, whereby all thofe defircs: ' 
which divert men from wel-doing are afiwagcd and reftrain-' 
ed : and fo it makes vertue undefilcd, %Ttm.2.^. None that 
goeth a warfare entangleth himftlfe. i Tct.jA^. Girdup*^ 
the Ioyne5 ofyourmindj befobcr. Sec. Itio often called in^ 
Scripture Sobriety when that word is ufcd in a more gene- 
rall fence^ as I F^/.i. 13/& 5.84 And purity or cleanneflc 
of heart. iTim.i.'y,! Peter 2. a:?. Andalfo finccrity, asit 
doth exclude pollution of any mixturc.This force of the word 
isftiewed zCor^i. iz.With (iraplicity and fincedty of God, 
not with flefhiy wildom.^ 

32. Oi ihcfe fourc conditions of vcuu^^ the iirft doth^ 


CfVeriUe. 205 

order and as it were conftitutc vertue : the fecond doth di- 
reft and free it from error : ihe third doth ftrcngthcn it a- 
gainft inconveniences : the fourth makes it pure^and defends 
it againft all allurements which doc feduce ir, 

33« Allthcfevertuesdoefecrae to be prefcribcd, and ex- 
plained together and almoft by name* 2 P^m.4,& 6. Ad 
to Faich Vertue : that is Juftice or an univerfall reftitude : to 
vertue knowledge, that is , Prudence dircfting aright all your 
waycs : to Prudence continence* that is , that temperance 
whereby ye may containc your felves from all allurements 
ofpleafurcs, wherewith men ufe to be flefhed, and drawen 
away from the right way : to continence patience ^ that is 
fortitude , whereby ye may endure any hardfliip for righte- 
oufnefle fake* But that which foUowes there of piety and 
charity doth containc a diftribution of vertue,to be propoun- 
ded in his proper place. 

34. Yet becaufe every of thofe affeftions doc more appearc 
irffomc vertucs then in othcr^therefore fome f pcciall vertues 
doc take both their name and definition from them : for be- 
cautc an accurate rec^licudc doth moft appearc in the number:, 
mcafurc, weight, and valcw of thofe things which are mu- 
tually received andgiv^cn by man , therefore Juftice, in a 
certainc fpeciall manner is wont to be, ^placed in things of 
fuch fort. And becaule thofe inconveniences are held moft 
terrible, which are wont to happen in warreaitd fuch like 
dangers, therefore the name of fortitude is wont to be re- 
^ ftraincd to (uch things. Becaufe the plcaiures of the fences 
are wont moft to ticklc^therefore temperance is for the moft 
part placed in them only ; although thole three together 
with Prudence taken in a.generall fence ^ are tied and folded 
' together among thetnlclves^ as that Philofopher did ob- 
^ fcrve , who did firft almoft propound thofe foure heads 

35 .Whereas the forme of vertue is placed by many in a cer- 
tainc medioaity between two vices in the cxtrcame , that can 
be defended by no reafbn, i. Becaufe privation is not the 
forme of an habit ; but mediocrity , is nothing clfe then a pri- 
vation of a dcFcft and an excefle. 2. Becaufe the forme of 
vertue is to be fought in that conformity which it hath to his 

Dd 2 rule J 

2o6 OfVertue. 

rule :But this conformity doth neither only, nor chiefly, 
nor ibnactime at all confift in mediocrity. 3. Becaiife vertue 
in its formall refpcft cannot be too much intended , and fo 
doth not admit excelfe^ but either in that materiall thing 
which it hath common with vices, or in the circumftan* 
ces of operations , as when fome of them are cxcrcifed 
when they ought not , or arc not excrci(ed when they 

jd.Thatmeatie which is found in all vertues , is no other 
thing then a conformity to their rule, or meaftire : for by this 
they have ccrtainc mcafurcs and bounds in which their nature 
is as it were contamcd,fo that they may not decline to the 
right hand or to the left , but by this rcafon mediocrity 
is no more the forme of vertues, then of all other things 
which are difiinguiOied from other things by certaine formes 
and differences 

57. But thofe vertucs which confift in the middle betwea 
two vicious habits 5 are not therefore vertues becaufe they 
confift in the middle, but becaufe they doe in that manner 
confift in the middle as their rule preCcribcs 5 in which 
manner , mediocrity whether of participation or negation, 
Rei vel rationi^.ofths thing , or of a relped , is to be confi- 
dered rather as a fubjeft matter) then as a perfetfling 

38. Bat it is manifcft that fuch mediocrity bath no place in 
fome vertucs ; for the love of God is not in that refpcft praifed 
that it is not too much^botthat it ismoft ardent, here themea-^* 
fure is without mea(ure» 

39. There is the like reafon of all vertucs in refpcft of 
their proper and fpecificall nature. Hec that giveth 
when he ought not, is not too liberall : but he is too much in ^ 
givinp,{oth:n in that refpcft he ceafcthtobe liberall, and in ^ 
the fame aft he may be as much defective in not doing that 
which he ought. 

40. The wilcman indeed admoniflicth, EccIef.j^iS^ThM 
we t e not Jiift overmuch , but this is not at all to be undcr- 
ftood of Jiiftice in its nature ( for it followes Verfe 20. That 
there is none juft upon Earth who doth good and linneih 
not ) but as it is in opinion , whereby many docxhaUenge 
. ' too 

OfVertue. 207 

too much to thcmfelvcs , and would have it attributed to 
Juftice : but intrucvercues we ought al way cs to endeavour to 
thisjthat wc may more and more abound^as in the holy Scrip., 
tures we arc often admoni(hed. 

41 •There be no degrees in vertue of one and the fame kind, 
if it bcconfidered ink felfe in thecxtent.For there is no vertue 
which at leaft in difpofition doth not extea i it ftlfc to all 
tholethings which are conrained in the compafle of itsob- 
jcft. He i$ not temperate which doth moderate himfelfe in 
oneiultjand favours himlclte inochers^butinrcfpeiflofthe 
fubjcift fome vertue ia more ftrong in one then it is in another, 
eitherby reafonofa more apt difpofition by nature, orbe- 
caufc of greater accuftoming , or becaufe of a raorepcrfeft 
judgement of reafon , or finally becaufe of a geater Gift 
qI: G o D. 

.^ . 42. i hat which is wont to be raid,that vertues are increafcd 
by daily ufe andexercife, that muft be lo underllood in iblid 
vertues proceeding from fanftifying grace, that day ly cxer- 
cilc is the difpofing caufe^and by vertue of the promife of God 
in fome fort the procuring caule, not principally or properly 
eflFcftingfuch an increale of vertue^ 

43* But vertues arc Icfllncd by the oppoHte vitious a(5l9, and 
in rcfpcft of the difpofition which they bring, and by reafon 
otthe merit that is in them. 

44« By how much the afts of vertues , or contrary vices 
are more intenr,more frequent and more continual!, ft) much 
> , the more they prevaile,cither to the increafing or diminution 
of virtues. 

45. Hence is that diftindion of vertues into humane and 
heroicall;into vertues purgingjpurged and exemplary : and of 
. thofe that are endued with vertue, into Infants, and men of 
< ripeagc.Hc^.^.ii, 14. 

4<J. The communion of vertues is both intheconaexion 
and lubordination of them among themlelvcs. 

47. For connexion is that whereby all vertues which arc 
fimply neceflary,doe cleave together among themfelves. i . In 
rcfpc6k of the beginning from whence they fiow:Forevcry 
good giving, and every perfeft gift defccndsfrom the Fa- 
ther of lights 5 By the fpirit of grace. /^w^/ 1. 17, % Coni2. 

Dd3 2ln 

1. In rcfpcft of the end and intention , which is to the fame 
thing in gcnerall ; for all vertues doe rorcfpcftGod^thatif 
his authority be violated in one, it is withall virtually vio- 
lated in all, James 2. i o. j.In refpeft of that helping indea- 
vour which they performe mutually one to another. For one 
vcrtue doth difpofe to the aft of another ^ and alfo doth de* 
fend and confirm the fame with the aft. 

48. Yet vertues are not fo cffcntially and intrinftcall]^ 
knit together^ that every one is of the eflence of the other , 
or doth necelTarily depend upon it as upon a procreating 

49*Subordination of vertues is that whereby the aft of one 
vertucis ordered to the aft and objcft of another , either as a 
mcanes to an end which is the command of a fuperior upon 
an inferior vcrtuc.as Religion commands Jufticc temperance, 
and thelikcj when it refers their afts to the furthering the 
worfhip and glory of God ; orasacaufetoitscfFeftj, whic'h 
belongs to every vertne in refpeft to every one i for fo 
Religion it felfe is ordained to bring forrfi and cbrtCerve 

5 0, Whenfoever the aft of one vertue is ordered to the end 
of another vertue , this ordination although in refpeft of 
the direftion it depends iipoh Prudence, yet in refpeft of 
the cffeftuall force and authority, it depends upon a fuperi- 
or vertue. 

Chapter I XL 

of gaod PFork^s. 

1. A N aftion of vcrtue is an operation flowing from a 
l'\ difpofition ofvertue. Mat.i 2.35. A good man ©ut 
X jLof the good treafurc of his heart bringeth forth 
good thing?. 

2. In the fame fence it is called an aftion or worke that is 
good^rightjlaudable, and pleafing to God. 

3. Utito inch an aftien there is required firft agood efficicBt 

of g&odlVorket. 7o^ 

or bcginniag,that is,a will well difpofed , and working from 
true vcrtue •, for good fruitsdocnot grow butoutof agood 
Tree. Mat* 12.^^. Secondly, a good matur or objcft, that 
is foracthing commended by God. Mat^i^.^^ In vain^ they 
worflaipmc, teaching doftrines which aretheCommande- 
ments of men. Thirdly,a good end,that is the glory of God, 
and tho(i things which tend unto his glory, i Cor. lo. 31. 
Doc all to the glory of God- 

4* But the end and the objeft are oftentimes all one , both 
in good and evill aftions, efpecially in the intention and e- 
levfHon of the will ^ where they end ic felfe is the proper ob- 
jeft. For thofe ^6ls arc cither coBveyfanr in the en d it (clfe, 
as in the matter or objxft ^ as theafts of defiring, willing, 
wiQiingJovingjinjoyingjor iiitholc things which tend to the 
end as they are fuch/o as the goodncffe or deformity is pro ' 
perly derived from the end. ..[^ -^ y- ^ ;d , 

$., For although that good intention or intention of v?ell-' 
doing which isgenerall arKi coafufeddoth not make a par- 
ticular aclion good , if other conditions be wanting : nei- 
ther doth a fpeciall intention of good fuffice for it, if the 
meanes be evill : as if aay intending to bcftow any chingon 
the poorc or upon pious ufes (hould to chat end take to him- 
felfe other mens goods .' yet an evill intention doth alwayes 
make an aftion evill , and a good intention with other 
conditions doth make very much to the conftitution of a 
good aftion. 

6. But there is required to an aftiQn truly good^that at leaft 
virtually it be referred to God, as to the chiefecnd. 

7. In the fourth place alfo , there is required a forme or a 
good manncr^which is placed in the agreeing of the aftion to 
the revealed vVill of God. 

8. Moreover this will of God doth informc an aAion of 
man, as far forth as it is apprehended by reafon . Hence the 
veryconfcienceofmanisthefubordinate rule ofmorallafti- . 
ons s fo as every aftion muft agree with a right confciencc, 
and an erring or doubtfuU conlcienceisfirft tobelaiddown 
before a man may doe againft it j akhoUgh a lighter fcruple or 
ilickmg of confcicncc muft not any way putoflfanyaSion 
otherwife approved^ 

9.Bu t 

^lO of good Worker* 

9. 5ut that this formcor manner be good it requires all the 
<:ircumftances to be good^ for a lingular aftion is alwaycs clo- 
thed withies circumftancesjupon which thegoodncflc orc- 
villneflc of it doth not a little depend. 

10. Buttho(e circumftances being referred to the aftcf 
the willjdoe pafle into the nature of an objeft. For the will 
whiles it willeth (bmc worke, willeth all that which is in it, 
and (ball the known circumftances either exprefly or impli- 
citely ; and a knpwen circumftancc being changcd^oftentinies 
the aft of the will is changed. 

1 1. But the fame circumftances bemg referred to the aft of 
any other faculty bchdes the will,?»re only adjunfts. 

1 2. So the Cfid it felfe is rightly reck ned among the cir- 
cnmftanceSj although not in reiptft of the u 11, yet in rcfpeft 
of the faculties and other A Af« 

13. By reafon of cbefe circurr.ftances it comes to paffe, 
that although many Afts in the generall or in their 
owne nature are indiffe'-cnt , ytt th» re is no Angular Aft 
that is morall , and deliberate , but it is eithei good or 

i^. An Aft in its kind indifferent is^when the objeft of it 
includes nothing which pertaiines to the will of God , either 
commanding or forbidding , yet fuch afti^ beujg in exercifc, 
feverally confidercdjif they be properly humane proceeding 
of deliberate reafon , are either dircfted to a dueend,and have 
conformity to the will of God, and (b are good : or they are 
not rightly direfted , but diflent from the will 01 God,and in « • 
that refpeft are evill. 

15. Befides aftions good, evilly and indiflFerenrjfpme doe 
obferve that there are lome afts that do Sonare in m^lnm^ have 
an evill (bund, that is being abfolutly conhdcred they doe * 
impart a certaineinordinatencfle , but by Tome circumftances ' 
comming to them they are fbmetimes made good,as to kill a 
man, and the like :but even thofe afts ought to be referred 
to indifferents ; for they only feemc to have fome evill in 
themielves : as al(b to free a man from danger of death feem- 
ethto have (ome good in itfclfe, with which ft^ewalfb ma- 
ny that ate not evill arc deceived ; but the true goodneflc 
or pravity of thefc aftions depends upon the objeft , and 


of good ITork^^i . : : 2 1 r 

other circumftanccs : to flay che innocent or fet at liberty the 
guilty is evill ; to fliy the guilty juftly,or deliver the innocent 
upon juft reafon is good. 

\i. The goodncffe ofalitbclc cau(cs and conditions i$ » 

coUeftivcIy required for an aftionabfohitely good, but the 
defeft of fomc one makes the aftion fo far forth evili. 

1 7. Hence our good workes,whileft we live here,aie impcr- 
fcft and impure in themfelvcs. 

18, Hence they are not accepted before God , but in 

19* Hence in the workes of the regenerate there is not 
that re(pea of merit whereby any reward is obtained by 

2o.Yet that reward which is imputed not of debt, bucof 
graces Rom,^j{. is fometime afGgned to thole imperfeA in- 
deavours, Mat.'y. it. Becaufe although all our blefledneflc 
iithemeeregiftofOody Rom.6% 23. Yet the fruits of grace 
abounding in us , are put upon thofe accounts whereby we 
doe get the certainty of that gift. Phil ^. 17. I require that 
fruit abounding which may be put on your accounts* 

a I .The aftion of vertue is either inward|Or outward*! Car. 
Stio* I itTo will, to doe, to performe* 

22. The internail a&ioo is propeily of the will it felfe« 

23 The externall aftion is of another faculty diftinft from 
the will ; whether it be of the underftandingjOr of the ftnfitive 
apj>etitc which i« commonly called internail, or ofthccxecu* 
^tive power which is ufually c&Ued external!. 
' 24. The internallaftion of the will hath goodneflc or evill- . 
neffe fo intrinfecall , that an aft cannot remaincthefaraein 
the nature of it, but ic muft be the fame in manners 5 but an 
outward ^ft may rcmaine the fame in nature, and yet become 
another in manners mamely of good may become eyill,and of 
/»evill good :As if any onebeginning to walkeout of an honeft 
' purpofcjdoe perfift in his journey for an evill end. 

2 5. T here is one and the fame goodneflc or evillncfle of an 
internail aft, and an externall commanded by it : for it it 
the fame aft in kind of manners ; For to will to worftiip 
God 5 and from that will towards God^are not two afts of 
obedience, but two degrees of one and the fame aft ^ fo that 

E c the 

ai2 of goodnyei^k^ 

the goodneffe of the one is pcrfited in the ot her , a C$r. 8. i M 
Performe to doe that very thing : that as thcrcwasareadi- 
neffc to will^fo there may be a pcrforraance. 

t6. The outward aft witbout the inward i» not properly, 
good or evill : buc the inward is good or cvili ^ without the 
external! ; becaufe the goodneflc of an a6tion depends firft 
andchieiiy upon the will, which is often accepted with God, 
although the outward work it fdfc beabftnt^ 2 C^.8. 1 5. If 
there be firti a ready mind^ one is accepted according to chac 
he hath. 

27. But as vertae in its own nature tends to an aft ^for 
it is a difpofition to doe well,neitbcr is it idle ) fotheincer- 
nall ac^ of it tends to an extcrnall,and produceth it*, and[ 
in it is lead to its end. James 2.2a. Thou feeftthaCf Faith 
was the helper of his workes^aiid by works Faitk ws» brought 
to its end. 

28. Yet the cxternall aft joyncd with the internall doth 
not properly and by it felfe incrcafe the goodncflfe , or cvilI- 
nefie of it in relpeS of the intention only ; but by accident it 
doth increaft it^ as it doth continue or increafeihc aft of the 
willitfclfe. r 

29. The goodneffe and evillsefTe ofanya^, which de- 
pends upon the objeft and the circunoflanccs of the ad, is in 
rcfpcft of KS nature in the ex^'ernall aft ^ before it be in the 
ioternall, although fiiorderbf exiftence ic is firft in the inter* 
ihH. For to will to give every one his owne is therefore 
good, becaufe this thing^togive every one his own is good : • 
yet the goodnefle doth exift in the aA of willing before in 
the ^S: of giving^ So to will to fteale is evill, becaufe to 
ft^lc'is evill, thereafon iSjbecauft the exterior aft is the 
eaufe of the inward^in order of intention, and the inward a^\ 
is the cau(e of the outward in order of execution. , 

50^ But that goodneffe or evillnefle which depends upon 
the end 3 is fij ft in the inward aft, and after in the outward^^ 
becaufe the very ifjteiuion of the end is the inward aft of 
the will ^ lo to forfake the World for rigbteoufneffc fakd 
is good, beciu^e to willrighteoufneflcisgoodj and to give 
almes for vaine glory is evill ^ becaufe it is evill to will vainc 


of io$d IFVrJ^A 21^ 

31* Obedience that appcjres in outward aftions.withotit 
thr titward h tiypncrilicjaiid lb is not in deed obedicKcc, but a 
certaine fhadow of jr. 

32. Ytc inwarJ cibedien#c without otitward, although it be 
incompleat,yet ic is true : and if there be an effccluall will 
prcfcntj (b th it opportunity ^ or ability of executing is only 
wanting/it is no IcflTe acceptable to God, then if it had an eX' 
ternalla(!^jpyaedwixhit.2C<7r*8. 12. . "'' ^ 

33. rheirforc we muJl no<c judge of aftioni good or ovill 
by t>ietvcnt. Foralthowgli it is equal!, and God limifeltd 
willcibjthat he that is jjdge c^f offences among men , doc in- 
cliue to the mor^ ftvouraUefidc^ if the event it fcHcdoe fa- 
vour* Exoi^2Xi2u and fo forward: yet before the tribuBall 
of God, the inward fan is as great a«rerz!^;?^ri^«tf other things 
anrwcrablcj when neither event nor outward aft folio wcs, 
as if both (hould follow. iMkf.5. ^^* Whofocver lookes on a 
worn in to luft after hei^hath commkted adultery already if^ith 
her in his heart. 

34. Yet inurard obedience is not of iticlfe Efficient , be- 
cause the whole man ought to (ubjVft it felfe to God roar 
bodies arc to be offered to God, /ffw. 1 2. i» He is to be glo- 
rified in our bodies. iQoy.i^^Q. Neither is that true inward 
obedience which doth not incline to cxtcrndl. 

55 Tlw workes wbidh arc called workcs of fupererogation. 
Whereby the Papifts doe boaft that ibroc oft heirs doe pcr- 
f ormc more excellent workes then arc commanded in the Law 

'of God, by the obfervation of certaine counlells which they 
fai^ic doe not command, but counfcUonly a Angular pcr- 
fcftion, arc thcdotingsof idle men which know neither ihc 
Law nor the GofpelK 

36. Unto the beft workes of the faithfull there adhcreth thai 

nmpcrfeftton which hach need of rcmi^n:y€t the workes 
themfelves are not fins* 

Ee 1 Chap.IIIL 

J J * efRdigioHt 

Chapter lill. 

Of Religion. 

I. ^"*V Blervance is cither RcligioOj orjnftice. 
f J 2. This diftribation as touching the thing it 
^^m^ ielte is made by God in the divifion of the dcca- 
loguej afeicisenroIdcdbyChrifte Af^r.a2.37. Al(b the fence 
of the fame diitribution is exprefled in other words, Rom. !• 
i8» Where all difobcdience of man is diftributed into im- 
piety and injuftice , which could not ftand unleflc all obe- 
dience alfo were converlant in Piety and Juftice : which is 
alfo more phinly opened. Tit. 2, 1 2 Where of thoie thrct 
things propounded. Rigliteoulncfle and Piety , doe make 
the parts of new Obedience, and Temperance notes the man- 
ner or meanes of performing the fimc^tl^raely deny ing world- 
ly Ms. 

3. Unto the fame alfo that diftribation of a Ghriftian 
iiletends, which is more frequet^lyufedj into holi^efle and 
righteoufnefle.X^c.i.75« £/?^.4»24. And the fame i^ the mea- 
aing of that diftributicn which is of lOvetowardfe God, ^nd 
Jove towards our neighbair. - 

4. Yet we ufe the n^imes of Religion and Juftice, becaufc^ 
Religion is a word moft generali.containing all thofe duties 
which are owing to God, and it h moft emphaticall^be^ ' 
caufc it exprefleth that proper and diftinft way whereby they 
areduetoGod. j4Ss%6'^. /^w^i 1.26^27. And often in the 
;Epiftle to the Hthrewes. * 

$. Religion is Qbfcrvancej whereby we performe thole' 
things which doe dircftly pertaine to the bringing of ho- 
nour to God. Romans !• 21. When they knew God, yet 
they glorified him not as God, neither were they thanke- 

^.Therefore this name is not amifle by fome (aid to be de- 
rived a Religdndo from binding againe , bccaufe in this part 
of obedience we doe dire£kly and immediatly tend unto 


Cod 9 that we may cleave, and as it were, be tied tohio?. 

7. It hath the firft place in obftrvance, !• Becaufc obe- 
dience towards God muft ncceflfarily begin 5 from God him- 
(elfcjaad from thofc affcftions , and afts whereby we are 
caritd Cowards him. 2 0r. 8. 5. They gave thcmfelves hrlt 
to the Lord, and then to us by the Will of God. 2. Becaufe 
Righteoufneflc towards men , muft be perfermed by force 
and vercue of ReligioD , that ijt may be true obcdienceto- 
wards God , tor it would not be obedience towards God, 
unleflfe it did bring honour to God : neither could it bring 
honour to God^unlefle it (hould proceed t, o n a religious at- 
feftiouo I 0.10*31. DoC all to the glory of God : wherc- 
unt ) that phrafe alfo belongeth. In the Lord , in the Name 
of thcLord.C^/.3.f7- And as to the Lord ^ and not to men. 
There Verfe 23. 3* Becaufe Religion hath command over 
theaftsof Jufticcjand is the cau(c of them not only virtually 
effefting, but alfodircfltii^ and ordering. lames i. 26. If 
any feeme to fee religious among you, not refrainipg his 
tongue, but deceiving his own heart, this mans religion is 
vainc. ^. Becaufe religion is in a cer taine mannerthe end of all 
the ads of Juftice,as far forth as they difpofe to the aft of rc- 
ligion.as a certaiae greater thing. 

I &-^ Hence Juflice it r^Ueisfom|eUme called religion.inthe 
Scriptures*. Theix Tr^/f 1>7 -ffut religious worfhip, pure^arid 
without fpot before God, and the Father is tovidtechc fa-? 
therleflc, 8cc. Not only becaufe it is a figne which is not 

», feparated from true religion, but alfo bcaufe it ought to be 

exercifed by the comaiand of reiigioi^i a^4 have iubcginniug 

from it. _ ilr .rr^j i^CiO ; I :iui;^rt:oi V -i^^ ' - •'. ^- 

9.Hencethe offices of religion are the firft andchicfeft.yl/rfK 

> 6.33. & 22.37.Firft fceke the kingdome of God. The firft and 

I great Commandcmcnt. 

lo.Thcy arethe firft in orderjfothat they ought tobe taken 
care for in the firft place ^ There. 

11. Hitherto pert aines that phrafe 5 which every where 
we meete with in the Pfaimer^ of feeking God early in the 

1 2. Alfo they are the chiefe indignity^andfo chiefly to be 
cared for. Af^r, 10.37.He chat loveth father or mother above 
mcjisiaot worthy of me. E e 5 13. Hen ce 

13- Hence tha dmiei of religion ought to tc ptrfprtoeil 
with more intcrt -md ftirrcd up forces then the duties of 
JuftiCe 5 far that ruk pertaincs properly to chcm,not to thcfc, 
rclovfe V/ith all the heart, all thelouiej andall thethpugki. 

<J^Ut\22 37. 

54*Whichyctim]fi notbefounderfloodjns if all tiheftrcngth 
Wtre not a\Co vtqmredii performing and in filling the duties 
of the &c6t\^ t^ihle 5 biK. iw Set^uilethis is principally fe* ^ 
<^fkT4^dinihfedety<!)l jR<cligiuru ^/ ^ecaufeit is not inquired 
fn the other duties iA rcipc^ot our neighbour, uhonithey 
dbcifnmedi^tly ftf^eS: >, but in reiped o Gcd,»nd by vcrtue 
ef religion* 5. ^eeauie one may love h.s neighbour with too 
ttiuchinte«tion»a$tc*GGtitti^ ehe vc^ymateriall ^/ft of loving^ 
ahboU€;h thh i^^inuot be done uiide= the refpcft of vertue 
and love, but we can no way loveOod with too Oiuchin- 

1^ Hance, if fbme duties of piety and juftice cannot be 
perforiiiei^rtogctherjan eC[iiiiU attd prudent cotnpariibn being 
ufed^thexiuttesof piety affdtd be prefcrrc<^. LMtiU 1 2^^6^ 474 
4&. Luk^ 2 ,49 , 'Behold my mother and my brnr hren,. why 
did ye fedce me- ? knew ye not ttiat 1 *muft goe about^iy /fe* 
thers bufineffc ? • 'i 

' 16. But aR^uat^ codr^riforr^ wfeetiifuft proportion is 
bbferved of the greatell tb t'he^eatdll^ and of the Idferjtp tfeb 
leffe»'" 'i ■* . -7 

. 17. But becauie God is more worfbipjxd with the ioWard 
aflfeftioti then with the outWard worke^ butmendocmoifc/ 
need the oiltwsrd WorJa : therefore the oucwaatriSwcirj^e of 
religion may fometime be omitted, that a neceflTary v\ror&eoF • 
Juftice, atidmercV may te fiMlkd. Matthm>i2* 'f^j9 i. 
?54 7-'0.iiJwifl haveirerty andhmfacrific€,&c. ^ 

18a Neither yet is religion in the mcane while by this f 
nnseiiicsvidlatted, becauferellgion it (elfe doth ccmixiaod to 
emit an cxternall workcjthat^Dedeflary may be performsd* 
n?i':9. Thfie imme<liateobje5S: of fsligion unto which it dsca- 
tied , isGod r:ai2^ that lb adcquate^thafnoduty of religion* 
may be referred to any other- objeft without greateft injury 
id God^vWthiife ^pcmi?^ «^ whej^tbydic is 

&idu)btZ^/mf4;^Z4i(f^jfw^2egkia^ ^ 


OfKthgion^ %\j 

ao.Btitthal rcfpctflj under which religion doth confider 

Q<iA^ is that Dvinc excellency, which (hines forth in bi| 

fufti :iency & efficiency ; it is not ibmc one attribute, but a per- 

fcftion ariii'^g of all his attributcs.fx ^^.6,'/,2.7chsza,^eheva 

ihe ItrongGoctt mercjfull and gracious, long^lufferiiig, and 

foil of loving kin Jnclfc and truth, &c. Therefore ail the at- 

tributes of God have fame power to beget religion in us, and 

and (b, in the Scriptures, the fpeeiall refpciSl of it is referred, 

fomecime CO mercy. Tyi/. 130.4. with thee is pardoning, 

that thou mafyeit be ir<rvcrently worfliipped : (bmctime co 

Jiuticc. BeHU^.2^ Miih.it 29*LctU9 have graccjby which we 

may fo ferve God^that we may be accepted of hJm with reve- 

Mhce and feare.For our God is a confliming fire. And lb alio 

to all the other attributes* 

1 1. Hence religion doth immcdiatly flow from that Faith 
whenewith we believein Godi asiritheiuffident^arid efficient 
cauleoflife. . i V r • : 

^ 22. So is that to be underftood which is wont to be (aid, 
thatreligion refpc^ts God as the firft beginning and fupream^ 
Lordof life. Andfo that diiiinftibiiofthe Papiftsi's too em- 
pty whereby they confelle, that diofe afts ot religion which 
rcfpcftGodasthc firft beginning of life, aretobepcrform* 
cJ only to GcxJ^ Butthey contend that other afts of religion 
m ly be communicated to the Creatures alfo, when there is no 
aft of religion w-feach doth not belong to God^as the firft be- 
ginning of Idfe. 

2> The proper aft of religjon is to bring honor to God, 
tod it is called worftiip. £;tW.i 2.2 5,26. and adoration, /t^/?^ 
a2.23« For it rauft containe in a certaine manner good unto 
God 3 othecwi(c itfhculd not be obedience towards him^but 
there can be no intrinfecal good added to God^brt an outward 
good^which is honor , that is , a teftirtcationof the vertue of 
'another to further his glory or eftimation, and this is all that 
which the Creature can performe unco God. 

24. Therefore an agreeable or worthy eftimation of God, 
and other afts wherby an eftimation is manifefted,doc make 
as it were, the next matter of religion. And every humane 
honeft aOr^as far forth as it may be referred to the honour and 
glory o^f God , may be the mattcr,^^or mat^riall objcft of re- 

2i3 Of R^UgtQH. 

Rgion. Alfo one and the fame aft which in rcfpeftoffob' 
jcftion to the precept is called obedience * in refpeft of 
the honour which it brings to God is called religion and 

2 5, The proper manner of honour, or religious worflhip is * 
tofubjedthe(bule ic felfe, and the inward afte£tions and ad«^ 
of the will to another. 

26. For in refpeft of the (bule and inward afts of it,man is 
not fubjeft direftly and Perfeto any Creature , although as 
the foule is knit to the body ^ and the inward ads to the out- 
ward, his^ as it were neceflary^condition doth command that 
fubjcftion which is due to the Creature as a fuperior. 

27. This honour is due to God, not only accordingto the 
agreement of the thing , in which fence we fay, thofe things^ 
are due which we give of liberality ; but alfo according to the 
right of the perlon to whom it is given , and that by fo 
ftrift a rights that in refpeft ofthe debt it exceeds all Jufticc, 
although in refpeft of equality it is much exceeded bj 

28. Therefore all worfliip which either by its nature oc 
condition , or by Law^and common cuftome, or by the mind 
and inftitution of him that gives it doth give religious honour 
to another befide the true God , it doth To far forth at leaft 
faine to it felfe a new and a falfe God. 

29. Hethatdoth not give this religious worfliip to God 
is prophane^he that gives it to another befides to the true God 
is an idolater, ABs iQ.RevfLig.io.3c 22.8. ^ 

30. But bccaule greateft care ought to be had in Divine* 
worfliip, therefore among the Latines the word religion is 
(omctime metaphorically ufed to fet forth any anxious care, 
even in things that were not facred. By which appeares that 
the Heathens thcmfelves by the light of nature did fee, that* 
the care of Religion is to bee prefered before all other / 

31. Alfo becaufe the feare of confcience pertaines to the 
worfliip of religion^thereforcalfo every fcruple of conlciencc 
is wont to be called religion, whence alfo we may gather,that 
nature it felfe doth diftate that the confcience of a man doth 
firft and moft properly refpeft religion, 


jf* The gcncrallftatc of the Church, as it doth profcffc 
a right manner of worfliipping God, is rightly wont to be 
called the Chriftian Religion , becaule fuch a relation of 
a ftate or profeflfion , arifetK from vertue and the aft of Re* 
ligion» ..^ :-::i J ; 

3J.Tho(c things which by a fpeciall inftitution aredcfti- 
naced to religrvdis afes as theinftruments of religion, arc alfo 
by reafon of their (late or fixed relation which they have^called 

34.That peculiar manner of living which the Monkes have 
chofen to themftlves to crercifc a ceruine fained pcrfcftion, 
without any reafon.and not without wrong to other ChriHi- 
an?j is wont to be called rdigion by the Papifts, and fuch 
Monkes religious perfoBK 

}5. He that is not religious,is not a Chriftian. 

3dt.Thc tiue religion is onely one» 

f-.-rrf?!''; . r,7p f ■ 

Chapter V. 

Of Faith. 

u f I »H E parts of religion arc twojnaturall wor(hip,and 
I voluntary or inftituted worfhip* 
JL 2. Thisdiftinftion is grounded on Ex^J. 20.6. 
thofe words of the fecond Commandement : who love me, 
and keep my Commandements. 

3. Naturallworfhip is that which depends upon thcna- 
jrc of God : fo that although we had no Law revealedj and 

^refcribcd by God ^ yet if we did rightly perceive and know 
the Nature of God , by a meet contemplation of it, we 
might, the grace of God helping us^perceivealthofe things 
which in this behalfe pertaincs unto our duty. 

4. For there is 00 body who undcrftands the Nature of 
God rightly, but withall he doth alfo ncccflarily acknow- 
ledge. That G c D is to be believed and hoped in, that 
God is to be loved , called upon , and to be lieard in all 

^ ^"^'" F f sMcifck 


2M) t)f FHHh* 

5. Hence this Hatiirall tlrorfliip i$ fimply ftece(Rry to ftl- 
vation. Tj^/.79.(5* Jerenu 10. $2^ 2 Thef.uS. Powrcout 
thy wrath upon thofc Nations nhat fen 6 w thee nOft and upon 
the Ktngdomes that call not upon thy name. Foralrhoujgh 
wc obtainc etcrnall life neither by merit 5 nor by any vertue 
of our obedience ) yctthis part of obedience hath fucha^n e(^ 
fentiall connexion with that Faith whoreby we reft upon 
Chrift to life eteifnall, that inexercife k cannot be feparated 
from it* 

d.Hence alfo this worfliip hath bccnjis^and (hall be one and 
the famcj or immutable, i Jahn i^VerJi y.Thc old Commandc- 
ment which ye had from the beginning* {. 

7. Natural! worfhip is commanded in the feftprecept^not 
only as it is internalijbut alio »is it i« cxternall. 

8. For. !• AU obedience is the fame inwardly and cHit* 
wardly: therefore the (amc inward and outward wotftip is 
contained in the fame precept: f • In thofe precepts which 
pertainc to the ftcondtable , inward and outward obedience 
is together commar>dcd in every onc^ Chrift himfclfe being 
interpreter. .^4f.'5/ Mdch nfiore therefore in the precepts of 
the fird table , and in the firft and chiefe of tbem« 3. If that 
diftinftion were lawfuU*! that tht firft precept would com- 
mand only inward worfhip,and the (ccond only oatward^chen 
Ibe fiiS Gtjmmandement ftK^ b|r^ the in^'^d «iSf 'i'^nd 
the foule only to obedience^ mA thefecpnd only the oltward 
mantirtd ifee bodyjwhicli is contrary toall reafon. 4 

p.NaturalI wor(Mp tentb tmto GoA^ti^icx as ouf(good, ot? 
as good in himielfc. . >■ . n ; :) ffi ; . ;, 

m.The worfliip which leeds unto Oddii as unto^oilr'igqDd , 
doth either refpeft him as he is in prilent ours, as Faith : «cjr 
ashereafterheistobfcourSj as hope. ^ ^ 

II. Faith is ft vertue whereby we cleaving to the faith firfy 
neflc ofGodjdoeleanc iipon him^ that we may obtaine that 
which he propounds to us* He that receive th his teftimouy 
hath (caled that God is true. John K12. As n>any as received 
himj^who believe in his Name. 

II. Thefe five things concurre to make ^ Divine Faith, i. 
A knowledge of the thing teftified by God. a; A piouS 
affeftion towards God ^ which caufeth that his leftimony 


of f^th- %i\ 

dotfi moft prcvailc with uf« 3, An aflfent which is given to 
tIiechingtcltified,bccaufcofthisafFc(flion towards God who 
isrhewitntfleofit. 4. A rcfting upon God for the obtain- 
ing^ tlu? wKi^h is proppundedt %. Aacleftionorapprch«n- 
{ipn of the tl^pg it fclfe^ wiich is exhibited to us ifithc 
t^ftitnony. . 

\ 3* The firft of theft is in thcundcrftanding : but it doth 
npt make F4i};h3hccauic it is common to us with unbelievers^ 
herccic»s,apoftare8,and the devilis thcmfelves. 

l4tThe fecond5fourth and £ftarfi in the wiiliand doe make 
Faith as it is a vcrtuc3and a<ft of religion. 

1 5* The third as in (hjs underftanding j but as Ms moved 
by the will;ncith^r is it: properly ih^ virtue of Faith^butan 

1 6. But the perfeftion of Faith is not but in elcftiori or ap- 
pi chcnfion,and Co U 10 be defined by it. : 

17. tj^nce the nature of Faith is excellently opened m 
Scrip;u|:e, when the faithfuU are (aid to cleave to God. 
Iffjiff^ aj.tf. tyffls iit»2$f I C^inthUns6Ay.^dto<hopCc 
the way of trujhi andto fl»vc to the teftiiiiony of God. 

18 For by JFaith wfe firft cleave to iOod, iand then after- 
war4 CQufequcBtly we cleavf to thoft things which are pro- 
pounded to us by God : fu iijatGod himielfe is the firft Ob- 
jc4l ^ Fai(h, and. tkiiE «hti:his piopotmd^d by God the fe.- 
cundary Objcfe - 1; Tivi t ^rvi\^^ ii: r^'^ t-5^ r^.mz:t^y^^ 
\ I ^ But bciiaufe Faith as it joyncs us to G06 is bur life ; 
» but as it is a vcrtueandoL:rduty towards G.d^icis an ad of 
life , therefore in the former part we f? we dtfthed it only by 
that refpeflt which it hath ro obL:ln^ life and falvation ; but 
here we have defined it by that generall rcipcft which it hath 
to all that which God propounds to us to believe. Hence 
. F'aith cannot exercife all i^s zdi about ths threatniiigs ot God 
^ COiiiidp^red ia th^mfelves^ bccauic they doe hot propound 
the^pid IP be r^c^ivcd by us : nor about the precepts (>f 
God fimply eonhderedj becaufcthey declare the good to 
be done.npt to be reccivcd;nor about meere predications, be- 
caule under that refpeft they propound no good tons. But 
itifpSlfcft in the proxrufcs , becaufe in them there is pro- 
^.\j ) Ff 2 pounded 



pounded good to be embraced : whence al(b k ts,that our Di* 
vines arc wont to place the objeft of Faith chiefly in the 

20* They who place Faith in the underftanding : doc con- 
fc0e that there is £bme neceffary motion of the will to the 
yeildingof that aflent : even as in humaneFaith it is faid to be 
4 voluntary thing to give credit to one. But if Faith depend 
upon the will Jt muft needs be that the firft beginning ofFaitfa 
is in the will. 

;:2i. JhcO^jeUum qtiod^ ormateriall objeft of this Faich 
is whatfbever is revealed and propounded by God to be be* 
lieycd , wh^th^r it be done by fpirit or by word j publickly 
or pdvatly, <^rts 24.14. I believe all things that arc writ- 
ten in the Law and the ProphctSt lohn ^•^^i^^t that receivetlr 
histeftitnony.. iijudjoBHiibJ^'^^onviri^r^n i^-: ^ ^•^ \ 

22. Hence the propounding of th^Churcli is fibtAfoftit' 
ly neceflary 3 no not in rcfpeft of us , to make an objeft of 
Faithjfor then Abraham , and other Prophets had not given 
aflent to thofethings which were revealed to them from God, 
without any belpe of the Church comming between, which 
is both againft the Scriptures and all (bund rea^> and yet is 
neceilarily admitted and defended by the moft learned ofthe 
PapiftSjthat they may defend the wined authority of their 
f^foQburch from fuch arguments. ^ .u • ^ ' 04 

.p^ JWs objeft is.alwaycs immediatly foo^ /axiom ot^ 
fentence under the refpc(St of truth : but thatin wKich Faith^ 
is principally boundcdjof which , and for which aflent li 
yielded to that axiom by Faith is, EnsincomflexHm under the ^ 
rcfpeft of (bme good. Rom. 4. 21. Being fully perfwaded, 
that he who had promifed was able alfb to doc iii tieh. i ^, 
15* Not having received the promifes, but feeing them a 
far off, after they had bin perfwadcd of them, and had em-^ 
braced them. ^i 

24,For theaft ofthe believeris not bounded in the Axiom,^ 
pr fentence^ bat in the thing , s^s ihe nioJt farnous School&- 
nsen^pnfc^.The reafqa is;:faBcauft ^ciiobttOt friiiieaiidfn^ 
but that by thfem we may haveknoM^Icdgc ot thinp>.fThcrf6rc 
the principall bound unto which the^ft{of the bfellever tends^ 
is the thing it fclfe^which is chiefly relp^d in^the Axioms 


OfFditb. ^2g 

15, The OhjcBumQuo^ or formall objcfl of Faith is the 
Truenes or faithfulnefleot God.H^'^.ii.i i.Bccau(e[hc judged 
him faithful! who had promifcd. For the formall, and as they 
i^y,thc fpccificative reafon of Faith is truth in i[ caking , thrtt 
is^ thtTruencSj or faithfulncfle of God revealing fometking 
certainly^ bccaiile it Is a common refpci^ of Faiih that it 
leaves upon the authority of him that \Vitncfrcth J .(. in which 
thing Faith is diftinguifhcd from opinion, fcience, expe- 
rience , and fight or fence) but the authority of God is his 
Trucnts or faithfulneffc. 7i>.i.2% God that cannot lie had 
proroifed. Hence that propofition is moft true^whatfoever we 
are bound to believe (with a Divine Faith) is true. For be- 
caufe nothing ought fo to be believed, uniefle God doe wit- 
neflethetruth thereof: but God teftifieth as he is true, but 
Tr^^«^/ in a witnefle that knoweth all things^ cannot be ie- 
paratcd from the truth of the tcftimony ; therefore it muft 
needs be, that all that which we arc bound to believe with a 
Disrine Faith/i$ true. This whole demonftration is manifcftly 
confirmed and ufed by the Apoftle PahL i Cor. 1 ?• 14. 1 5. If 
Ghrift be not raifcd, our preaching is vaine : your Faith alfo 
is vaine ; we are alfo found falfe witnefles of God ; becauft 
we have witnefled of God.that he raifcd up Chriff. That is. 
If the teflimony be not true,thc witncflTe is falfe. Uniefle this 
he sidmitted^that whatfoever God witnefJeth is truc^ thatcon- 
fcqucncf which is mofl firmc,(bould availc nothing at all, God 
doth witn^ffe this or that ^ therefore it is true. Hence Divine 
\ Faith cannot be a principle orcanf j^itherdircftly orindi- 
» re&Iy , either by it felfe or by acciaent^of aflenting to that 
which is falfcjOr of a falie affcnr. 

26. Hence alfo the certainty ofFaith in refpeftofthe ob- 
/ jeftismoft firmc, and by bow much more it is confirmed in 
the heart of him that believeth , fo much the more glory it 
givethtoGod. /?ow,4. 20. But he doubted not at this promifc 
wT of God through unbeliefe ; but he was ftrengthcnd in Faith, 
giving glory, to God , and being fully perfwaded that he that 
had prottxif d,was able alfo to doe it. But ip.that foractime our 
Faith doth waver in us^that is notfrom the nature of Faith^bm 
from our imperfeftion. 

a 7. A lijfficient and ccrtainc reprefentatJon of both ob- 

Ff 3 jefts 

je^^thacis^ both of tbofe things which arc to be bcHevcd, 
and ofthatrcfpeft under which they are to be believed j is 
propounded to us in the Scripture. Rom. i6. 26. It is made 
maniteft,andby the Scriptures of the Prophets accordingto 
the Commandemcnt of the cverlafting God5madelcnowea 
to all Nations for the obedience of Faith. 2Tfm.^. i J/ The 
holy Scripture can make thee wife to falvation^by Faith u aich 

28^ For although in the fub^ea, that is, in our heari^^the 
I^htandceftiraonyof the holy Spirit ftirring up Faith in us 
is ncceflary ; yet i.i the objcft, which is to be rccr ved by P'aith 
there is nothing at all required , either in lefpefcr of the tbirigs 
CO be believed, or in refpcft of the caufe and way ot bclicriiig, 
which is not found in the Scripture. 

ap. Therefore Divine Faith cannot be reduced or rcfolvcd 
into the authority of the Chu^ch.or into other Hnipic ex= er- 
nall arguments which are wont to be called iMotivtj by 
perfwading and inducing things preparing to Faith ; but it is 
to be rcfolved into the Scripture It lelte, and thatauthoriry 
which it hach imprinted upon it from the author GodjaN into' 
the firftand proper caufe which c^uicth the i hing to bf belfc- 
vcd 5 and into the operation of th^ holy Spiric, as iflto tt&e 
proper caufc of the aft it (cite believing. 

30. Hence, that principle from which Faith doth firft bc^ 
^n, andintowhichitislaitrcfolved J iSj that thcScriptijrc 
is revealed from God for ourfalvaticn, as a (iifficient rule oiF 
Faith and manner5.2 T^M.i9«20.If yon firfl: know this, that c^ 
no prophecy of the Scripture is ?<riWiT^Ac;<r<«j, of a private 

3 r*Faith is partly Implicitej and partly Explicite. ^ 

52. Implicite Faith is that whereby the truths of Faith ^ 
are bclieved.not diftindly in themfclveSjbut in their commoa / 
principle. ' v 

33. Th^tcommonprinciplcwhercinallthingstobcinthts 
nwnner believed arc contained , is not the Church, but the 
Scripture, yf^.24.14. Who doe believe all things whiciiarj^. 
written in the Law and in the Prophet?. 

34. He thatbclieveth that the Scripture is every Way true, 
bcdoth implicitly believe all things which are contained in 

':^ ^ the 

of Faith ^ 225 

theSCriptunBi, TfalAX 9.86. Compared with V^rfe 28. J3.AJI 
thy precepts arc truth it lelfe^ope mine eye yhat I may fee the 
woodcr^ of thy Law, Teach mc the way of thy ftatutcs^which 
I will kccpc unto the end. T>avid did bcJieve that thofe were 
Wonderful], and to behoMy kcpt^whichhcdidnotyctiuffi- 
clcntly underftand. 

jf^This implicitc Faith is good and ncccflary , but it i$ 
not* it felfe lufficicnt to falvation ; neither indeed hath it 
in it tclfe , the true reafjn of Fiich^f it fubfirt by it felfe : for 
it cannot be that the will be eflFsAually afFr ftcd, and embrace 
that as good , which it doth not at all diftinftly know. R<mf^ 
zp. 14. How fliall they believe him of whom they have not 
heard? 1 

?i6.Explicite Faith is that whereby the truths of Faith arc 
believed ia partioalar, and not in common only. ' , j /. 

37.£xpiicirc Faith muft neceffarily be had otthofc things 
which arepropoandcd to out Faith as neccffarymcanes o(UU 
^tiotuHehS, u 2 C^r, 4, 5.Thc foundation of repentance from 
dead workes »ndof Faidi in God If our Go^>ell be hid, i( 
is hid to them that perifli. 

^8. There isxequired a more explicjte Faith now after the 
CommingofChritt, thcii before, 2 0r.3*i8. Ofthofewho 
arc fet oTcr otbersfia^h^hurch then ^ft|ie common people 
Heb.^. 1 2. Laftly, of thofe Wh6 h^vc occaHon to be more per- 
feftly inftruftedjthen of others. Luc. 1 2. 48, To whom much 
is given^of him much (hall^bc required. 
». 39. The outward adl of Faith isconfcffion, profeflGon, 
or manifcftation of dt^ which in its order , andirf w pipeis 
neceflary toialvation , R(m. POi 9. 10. Natacly in i^^ptfe of 
the preparation and difpofition of minde alwajfe iwcef* 
^fery. 2 'Pet& 5. 15 And in rtfpeft of the aft itTelfcj when 
the glory of God and edification of our neghboursflialire* 

/ ipo. Perfifting in confeffion of the Faith with loffc of tem- 
poral! life^ doth^ivc tcflimony to the 'truth at>d doth bring 
moft honour to God, andfo by an excellency is called Mar- 
tyrdome^and they who cioe fo arc called witnefle8,/^>Tfff5 
Martyrs. ReveL 2. 1:^ But this is asneceflfary initspkiceas 
confeflion of Faith^^d thattr eannot be rcfufed without deny- 
ingof Chrift. iW^M0.33.39.& 16.25. 41. There 

226 Of Hope. 

4t .There arc oppofcd to Faithtlnfidelity^DoubtingjErrori 
Herefic, ApoftafiCi 

42. Infidelity is a diflenting of a man from the Faich^ firko 
never profeflTcd the true Faith, i ^<>r. 14.21.23. i f 

43 Doubting in him who made protelTion, doth either di« 
mini(h or take away aflent. 

44l>oubting that doth diminiflionly aflent may (land with 
^ weske Faith, i C^r.i. i o« 1 1. But not that doubting ^ich 
takesaway aflfent. lames 1.6,7,8. 

45« An error in Faith doth put fome opinion contrary to 
JFaitha Corv^. 

4($. Heiefie addeth fiubbornnefie to erron Tittu ^ 

10, If. 

47. Apoftafie addes untotiereneuniverfality oferrorscoa^ 
trary to Faith, f Tim. 1.19 2 o. 2 Tim. u i $# 

4^«Thefe are oppofed to Faith not only as they take away 
that aflent of the undcrftanding which i s ncccflary to Faith^ 
but aifb as they bring and include a pr ivadon of that eleftioA 
and apprehenlion of Faith> which is in the wilL 


Of Hope. 

^-irjOpeisavcrtue, whereby wc are inclined to expeft 
^'- 'fj thofc things which God hath promiftd us. Rem^s 

-\. 2. This Hope rcfpeftcth God* i. As the objcft which it^ 
dothexpeft, for the piincipall obicaofHopcisOodhim- / 
felfcj and thofe afts whereby he is joyned to us, i 7eur 1.13. \ 
f Hope in the grace which is brought to you. Hence God 
i himfclfe is called the Hope of //r^r/. j^rr. 1.4.8. And Row. 15. 
1 1 3. The God of Hope ; not fo muchbccaufe he is the Aa- 
thor and Giver ot hope, asbecaufeit is he, upon whom wc 
hope. 2. It refpefts God asthe Author and Giver of all the 
good it doth expcft. Pf^t/.S7,%6. Roll thy way upou the 


of Hope. 227 

Lord, and truft in him , for hcd'allbringittopafle: Forai 
ic tends unto God to atuinc good , fo al fo ic t efpe(!%8 him as 
to be obtained by his ownc Grace. Jeremiah 17 7. Bie(^ 
(ed is the man who trufts in the Lord^ and whofe hope the 
Lord is* 

3. But the proper reafon why we may not truft upon the 
Creatures, in that manner as we truQ in God j is becaufe the 
formall objeft of Hope is not found in the Creatures. PfaU 
14& J. Truft aot in Princes 5 nor in any fonne of man,in 
whooa there is no (alvation. For although Tome power of 
doing us good and helping us, is placed by Godinthe Crea- 
tures ^ yet the exercift of this vertue doth alwaycs depend 
upon God. PfaU 107. Sending his wOrd he healed them. 
And Py^/.i37.i .Unleffe the Lord build the houfe,in vaine they 
labour that build it^unleflfe the Lord keep tbeCity^the watch- 
men watcheth in vaine. 

4. Therefore when one faith,I hope this or that of fiich a 
man, doth either iigaifie thdt he hopes for that from God bj 
that Creature , or it (ets forth a humane hope, not Divine» or 
finally it is not Chrifiian. 

5- But as Faith» fo alfb Hope in God doth refped the 
grace of God , and Chritt only as caufes of good to be com- 
municated* i F^M.i3.C<?/.i.27.Hope in the grace.Chrift the 
hope of glory. 

6. Yet Divine Hope doth not only rcfpcft God and eter- 
nail bicflcdneflc , but in God , and from God it refpcds all 
* thofc things which faith apprehends in the piomlfes of God, 
although in their own nature they be teinporall thiiig?, 
Heh. u« I. 2 C^r.i. 10. Although ic doth chictiy refpcft 
^etei nail life : whence alfo it is.that Hope in ScrirtiJire is often 
by a metonymy of the adjanft, put for falvation it ielfeor 
life eternall hoped for. GAl•%•%^ Rom^%.2^. T'«>.a.i3. And 
falvation alfo is fomctime put for Hope of lalation/oy a 
metonymy of the fab|tft. Epio. 6. 17. Compared with ^ 

? Thef. $.8, The helmet of Saltation , for the helmet of 
the Hope of faW ation. Alio ufually this objeft is put a<? proper 
to Hope. I Thfff.'yS.Tu.^^'j ^hc hopcot cteuiaii i'Uc.Rom. 5. 
a.T ae hope of glory . 

7i Thofc conditions which arc wont to be rtc Irqdto 
G g the 

2a8 of Hope* 

the ebjcft of Hope, as that it bee good ^ to come, cKflS- 
cult , probable ^ are all found in the promifts of God, 
who promifcth alwayes the greatcft good things which 
cannot bee had without his helpc , but by veitue of 
the promife will come to pafle j not only probably ^ but 

8. The aft wherewith it is con verfant about its objeft is 
called expcftationjbecaufe it is not of uncertaine or probable 
conjefture only, as humane Hope , butofraoftccrtaincex- 
pcftaticm Rof^.2.2$%Phil.i.20. If we hope for whatweftc 
not, we doe with paticace expcft it. According to my earneB 
expectation and hopcj and every where in the old Teftament^ 
where the word Mikj»eh which is wont to bf turned^ Hope, 
doth properly figniHe expeftation. 

9. 1 his certainty is derived to Hope from Faith : for Faith 
is the foundation of Hope j neither is any thing hoped for, 
which is not before believed by Faith. GalatUns 5,5, For, 
wc through the fpirit^ wait for the Hope of righteoufnefle by . 

10. For feeing Faith apprehends that which is promifid, 
and Hopeexpefts that which is promifed ; the whole diffe- 
rence between Faith and Hope, is the re(pe^ of chat which is 
pefentj and that which is to come. 

1 1. Therefore that diftinftion of the Papifts is eapty and 
vaincjwho granting that the faithfull may be certaine of their 
fahration with certainty of hope, yet doe deny , that they can # 
ever by ordinary meanes be made certaine otil with certain* 
ty of Faith, when there is one and the fame certainty altoge- 
ther of Faith and Hope : for which reafon alfo itis^that 
Hope in Scripturc,e(pccially in the old Teftamentjis often put\ 
for Faith. 

i2» Therefore that expeftation of good things to come ( 
which is in the Angells , and the fpirits of Juft men in Hca- 
ven^dosh not in that differ from our hopCj^becaufe one is cer- 
taine^and the other iriCertaine: but in theft. i.Th^ our hope 
is grounded upon Faith, which beholds God in thepromifts 
as through a glafle, and darkly, xCora^.tz. Battheircx- 
pedlation Is grounded upon open fight. 2. In that bur hope 

' ^ ail 

ef Hope. 27 f 

ail difficulty. Ji In that our hope is an irapcrfcft expcftation, 
and their expcAcition is pcrfcft. 

i3.Thcrcforc although Hope together with Faith is wont to 
be faid to be abolifhcd in thelifc to come : yet this is not fo to 
bcundcrftood^as ifthey ccafed to be in reipeft of their effencc^ 
but only inrcfpeft of the meafure and degree of imperfcaiop. 
I Cor. 1 3. 1 o. So that the imperfeftion only is properly to be 
aboli(bcd ; but Faith and hope itfelfearetobepecfeaedin 
rcfpeft oi thrir cflcnce. 

i4.Hencc Chriftian confidence as it refpefts good to come, 
is nothing clftthen Hope confirmed^ For it muft neceflfari- 
ly be rcferrcJ to fome one of thole theologicali vcrtues which 
are reckoned up by the Apoftle. 1 Cor.t^.i^. That iSjeichcr 
to FaithgOr to Charity, or to Hope. But it can neither be re- 
ferred to Faith, bccauft Faith apprehends a thing as now 
prcienfjwhich itmaketh alfo to fubfift.H^^.i i.i.Nor toCha- 
rity,becaufc Charity doth not refpeft good that is ours, i Car. 
i3.5.Thercforc to Hope. 

15. Hence the naturali fruit of Hope is Joy, and delight 
in God, Heb.^.6. The hope whereof we rcjoyce. iPet.i.^. 
6. A lividy hope, wherein yec rcjoyce. Becaufe it doth re- 
ipeft the grcateft good things, not only as poffible and pro- 
bable, but alfo as certainly to come, and fo doth make the 
poflcifionofthemiriacertainc manner to iubfijft, whileftit 
doth aifurc us of that w-hich at kngth ihall in very deed fubiift. 
^ Rc.S 24,Wc are faved by Hope, 

16. The manner of this aft depends upon that rdfpeft 
of the objcft,whcrebyitisfaidto be, to come ^ and pro- 
mifed. So that in its formallreafonjit is not of tho(c things 
which are feenc. Romans 8.24. Hope if it be feene , is not 
Hope ; for w4ty doth a man hope for that which ,hec 

1 7. Hence the fruk and companion of Hope is patience to* 
wards God ^ whereby we doe conftantly cleave to him in 
fceking and expeftlng bleffednefle, although we doe in this 
prcfent life conflift v/ith divers cvills, even without that con- 
folation we doe defire, Efay%. 17. Waiting upon the Lord 
who hnh hid his Face , and looking tor him. Rom. 8. 
25. But if we hope for thatwedoenot feejWedoewithpa- 
Gs 2 ticncc 

35* efHope. 

tiencccxpcftit. t. thef^.^. That patient expcftation. 

18. A fruit of this patience is filcn#c, whereby we reft in 
the will of God, and doe reprefle all thofe carnall thing* 
whereby we are ftirred up to make haft , or to rcfift him. 
P/^/. 37.7. Be filent to i^^^v^^, and without ceafing waite 
on him. 

19. Hope IS ftrengthencd and increased , by all thofe 
arguments , whereby we are aflured that the good hoped 
for pcrtaints to us.Rom 5.4. Experience caufeth Hope. 

20. Among thefe arguments the inward fignes of Divine 
grace have the firft place, i lobn 3. 14. 19. We know that 
we are tranflated from death to life, becaufe we love the 

II. Therefore although it is moft falfe which the Papiftt 
fay,that our hope is grounded partly upon thegrace of God^ 
and partly our own merits, it may be moft truly affirmed, that 
hope is ftrcngthcnedjincreafed and ftirred up^by Faithjrepen- 
tance, workes and a good confciencc. So that true and lively 
hope doth exift by thofe as it were antecedent arguments. HfL 
10.22.23. I Pet.^.2i. 

22^ The cffed of hope is the confirmation of the foule as an 
anchor jfafe, andfirme. H«^^*^.i9, Whereby Wcpoflcflcour 
very foules. Luc. 7 1. 19# 

23. There followes alwayes from this confirmation of 
mind a ftudy of holincfle. i John 3.3, Whofoever hath this 
hope in him,keepcth himfcJfe pure,cven as he is pure. 

24. There is oppofed to hope by way of defeft. i. A fcarc' 
of the cvill of puniftimcnt, P/a/. 27^ 3. For as Hope is the 
expedation of good, fo this feare is an expeftation of 
cvill. ^ 

25. But this fearcjif it be moderate and tempered by Faith, 
although it be alwayes materially oppoicd to Hope, yet ( 
in man that is a (inner , it is not fo formally oppofcd to Hope ^ 
andvertue, that it is fimply a vice, but rather puts on the 
confideration and nature of a vcrtue, ^(^hrcyj. 34.27. Be- 
caufe thy heart v^as tender , and thou didft caft down thy felfc 
before the Face of God j when thou heardeft his words 
againft this place, &c. Thcreafon is becaufe the oppofition 
is not^SccHndum idem^ & adidem^ according to the fame^and 


efHope. 2}i 

unto the fame ^ for hope rcfpcfts the grace of God , and fcarc 
refpefts the defercs of our (ins. 

26. Alfodefpcration is more dircftly oppofed tohopc^ 
inthedcfeftj^which is a mcereprirationof hope joyned with 
I fence of that privation , and apprehcnfion of the thing 
hoped for, as of a thing impoffible, or atlcaltaBtocoaie, 
fuch as was in Kainc, Qon.^.i^^i^. And in luda^. OMat* 
27. 4 $• . 

ajt This dcfperation i« alwayes a grievous fin : bccaule it 
U not a privation of that hope which men are wont to have 
inthemfelfes or other Creacurcs , which is wont to be a 
laudable introduftion to Divine hope, but it is a privation 
ofDivinehopCjhaving its beginning alwayes from unbelicfe, 
as hope hath its beginning trom Faith. 

28. Yet defperation in the Devilis and damned, hath not 
the confideration of a fin, but of a punifliment. For defpera- 
tion may either be taken privatively when one doth not 
hope that which he ought to hope , and when he ought, or 
negatively for a meere ccflTation of hope. In the former fence 
it is alwayes a fin, becaufe it is contrary to the Law, but in 
the latter (encc not (a 

29. The reafon of defpairing may be diverSjeither bccauft 
the grace of God is not accounted fiifficient to communicate 
|hat good to us, or becaufe God will not communicate itt 
As defpcration is grounded on the former reafon,it is alwayes 
a fin, but in the latter fence it is not a fin % if fo be any be cer- 

^ taine of that will of God. 

30. Buc becaufe it is (cldomc orncvermanifefttoanyonc 
by ordinary meanes before the end of this life, that God 
^will not make him partaker of graccand glory : Therefore 
there is no de(pcration of men in this life which is not a 

31. Byway of excefle prefuinption is oppofed to hope, 
whereby wee doe expcdl Ibme good rafhly. Dent^ 29. 19. 
Jerq.^^^.9. 10. Let there not be iany man, when he hath 

32. This rafh prefiimption doth in expe&ation of good 
fometime leane upon the Creatures. UrewAj 5. i Tim. 6. 
17* Sometime alfo it doth leane on God in ibme fort, but 

Gg 3 perverfly 

2^ OfCharitjI. 

pervcrfly without a promifc , and Faith, as^heoany lookci 
for pardon and falvation , although he rcmaine impenitent, 
or retaine a purpofc of living in his fins, or expcftfomc other 
thing of God which doth not agree to his nature or revea- 
led will. 

33. But one doth not therefore (in in this prcfumptionj b6* 
caufe he hopes too mach upon God, namely with a true and 
religious hope 5 for this can in no wife be done : but becaufe 
he hopes too lightly and raftily without any ground,or hopes 
thofe things alfo which are not to be hoped. 

34. Alfo fliame of face, or confufion is oppofcd to hopejn 
refpefk of the event. 7^/25.2,3. 

Chapter VII. 

Of charity. 


i, j^^^Harity k'avterttiewhercbf we loveGod as the chiefs 
f good. PfaLio6.i. And ii8.i»& 135. 1. Praifethe 
V^Lordjbccaule he is good, for his mercy endures for 
ever. The joy of praifing iwbich is an cftcft of Charity hath 
the feme primary objcft with Charity its proper caufe .Thct>* 
fore the goodncfle of God which doth Specially ftiinc forth 
in the cffefts of kindncfle Js the proper objed of Charity ( a$ ^ 
it is of praifing.) 

2. It foUowes Faith and Hope in order of nature, as the 
effeft followes its caufts .* for we therefore love God out of 
Charity jbecaufe by Faith and hope w^e taft in fomemea-^ 
fore how good God is^ and his love (hed abroad in our hearts. 
i lohn 4.15. 19. We have knowen and believed the love T 
which God hath towards us^we love him becau(e he loved ^ 
us firft. : 

3. Therefore not love, but Faith istheiirftfoundatiohoif 
the fpiricuill building in man : not onely bccauft then the 
TbuildiDg begins, buc alfo becaufe it (uftaines, andconfaines 
all the parts of iCjas alfb it hath the nature of a roote^as it doth 
confer powxr to fruftiffe. 
>:^- 4» A 

Of Ckdrity. 233 

4. A confufc and remote inclination towards God gocth 
before Faith ( a certainc (hadow whereof is found in a 
gertaine manner in all Creatures ) j4Ss 1 7. 37. That they 
might fceke the Lord^ if happily they might find him by deck- 
ing him, but it is rather an inefFcftuall Fel/eua^s woulding (as 
they call it jto love God.then a true love. 

5» That diftinftion of the SchooUmen^^ betwcene the na- 
turait and ftpernaturall lore of God , that is, whereby they 
make one love of God , as it is the beginning and tnd of 
nature , and another as it is the beginning and end of grace, 
is an idle figment. Neither indeed can a man fince the 
(all^by thcftrength of nature without Faith^love God above 
all, 00 not with that love which they call naturall. 

6, The love olCharity h of Union ^ well-pleafednefle, 
aidd good will • for thoieare as it were the parts of Charity, 
and they are alwaycs contained in it, if it be true, namely 
dcfire o^ lInio%wel-pfej|Ced.neflfe pCjenjoying, and affeftjon 
ofgoodwilt. ^/ ijd :i;.iiii •;-:! \^i\ .,r,<,: 

7.. Love of HnxQwte th^raffeflioii, whereby w a would 
bo jpyned together with God* 2 CormhMns ^.%. It is our 
defire to be abfent from the body ^ and to bepre&ntwith 

^ 8. There is alfo love of Union, m God towards us. 
J?;?^*2.4. \y Haloved iss with much love. You who were far 
off, are made nccre. But his love is out of tbeabcundance 
of.gOQdnefle, becaufe he expefti no profit out of us : for 
*we are unprofitable (ervants to O o t>.Luc% ij.io. lohn 22.2. 
23. But our love towards him is out of the want of good- 
neflijbecaufe we ftand in need of God.2 Cor. $.4. We gioane 
lacing burdened— that mortality may bee (wallowed up 
of life. 

9. Therefore our love as it is love of Union with God,ts 
in pact J that love which is called love of concupifcence or 
defire : becauft we doe properly defirc God to our felves,be-' 
calife wee hope to have profit from hio^ and our etern^ 

10. Yet the higheft eftd of this love ought to be God 

ii<Loveofwcl-pl«afediicfiti&thataflG5&ion , whereby We 


^54 of Charity, 

doc approve of all that that is in God 5 and rcfl: in his mod 
excellent goodncfle,^^^.7.l2.Bleffing and glory^and wifcJom^ 
and thanksgiving, and honour and power) and ftrength unto 
our God forcverjand ever, Amen, 

12. God alfo hath love of wcl-plcafedncflc Cowards us, 
Heh*\^*\6. But his wel-pleafcdncflc is in thoft good things 
which arc communicated by him to us : but our wci-pleafcd- 
neflc is in that goodncffe, and Divine pcrfeftion which in no 
fort depends u pon ust 

13. Love of good will , is that aflPeftion whereby we yield 
our (elves wholy to God , and we will , and endeavour that 
all things be given to him which pertainc to his glory, 
ReveL^^i 0,1 1. They fell downe and caft their crowncs be- 
fore the throne^fay ing, Thou art worthy, O Lord, to receive 
glory ^and honour, and power, i ^i>r. 10.31. Doe all to the 
glory of God* 

14. God in bearing us good willfdoth make us good, by 
conferring that good which he willeth : but we cannot pro- 
perly beftow any good upon him , but only acknowledge 
with the heart, publifb by words,and declare in fome meafiirc 
by deeds that goodnefTc which he hath. 

15. That mutuall Charity which is between God and the 
faithfuU, hath in it felfe fome refpcd of friendfliip. lohn 1 5 ^ 
1 5J have called you friends , becau(e I have made fenowen all 
things which I have heard from my Father. 

16. In this friendfliip although there is not found that 
equality which is among men that are firiendsj, yet that cqua-'^ 
lity which is pofliblc doth appcare inacertaincinwardcom* 
munion which is exercifcd betweencGod, and the faithful!: 
in which rcfpcft God is faid to revcale his (catti to thr 
faithfull. jP/^/,25.I4. John 1^.1%. And to be as it were 
familiarly converfant with them. Reve/.^,26. If any (hall/ 
heare my voyce and (hall open the doore, I willgocinto ' 
him, and (iip with him, and hce with mc. lohni^^ z^4 
If any love mc , hce will keepe my Word ;^nd my-i?a-» 
ihcr will love him; and we will co.ne to him, and dwell 
with him. 

1 7. Charity doth implicitly containc in it the keeping and 
fulfilling of all the Coounandcments of God% Rom.i^io. 

I John 

OfSharity. 235 

1 /oi&»2,$.&?. i8» For he cannot truly Iqvc God who doth 
not ftudy to pleafe him in all thin^Sjand to be like him. i lohn. 
4. 17. Herein is our Charicy^maU^ perfeQ;— -that as hcis^rqch 
aifoarewe. > ir.iiMzmoi - i/iv^rcO 

18. The manner ofour Charity towards God is that it be 
caricd to bioi, as to that which is iimply the higheft good 
and end ; fo that neither God ^ nor the love ot God is prin- 
cipally and laftly to be referred to any thing eife : becaUfe 
fuch love (hopld be mercenary, ^ohyi 6.26. Ye leekc me^becawfe 
yec ate otthe loaves and were filled. 

19. Yet wee may love God as our reward. Gen^fis 15. 
7. And with refpeft of other good things, as of a reward. 
Gen. 17.2. 

ao. The degree of Charity cowards God ought to be the 
higheftjfirft in refpeft of theobjc&j or as they (ay objeftivcly, 
that is, willing a greater good to him then to any. 2. In re- 
gard of eftecme, or as fome fpeake, appretiatively^that is, pre- 
terring him and his will before all other things , even our 
own iife. Mat. i o. J7. Lhc.i^ 26. So chat we rather choofe 
to die thqn to tranfgrcflc even the leaft ofhisQommande- 
ments. g, Intenfively, that is, in refpeft of the vehement in- 
dcavour, in the appHcation ofall the faculties to the loving 
of God* "Dent. 6. $. Thou (halt love the Lord thy God, 
with all thy heart, and with all t{iy raind, and with aU thy 
ftrength. . . , / 

21. According to this defcription of Charity it is rightly 
*{aid of (bme Divines, that God is only to be loved ; that is, 
fimply 5 by it felfe and according to all the parts of Charity 
(namely with afFcdion of gooa will, defire of Union , and 
Nvel-plcafedne(re of enjoying in the higheft degree ) al- 
though our neighbour alfo is to be beloved in a cercaine 
refpeftjfor another thing,in part and in a lower degree, 

22. To this Charity is oppoled that feare which liath tor- 
ment,by the prefence of God and feare of punifhment to be in-^ 
iiidted by him,x Iohn^.i%. Perfcft.love ca(teth out feare : be- 
caufe feare hath torment. 

23. Hence Charity being perfeftedcafteth out feare* li^id^ 
Becaufethat feare is an horror arifing from the apprehenfion 
of cvill, by reafon of the prefence of God : and fo is oppofed 

Hh to 

i':^6 Of charity ^ 

to Charity, which is caricd unto God, a3 unto diat which is 
ab(olutly good. 

^4.rf Secondly, there is oppofed to it an^enftranging from 
Gpdjwhich is called by fomc hatred of abomination* ^faL 
i^^j, Iohn:^.%o. They art all gotte but of the way. He hates 
the light, tor as Charity confifts in affeftidn of union, fo chfs 
enftranging is in diiiunftio % But that hatred of God ismoft 
contrary to the love of God, which is called hatred ot en- 
miiy. ' Uhn i3« 55^ 443 25. They have hated botb'me and my 
Father. For as tne love of Charity is in good will: (othis 
enmity asiainft God, isjn thatthatungjodly m^ndbedefirc 
andwifti ill to him if it might be, that he werenot^orat 
leaftthat he wcrenotfuchanoneashe is. • "' 

2 5. For although if God be apprehended lo as he is in 
himlelfe , he cannot be the objeft of hatred 5 yet as he is ap- 
prehended as one that caketh vengeance on {inners,fo far forth 
he is often hated of the fame finners : becaufc in that rcfpe(ft 
he is moft contrary to them, loh, 3.20. Whofoever evill doth^ 
hateth the light , neither commtth to the light,leaft his deed* 
be reproved. For as the love of God is in the godly thecaufi 
that they hate impiety contrary to God 5(0 the love of ini- 
i[uity in the ungodly caufeth that they hate God as contrary 
to their iniquity. 

v'^ifc- Butthedegrcesby whtcbmcatfcendtothis hejghtof 
Kngodlincflearcthefe, I. Sinners love themfelvcB inordm:^t<k 
ly. %: They wiH that which pleafcth tberalelvfs, alrfcough 
it be contrary to the Law of God. 3. They hate t'^ Law : be-' 
caufe ic is contrary to this defirct 4. They hate G . A himfelfe 
who is the giver and authorof lucba L^w. \ 

27. The love of this world alfo is oppofed tofbf Charittr 
towards God. ihhn2.i'). Becaufe this world agr^th not * 
with God and his will. There Verfe 1 6.Tf any love the world, ( 
the love ofthc Fat her is not in hira. Bficaulewhatfc'yerisin v! 
the world is not ofthc Father, \ 

' - ftS. For as the perfcdion of Charity is in this that the 
FBind doth reft in God , Co it muft needs be againft Cha- 
rity that the minde doth reft in that which is contrary to 

^^ Charity is no more the forme of other verrues, then 

OfCUritf. 2^7 

any vcrtuc commanding or ordering the afts of another is the 
form.^ of it : but becaufe tho(e afts which in their naturedoe 
not refpeft God are referred jto him.by* Gi^^cy , and in him 
(uch afts arc pcVfe<^cd , therefore by a^metaphor it is not 
amifle called the forme of thofe afts , andofthcvertuesalfo 
from which they comf. ' ^.;'s* 

jo.Bjt Charity cannot be the intrinfccall forme of Fai^.h: 
bccaute m it* niture it foliowes Faicb as an cffeft fcilloWcichc 
caQ&;ei!td^>chnotgdcbcforeaa3Caufedoi^theeffeft.- I 

31. Neither is taith cxtrinrecally direfted toward Gotl by 
love; but in its proper and internal natiirc it rcfpefts God as 
its objcft. 

32. Jiiftification ofFairh doth in no (bt't depend upon 
Charity ( s thcPapifts will have it ) but upon the proper ob- 
jcft ->f Faitb.^T vci fc 

jj.WhereFaithislaidtoworkcbylofc. gd/.^.6. It if not 
bccau e all efficacy of Faith depcndsltpon charity as upon a 
caute : but becaufe Faith doth (hew forth and cxercileits e^- 
cacy in the ftirring up of Charity. 

J 4^ The particle, byjdoch not there (hew a formall caufe % 
but as it were an initnimentall : as when God is faid to rege- 
nerate us by the word* 

35. Thar Faith which is without works is (aid to be Dead« 
Umes2.26. Not becaufe the life of Faith doth flow from 
workcs : but becauft workei^ are fecond ^Sx^ neceflatily 
flawing^ from the life of Faith. 

^ 36. Faith isiaid to be perfei^ed by v;prkcsJamfs 2.22. Not 
with an effentiaU pcrfeftion 5 as the cffcft is perfe(^ed by the 
cati(c:but by a complemcntal pcrfefti65as the caafe is pcrfeft* 
ed, or made aftuaWy compleatjn the producing of thceffeft. 

37. Becaufe the objeft of Charity is the very goodnefle of 
God. as it i« in it fclfc, but Faith and Hope doe refpeS: God 
ashtispropotindcd cousto be apprehended : therefore that 
inclination of the raind to^vard God which belongs to Cha- 
rity , doth more evidently and conftantly appearc in weaki 
believers, then the fpeciall ai^s of Faith or Hope : becaufe th« 
goodnefle of God is itoore manifcft in it felfe^ then the way of 
apprehending itj which is reprefented to us in this life , as it 
were darkly. 

Hha Cap.VIII. 

^ jg ^/ f^^^^^l *^^ ^^^^' 

Chapter WHl. 

of hearing" of the PVord. 

I. ■ ^Rom thefe vertucsof Religion towards God.Faith, 

r-4 EJope^and Charity^therc arifeth a double aft of R.eli- 

JP^ gionwhichrefpeftsthatfpirituallcommunionwhkh 

is cxcrcijfed betwecnc God and us : Hearing of the word ^ and 


, 2* The reafon or foundation of this diftribution is in this^ 
that we doe afEsfl: God with religious worfhip, when wc 
yeild him due honour , whether this be by receiving^ that 
which he himfelfe propounds to us, or fey offering that which 
maybe received by him according tohisperfcftion^forin 
both refpe(Sts we dpe that which is immediatly , and dif cftly 
honorable to God* . 

3. The firft aft of Religion therefore Is about thofe things 
which arc communicated to us from God : and the other is 
about thofe things which ai e yeilded to God from us. 

4. Hearing the word is a religious receiving of the will 
^^ God; ;.;;•• *, 1 -" . :^-;i ^: ::hi:otr : /: tor." 

^ 5. Therefore hearfng is here taken fdr any receiving oft he 
words of God , whether they be com^iunicated to us by 
preaching , or by reading,orany other way , becau(e God is* 
wont to worke in a lingular manner, and by hisowxiinftituti*; * 
on in the preaching and hearing of the Word. o -.re!* ^ i.7 
.6. Thereforeihis word ought not tobetakenfoftri(5Hy^ 
that it (bould either chiefly, or neceflarily include al way ey 
the outward fence of hearing : but that it may note any per-i 
cieving of the will of God , and chiefly fet forth an inward - 
jeoeiying and fubjeftion. 

, y 7^The receiving of the Word confiftsof two parts,: Atten- 
tion of mind,and intention of will. 

8. Attention is an applying of the underftanding to per- 
ceive the revealed will of God. ASls 1 6.14. The Lord opened 
the heart of Ljdia , that fhe might attend to the things which 
JitV.i aO :[':\ were 

of hearing the tVord* 235; 

were (pokcn by Vaul. It is often called in the Scriptnrc.cfpe- 
cially in the Old TclUment, A fteking of the will of God, 
or of God himfelfe, to fet forth that great dclire wherewith 
wcQiould be carried to know Gods Will, as to the finding 
out offome thing which we can by no meanes want.£/^j 58, 
2. Yet they (eeke me dayly , and delight to know my waycs ; 
as a Nation which doth lighteoufnefle and doth not forlakc 
the judgement ot their God, they inquire of me the ordinances 
ofjuftice, they delight in approchingtoGod. 

pjn this attention there neederh that providence where- 
by we may difcerne, whatthatis that God willeth./?^w.i2. 
2. That yee may prove what is that good, pleafing, and per- 
fect Will of God : which when it is perceived^we muft not 
deliberate further^ whether it be good , or to be obferved 
or no : for the will ot God it feUe is the laft bound of all 
religious inquiry* Gal. 1. 15. i6> When it pleafed G o i> to 
rcveale his Sonne in mee , I did not confult with flefli 
and blood* 

lo.lntention is an applying of our wilto a religious ob(er- 
vanccofthe will ot God already perceived. T7^/.i J 9. 106. I 
have fworn and will performe it^.that I will keepe thy righte- 
ous judgement. 

1 1. 1 he purpole of the intention ought to be (b ftrong 

and firme , that without all exception we be ready to ob- 

(crve whatfoevcr God will command, i^r.42. 5,^6. The Lord 

' be a true and faithful! witneflTe betweene us , if we doe not 

\even according to all things for the which the Lord thy 

God (hall fend thee to us : whether it be good^ or whether ic 

. b€evill5WC will obey the voyceof the Lord our Gcd. 

1 2* In refpeft of this intention the Law of God itfelfeis 
/aid to be in the heart of abcliever.7y^/40,9,&%ii9.i I. fer. 
51, 55.He^*8. 10. 

I3» This hearing that it may be right, ought to be fronr 
religious obfervance , bringing fubjeftion of the inward 
aftSg and inclinations of the mind. Romans 6^ \j. From the 
heart yee obeyed that forme of doftrine to which yee were 

14. But that it may be truly religious. It is requifitej firft 
that it arife from Faith, whereby we believe that to be the 

H h 3 word 

7^Q Of hearing of the Word. 

word of truth which God revcales unto us , and alfo are ac- 
cordingly affefted toward if. Hebr,^.!. The word being 
heard did not profit thcro, not being mingkd mth Faith in 
them that heard it. Lur. 2^:^2.Did not our hearts bUrtte inu« 
whilelt he fpake to us ? ' - ^^ - 

15. By this Faith weckave to the vvord.T/V.n^.juAlii 
the word it (e!fc cleaves unto,and is ingrafted in us^unto faJva* 
tion^Iames i, 2 uThat^^^ grafted word. 

16. Secondly the fame hearing muft flow frxjm that hopc^ 
whereby we doe embrace that which God hath pi omifed as 
the word of life ^ alfo cxpeding life by it, De^st. 52. 47. 
John 5. 59. It is your life, ycc lookc in them to finde eter- 
nail life. 

17. By this hope it comes to pafle that the faichfuU bring 
forth fruit with patience. Lur.S. 15. 

18; In like manner it muft have love joyncd with itjwherc- 
by we cleave to the fame word, or to God reveali? gbim- 
felfe to us in that word as limply good.P/^/.i 19. 97.H0W doe 
I love thy Law. iTheJf.2.10^ They received not the luve of 
thetmtb^tbat they might be fared. 

19. Inrefpeftof this love the Word of God doth dwell 
plentifully in the faithfull , CoLJftans 3* 1 6. So as they 
are alio transformed into the forme and falbion of it , Romans 
6. 17. 

20. Such an hearing of the Word of God is the true^ an«l 
proper worfliip of God. i. Becaufe it doth immediacly 
and dire^ly bring fpirituall honour to God 3 for although.* 
the aft of hearing is mod properly direfted to our receiving 
of the Will of God , yet becaufe in the manner of receiviilg 
we doe fubjeft our consciences to God , therefore we give 
bim that honour of power 5 and Divine truth in the acknow-^ 
ledgement whereof his religious worfliip is exercifed. 2, / 
Becaufe it cont^neth a direft, and immediate, exercifeof '^ 
Faith, Hope, and Love, in which the worftiip of God dotb 
moftcflentially coafift. 

2 i.Hence no word or icntenceof men, ought to be mingled 
with the word of God^ and propounded in the (ame manner 
with it, leaft by this meaner we doe i»fomc (brt worfliip men 
inftcadof God. 

22. Unto 

Of hearing the ir^rci. 54! 

22. Unto this hearing that pride Is moft formally oppo- 
fed whereby one doth Co affcft h is ownc excellency , that he 
will not be fubJTftto the Will of God. For although this 
pride is coiicrary Co hiiri)ilicy of religion , and obediericc, or 
obedience in gencrall, yet it fcemcth to be moft properly op- 
pofitetotheminthis aft of religion : becaufe a proud man,^ 
as he is fuch, is fo far from fufcjcding himfcUe to the will 
of another, as to a Law, that he would have his own will 
ih ftead of a Lai^r. lerem.i 3, 15. Heare and give eare : be not 
proudjfor the Lord hath fpoken«/(?r.5.5.They have broken the 
yoke, t4iey have burit the bonds. 

25* The proper aft as it wereof this pride is that con- 
tempt wli^reby one doth (et at naught either Ood or the 
Will of God and obfervanceof it. 2 S.tm.12.9. Why haft 
thou dcfpifed the Word of the Lord ^ in doing that which is 
cvill in his Eyes. 

24. Hence pride is faid to be the caUft of all other fins, 
for a double reafon. u Becauft all or her (innes are referred in 
jrcertaine mannw to that cxtdlency whicN is feene in pride a^ 
to an efid. 2 JSecaufe pride caft^cch aWay from it felfe in con*- 
tempt the government of the wordj by the power whereof 
alone fin i^ avoyded# 

25. Hence there is in every fin found ftfiie refpeft of pride, 
bat efpcciaily in- thofe which are committed upon deliberate 

26* Hence alfo all confultation with the world 5 flcQi ot 

Vifdomc of the fleftx in tkoie things which pertaine to relrgi- 

"ein, is oppofed to the hearing of the Word. Rom^trnt. 7. 

27. For as by pride men doe tltogethcrrefnfetofubjedl 
themfclves to the will of God .* So by thefe confultations of 
thofc things which are not after God , they doc feckc to 
themfclves as it were other GodSj to whom they maybe 

28. The moft accurftd oppofition to hearing of the word 
of God IS inconfulting with the Devillj. Slay S^i^.Deut. 
1 8.1 1 . 1 2, 1 3,14,! 5. Where a certaine religious Faicb^andHopc 
due to God only is transferred cither explicitly or implicitly 
to the enemies of God. 

2f • HeUci 

24a of hearing the fVord. 

If. Hence it is that Faith is wont chiefly to be required 
in fuch confultations by thofe who are the mafters ot (iich 
Art?. / 

30. By vertue of this Faith there is a certainc cowant en- 
tred into with the Devill, with fame religiorjif not openly 
and expre(rively>at leaft fecretly and implyediy. 
\ 31. But although one have not a direfl: intention to aske 
counieli of the D^vili, yet if he doc that which either of 
itsowne nature, or by u(e and application which it hath 
doth infer a compellation of the Uevill to receive his hclpc or 
counlelljhe is made partaker of the fame fin. 

32. Therefore all arts brought in by inftinft of the Dcvill, 
for the knowing of fecrets arc in this re(peft to bee con-^ 

33. All divination therefore which is neither grounded upon 
cercaine revelation of God^ nor the courfe of nature ordained 
by God in things creatcd,is to be condemned. 

34. AH applying of things or words either to prediSi- 
ons, or thofe operations to which they have no difpofition, 
cither by their nature , or Gods Ordinance^ is to be con-? 

35 As the helpe of the Devill is fought by fuch like cour(e% 
they doe containe in themfelves acertaine invocation of him^ 
and fo are oppofedto caljing upon God : but as certaind 
revelation is eixpefted, or a fubmilTion of mind ufed to the re-* 
ceiving and executing his commands » fo they areoppofed to 
the hearing of the word of God. .^ 

3d. This communion therefore with the Devill is not only ^ 
in this refpeft unlawfullj becaule it is joyned with fraud and 
reducing, but alfo becaufc of its own nature it is contrary to 
true religion. ^ 

37. Porwehavenotcivillcomniunionor fellowfhip with 1 
the Devil : religious communion we cannot have, no not as \ 
fome of old had with the good Angels 5 who are miniftring 
fpiritSj for our good fent ot God for that purpofe. 

38. Whatfoever therefore we doe wich the Devil bcfides 
thofe things which pertaine to thereSftingof him as the enc* 
my ofourfoulcsj it makes to the violating of true religion> 
and is a certaine perverfe religion. 

39- If he (eemc {boietim^ to be (ubjcft to^thc coiiinund 
ofmen^ by vcrtue of ccrtaiiie inchantemcnts, it .is only a 
flicwoffubjcftion^ that bythatmeanes he may more eafily 
rMiexjver D:icn:rhercforc he doth.nQt hin4er|bM^onlyi:oJoiir ; 
that religious (ubje£tion which fDcn^perfoFOie to t^aifinchat 

40. All thofc doc in part communicate wi(h iuch (ins, who 
by words, figures, and fiich like things of no fufficientvertnc, 
doedeiireto curedifeafes in others, or (ufFerfuch things in , 
themfelvcs or others for that end. 1 

4i«S>mpathies,and Antipathies,and fpecifical vertues which 
are found in Ibme things are hereby diffccenced from fuch . 
inchantmentSj in that the common experience of all men, 
doth acknowledge thcfc : there is^Xpnie: Faith reqqiijedjn 
thole ^ but in thefe none. vj^vf^iq ilio ^. . ;: ^^nrl^b iiir* 

42 • A ftrong imagination doth peradventure coiicarre in 
many to make the(e mcanes efFe(^aall ; but that alfodoth 
often aci(e from a certaine I'eligious Faith j^ neither can it ef- 
fedanky thing In parents for children , or ia men for Catr 
tell , without a certaine diabolicall ppeiratian accoip-. 
panyingit. : ^ 

43.They that are moft given to the hearing of the wotd, ar 
theyidoe leaftof all care for iuctf ^fts,ib they doe receive the 
Ieaftir«lbythem. huSk>i>3ja^3::;Rt^d^vi;i4 : -^ 

Chapter r'X, 

kRayerisa reli^ous reprefenting of our will before 
Godjthat God may be as it were affefted with it. 
. 2, It is ap aft of religion, bccaufe of its own na- 
ture it yciidetii to him that is prayed unto that (ufficiency: 
and efficiency of knowledge^ power, and goodncfle, which is^ 

properto God.r-.fni)f,r ^>%: i^J^iqnr fi:rfU/'\^ -; - S^^ 
5,Hcnce it cannot be direocd to any other befide God only^ 
without manifeft idolatry. .. ; 

I I 4-Ic 


call on him in whom they have not believed? NAmely from 
thaf Faith whereby we doe believe , that God is ficft omni* 
fcient , tvho knowcth all things, and fo the inward affcdions 
afldmotionsofourh€ar^s\,for in them chiefly thecflcnce of 
Prayer doth cor.fift .- fccondly, that he is omnipounCj who 
candoe what he will in fulfilling our dcfires; thirdly, that 
he is the author and giver of every good thing : Fourthlyjtliit 
he doth allo^and aecfcpr our Prayer through Chrift/i -' ^ -«> 

5' Hence all pur Prayers are to be offered toGrod' irtthe 
nameandmediationofChrift, by the power of a juftifylng 
Y^kh.lohn 14.1^3; f4*& 1^.13. Whatfoevcr yeihall aske of the 
FaChtr in nvy nam^«^ 

^^Ic^^ifech alib^frdfrrfhathope^Whtrirfiywc^^^^^ 
fruit defired from our prayers from Ge^^ Ro^ 8,'ig.2tf ^ Wc 
gtoan^fcS^ftirig the adojption : The fpii^it makerh rtquift for 
us with groanes thaC cat\mot be exprcffcd* 

7^ Laftly, it artftth fitomChiricy, whereby wt defirt both 
tt> jMrtake of iihd ^<Je!>tfett the gobdncfli df G<kl; Pf^ilme 
54^4^ Migniifeflfchc Ld^d With tti*v dndlet Ul^to^tolJ hl« 
name togethcr.Taft and fee that the Lord is good^bkaflfed is the 
nian that trufts tit hinii 

S. Hettct dharfty to our neighbour alfo-lsneccflarilyre- 
quirer'^^hat Prayer be accepted of (BodTheiftpcti^tfettdft^^^ 
Lords Prayer. 

9. Tray cr Hirers from hearing theword^ in that hearing 
is converiant about. the will of God ^ but Prayer about 01^ 
will : in hearing the word we receive the Will of God , but 
in Prayer we offer our wil to, God > that it roay be received ^ 
by him. 

10. But it is not a fimple will or defire/but a repr^ 
fentationofthe wilj-or the wii exhibited and repreftotedbe*-*^ 
fore God. jFor it is not lufficicnctoprayer,that wedeliieto'^' 
hkMe (bmething i Idt (o p^opliaiieiliert , fcchttft thcj^loc 
i»oft ^rfire to have , fhoold pray moft 5 but t hcrr i* rtquh^ 
a!lbaclcfirctoobtaincthatofGod,and a wil tofcekethefamc 
of him, and then a repreftntingpr infinuatiM; 6f this defiw 

11. But this reprefentatipn ittJdttb firft^ft^ 



Offr4yer: 545 

lA thQ will \itt\k^ as it being conyeried to Ged^-*<k>tii nil 
w<r^ by tn a<ft fttctchcdtforchj ropreiJsnt un!o(^kii to inclina*^ 
tion and dcfire. 

i;^ Hence tht Piiaycrr of thfc jRodly ar^ calkd m the 
Scriptures deflects*^ ^ "ffaiitCQiy. Aiirf iinlpcakcablc grpahA^ 
R4fm*%26.0 ■ 7 .'■" •-■3 .^.-^-'j -'--^ • ■*' 

I J. loche fecond place and by Way of figne,thisrcprti 
£eotat*»on i» made in the undei4landing^- a^itcoticcffvingan 
inward Word ^ doth exprcflfe the aflfeftiOhid of the will "bc^ 
forcGpd.:'. r^-^v ' -^^-^'' ' ■ ''^ h::f,>h ■^i< ^^ -v* ^ / '.: . ■ 
H* Hence the pcayers of fchc faithfo!! are aTfa tailed 
words , and fpceches Whereby they fpcike to God, not firft 
and. chiefly oitt«rardly,bat inwardly. H^fi/^2. Takeurito 
XQU words^aodrtnrncauito the "Lord; Say unco him,^ipiu:« 
don, &iC. v*H:> oj-j. •?->fr:^^^; ?i) r-inu CBJn?' t --r^n ^.iJbui 
: 1 5. IVayer diercFore-is formally an aft of tRc\Vin':yet 
withall there is required to it both an antecedent aft of the 
ipind wbci:<by weuaderftand^^^bac;ofwhom, for what, 
and how we muft pray ; and a cbafaqucnt aft ^hereby ivc 
conceife and exprefle with a certaine word of the tDind.praycr 

Ufclte. ;;vj:.^ ' '-'' ^^'-' ; --..... ' ",\ 

16. Hence togcdier with intcmionroif^llii^'pFthet^ 
there is alfo required attention in Prayer , both tb 6od to 
whom we pray, and to the thiag Whereof we jjray. iridaliR) 
to the Pray«r it felfc ; for we muft not only pray with the 
Spiritjbut with andcrftanding alfo. i C^inthiansiJ^ 15. 
f will pray with the rpirit,but I will pray with undprftand- 
hg-alfo. ; 

%js This rcprefentatibn muft be fobmifle and humble, for 
Otherwifc it would not be a religiousprayingdireftcdfrom 
a fubjeft Creature to the hlgheft God and Creator , but ei- 
ther a command of a fuperior to an inferior, or a familiar 
CQoference as it w^re^ fwrh as is among cqualls. Gen, 18. 
^^7- Behold m)W I would ^(iake unto the Lord^ although 
I am duft and aOics. ^falme 9 5. d. Come let us bow, 
and fall downc , and boKi the knees before the X^ord that 
made us. 't -1 . ^ '^- ^^; 

18. The generall €nd of Prayer is', that wt naay as it were 
affcft or move G o d; whence it is that the faithfull are 

I i 2 (aid 

of Vf^m 

f^ii Jjy ^;bd4f|dr:iy^r« aa it were mightily to prcvailc WitfiOocf J \ 
g<inefis. 321 2%. Hof. i2..4;j:5. And as it wcrcfo. ftrikc' 
Rm.x^.^Q^ ' ''^ '^ '^ 

V ^ify.; For altk)ughrtibatdifFcrcncq is tmc\vhicii^fo 
i)CtWeenthoftpi.ayefS which arc dired'cclxomenj ^dchofe 
which arem^dc to God : that they thi^t pray to men docaf- 
fcft thole to whom they pray, and in fomcme;ifufcdifpofe 
them to that whichx they dcfire ;c hvt thofc who pray ta 
Gxjdjdoej^ot fo naucVi^ecl ©od as themfdvc^ j and ^fpoft 
thcmfcivcs to tho(e things they defire : yet God is pkaftcf 
jfoto^romoiend the force and efficacy oi Prayer to Qs,: that 
he declares hinifclfc ta b^e ^fi^fted^^ ajid as it were moved with' 
^tj.,M4 t^^^fJ^^R^^^ Qurpwyer is ihehieanes, by the ifi^ 
tcr^cding ofwhicji^aod nO qtherwifc, God willCommu^ 
nicite many things unto us , whence alio they who aske 
j^ftjne^^jng of >G o o are faidlo ^ffaord helpetp^&d ir^ a 

" . . 20 . $^oT ^^^:^^ iiot therefore pray to God chat we may^ - 
laiWfe^tfPtf^nc pur d not knowing thera, Wh* 

under ffandsaiwayes a! tar off. f-fal. 15 ^* ft Tteitis^ when asr 
yet they are not in our minds : neith'^r that wemay rrx)v# 
himtoourmiad who was unwilling, with whom there is no 
c^angej(X-4i^ 9/ c.woing Utnes 1. 17. Bat that we may 
J^5if 9W R^^y?^ otitalne ithat, of h inn ^ which /wjc believe hn 
JLS wilting to* 'ijohn%^\j^. This is onr confidence which wd 
lia,ve tQward^ Qod, tbat if we asbe him any thing according 
tohiswilljbehcs^c^hus.. ? ^ 

21. Hence the firme)efle and unchang;cablemfle of Godi ^'^ 
providence doth not take away , biK:?ftabli(h the prayers of '' 
theiaithfullt, aodthcmortfureapprehcnlion of it by Faitb, 
aotii^otmake thc^triie believers fl-thfull, but doth more ftft 
tliemup to pray^i ^-^r/?;?. 17*2 5, 2^, 27. Thou O my Obd^ 
bait revealed to rhjeeare ^f; thy ^lecyant^ithat t^ou wrlctSuil^ 
'Ixi'm an houfe. Therefore hath thy icrya$t been bold to pr^ ' 
t>efore tbee^&c. > ' 

22. Hence alfo we muft pray inftantly and continually ^ 
inrtanrly^bccaufeour prayer is a nectffary mcjncsfor Gods 
gloryj^i dour gpod. GontinnaHyj*>efalife tuch a difpofici* 
on or wjyil i§ never to be caft off, and theaft of it alfdis 


daily to bee cxcrciftdjai occafion i«^^ffer€c^ to u?. . 

23. ThcadjuoftsofPrayerarcconfcflTion, andapromift 
' madcto God; for thefc twp are^.aIwj^iy^s>eicHcr cxprcifly pr ipir 

plidtly ufcdin c^ery accfjptaWe ^cajf ci>co Grod^ andin qi^c^jl 
'partofit. .: »r:',ioli' -lo fV ^-\ ^: "'. ^*> 

24. Eur becaufo w^e doftbybPrayer fl^ unto the mercy ol 
Godt as to the foyntaine pf ajl gpod^ekher cornrnunicatcd, 
or to be communicated to.u^i -in fotrfoiOfg -Wj? eoi>fcflt th^t we 
ai^mifoabJeiriptirrfetve^ .^pd cieftjtut^ of aH good, bqcaufe 
alfo wc cndeavoHr'a* it-WcrCitoaifeAa^irioveGod by ouc 
defirca; therefore 4lfa Wf? prqtciTe that oUr mind? .are iuta- 
bly aflPefted about the fame thirds ^ ^^ad doe promise them to 
be fo afFe(fledfor time tQfiOflac^nekheiJ can &ch like affeftions 

^ be abfcnt frpm pur pr^y^s^i^vjriclKxit^ a certain^ niQckiQg 

2 5 Gonfeflion is an humble and penitential! acknowledge? 
mcnt of p(irofFence;galtine{re and mi(ery.P/if/.52.5. 
. ' a6. Tl> end, and ufe of this confcflipn is. Firlt,tbat God 
lO^y Jb^juftified and oiay havcglpry in bis jttigeai^rit4.P/tf.5n 
6. Secondly, that we may be difpofed to obtaine the glory of 
pqd.P/al.^4 25 . Jhitdlyjy that the grace that is granted^may 
moreclearely appeare* . 

^7iThe manner |s diyer^saccording tothediverfity qffinnerSi 

ffpr (ins nockpbwcn^; ace to be confeffed generallyo /yi/.ip^ 

1 ^♦But kaowen fins fpeciallyjeven according to the nature and 

grieypufneflTf ,o^f ^Ycry; pne. Ezra.^, 14. . ^ }, j .: - 

> 28. A promirc requir^ ittP myer is i^toftifyingof a purpofc 

y-^agreeablctoPraycr. : n-Hj iL :)n5 a^ m 

}/s : 2^. This puvpoip is ta, determination, pf the will to profc* 

cute that wich an earneft endeavour ^ which we pray to God 
^that it may^ hcyPj a/. 119^*061 1 2, Gv^mpared with thcfol* 

lowing verfes. 

30. But wee profecute that w<:e pray for, bothbythofe 
f^ ineanes whicii of their owa nature are necefiary to thitcnd, 

and alfo by other mcanes,t he determination whereof depends 
upon contingent circumftances , and upon ourelcftion. 

31. AprorHifeof the latter kindmadeto God diftinc^ly,and 
upon deliberate counielj^by a cetrjt;aine app^pprktiQSbcalled 

avow. ,^^ .-• { : l'-^:'jr^ d' . /■T7fiqn>?'^^'' 

lis 32.Hencc 

5i.HencccvcTy>rowntuftbc3Firft3 ofathirg^jtbcr vxk- 
poffiblc, nor finipiic ntccffary^but which m^y be freely per- 
torincd according to cur pkafure by the ordinary favour of 
Qod. S^ondly, <tf ^ x\M\i neither >eviH nor vaine, butlau^- 
fuU and good in refpeft of all circumftanccs. Thirdly, iriBoft 
be referred only to Gddt iB the objea to wbom ux vt)w^iand 
to his honour as t he primed trtd;akhough it may be or^lered to 
ours^ ,ind others ddific<id6nktidvife. : ^^ ^ 

^555. Traye^:in rdpea bfthc m^ cjacuUtoi7, 

or a thort wring up of the defire 3 wfeerc the mind doth cither 

noc wholyjor not Io»g Attend Prayer* ffaUi'i^^ Z.Nehm.2.^ 

Or a contlliiied order of Prayings 

34.That oiighttobe more treqttent , as that which cannot 

be liindered by ordinary bufineife; j but this mutt beat fct 

times,as being more Iblcmne^and not admitting the difttatftion 

of btber thoughts* 

35. But both of tlcm is either mentall, orvocall. 

f q6. Mentatl is that which is performed in the will,mind, 

and affeftion,\wboatany fignepuipoTely adjoyned.iV^Atf^f^ 

37* Vocall is that which drawcth forth tfieinirai^d defirc 
of the mind even in words tiof. x^.i, 

^jS. The voycc is oft times necdiary in prayer to expitflc, 
ftinip, continue 3 atid increafe thc'IniVard afFeftionotthc 
mind : for although the affcftion ought to goc before the 
voyce, and the voyce ito be conformable to the affeftioR; 
yet nrhikft diatic is religioufly expreflcd by the voyce , it / 
hath a certaine reflexion upon the mind kielfe,^ Avhercby-*" 
itis more enkindlediand^cttcth greater ftrengch. The voycc ^ 
alibis ncceflaiy in its mcafurey that the body may tc^ether 
with the (bnle be exercifcd in this pirt of religion. ^ 

39»Hencc therefore neither is that fpeech to Beuftd which i 
fecthat praycth tmderftandeth not, and whereby he cannot ' 
%X^TtSk: his conceivings ; f6r (iich a repeating of unknowea 
vfeflitd^ is not properly the fpeech of a man , becaufe it is no 
more formed of the inward cpnseivings then thofc words 
fchich aie (ometime uttered by a Parrot, and (bit cannot 
difiio&ly exprefle the inward conceivings of the mind^in 
which prayer doth primarily confift. -*' * 

^:aaaH*i - 40. Neither 

40. Neither alfo miift the fpccch belong, or repeating the 
lame thing ofte^* CMat.6q. Unlcffe ic be outoi chc abuii- 
Amc^ of the hcarj : for then neither long prayers, nor divers 
repcatings are vaine or to no purpofe ; butmoft acceptable to 
God I as dochfiiliicienclyappeare by approved examples of 
fijch prayers which are mentioned in the Scriptures. 

41. Neither finally ought there cobcfuch careofwords 
Whichoiayany way dimiai(hdue attention, cither to God^ 
or to the fubjeft matcerjor to the inv^ard affc«Siin of the 

43. In vocall prayer if it be folemne^there arealfo thofe gc- 
ftures required which become the majefty oi God, our bafc- 
neffe, and thenaturc ot the matter it felfe* 

43»Voca!I prayer iJ either in profcr, or in Meter. 

44. In meter finging is joined, and therefore there muft be 
more care of the fpcech and tone^then in profe 

45.But the melody of (inging is ordained for a certainc fpi- 
ritoall delightjwhercby the mind is detained in the meditati- 
on of the thing that is fung* 

46. For there is a more diftinifl meditation comes between 
theword^and the lifting up of the heart,then in other prayers: 
fo that the next and immediat fruit of a Pfalme^ is our edifiea* 
lion in Faith and obedience. 

47. Yet bccanft the lifting up of the heart to Godisto. 
^l^ttxtcfjXicd.SimHl & confeijnenter^ and going along with 
the thing that is fung, and it is alfothc endofthatmedita* 

^tion 5 therefore we are faid to (ing in our heart to the Lord, 

/•3.jr tf.And Pfalmes that are fung have the confidcration of 
Prayers; --.'i ^-..^.'^i- • ' v ■ ' ' 

4^* But becaufe this religious melody hath the rcfped 
of prayers: therefore it is not fofi t^t hat the decalogue, and 
other fiKh like which doc not partake the nature of prayer 
be turned into Meter, and be fung in ftcad oiPfalmes. 

49. But becaulc finging doth immediatly relpcft our edi- 
fication ^odaifo doth (ct forth in its own nature, a certainc 
gUdneflie of the mind , fmtcs 5. 1 3. therefore the very (amc 
gcftures which are meet in other prayers , are not required in 

ScSccondly^praycr is either folitary^or with others. 


/ Pra 

of Prayer • 
5 1. In that which is had with others if it be profe, one go- 
eth before in voyce, and the rclt follow in afFe&ion.and Faitbt 
which they ought to declare, in the end, by faying, Amen. 
Nehem.%.J.l Cor.\^l6. 

5 a. Hence, .'^//^»^i<?;?r^r;^wcnterchanginp of prayers by 
Anthemes ; diftributiofi of parts bctweene the Minifter and 
People 5 and repeating of words propounded by the Mi- 
nifter, by the (ubfequent voyce of the people ^ is not to be 
stpprovedittjtii: ii;;/;ja: 3i^ ojjiiiK s:;t7Jti:ji i 

5 3. But in the melody of fi iging,becau(c it tcndeth to our 
niutuall edification 3 attention, and ftirring upof piousaf- 
feftions among us one toward aaother, CoL^j^. 1 6. Thei eforc 
all doe joyne their voyces together. 1 ChrorAclcs 16. 35. 
Marc.iJ^,26. . . •; * : .. 

5 4ln thofc prayers which arc had with other8,fiich fpcech 
muft beiifed which is underftood of otherst i Co. 14. 

5 5 .Hence that broken mulick which excludes underftand^ 
ing,muft be abfent from tho(e (acred exerciies of piety atleaft 
which we have with others. 

56. The kinds of prayer are two.Petition , and thank(^ 
giving. Phil* 4. 6. In every thing let your requefts be made 
knowne to God in prayers , and deprecation, with giving of 
thankes. J 

57. Petition is a prayer of that which is wanting,that we 
mayobtaine it, LMatthew 7.7. A8ke,and it ihall be giveit 
you : Seeke^and yceftiallfinde 5 Knock^and it (hall be opcr 
ned to yout ^ # 
V 58. Alwayesthat which we askeis wantingjcieherwholj^*^^ 
or in part or in our feeling^or finally in refpeft of the ad, or in .1^ 
rcfpeft of the continuance of it. 

59.: Hence 3 a fence of our emptinefic and want, togcthei^. 
with an apprchenlionot fufficicncy, whereby our infiifficiency ^ 
nnay be Supplied 9 is neceflarily required to make a pctitlT • 
on aright. ^: ^ ' : i: ri:; . j^.^o^-ml; -i ^i:. %: i :^.l .c;^ 

60. The vertuc and efficacy of petition is not ihdefertingj 
or in (ati«fy ing, as the Papifts would have it>but in impetrati^ 

6 1. To impctrate is properly to have the force of a meaneS 
to obtainc fomc good freely from another. 

''^ '^' <2.There- 

61 .Thcrforc all good works,or all obfcrvanccjalthough kz it 
floives from Faich, hath fome power toobtaine blelllngs from 
God 5 by vertucof that proraife, whereby he appointcth 
a free reward to them ; whence alfo Reall Prayer ditiitiguifh- 
ed from vocall and mcntall, is called by fome a good worie, 
although very improperly : yet petiiion , doth obtaine.in a 
fpecial manncr,not only as it is a chiefe part of obedicncc^buc 
alio bccaufe it bath in its proper nature this e.id and ufe, asic , 
is aformall aft ofFaith and hope^by which we receive all good ^ 
things from God. , ., ^ ■ ,... ^ 

63. But th^.impetration.d9^h.noc,propcrl^^i^fg^ 
jufticf of Godjbyt his aier,cy ^ndkindnelue. .-,'^ ^.j ^ *,', ' :o^U l^ 

64.Hence we receive every good thing we askCgnQtij^qintjaj 
hand of juftjccj but grace* -. _^ - V !' :: 1 

^5. .Fetitionibecaufe it doth mol^ ,|'9rmally flow From; 
Faith and Hope, therefore it is in the fanie manner converfaotj 
about good things to be asked as thofe vcrtues arc con- 
verfant about their fecundary objecfls, that is 5 thofe things, 
irhich they apprehend , arc to bee communicated to us 

66. Hence thofe things onely are to bs asked abfolucly 
which are neceffary for Gods glory and our falyation : but 
other things with a fccret fubjeftiontotheraoftwifedifpo- 

67. Hence both the manner , aad particular time co cota- 
piunicatc this or that upon U8 , ought not to be prefcribed to 
C5o3 in our prayers 5 yet it is lawful! to pray God to keare 
^^ipeedily, P/alme 102.^. Hearc m^fpcedily. Bccaufe hec 
hatn promifcd to doc this^ Luk^ 18. 8, Hee will avenge 
them quickly. Yet wee maj not define the fit time of this 


> 68. B"^ becaufe petition flowes alfo from Charity^ hence 

thofe things alfo are to be defired , and asked in prayers, 

which doc moft make to the celebration of the glory and 


6^. Hence alfo we askc not only for our felves, but for all 

©ther alfojwho cither arc or may be partakers with us of the 

fame goodnefliof God.iT/w.a.i,2i3. 

7aThc Patriarchs and Prophets did not only in their bicf- 
^ K k fings 


352 Of Prayer. 

fings pray well when they uttered their dcfires^ but alfo did 
promifc well in the name of the Lord ; the Hebrew words arc 
wont to conuine both , Let God givc^or God fliall give. 

71. Therefore aUhough wc may not peculiarly pray for the 
deadj becaufe fuch prayer hath neither precept nor commen- 
dable example in Scriptures* nor finally any u(e orcnd: 
neither may we pray for alland every one living colledivcly 
that they may be faved ; becatife we know the contrary is dc- 
termined by God^yct we ought not wholly to rcjeft any maa 
living in particular from the communion of our prayers^ nei- 
ther for any enmity ^ ttor for GODjcftures,or probable fignes of 

72.Petitionis twofold according to the refpeft of the ob- 
jeft or thing which is asked : for it is either Apprecation , or 

73. Apprecation is petitioning for good things to be com- 

74. Deprecation is petition for cvill things to be rcnfioved. 
Intcrccffion which is joyncd to thefe twoj i Tmf.2. i. is 
a peculiar manner of deprecation, namery,^when th^evill 
which we defire to be removed is placed in foitte injury , dont 
by men. 

75. Ur to deprecation there belongs. Complaints and la- 
mentation Sja^kdjunfts of it. ' 

7(5.GDtoplairtt is a fignificatiBn of otirgrWfr, oftoifcriei 
as they are in jdrioufly inflifted by men. -^ 

77. Unto thefe complaints impfecatioii is fometime^dy^X' 
Bed, whereby we wifti tome evill to thofc who areauthori ^ 
ofevill. But this is ordinarily no farther hwlull,th<fn as;t 
hath the force of deprecation, for the removing feme greater 
cvitl by that cvill which we m(h to them, but the propisieti-* 
call imprecations were alfb prcdifti'>ns. 

78.Lam€ntation is a fign'fira:lonofourgriefe,oftho(c rci- 
fcries as they are fcnt by Gu J. 

79.Someame failing is added to deprecation as an outward 

80. Fading is an abftihcnce from the helpes and comfort$ 
©f this life 3 whereby humility is (hewed as it were in t rcah 


conftflionttnd wc arc made the more fit to jnakc more efFtftu > 

8r. Hence fafting confidered by it felic is not a good 
workc, and pa-t of our obedience toward God, but ask 
dir'pofethusto make more free, ardent, and more coatinued 

82 HenctralfbthefaRje mcafureandumeoffaftingisnot 
equally profi able, and nccefTary to all and every one, 

83. Fi :a!ly hence that way of fafting is moll religious, 
Vfhcn the whole mind is Co attent to fceke God, that thereby 
it is called avay from the thought and care of chofe things, 
which pfrL'iiietothelifeprefent* 

84 Thunkigiving is prayer,of thofe things which we have 
b rcceivedjthat the honour may be given to God. Pf.'y0.i$.2^. 
I will deliver thcc.thatchou mayft glorifiemc Hethatoffereth 
pr^ift doth glonfie rRc. 

85. It is Prayer no Icflc then petition, becauft whilcft we 
give thanks to GodjWe doe reprcfent our will with a religious 

^ fubmiflion before God, that he may be as it wereaflFeftcdor 
movedjalthough not properly ,to that end that we may receive 
(bmcthing from God^biit rather that we may refer fomcching 
we have received unto him. 

86. It is moft properly ofthofe things which we have re- 
ceived : becaufc we muft firtt be afFcfted with the (ence of 
a benefit, before wee can give thankes to God in relped 
of it. 

* 87. Yet thankes miift be given, not only for thofe things 
r^vs^icm we have aAually and really received^ but alio for thofe 

^ things we apprehend by Faith and Hope 5 partly btcauie the 
p;omi(e it fcUe of theie things is a benefit, which in fome fort 
is already faid to be bellowed ; and partly becaufe the things 
promifed are apprehended with that certainty,thac they doe 
aflPeft theminii as things prefent. 

r 88. Alfo that celebration of thcpraifts of God belongs 
to thanksgiving, which is cxcrciftd about thofe perfeAions 
which are in God himftUe, and doe (hine forth in his works ; 
but with a certaifie refpcft to thole things we have received, 
namely as thole pcrfc&ions are arguments that doe either 
lUultratc that good which wee have received , or confirmc 

Kk 2 th« 

of Trayer. 

thcbcftowinp^ of it; -Kev.^.'i^g^ Holy^ lioly, hoIy^Lord God 
Almighty— the living Creattircs gave glory ^and honcur, and 
thanksgiving to hiin who fate upon the Throne. 

89,H€ricefor the right performance of thanksgiving there 
is required, i. A knowledge oftheblcflings of God. 2. An 
applying of them to our fclves by Faith and Hope. 3. A 
djuc cftimatiari of thc#ij 'together with' an afFsftion be- 
feeming. ' 

90.1 he proper eftd of thanksgiving is to give the honour to 
God , for all thole things which we have received, ffal. 50. 
I $• For if wefothinkcofchegood things we have received, 
that we either reft in them, dr glory in our felves, orafcribe 
them only to fccond caufeSjthen thanksgiving is corrupted. 

; 9 1. Hence thanksgiving is a fecundary end of every religi- 
ous petition : for he that doth rightly aske any thing of God^ 
doth not only aske therefore chat he mny receive 5. much 
\tSp that tse may fpend it upon his lufts, lames ^.7. But that 
that which IS received may be againe referred to the glory 
oi God who gave it. 2 Conuii. You helping together by 
prayer for us , that for the gift bellowed upon us by the 
meanes of many perfonSothankes may be given by many on 

. >5^2« Henceiii every petition, thanksgiving for th^t benefit 
which is askedjts exprefly or implicitly promifed% 

9 3. Hence thanksgiving in it (elfc is more perfeft and more 
noble then petition : becaufe in petition ofttimes our gopcl^ 
isre(pe^ei,butin givingot thinks Gods hbnouronly^ __^ 

94. Hence thanksgiving is more attributed co the AngcusJ^'^^ 
and to thebleUed Spirits in the Scripturcs^then petition. 

9 $. By this a& we arc faid not only to praiic^and celebrate 
God, butalfotoextollbkfle^magnifie, andglorifichimjand 
tlic like : all which are fo to be underftood jthat they fetlFbrth* 
onlyadeclaratioiij uot a reall effefting ofthofe things they 
make (hew of. 

96. Ifthanksgivingbemorefolemne. there muft be fome- 
times a checrfuU folemnity joy ned with Ir. Ef^h.^.j^. For 
as a fafting when we deprecate a greater evill^doth both caufe, 
and teftifie our humiliation to be the greater ; ibinfolemne 
joy for Tome fpeciall good communicated to us, outward 

-.- .. mirth 

OfanOatL 25$ 

mirth if it be moderate , and within the bouiids of Tc:n^ 
perance^doth make and tcftific the fame to be the greater. 

97.Evills,a3 evills can neither be thcobjeft of petition nor 
thaaksgiving ; yet aftliftiorisasthcyatefo direftcdby God, 
that they doc work e together for our good, may have chc 
refpcft of both. 

Chapter X. 

of an Oath. 

I. r I ^Here be two manners of petition to be ufed upon 
I occafion^which were brougiatin by reafon of mans 
JL infirmity : an Oath, and a Lot. 

2. But becau(e theft two manners are brought in upon 
fuch occafion, therefore they mull not be ufually frequented^ 
but then only to be u(ed where humane neceffity requireth, 
and a waighty and juii cauft is in hand, 

3. An Oath is a requefting of Gods Teftimony to con- 
firmethctruthofour teftimony.Ht?^.d.i3,i6. Men fweareby 
him who is the greater: and an Oach for confirmation is to 
them an end of all ftrife. 

4. An Oath became neceflary after the fall of man, becaufc 
man by fin had loll both that credit which ought to be given 

* to his fimple teftimony,and that alfo which he ought to have 
^iven to the teftimony of others. 

5. Thac iiifirmity of man in giving credit to the teftimony 
of other^is fo great that it was in a manner neceflfary for God 
himfelfeaUo todemeanc hinHclfe to confirmehisteftimonies, 

' by the forme of an Oath. H<r/% 6.1 3.17. Which was mcTe then 
needed in refpect of Gods faithfuhieflc ^ but not in refpcft of 
hum/me infirmity. 

6. Yet God feeing he bath not any greater orfuperior 
Jadge,Hr7^.(5.i3. He cannot properly (weare, but this is pre- 
fcribedtohim metaphorically : becaulc all that perfeftion 
of confirmation which is found m the Oathes of men , doth 
moil perfeilly agree to thofe teSimoniesof God, 

Kk 3 7,But 

of an Oath. 

7.ButGo<3a Tcftimony is worthily called iipcn to coii- 
firmc truth : hccauf^ he is the hij-hedtruthAvho can neither 
deceive nor be deceived, Heb.6.\%. It cannot bethatQod 
fhould lie. 

8, Hence in an Oith the worftip of rergion is givtnto 
God, as he is both acknowlev)e;ed rhc Author of truth , and 
to beconfcious of all our th' ughrs, a- to whofceycj- thofc 
things are Qakcdandopen v^hicharemoft fecret to all Cica- 
turcs, & tberewardcrpt truth and i' Iftioodjand who provides 
for all things by an admirable p oyi ienc c^as being the living 
GoA^Deui*6. 1 3. Feare the Lord thy God, and wot (hip him, 
and iweare by his name. 

?. Hence we may not fweare by any Creaturejbut by God 
aloncjwho only is omnifeient, the only law- giver, and fcwar- 
der of tbofe chings which pertaine to conlcience , and fi. laily 
to be only religioufly worfhippcd./^/r/f.5.34 35.8c 23.2i*229 
lames 5. 12, 

10. Yet every thing confidered in pn O ch is not properly 
the worfliip of God, bccauic it 00th not diicftly tend to 
give honour to God:but toconfirniethc tiuvh ^ but that rc- 
queft u hich is made in an Oath is wor (hip, and in that rclpc^ 
to fweare by the true God , doth fometime in Scripture ftt 
forth true vvorftiip. Deut.C.ii.Sfaj ^%.u And an Oath it 
felfc is wont to be called worfhip, 

11. In this requefting of the tcftimony of God , he who 
fwcares doth make himfclfe fubjcft to Gods vengeance and 
curfc , if he give fa lie tcftimony, that is, if wittingly he de- 
ceive. Hence in every Oath there is implicitly or txprefly aS 
inoprecation or curfing contained 3 Nehtr?^.ic.^o.2 Ccr,t.2^. 
Entred iato a curfe and an Oath. ! call GoU to witneflc 
again ft my foule. 

12. Hence h that forme of iwearingj^vhich is very frequent 
intheoldTcftrtmcnt. So doe God tome, and more alio: in 
which words there is a general] or indefinite curfc con- 
taincdj that the way of infli^ing thecvill may be committed 
to God. 

1 3. Theieforc there is (b great religion of an Oath that 
it may admit no equivocation or mcntail re(crvation ; which 
things may have their place in play oriighcr Jeftingj but 


0//if« Oatb^ 257 

cannot be ufcd in the worship of God without great im- 
piety. For this is nothing clfc but to mocke at G o d i 

i4.Hcnce alfo there can no rcleafe^propcrly fo callcd.com- 
matingjor difpenfation, and absolution from an Oath,come 
from nun : although fomc oathes which were either unlawful 
from the beginning^ or afterward become Ib^may be by men 
pronounced to be void. 

15. Becaufc it is a teftlmony of a thing done jOr to be done, 
therefore an Oath that confirmes a teftimony is diftinguifljed 
into an aflertory, and promiffbry Oath. 

16. An aflertory Oith is of a thing paft, or prcfent. 1 
Cor.i. 23* A promill >ry Oath under which a coinmina- 
tory is contained, is oi a thing to come, i Samuel 20. 

13. 1^1 14. 

17. An aflertory Onch^bccaule it is of a thing already done, 
dothnotbind to doe any thing, but doth only cowfirme the 
truth of the thing done* 

18. But this affcrtion doth immediatly rcfpeft the judge- 
ment of him that fweareth,- being grounded on thole argu- 
ments which arc wont to be called mfallible , fo as an Oath 
that agrees with fuch a judgement, is to be accounted for true^ 
although it (houhl differ from the thing it fclfc : becaulc 
it doth not rcfpeit the thing it felt'e, but bymeancs oi fuch 
aj'u^gement : whence alfo the /?e?i»4«/didure that moft con- 
fiderate word I thinke ^ even then when being fworne they 

^ fpake thofe things which they were furc of* 
.^^<^ I ^. A promiflbry Oaf h iuth in it the force of an aflertory 
. Oarhjasitteftifieth a prcfent fir me intention of themind^ut 
it d th moreover bind to doe that which is declared to 
be intended. 

20. But ic binds Co far only as one can bind himfelfe^ that 
' iSjto that which both Defli^o & Mp^^e in deed and in right, 
he may performe, and fo mutt be aiwaycs of a thing lawfull 
and poffible. 

2 1 .Such an Oath bxndeth to the fulfilling of it, although 
the Oath was anlawfull in re^peA of the n^maerjOr the thing 
promifed bring dammage with it to him that promifed. Jof. 



2 ?.But if theOath be againft the Commandcmcnts of God, 
it doth not bind : becauie an Oath ought not to be a bond of 

23.Yet an Oath mtde in fome manner againft the command 
of God doth ibmetitnc bind, as when the Icives to whom free- 
dome waspromifed, did f^^care to be fubjeft to .ftrangers into 
vvhofe power they catrie, 

24. A promidory Oath whereby fomething is promifcd to 
man only for his fake ^ doth ccafe to bind, it lie to whom the 
promile is made, doth either remit or take away that founda- 
tion whereupon it was grounded, 

25* AnOath is lawfuIlandhoneftforChriftians. !♦ Be- ^ 
caufeitisoftkeLaw ot nature > or morall Law which isnot 
abrogated. 2. BccaufcitpertainestoGodshonour,andCha- 
rity to our neighbour. 5, Becaufc there are commendable ex- 
amples ot Oathesufedeveninthcnew Teftamcnt, 2 Car^i.2^, 
Rev*6* 10* 

26Chrift in the fifth of C>W^fr&<rw doth not condemnee' 
very Oath, but fuch as arerafla, indirect, and made by the 

27. fames.Chap.'y.Ver. 12. Doth condemnc the fame ab- 
ufeofanOath, and not all (wearing , where by his repeating 
the words of Chritt he doth manifeftly (hew that thofe words 
of Chrift fweare not at all, doe make one fcntencc with thole 
that follow, neither by Heaven, &c. And fo are to be undcr- 
fiood as joyned togethcr^not divided afunder. 
• 28. Amen, amen is not a forme of fwcaring, but only of a# 
grave aflcveration. Thofe words, Hcbr^S. 14^ Surely blcflingJU., I 
V7illblefle thee, doe not containc the forme, but the matter d^ 
only of that Oath, which is, Ger*i2.i6*\'7. neither doth the 
word 5 amen appeare there, either in the (7r^^/^ or H^^r^7r,as 
fome have rafhiy imagined. ^ ^ 

29. The words of an Oath are to be interpreted in the 
Court of conicicnce, according tothemeaningof him that 
fwore , if he dealt iimply and candidly : if not ^ then accor- 
ding to his meaning, whom he would deceive, or to whom 
he fware. But in the outward Court the words of them 
that fweare ^ are to bee taken as they are commonly un- 

30. A 

OfanOdtk* 259 

3c. A pcr/urcd man is not to (peakc properly but (uch an 
one, th«it cither fivcarcsagainft his canfcience, or witting- 
ly and willingly deparu ttocn chat which be did lawfully 

3 1. Faith that is confirmed by a lawful! Oath, is to be kept, 
the fame circumftances remaining, even to enemies , thcevcs, 
and Pirates: for if the rcfpeft ofthcperlbns doth not make the 
Oath unlav;^jll : it cannot make it of no force. 

g2t An Oath that is extorted by feare , doth not ceafe to 
bind in that refpeft : becaufe thofe ads which are (aid to be 
extorted from a man by feare, if they proceed from counfeU. 
they are limply voluntary^although not SLhColutlySp^rttMeaui, 
or of good will. 
h 3?«They that doe not ufe reafon fo a£ they cannot under- 
ftand the nature of an Ojth, are not capable of an Oath. 

34. To require an Oath of him who will fiware by falfe 
GodSjisnototitftlfeafin.G^w 131.53. 

35. An Oith ot a Chriilian man given concerning hit inno- 
ccncy , which cannot be reprehended by any certainc argu- 
mcntSyOUght to put an end to controverdes pertaining there* 
to. Ex. 2 ac 1 1 .Hri. 6. 1 6. 

io.h (imple Oath made oaf; io words binds as SMch as the 
soft (olemnc Oath« 

37« That folemnity which is uftd in fome places in coach- 
ing and kiffing a booke, is altogether of the fame fortwitk 
the lining »p or fireiching forth of the hand^that is,ic fignifies 
I confent to (wcare^ and to the Oath it felf^ 
X*^8. The putting of the hand under the thigh of him that 
^ required an Oath,<7^.i4.a. was not for any myfticall fignifi- 
cation of Chrift, but f(M^ a figne of fubjeftion. 

39. Adjuring is f to fpeake properly j that whereby one 
doth draw another either to fweare, Geft.i^Z. Or to that 
religion which li inanOath,iViwi»^.5.2i.cW4/^#w id.63. 
)^'^ 1 Tkef^. 17. 

4C,Therefore it doth moft properly pertaine to thofe who 
have power jo require an Oath of others , although in a cer- 
tame proportion it is alio extended to that religious obtefta- 
tion, which inferiors fometimc ufe towards their fuperiors, 
and cm\JaJ}M among themfelvcs. 

L! ^inV 

76m 9fdLoU 

4i« To adjure the Dcvills, is to cxcrcife command over 
them J and fo it is not lawful! for any to cxercifc adjuration 
toward th^m , unlcflTe he have received Tpeciall power frow 
God to that purpofe* 

4^. Thole cxotcifmes which wereufed before Bapcifme, 
even in the time of the Fathers^were fuperftitious* 

43.The adjuringSjOr exorcifings of things without lifc^and 
con(ccrations of them to (upernaturall operations and u<e8> 
inch as the Papifts ufe in their holy WaterjTempleSjBciis aad 
the like , are (uperltit Jous inchantment^. 

44 The adjuring of a man to accufe him(eifc for any crime 
chjeaed (which is uftd in that Oath which is called the Oath 
of Inquifition or ^AT '5j^or?)hath neither ground in the Scrip- 
turcSjand is againft the law of nature. 

45. Neither is an indefinite adjuring to anfwcr to all fuch 
tuings as ftiali be demanded fimply to be admitted. 

Chapter X I. 

of n Lot. 

1. A Lot is i rctjufcfting of a Oivinc tcftimony to decide 
A\ forac controverfy jby the deterrtiining of an event t;6 

JL JLbcmanifefted in a mcere contingency. Pro, i6.^jl 
The Lot is caft into the lap : but the whole difpofition pf it 
is of the Lord. And 18 18, A Lot mdketh contenyomtoccafej^^ 
Mddecfdeth gmong the'mighty.' > ♦'' * ^:^ C' r: . 

2. We call it a requcft : btcauftit hath that natdre, that h 
cxpcfts that ufe to which it ferves from God alone ; and in 
that rcfpeft it h«th an immediate refpcft to his providence. 

3. WedeFne it by contingency, that we may avoid the 
error of thofe , who place the common confidcrstioti of a Lot 
Sntha^ manner of the efficient caufc^w hereby it h faki to work 
by fortune. 

4. For there are many fortatfouscanlcs which docalto- 
^eclier differ from the corrfideration of a Lot .- as when be 
fcxids gold; who digging fought for cofcs : alfo there ai« 


OfiL tot. i5^i 

many Lots wherein fortune is no afting caufc , as when the 
Lot depends upon the flying of birds , or fome fiich like 
efFcd:s,which is produced by a caufe that workec of ics ownc 

5. Neither can it be Logically defended^thac the very caft 
of a Die, or (bme fuch like efFeft upon which depends the 
confideration of a Lot,is alwayes befide the intention or (cope 
of the agent, which yet is neccffarily required^ to fortui- 
tous chance. 

d . But v/e dqe not place a Lot fi^ply in contingency^ but 
in meere contingency : bcciufe there are three degrees of 
things contingent : fome often happening^fome feldonie, and 
(bmefo far as we can underftand^equally having thcmfelves on 
cither part : for in other Contingents there is fome place 
left to con/edure by art : but in meere contingency there 
is none. 

7. It is not therefore a fortuitous manner of the efficient 
caufe which is faid to rule in Lots , but either that blind for- 
tune which was made a goddefle by profane men , and 
placed in Hea vendor the fpeciall providence of God , working 
that way that is hidden to us. 

8. But feeing chat in erery Lot there is foughtthe determi- 
nation of fome queflion or controverfy, and it is fought by 
sneere contingency, in it felfe and in icfpeft of us, altogether 
undetermined 5 in muft need^ b^^thac the very determination 
it (elfe (what(*.>cver the a^uall iatention of men (hall be ) 

%e from the nature of the thin?, alwayes fought from an higher 
Jbwcr, having power 10 dirc^!^ fuch contingencies, bycer- 
tiinecounfeU : ^ndfoin^ery deed the ufc of a Lot is an ap- 
pealing alwayes either to the true God, or to fomefaigned 
power, which is wont to be {tt forth by many by the name 
of fortune. 

(js. When tnerefore our DiYines dee teaeh that there is a 
ccrtaine extraordinary pjrovidence of God fet oyer all Lots, 
they arenc* io to be taken ^ as if cither thofe that ufed Lots 
did alwayes djrcftly, and diftinSly refpcft (iich a provi- 
dence, or as if .God did alwayes eKreife foch a providence : 
but that the Lot it felfe , of its own nature hath a ccrtainc 
rcfpeft CO the fingtdar, and extraordinary providence of God 

L 1 a is 

r til 

i62 of a Lot. 

in diredling of an event mecrly contingent , and in thii fence 
their fcntence is moft true. 

10, For feeing that in a Lot fomc judgement is expefted 
by the common confcnt of all, and there is no power of giving 
judgement- in contingent events , neither is there any other 
fortune judging then the certainc providence of God, itmuft 
needs be that this judgement be in a finguUr manner expefted, 
from Gods providence. 

\ I. Neither can meerc contingency It felfe have the refpcft 
of a principall caufe in deciding any queftion : neither can 
man to whom the event it felfc is meerly contingenti direft it 
to attaine fiich an end- Itmuft needs be therefore that luch 
dirc<ftion be expefted of fome (iiperior dire&or. 

12. Ad hereunto, that (iich is the order of proceeding in 
mans inquiry , that when men defire fome queftion to be de- 
termined , and they have not certaine^eanes in their powsr 
for this detcrmination^they feck it from (bme Ciperior power: 
»nto which manner of proceeding the confideration of a Loc 
doth altogether agree. 

1 3. Neither can it ftand, that he that worketh by Coanfell, 
intending; a certaine end andfcope, bycertaine reafbn^can 
fubje<fl his aftion, cither to fortune or meerc contingency as 
it is fuch : for fo counfell ftiould be without knowledge, and 
indifferency undetermined ftiould bee a raeanes of a caufe 

14. Suchanexpeftation and refpcft to the fingular pro^ 
vidence of God is raanifeftly taught. Prov. 16. Firr/l jj^^ 
Whileft the aftion of every man about a Lot, is affirmed to \ 
be bounded in meerc contingency* The Lot is caft into the 
lap, and in accurate difccrning the whole judgement is 
refer rtd to G o d. But all the difpofition ot ic is from 
the Lor ?. 

15. For although all things are otherwi^ referred onto 
God*^ providence in the Scriptures : yet nothing is wont to bc 
re^rrrcd u r oic with fuch difceniing^ unleflc it have a certaine 
linpu'.^r rcfpccfl: unto it* 

i6.>]» irherdoth tc any thing hinder,that the Hr^rrmword 
tM'^ch?h,ith is f^meri^ic wont to ^gnifie another thing bc- 
fide J jdgement ; bccaule ic muft alwayes be taken according 

. to 

9fA Lot. 263 

to the fubje<5l matter, and there is a certamc judgement given 
to Lots by all who dcfcribe the nature of chem. 

17. Hence therefore a Lot ought neither to be ufcdraftly, 
nor in fportingor lighter mattcrSj nor in thofc controverfics 
which are cither vainer^ or can be decided fitly by other or- 
dinary meanes. 

18. Neither therefore it is to be ufed ordinarily or with- 
out fpeciall revelation , to divining, nor to coofiilt of a right, 
nor ordinarily of a deed that is paft 5 but of a divifion to be 
madcorofaneleftion lawhill on both fides, which cannot 
othcrwife be fo fitly determined^that they whom it conccrncf 
would be pleafed. 

i^. The opinion of them who defend playing Lots is 
(iifficiently refuted by this one reafon, that f by the confent 
of all ) a Lot hath a naturall fitneflc to aske counlell of Gods 
providence in a fpeciall manner. For it cannot be that one 
and the fame aftion of its own nature fhould be fpecially apt 
to fo (acred an ufcjand yet withallfttould be applied to jefts, 

20, That reafon whereby it is contended, that the uft of a 
Lot is lawftill in light and playingmacters , becaule it is law- 
fully u(ed in thole civil! controverfies which are of lefler 
moment , hath no conftquence : for although thofe civill 
controverfies in which a Lot hath place, of thcmfelvcs arc not 
grcat^yet are maie very great by the.confequences Joynedwith 
them or adhering to them •* which cannot be affirmed of thofe 
fpirting contentions. 

21, The tithes ofthe living Creatures. £^z;*i7.52. The or- 
ders of prictHy and Lcviticali admioiftraiions,! Chron. i6. 
1^14. Sec. LucA.9. Mi^ht bring with ithcm great incon- 
veniences, unleffe they had been determined by fome Divine 
(cntcnce : and in that refpeft they were appointed by Lot by 
Gods inftitution. 

%2h It doth not appeare from the nature of Lot?,that they 
doc mod agree to the lighteft things : for although wc may 
not cxpev"^ G jd^i fpeciall determination unlcfle we have before 
done lb much as in us is to decide the queltion,propounded by 
ordinary meanes, yet by that ourindeavnur waightineffeis 
cither not removed from the concrovcrfic k lclft>or not to be 
conunictcd to a Lota LI 3 23* The 

13. TheverynatureofaLoti«holy,af of an Oath4 there- 
fore there is no need that it ftiould receive fpcciall fanftifi- 
cation from any fpcciall inftitution. For although that con- 
tingency which is as it were the matter of a Lot ^ is not of 
its owne nature holy, as neither Bread nor Wine ought to 
be fo efteenricd ; yet in application to its ufe^it putteth en a cei> 
tainc fanftity , as the words of an Oatbi and the elements in 
the Sacraments^ 

24. It is indeed free foe Chriftians to ufe the Creatures to 
thole ends to which they are naturally apt, or made apt. 
But meere contingency hath no aptitude of it felfe to de- 
termine any queftion, neither doth i: taVeam .^pntudeby 
thcconfentofthemwho ufe it to that cr.d. ¥01 uuhofeLots 
which are called extraordinary , aiid arc acknowledged 
to depend upon God, and not upon men ; the iame com- 
(ent is had in the fame manner ^ and yet it addes nothing 
to a Lot. 

a $• None can fhcw that a Lot is indifFcrent.unlefle be (hall 
6rft demonArate that there ^s in it no (peciall appealing tp 
Gods providence. 

26. Although alfo the matter of fporting things, is npc 
tied to this or that kind of indifferent aftions, yetithatk 
thole bounds (et to ic felfe , that it can have no place im 
thofe thirgs which doe Angularly pertaine to communion 
with God. 

27. Itis altogether vaine which is ob'efted 5 that a Lot 
often repeated wil have a divers cvcnt;fornei. ic* isthislikeJyi^ 
if a Lot can be righ tly iterated, neither dcrh every appea"^ 
ling to Gods provid ncc neceflarily bring with it his fpeci 
all operation : and yet God even out of orccr is read to have 
(bmstimcs anfwcred diveifly to thole, by whom he wasunfta- 
(bnafely tcmpted*iV;/w^,22* 1 2.3o.Goe not with them . Arifc, 
goe with them. 

28. But much vainer it h to objeft in ftead of an argiwfnt, 
that God cannot be drawen by u^ ac our plcafure to extrcift 
an extraordieary providence. For nctwitt»ltanding thi^^wc 
may appeale to his extraordinary providence, when it plea- 
fcth us. 

2f. Therefore playing at Dice is repugnant to religion, 



efUmfting ofGcd^ 

not only by the circumftanccs and by accidentjbut of its in- 
ward nature and in ic (clfe. 

50. But under the narnc of theDycarcthofcplaycsalfo 
comprehended, which arc grounded on mere contingency, 
akhoug^h they be afterward governed by wit,induftry or fomc 
artjas in Table, and Cards. 

31. But chofe humane cxcrcifcs which are grounded upon 
art, bur are in pare fubjeift to calualty in the progreflc, doe 
greatly differ from D.ce. 

;j2« Whereas men are wont, by playing at Dice to b^ ftir- 
red up to fweanngs , curfings , and blafphcmies, more 
then in other exerci fes , this commeth partly from the na- 
ture of the play it felfc : becaule the Lot being often re- 
iterated and often failing expeftation s they thinkc that that 
power which they L»agine doth governe the Lot , i% a- 
gain(i them. 

33* Bythcfame reafbn alfo it comes topafle, that they 
that uic thoft player can fcarfc put ^^n end or mcafore Co 
them . bccaufe they who are inferior m the contcntioD, 
have no rcafon to defpaire of their Lot , and fo do perlift 
in a perti lacious expeft irion of th«ir wilhei iiicceffe. 

54. Henc<^lfo thofe loflcs and inconveniences , by which 
other phyesare wont to be made excrinlecally vitious,in 
ilicedoe^epend partly upon the very nature of the play. 


^>^ Chapter XII. 

Of tempting of God. 

I. fTTtEmpting of God is in a fingular manner oppofcd 
J • I ^^ hearing the word and Prayer. /^/^/•95 7>*:9* 

JL To day it y ec will heare his voyce^harden not your 
heart , as in the provocation, as in the day of Tentation in the 
Wilderneflc: where your fathers tempted me, proved nac, 
and faw my worke?. For feeing that in hearing the word 
and godly JP r ay er,wc haye cowmiaiion with God^ Jkccordiaij 


of tempting. 
cohiswilljifweftckc fnch like communion beyond his will, 
then we arc properly faid to tempt him. 

2. To tempt God is to make triall of fome Divine pcrfcAi- 
on in an unlawfall manner. iV^/.^ 5 p. 

5« This triall is fomctirae of the power o(God^PfaLjS. 18. 

19. They tempted Cod in thtir heart and (peaking 

againft God they faid. Can God prepare a Table in the 
WilderneflTc ? namely,when itiscircumrcribedbyrocn, and 
boundsarefettoit at their pleadire : at if he (hall doe this or 
that , which they would have him^then let him be accounted 
oranipotent30th€rwifenot*/V^78.4i. Who tempted God,and 
limitf d the holy one oilfr^eU 

4* Sometime triall is made of the Knowledge of God , ai 
when men privily doe fomething dojbting whether God 
know it or no* Pf 94.7. fayingi the Lord (eeth not^neicher 
doth the God of jAc&b regard. 

5. Sometime it is of the prefence of G o d* Ex^^ 
I J. 7. They tempted God (aying ^ Is the Lord among 
yi or no ? 

6* Sometime it is of the providence of God , when meii 
leaving ordinary meanes appointed byGod, doe yetexped: 
that God (hould provide for them, at their defire, altuough 
he promiied no (uch thiog. Mat. 4 7. 

7* Sometime it is of the anger , juftice and vengeance of 
God. I Cor. 10.22. Doc we provoke the Lord to anger ? 
which kind of tempting is in all murmuring , and ftrife 
againfi God or thofe fent by God. i C^. 1 0.9 • i o. Neither ^ 
let as tempt Chrift. Neither murmur yeej whence Majfsk^"^ 
and LMiribAh were the names of the fame place. Ex0dm ^ 

$.Bnt tempting of God is fbmctime with an exprcfle inten- 
tion to try God^as in unlawful! cafting of Lots, and when- 
foevcr we prefumethat of God which lie hath not pty>oufed. 

9. Sometime it is with a (ecret and implied confent, same* 
ly when that is done which of it (clfe and in its own nature 
tends to this^that God may be tried, althcH)gh he that doth it 
thinke no (lich thing. ^LiiV/ 

i#.And this is done two way es. Firft, when one willeth 
and cxpeAeth asy thing to bedoMe^ and in the meane while 


refttfcth the meanes chat are neccflary for it : as they doc in 
iiaturall things who would have kcaltb or continuance ol: 
life, andrejc^ medicines , or food j as they alfoin (qpcrna* 
turall things which would have grace and life^but ncgleft th^, 
Word of God , and Sacraments, with the tike meancs of 
grace and falvation. Secondly ^ when one cxpofcth him- 
(clfe to danger without urgent neceffity, from which he can 
in no wife or (carfly be delivered,except by aqiiiaGlefrooi 
Cod :.as they AsH^ >n hacurall things pftta who^feeke v:aine 
glory in contemning death 5 and thofc ip fpirituall things 
whoieemeas-lt were to love tk^ occifiijns . i^fld ^ntilcr]icnt&^ 
to fii^e. tho^n it\l/iU^,- wi6\ ^^,]. L :0 T(^-rn?i 5^^^ ' " 
1 1. This fiorir doth oft (5m€3Jldw from dou^^^ 
^ beliefe : bccaufe hcw^o fe^c» fiich triall of God , doth 
not fufficiewtly imft the revealed word of Gpd : but will rnvt 
dertake a new way ta know, the will, of God ; and fo it is op- 
pofed to hearittg the word y ib far fo^th as it is to be received 
L pfusbyFaithJo ^.'jui.] -rM- .. .'^t ^y'.—./:, . -] I .u -i 
: 12. SonietinK t^itflpwes ItrfAi ^tfymt, yfhjsfxmi^n notex^ 
pei%ingthepromi(esoJFGod,by a diforderly kaftening, will 
prefcribe God, when anrf how he may fatisfy their expe^- 
tion : and Co it is oppofed totbejbearingotthe word^a|i$ 

clwriaethd»daehopiC:irl_l^|.!I^^r!^^Rhmi ^.t/hI iHitO ,o£ 

I $• Sometime alio it flowes froopfa bafe^eftcemeiRiid con- 
tempt cif God : as when one play ing and fel)[mg will try wbo- 
t4cr God wilf iiianifeft himfelfe aocording to his dcfire ; and 
4q it is G^pofed to hearing ofchcword,as it hath in it a.lj:^|i^ 
^"^lidfiteftcemeofQod, . ,: ^ti o; ^nilr o::-f 

p • 14. It flowes alfo from a certainc arrogancy and priH^ 
^ ^whereby we reftifing to fubjeft ourwills to the Will of^^d, 
doe feeke to make his will fubjeft to our luft. ' Ji^^^^ 

> 45^ But it conaes moft oftea from prelumption, wherety 
one is confident that God will doe ibis, or that,whichh€ 
^ MO where promifed , d ai icaft dM P9tipr(xniife tfeat he would 
doe in that manner and with thofc Boeanes that they cxpeAj 
whence alfo it is that every tempting of God is by fome 
referred to prefuasiption : ani in refpeft of arrogancy it is op- 
pofed to prayer,wherchi w« doe humbly reprefent our wilUo 
Godjthat it may beperfbrnaed by him as he pleafetk. 

Mm itf.Bat 

iil Oftm^ngofGod. 

tS^ixi It isalwayes oppofcd to fomc aft o(reIigiQn>^ whcr* 
by wee depend upon the will of God : kecaulc when wc 
tempt God,wc doe it that God may as it wore depeod upon 
Ottr wilK ' : ^*# ^ •;? ^ , 

i/.TodefircfomefpcciallfigncofGod, wicb iSxiie ff^iaU 
rcafon, infpiration, ormiUnft^istotcmptGod. MatAi.i. 
ThitPharifeesgind S^^dduces tempting him « required him to 
liicw tbcm a figne from Heaven* 

i8. Yet to rcfofc a %ne offered by God is to tempt ot 
weary him. Iflj. 11,123 13. Askea fignc I wll not askc. 
Bcithcrwill I tempt God. Yec weary my God. Humbly to 
feeke a figne of God about fome particular neceifary dung 
which otherwife is not Efficiently manifefted, a believer may 
(bmetimedoc withoutnH.G'<r;7.i5* 8. Ho w (ball I kno w tbat I 
fhall inherit the Land? ; n ? 

xp. Proving or ptrrging of a firfpetSedoflfoicebyniallof 
hot Iron, fcalding water and the like^aretcmpangs of God : 
for there is a ccrtaine miraculous {hewing of the power of 
God expe^edorreqaired in them to prove an hidden truth, 
without juft eaufe : bccauft there arc other rjcanes appoin« 
ted to find out mens faults,which alfo if they faile^fiich thingi 
Biay be unknowne without any fault. 

io« Ofthe (ame kindarefingleDuelis, ormbnomaclue% 
whrch of old were permitted by pnblick authority , and are 
yet too much frequented :for in them the rightcoufncfle of the 
caufc is committed to be decided by the iingular provi* 
dence of God from that fuccefle which he if thought to give 
according to his Juftice , without any certaine and js^'^ 
rea(bn» ■ • ■- ■- ^ ..i* ? iik -^..^ J: -.] .t. ^ « "^ 

2 i.Bdiidetbefe tennrptingl which doe properly pertalne to 
trial i^ there is alfo a tempting as itwereof inducementsto* 
wards God , when there is rcquired.or expefted hclpe fcom 
him to commie fomc hainoos wickedneflc* 

a 2. Yet thofe inducements may fitly enough be refef red 
to temptation oftrialJ : becaufe the Will of God is tried in 
them. They differ from others in this only, that that objeft 
about which the Will of God is tried , is an aSion in it felfc 
•nlawfulljin which refpeft , the honour of God ii (pecially 
hurt and viokted : becaufe together with the temptation 


th^xt is foyaed « certaint moft fouk mockiog of 6rod« 

sj* Tempting or proving of God is (bmetime taken in 
g^Bod par^^od is commandc(3^3/^;.j«io*Try oicnow in tliis, 
i$kh the Lord of Hofts. d }:jovJ i .^ h 

>t4. Butthis tempting is an aft of Faith leading us to dbey 
and praftifc thofc things which God hath commanded ; 
with expeiflation of that iruit and beffing which God hatk 

25' This lawfuU tempting of God doth pot back all the 
^ tcntationsoftheDcvilK 

«6.That unlawful tempting of God doth lay m open to the 
tentations of the Devill , neither are wee ever overcome by 
any tentation of the Devill , unleffe wee doe in a fort 
, lempiGod* , ^ . 

** '" ' ' . ' " * ■ ' "" * " ^ *' ■■■ - ^ -^ « ~- 

Chapxei^ XIII. 

Of inJUtutei -wwrfitif. 

!• THftituted worfhip is the meanes ordained by the Will 

I of God, to exercift and further naturall worfliip. 

A a. Alliuch l&e meanes ordained of God arc declared 

in the fecood CoinmaRdeinene > by forbidding all contrary 

wcanes of worthip devifcd by men, under the title of Graven 

dhd Image : which feeing they were of old the chiefe in- 

^ vfticionsoftnen corrupting the worlhip of God, they ara 

^^*ii:>ft fitly ( by ^a-Synechdoche frequent in the Decalogue) 

put in (lead of alldevifes of mans wit pertaining to worfhip. 

I^Tbis worftiip doth not depend Infpfde^ and imme ^iarly 
'55>©n thenaturc of God,or upon that ho >our which L7 verfoc 
idfour Creation weowe^ to God , but upon the moft free in- 
^y*4ttatian^0tGodt ^>:'i -^n-^r^i i- . : ; ' -• i- ■ 

^- Hence «hi8 wbribfp Was divers according to the divers 
conftitution of the Cbwdt^one before ChriH: exhibited, and 
anotherafter. ''^' •'^^^ ^^ ^ ' 

$. It is a meanes having rtflad^m to xhenaturall worship, 
^thcrwife it were not woribipy becau(e onecaiinot give chat 

Mm a honour 

konottf to God wkieh is due to hiai , ts tonchiig tke etftutc 

9f the aft any other way then by Faith, hope, and Love, 

whereby wc doe receive from Gpd with due fabjeftion, thoft 

things he propounds to us to be received^, iijid^with^ the fame 

fab)€ftion Wf:<>fFeriohlriiithofei5hikgs which may bfeoffefcd 

by us to his honoar^ But becaufc the aftsthemfclvcsarfia 

a fp<ciall manner cxfedfed in thdfc things, which God hatk 

inftitHtcd iFor his honour, therefore there is in them a^cer- 

taifie ft^ada^y iWQjr5upl4 and^aqertai^ partakibjg of the 

formcn * ■'^' " 

4. But it hath in rcfpfeft to that natural! worihip the affcfti- 
gpofancfFcft, whi<:h exiftcth by vcrtucofthc former: and 
^f a. inis^Mes and iaftrumcnt, whereby F and 

Lore, ( in which that worfhip is contained ) doeeifercirc 
their afts ^ and of an adjutant caufe whcpcbv tkey are 
furthered, and alfo of an adjunft to which they are 
(ubjefted. f - -jr ^ .. ... , , . ^ '^ 

7. But it is rtioft properly called trbrfhlpj as it is a meanes 
and helping caufe of that primary worfliip. 

S, Bui beca«(c,*tke commaadofGodbcingput, it de- 
pends and flowcs from the primary worfhip of God, thcre- 
i|pr€ Uis ofi perfwaded^^andifi^ed by ihofc arguments wfiich 
are tjaktn fi:ogfi.Mlc4nwab*d and eflehtiall manner of woift 
;p,iqg;Gpd, asip tht fei^phd precept. . They thait love ra^ujd 
>^^ipmyi|Cofl?mandi!aiiP»t$. JSfeauio^ia^ a^. JWhaidotk tlit 
l^prd thy God require qI thee , but that thou fearc the Lord 
. $\i% God y wsllke in all his wayes^ aBd that thou love hi&i, 
and worfhip th^LQtd thy ^dd with all thy heart , and-ai^ 
thj fonle j ptf cepts . of cthe ^Lbrtl ^ and hisT 

f. That rule therefore of interpreting; the Scripfures 

-which is wont to kc delivered by fome is not univerfally 

^true ;,that all thofcdgtiesi^rajl and immutable « whioh 

have moral! and inamutable reafons loyncdtOitAicm^'exc^^f 

it be thus under ftood^ thajt theli dutiepdoe fpHow Ufion thoft 

reafbnS) nofpcciallcamoiaQdcoinKiilig betweefie. Ltv.ii^ 

44. I am the Lord your God jthat (anftifie y oij, that ye may ' 

be holy^as I am holy :defile not dbercf^'e youi:ie}:?f icitli^any j 

'creeping tkiog- , ,. ,, -' ^qUl^v - :..; i^vu u jH-ijJ:: 

of iHJiituttdwerJfjif^ ^7 ^ 

!•• No worfeip of this ki^d i» lawfclKunlcfle it hath God 
for the Author , anl ordainer of it. T)€m,^.\.li i2»32 Keep 
you all thing? whjch J (h4lj \<?OI;ltj^apd you , Ad Rot to the 
word which I command yoUjOeither t^^kefrum it, every thiag 
which I con^mand yoiJ cJbrer^e:0L>:4<>c ; ad not to itj not take 
from it^evcry thing which I conimamd you obferve to doc ; ad 
not to ic.nor take from it l\Chron4 16. 13. Oar Lord broke in 
ttg(;^a us^bcewfe we di4 Pot. feeko^iai aright., . , , , : 

II. That is dccla/c4i? t|iQ^ words^of the Gommanclc- 
ment. ThOu ftialt not aiiake to thy ielfc : that is of thine own 
braine or judgement, for aUhcugh that particle r^ thyfelfe^ 
doth fometimes cither abound ^ or hath another force : yet 
here tkc mpft accurate brevity p^fthefe Cpmmandements doth 
exclude redunaancyj and icigrm^ifeft that the vanity of 
mans cogitations is excluded .fafy other places of Scripture 
pertaining to the fame thin]^. ki^^mts^yti. Which,yee 
made to your felv^s. NHmh.i^,^^. Thai; jcefollpw not after 
your oivuheart.a^d your owijcjes-jwhicb when yec folloiv 1 
yecgoe^whoripg, .1. " ^ri - i . • i j 

i z. The fan>e, is ^^Ifo dccIaicA by, th^t un^v«rfaJity of the 
prohibition , which is explained in the ConimaDdcmcnt 
by a diftribucion of the things which are in Heaven above,or 
.in theEarth bcnealh^or ia the Waters under the Earthi ; 

13. For none befide God himlelfc can^cither undcrSand 
^^hat will be acceptable to him : or canad tbatvertuetoany 
worftiip whereby 5 it may be made effe&uall and profitable 
for us } neither caa there be any thing honorable to God, 
: which comes not from bitu as the author of it, neither finally 
doc we read that luch a. power was at any time given to any 
man by God , to ordainc any worlhip at his own pleaftre. 
Matthew 15.9. In vaine doc they worlhipmc, teaching for 
doftrines the precepts of men. 

1 4.Hencie implicitly and by interpretation of God himfelfe, 
we make him our God, and give the honour due to God to 
hiingwhofc authority or ordinances we liibjcft our (elves un- 
to in religious wor&ip. 

1 5. In this refpeft alio men are fometimc faid to worfbip 
theDevillj when they obferve thofcworfhips which the £)#- 
fillbroughtin. tCer.%o.2o.Lev. ij^j^DeHU^2.i^.i^- .y^^;, 

M m 3 i6JBm 

16* Butwc muft obfcrvc thaj worfliip which God feith 
rfi>pointcd with th^ Tame religion , as we receive his word 0t 
Will,cr call upon hrs ttdOic. Deut.d.ijji^.dc I2«25.i8. Sc 13. 

17. The meancs which God hath ordained in this kind, 
(bme of them doe properly , and immcdiatly make to the 
exercifing and furthering of Faith.Hopeand Charity ; as pab* 
lique and folcmne preaching of the word, celebration of Bap« 
tilme^ and the Lords Supper, and prayer* 

And fomc of them are mcanes for the right performance of 
thofc former, as the combination of the faithfull into ccr- 
taine Congregations or ChurGhcs.Eledionj Ordination, and 
Miniftration of Minifters ordained by God^together with the 
care of Ecclefiafticall Difcipline. ..lu;. . 

iS.Thoft former are moft properly the hiftitoted worfliip 
of God 5 yet the reft arc alfo worfhip, not only in that gcne- 
fall fefpet^jas all things are faid to be ads ofwor(bipand 
religion , which doe any way flow from , or are guided 
by religion ; but alfo in their fpeciall nature ^ becauie the 
adequate end and ufe of them is , that Go^ii may be rightly 

19. All thcfe therefore both in generally and in (peciall 
ought to be obfcrved of us as they are appointed by God | 
for God muft be worftiipped by us with disown worfliip, to- 
tally and (blely^nothing mull here be added , taken away or 
changed. D^/vr. 1 2 .31. 

10. That is a very empty diftinftion, whereby fb me goc ^ 
nbout to excufc their addition8.Tbat only addition corrupt- • "v • 
Ing, and not addition conferving is forbidden 5 becanfe ^ ^ 
every addition as well as detraftion is exprefly oppofcd to ob- 
fervation, orconfervation ofthe commands of Godjas being 
a corruption. D^/^M2. 3 2. 

21. Of like ftampe alfo is that evafion whereby thtsy^y 
there is forbidden only addition of eflentialls, and not of 
'A'ccidcntalls : for firft although there be accidents or cer- 
taine ad junfts of worfliip , yet there is no worfliip to fee 
ifeftply called accidentall , becauft it hath in it the very 
- ififenceof worfliip. Secondly ^ as the leaft commands of God 
tym to J9tMs and Titles are rclrgioufly to be obfcrved, 


A£atJi*i%^ I ^ So additions which fecme very fmall , arc by 
thefamercafon to be re^-fttd. Thirdly 5 CJ^/^y?^ doth feale 
Hpevcachofe lawcsof tliv' place of Divine worfhip, of the 
manner, of abftincoce from bloody and the like which 
muft needs be referred to accidenCall worftiipifany fuchbe, 
with this very caiitian of not adding , or cakhig away. 
D^«M2. 32. 

^ 22. Tbisobfcrvation i$ in a fpeciall manner called obe- 
dtcnce, becaufe by it we doc that which fccmes right in the 
eyes of the Lord although lome other may (ecm righcer in our 
cyes.1>^i^r.i2.2$. 28. 

23. There is oppofed unto this inftitutcd worlhip, as 
unlawfull , that will-worihip which is dcvifcd by men. Mat. 

24. The fin which if committed in will-worfhip, is by a 
i;encra}i name called fuperftition* 

25. Superftition is that whereby undue worship is yielded 
to God. 

2 5. For in fupcrftition God is alwaycs thcob/cft, and 
the end in fome meaftire^ but the worfhip it ielfc is un- 

27* It is called undue werfhipjcither in rcfpeft of the man- 
ner or meafurcj or in refpeft ofthe matter and fnbftance of 
the worfhip. In the former manner the Pharifes oflFendcd a- 
bone the Sabboth , when they urged the oblcrvation ofijt 
as touching the outward reft 5 above the manner and mea* 

;/urc appointed by God. And they alfo offended in the lattcj? 

.Qianner, in obferving and urging their owne traditions^ 

2.8. Hence fupcrftition is called an cxceflc of religion, 
not in refpeft of the formall power of religion, becaulcio 
^Bonecan be too religious ; butinrefpe&unto thcaftsand 
roeanes of religion. 

29. This exccffc is not only in thofe pofitive excrcifes, 
which confifts in the ufe of things, but alfo in abftinence from 
the ufe of fbme things, as from meats, which are accounted 
uncleane aTid nnlawfull^and the like. 

3a Yet every abftinencc,even from things la wfull, although 
they be counted unlawfull, is not fupcrftition,to fpeake pro^ 


ff4 9f infiUHt€dw$'rjhtf. 

ptrly, unlcflethert befomefpcciall worftiipand Ucrnoar in- 
tended to God by that abftinencc. 

51. This nnduc worflaip is cither properly oppofed ta 
that worftiip 3 wherein inftitutcd worfhip is direftly put 
forth and cxcrcifed, that is^ in hearing the word,celebration 
of the Sacraments, and prayer ; or to that which rcfpefts the 
meanes of it. 

32, Unto the hearing of the word is oppofcd, firft, A 
teachingby images deviled by xtxth.Dem.^.i 5jii. If^^oA I* 
8c 41. 29, Jercm. lo. 8m5. Hek2^i%. Secondly, a vanting 
of traditions as they arc propounded as rules ot religion, 
Mac.j. 8. ' 

33. Religious teaching by Images is condemned^irft^be^ 
caufe they ar« n6t fanftified by God tothatend :fccondly> 
becaufe they can neither reprefeat to usGod hiffifelfc,nor the 
perfcftions of God ; thirdly, becaufe they debate the fbulC|l 
and turne away the attention frooi (piricuall contemplation 
of the Will of God ; fourthly, becauft if they bconcead:* 
mittcd into the cxercifcs of worfhip, the woirQjip it (clfe 
bythepcrverfnefreofmans wit, atleafl, in part, will be 
transferred to them : as it is declared in thofe words of ihc 
Coramandement. Thou (halt notbowdownetotheiOjnor 
worfhip them. 

^4» Of like kind withimagcs;, are all thc^e. ceremonies, 
which are ordaicied by men for myfticall or religious (ig- 
nification. r.. 

35. For fuch ceremonies have no determinate power t^ 
teachv^^ither by any power put into theaiBy^iatiirc , or bjr^^^ 
divine inftitotian : but they can receive none by humane inr '^ 
ftitutio^j becaufe man can effeft this neither by command- 
ing 5 feeing it is beyond his authority , nor by obtai- 
ning,fceing God hath proEiifed no fuch thing to him that 
asketh. irjlo^sn / 

.' - 5^. Neither can men take to themielves any authority in 
ordaining luch ceremonies, from that, that it iscomman- 
ded to all Churches, that all things be done decently , and 
in order- i ^^r.i^.^o.For neither the refpei^ of order nor 
decency requires, that fomc holy things (hould be newly 
ordained, but that thofe which are ordained by God , be 



iifcdinthat manner, which is agreeable to their dignity j 
neither doe order and decency pertrine to holy things only, 
but alfo to civil! duties 5 for conftifion and indecency in boih 
are vices oppofite to that due manner which is required to the 
attaining the juft end and ufe of them* 

37. TotheSacramcntsareoppofcd. i. Sacrifices proper- 
ly to called, whether they be bloudy or unbloudy, as the 
Papifts faigne of their Made : for alter Chrift exhibited^aH 
old facrificcs arc abrogated: neither is th^re any new ordi- 
nance, becaufe the (acrifice of Chrift being once offered we 
have no need of other types 5 then thofc which pertaine to 
the exhibition and ftaling of Chrift beftowed on us, which is 
fufficiently by Gods ordinance performed in ^he Sacraments^ 
(without Sacrifices.) 

38. Alfo the ordination and ufe of new Icales , or cere- 
monies fealing fomc grace of God is oppofcd to the Sacra- 
ments : for it belongs to him to feale grace ^ to whom it be- 
longs to give it. 

39. Unto prayer is oppofed that relative u(e of Images, 
whereby God is worfliipped at them^or before them^although 
the worfhip is not referred to the Images thcrafelvcSj as 
fomc fay, fubjeftivclyi but objeftively by them to G od 

4a Superftition of thk kind is called idolatry. Sxodtu 3 2. 

41. IftheybeidoUs, which are in themfelves worfliipped 
ilftead of God, it is that idolatry which is againft the grit 

•^Commandement ; but when the true GoJ is worfliipped at 
'^^ an Imagcor in an Image, this is idolatry jWhich is againil the 
. fecond Commandement. 

42. For although in refpeft of the intention of him that 
*yorfliippech , he doth not offend in the primary or higheft 
objeft , yet from the nature of the thing it lelfc healwayes 
offends againrtthe formall worfliip of God, andinterpre- 
tativeiyalfoanewGodisfaignedfoTtheobjeft, whois de- 
lighted with (iich wnrfliip , and religious worfliip is given 
alfo to the Image it felfe , although it be not done with that 
purpofe that that worfliip be laftly bounded in the Tmage,but 
that it be by that direfted alfo to God himfelfe. 

N n 43.Hence 

17^ Of the manner ^/Divine t^or^ip^ 

43. Hence wc nnuft not only (hun this idolatry, as well ^ 
<hae abfolute idolatry which is againft the firft CommandcT 
mcnt :butalfothevery idolls, and idolotbiteSjOr thething$ 
that are dedicated to Idolls , and all the monuments pro* 
perly focalled of IdollSj l lohn'^.zi. i C^Yimhiam%.iQ. 
& 10. 18. 19.2 !• 2 Cor.i 2. 6.2 6. Nnmh^s 5 3 ^%2*DeutA%.%^^. 
Exod.2'^. 13. 

44. Superftidon of the fecond kind is in humane formcf 
ohhc Church 5 fuch as are Churches that are vifibly inte^ 
graily, and Organically, Occumenicall , Provincial!^ and 
Diocefan, brought in by men 5 as alfo in the Hierarchy agree- 
able to them, and orders of religious perfonB, who are found 
among the Fapj/Js^ and in funftions , and een&res which are 
exerci(ed by them. 

45. The audacioufncflfe of thofe men is intolerable who 
cither omit the (econd Commandement , or teach it ought 
to be fo maimed , that it (hould be read now under the New 
Teftament. Thou fhalt not adore nor worfliip any likencflc, 
or Image^ 

Chapter XIIII. 

Of the mmner of Divwe r^^Jhif. 

!• ^ ■ ^HE adiunftsof-worfliipcfpeciallytobcobfergfl 

I are two : The manner which is contained in the / 

A thirdCommandement^and the time which is cox^>% 

manded in the fourth Commandement. 

2 But thefe two are fo ad junfts of religious worfhip,as that 
in a certaine fecundary refpeft they partake the definition 
and nature of it : becaufe by the obfervation of them not on- 
ly that honour of God , which confifts in the naturall and , 
inllituted worfhip of God is furthered :but alfo a certaine fpc- ^ 
ciall honour is yielded to him as far forth as they are |oyncd 
totheothcTjbothby hiscommand, and by a direaandim* 
mediate refpeft. 

3. The manner of worQiip in generall is the lawfuU 


Of the msnntr if Divine wdrfffip* 277 

ule of all thole things which pertaine Co God. 

4. But the lawfull ufe confifts in this^that all things which 
pertaiac to worfiiip be To handled , as is agreeable to the Ma- 
jefty of God. 

5. For whereas it is forbidden in the third Commande- 
raent , Thou (hale not take the name of God in vainc 5 by the 
Name of God all thofe things are underftood , whereby 
God is made knowne tons, or revealcs himfclfc>ci8 men are 
wont to be known one to another by their names : fbthat 
the Name of God containes all thofe things which pertaine 
to the worChip of Ood , whether naturall , or inftitutcd. 
y4fl,9.i5.That he may beare ray name among the GentiUs. 
DeHt.ii.%. The place which the Lord (hall chufe to place 
his name there. Mich.^.%.^t will walke in the Name of the 
Lord our God. MaUun.t%% My name Jhall be great among 
the Gentiles. 

6^ But (eeing to Cake tbb N4we in vaine is either to take it 
raftily , that is either without any end propounded, or with* 
out a juft and fit end : or to take it in vaine, that is 9 notin 
tha^tmaanerwhieh is required to the )uft end, namely, the 
honour of God ; there is withall commanded that we fkddth 
£e the Naiiie of God , that is, that we ufe all holy things in 
that manner which is fotable to their hoiinefle and dignity. 
Jfaj 1.15.^ 

7.That (utable manner if^when thofc circumftances are ufed 
which the nature of religious things requires. 

8. We define this manner by circumftances* becaufe the 
edentiall manner of virtues , and of the a&s of religion is 
contained inthe virtues and afts themftlves, and is direftly 
commanded in the lame precepts with them ; but that acci- 
dentall manner which is in circumftances y feeing it is in fome 
fort ftparable from the afts of Religion , and yet is ne- 
ccflarily required to them, that they may be acceptable to 
Ood , is ina fpeciall laanner comnandedin this third Com* 

^•Thefe circumftances are either inward or outward. 

xo. The inward are either antecedent, or going before; 
concomitant or accompanying with ;x:on(cqucut5or follow- 
ing after* 

Nn 2 li«The 

278 of the manner ofDivm vporjhip. 

1 1 • The circumftances going before are a delire 5 and ftir* 
ring up of the mind, or preparation in a due meditation of 
t'hcfc things which pcrtainc to that holy thing, which is to 
be handled. Scclef.%. 1.2. Take hged to thy feet when thou 
cntreft into the Houle of God : Bee not (wift with thy 
mouth 5 and let not thy mind haften to utter a thing be- 
fore Gcd# 

12. But this preparation doth moft properly pertaine to 
thofe a(fts of religion, which are more folemne : for medita- 
tion it fclfe whereby the mind is ftirred up , is an aft of Re- 
ligion 3 but it doth not require another preparation alfo 
before itj for (b we fhould proceed without end : but thofe 
a(5ls which are of their nature leflc pcrfeft, ought to make way 
for the more perfeft and more folemne afts. 

13. Hence before publick and folemne hearing the word 
and prayer, private prayer is required, and alfo before pri- 
vate prayer , if it be folemne , there is required fome medi- 
tation alfo of tholtf things which pertaine to our prayers, 
whether in rcfpeft of God whom we pray unto , or in refpeft 
of our felves who are about to pray, OP in refpeft of the things 
themfelvcs whicharetobeasked^ ' "^ 
u;i4. The circumftances that are eoncoiriitant'orihitaC- 
compaiiy wichf are Revcrence.and Devotion. 

15, A certaine generall reverence of God is neceflfary to 
all obedience, which refpeds the authority of G od that doth 
command ;but this reverence is proper to the afts of Religion, 
which hath refpecfl to the holineflc of thofe things aboi|t 
which we are exerctfed. . 

i^ This Reverence con taines twothingf* i. Adueefti-'; 
mation of the excellency of luch things* 2. Afeare of too 
much familiarity namely, wh^eby iuch things might be un« 
worthily handled by us. 

17. Devotion alfo contaiaes two things, 1. A certaine 
fingular readinefle to performe all thofe things which per- 
taine to the worftiip of God, Pfal. 1 08. 25. O God^ I will - 
iing with a fxed heart. I will awake right early. 2. A fiitable 
delight in perforraingthofcDhlngs.//^58.l3. If thoufhalt call 
the Sabbath a delight. 

18. Hence alfo a greater care and of another kind muft be 


Of the manner of Divine rvorJJjip. 2 7p 

had in hearing the Word of God^thcn in receiving the Edicts 
of Princes ; And in calling upon the Name of God then in 
fupplic-itior.Sj which we make to men whomioevc^. 

I p. The circuinitances that follow after are two. i. To 
retaine the force and taft as it werc^of that worfhipin our 
mindb\ 2. ToobtairjC with all our endeavour the end ^ and 
ufe of it, 

2C* The outward circumfiances arc thofe which percainc 
toorder and decency, i Cor.i^.^o. Let all things be done 
decently and in order. 

21. But the generallrule of thefeis, that they be orde- 
red in that manner which maketh moft for ediiication. i. 

22. Of this nature are the circumft^nces of place, time, 
and the like 3 which arc common adjunfts of religious and 
civill afts. 

^7* Therefore although fuch like circumftances arc wont 
to be called of £ome rites ^ and religious or Ecclelafticall 
ceremonies : Yet they have nothing in their nature, v/hichis 
proper to religion , and therefore religious worfliip doth 
not fo properly confift in them , however the hoiineffe of 
religious worfhip is in.fomc fort violated by the ncglcft^and 
contempt of them ; bccaufe that common refpeft of order 
and decency which doth equally agree to religious , and 
civill a<5lion? cannot be fevered fnm religious worfhip , but 
the dignity and majefty thereof is in fome fort diminifhed. 

24. Such like circumftances therefore which of their own 
' nature arc civill or common, are not particularly comman- 
ded in the Scriptures, parriy becaufe they come into mens 
common fence, and partly becaule it would not rtand with 
the dignity and majcfty of the Law of God, that fuch things 
(houJd be Severally prefcnbed in it. For by this meanes 
many ridiculous things fliould have been provided for by a 
fpcciallLaW;^ as for example^thac in the Church aiJcmbly 
one fhould not place himfclfe in anothers bolbmc, fpit in 
anothers face, or fliould not make mouthes in holy aftion?. 
Yet they ars to be accounted as commanded from Cod* 
I. Becaufe they are commanded in generall under the Law 
of order^ decency and edification. 2« Becatale moft of theoa 

Nn 3 djc 

28o Gfthe manner of Divine v^orflnp\ 

doe neceflarily follow from thofe things wbich arc exprcfly 
appointed by God. For when God appointed that the faith- 
full of aU forts, fhould meet together to celebrate hisnam^ 
and woiftiip, he did consequently ordaine that they fhould 
haveafit^and convenient place wherein they may meetetoge- 
ther, and an hour^e alfoaffigncd at which they may bepreftnt 
together; when alfo there is a Minifter ?<ppointed by Godj 
to teach others publickly, it is withall appointed that he have 
a feat-and thatfituation of his body , which is meet for fuch 
an aflion. 

25, Thoft things therefore which pcrtainc to order and 
decency, are not fo left to mens wil, that they may under the 
name of that , obtrude what they pleafc upon the Churches : 
but rhey arc* partly determined by the gencrall precepts of 
God, partly by the nature of the things themfelvcs, and 
partly by tho(e circumftanccs which doe offer tbcmfdves 
upon occafiom 

26. For divers circumftanccs of order and decency arc 
fuchjas though there be no publick inftitution of thcm,yet 
they ought to be obferved of every one , neither can men for- 
bid them without fin. 

2 7. But thofe conftitutions by which many circumftan- 
ccs of this kind arc wont to be determined , about.placc, 
time and the like, are rightly faid to be by the beft Divines 
partly Divine, and partly humane : becaufe they are partly 
grounded upon the Will of God , in rcfpcft of the chicfc 
and primary reafon of them 9 and they depend partly upon 
the prudence of men, in refpeft of particular ob(crvation^' 
of thofe things which are agreeable to the Will of God : 
yet fo that if there be no error of man in making that dc- 
terminationjthat conftitmionis to be held as fimply Divine. 
For it is the Will of God^that the Church meet at that hourc 
of the day, whichf all circamftances confidered)is moft con- ' 
venicnr. If therefore there be no error inobfervationof the 
circumftances,thathoure which by their due confidcration is 
affigned for meeting 5 muft be acknowledged as if it were ap- 
pointed by God. 

28.The fpeciall manner ofthc worftiip of God muft be fpc- 
cially determined, as the fpeciall nature of every religious 
a<Sion doth require. 29.Hitherto 

Oftk manner of Divine rporjliip. 281 

ZQ. Huh^^rtQ peininrth the right m^nn^r of hearing the 
Word of God 3 calling upon his name, receiving the Sa- 
cramentSjexercilingEcelefiafricall Difcipline^ard of perform- 
ing all thofe feverali things , which percaineeither to the na- 
turall or inltituted vvorthipof God. EzfcL^^.^i. Mat.j^» i^^ 
I Cor.ii.2y.2^, S'jajf 66.^. 

3®. But bccaufe in Oathes the manner of fwearing is wont 
tobe chiefly refpecled, therefore j( not without alfreilbh) 
it is wont to be by many referred to this place in the third 
Commandemcnt , although of its owne nature it pcrtaine 
tothefirft.L^t^/nV/^ I9-I2.'JK^^5.34. 2 Chrorj. 56.13, 

31. Contrary to this due manner in the generall if .^i. That 
vice which is called of (onie Acedia iK^thing^ whereby one 
loatheth Divine or fpirituall things.2 77«k'.4.3. Which is op- 
poled to that defire, whereby we ought to hiave an appetite to 
fpirjltu.dl things. I Pet. 2 t. 

5^. %. That flothfalnefle whereby ont (huaaes that checr- 
fulfieffc and labour that is required to Divine things.^<5«^.i2. 
1 1. Which is oppoled to that ftirring up and heat of mind, 
whereby Divine things are to be profecutcd. Rom. 1 2. 11. & 

33. gt Ncglcft and contempt of holy things.and the abufe 
of the fame to filthy fporting,and light matters, all which are 
oppoiedtothac reverence due to holy things.Z,/^^. 19.46. 

34. 4. Dalneffeandwandringofmindinexercifesofwor- 
{hip. Hek^.iu Ezech.^^.^i. And it is oppofed to devotion, 
fuch as was in ^^?"«^/^^.^^'io,2. 

' }5 5, Raflineffborlightncfleinufingjeitherthe name, or 
titles ot God^or thofe things which have fome fpecial refpeft 
to God. ^^'^•23«34. Luc. 1 3. i. And it is appofed to that pro- 
fccutingof a jaft end^which ou^bt to be pretent with reverence 
in the ufe of iiich things, i Cor. 1 1 . 17. 

36, 6.Forgetfulncfl[e./^7» J i. 24525. Which is oppofedto 
the receifing of fruit, and abiding of th« vertue which ought 
to follow the afts of religion. 

37* 7. Confufion^ which is appofed to order and decency. 

C A Pi, X V • 

of the time ofworfidp* 

Chapter XV^ 

Of the time ofworjhif. 

i.f I ' H E moftfokmnc time of worfhip is now the 
I firft day of every week which is called the Lords day, 

t. And it is called the Lords Day, by the fame reafon that 
the holy Supper of the EuGharift is called the Lords Supper. 
I ^or.ii.20. Namely becaiifc it wasi inftituted by our Lord 
JefusChrift, and it mirilbe referred to the fame Lord in the 
end and ufe of it. 

3. It is neceflary that (brae time be given tor the worftiip of 
God , by the diftate of naturall realbn : for man rauft needs 
have time for alJj efpecially his outward actions ; neither can 
he conveniently attend Divine worftiip , unleflfe for that time 
he ccale from other workes. 

4. Thus far therefore the time of worftiip falls upon the 
fame precept with the worftiip it fclfe ; for as when God 
created che whole world , he is faid alfo to have created time 
together with it ; fo alio when he commanded, and ordained 
religious aftionSj he did alfo withal command and ordaine 
fometime or neceffary circumftance. 

5. That fome certaine day is to be ordained for the more 
folemne worftiip of Godj this is alfo of morall naturall right, ^* 
not unknownc to the very hcathen^who had alwayes through 
alages ; their fet and folemne fcaft dayes, 

6. Ihatthisfolemneday oughttobeoneatleaftinawcek 
or in the compafle of (even 5 this belongs to pofitive Law, but 
yet \i is altogether of unchangable inftitution ; fo that in ' 
refpeft of our duty and obligation it hath the very fame force 
and reafon with thofetbatare of morall and naturall right, 
and fo it is rightly (aid of the Schoolmen, to belong to moral 
right;not of nature^but ot Difcipliiie. 

y.That this inftitution was not ccren:;onia)Land temporal!; 
it appeares fufficiently by this ^ that it hath nothing proper 


of the tme of Divine mt/hip^ 283 

to the Jey^es^ or to the time of the cercmoniall Law 5 for none 
carij or dare deny, but that ftich determination might be 
made,at leaft for a morall reafon and benefit,becaufe although 
fiaturall rcafon doth not diftatc the very (ame determinati- 
on as neceflary 5 yet it dilates it as con?enient5 as it doth 
apprehend it to b€ fit that the worfliip of God be frequently 
cxercifed , and it cannot but acknowledge this determinati- 
on ia refpeft of the frequency of the dayes to be in ckis ttfytdi 

%. The fame alfo is manifeft by this that from the begia* 
ning of the Creation, when there was no place for ceremonies 
that had rcfpeft to Chrift the Redeemer the feventh dayi 
or one of (even was fct apar» for the wor&ip of Godt 

9. For whereas fome dot cantendj that this was fpoken by 
aprokpfis or anticipation ; of that the feventh day was at 
that time (anftified in the mind and purpofi of 'God , not in 
execution: or that then there was a foundation laid of that; 
fan^ification to come 5 and not the obligation or Law it 
felfe. This may be refuted by divers arguments. Fori. This 
anticipation never came into any mans mind who was 
not before anticipated with prejudice about the bbfcrvatioa 
of the Lords Day. Ih^Iewes of old didneverdreameof it; 
whofe received opinion ws«, that this feaft was '^'f^P^/^or, xc^ 
rS >co(rp yimi^v among all Nations from the beginning of the 
World. Philo m^iv^o^ix.^. 14, la the newTeftameaC there is 
>nofuch thing taught or declared. The authors themlclves of 
this opinion doe grant it to be probable,that fome obferva- 
tion of the ftv^enth day , did begin from the beginning of the 
Creation. Suar z, ic dichHs Fell. The beil interpreters (Lu^ 
theryC^tvin^ &c. ) Whom none will affirme to have ofFcaded 
• on that fide in giving too much to the Lords Day, doe 
£mply, and candidly acknowledgc,that the feventh day was 
fanftificd from the beginning of the World. 2. There can* be 
no example given of (iich like anticipation in all the Scrip- 
tare : for although the name of certaine places are fometime 
fifed, prolepticalIy,erpecially in the booke of Genefis^ yet 
there is no mention at all of fuch a prolcpticall Inftitution, 
cither in that bookc, or in any other of the whole facred 

O o Scripmrti' 

of the tim ^fDhim Wdrjhip* 

Scripture. }. The words and phrafcs of the very pUcc cviact 
thccoiitrary.(7^»,a.i^3,Forthe pcifcdion of theGrcatioais 
twice joyncd together with the fanftification of the fcventh 
day m the very faoic manner and phrafc, as the Creation 
both ofothcr Creatures and-ef man him felfc, IS jjyned with 
their bleffing. Genefis,28. 4.Neither thcpiirpofe 
of Godj nor a naked foundation of the thing it felfe fufficcth^ 
to ground and uphold fuch a phrafe of Sandiification and 
Benedi(5tion. Forby thisrcafon it might be faid^that God 
fanftified Water , Bread and Wine for the Sacraments ofithc 
New Covenant^ from the time that he gave the promife of 
breaking the Serpents head by the feed of the woman, Genefis 
5.15. For then God did purpofe to feale that covenant of 
grace by fuch fcales , (bme foundation of which feales alfo 
was laid partly in the promife it felft , and partly in the 
creation ofthofe thin-gs whichmight aftually be ufed to fuch 
fealing. 5. From fuch a foundation laid in the firft Crearion, 
the Prophet gathers a perpetuall rule and Law* Malac*2.'t^. 
Did he not make one ? and why one I To fceke a godly feed. 
So in like manner may we : did not God rcit the fcvenih day > 
and why the feventh day V to fanftifie the feventh day to 
God. 6. Upon this very thing the arguing of the Apoftle 
feemes to begrounded, Hebrews 4 3543 5, 7^ 8, 9. Which is 
thus. There was a double reft mentioned in the Old Tcfta* 
inentj whereof the godly were made partakers in this lifca 
One was of the Sabbath ^ and the other was of the Land of 
Canaan : but David Ffalme py. promiiTHig reftg fpeaketh^* 
not of the reft of the Sabbath, becau(e that was from the be- 
ginning of the World ; nor of the reft in the Land of C/t- 
naan^ becaufe that was paftgUOt to be expected . To day there- 
fore be underftands a certaine third reft 3 that is, eternallin 

10. Neither doth it any thing hinder this truth 5 that it 
is not recorded in the Hiftory of Genefts , that the obfervati- 
on of the feventh day was folemny kept by the firft F^^ri- 
^rchf. For i# All and every thing which was obftrved by 
them for a thoufand and five hundred yeares, neither could 
nor ought to be particularly declared in fo fiiort a Hiftory 
^s is that oi Gf^ejjf. Alfo after ihe Law oft he Sabbath de- 


of the time of Divine wotJSjtp* a8 5 

liyercd by Mofes , there is no mention in the bookc of 
Indies and feme other Hiftories , of the cbfervation of it. 2. 
If this very thing be granted that the obfervationofthisday 
was for the moft part neglcc'led, yet this ought no more to 
make the firft inftitution doubtful! , then Polygamy of the 
fame times can (hew that the facred Lawes of Wedlock were 
not cqHall in time with the very firft mariage. 3. Before the 
promulgation of the Law in Mount Shai ^ the obfervation 
of the Law is propounded and urged.not as a new thing , but 
ordainedofold. £a;^^^ itf.24.30. Which although it may 
be affirmed of (acrifices and fome other ceremoniall obfer- 
vations » yet in the Sabbath, there (eemes to be for the realbns 
before put , a certaine refped: had unto the firft inftitution, 
which was equal] in time with mans Creation , which is alfo 
declared in the )^o^^. Verfe in that word of the time pafti 
hath given you 5 &c. 4. Among the very Heathens, tnere 
were alwayes thoTe foot-fteps of the oblcrvation of the (c- 
venth day 3 that it is more then probable, thae theobftr- 
vation of the fevcnth day was delivered them from thoft Pa^ 
mVf ^^ whofe pofterity they vtctcdofephni in his laft book 
' againft (!x^/>f ^^^5 denies, That there can be found anicity 
^either of the ^reekes^ or "BarbArians , which had not taken 

* the refting from labour on the feventh Day, into their own 
•manners. Qcmens AlexanirinHS^Lih.^. Stramat* doth de- 
^monftrate the fame thing alfo : on ih i^^oi^tiP hpiv 4 ^m U 
« Ei3pct7tfi, * AA* >ca/ 01 ih^y\n<; "Irtt^i • That not only the Hetrewes^ 

but the Greek£s alfo obferve the feventh Day* Eufeb. dc 
^ prefnratione SvangelicaMb. 13, afirmeth, that not only tha 
« Hebrewes , but almoft all as well Philofophers as Poets.did 

* know that the fcventh day was more holy- Lampridituin 
^ Alexandro Severo , tells that on the fefenth day , when he 

* was in the City, he went up to the CapitoU and frequented 

* the Temples% Neither is it far from this purpofe that holy- 
•dayeswerc wont to be granted to children inSchoolesoa 

* the feventh day. Luciantu in Pfendo/ogifia, Anlus gellitu. 
^ //•! 3.^.2. And fome heathen DoftorSjWerc wont to difputc 

* only upon the Sabbaths^as Suetonius relates of one Diogenes. 
' lib.^.lieft0d. lib. 2. Dierum.lB.mV;'^ f«f«»' ^i^^S.^Linm i/^^of^^rn 

Oo 2 >iTrtAaji 

2B6 Ofth^ time of Divine worflyip. 

ys;i9A>j. 5. TheforaisrtVgctfuIneffeorcarelefneflTajandneg- 
l'2ftofthisd4y , is ea(ily re>:ac to be reproved by that Cimc 
horticory wa:d which is ufei in the beginning of the fonrth 
Com nandemeut. Remember. 

II. But the right , and morall perpetuall authority of 
thisiniUtution is moft of all declared from this^ that it is ex- 
prcfly commanded in the Decalogue ^ for this is a nK)ftcer- 
tainerule, and received among all the beft Divines 5 That 
uiorall precepts were thus differenced from ceremonialls aad 
ludicialls, that all and onely moralls were publickly pro- 
claimed before all the people o( Ifrael (torn Mcunt*yiW ^ by 
the voyce of God himfelfe^and afterward alfo written, and 
written againe as it were by the finger of God himftlfej and 
that in Tables of ftoncj to declare their perpctuall and un- 
changeable continuance; Chrift alfo doth exprefly tcftific 
that not one Jot 5 or tittle ©f this Law fliould perifta 
Matthiw ^a^. 

12. That which is commanded in the fourth Commandc- 
©lent, is not indeed of a morall nature in the fame degree and 
manner altogether with thoft things that are com^E^a^ded5 
for themoft part in all the other Commandcment^ ; becaufe 
it belongs to pofitive right, whence alfo it is, that where-* 
as the three former Commandenients were propounded ne* 
gatively , by forbidding thofe vices unto which we are pronfr 
by tlTc pravity of our nature^ this fourth Coi»maRdcmenc 
is firft propounded affirmatively in declaring, andcomsna^- 
dingthat which in this part pertaines unto our duty, ani? 
afterward Rcgatively, by forbidding thofe things which are 
repugnant to this duty 5 which al(b is in part thereafoti 
of that admonition which is fpecially prefixed before this 
precept, remember the Sabbath day, that is, remember ta 
keepcthisday,a8 it is explained, Z)^/^^5.i8. Because it may 
more eafily be forgotten, feeing it belongs topofitiverightj 
then many other things which are more natural!* Yet this 
pofitive right upon which this ordinance is grounded , is 
Divine right^ and in refpeft of man altogether unchanged 

1 3. Thofe who turne this fourth Commandemcnt into al- 
legQues of a eeffaUon from finnes , and frp^n the troubles of 



of the time ofI>ivine vporjidif. 2^7 

thislife^and iuchlikc, and thence doe faignc a fbiirefold , or 
a fivefold Sabbath^according to their manner who play with 
Allegories, they attribute notliingat all to this merrxber 
of thcdecalogtie^which doch not as well, and much more pro- 
perly agree to many Jewilh ccrcmonies^^vvhich arc now u holy 

14. But thofe that would have this precept cercmoniall 
(asthcy would hav^ the (econd to be alio) bendes that they 
are fuffictently refuted, by thole things which have becae 
fpoken before, they contradift the expreffe teAiinony of 
ScripLure,which affirmes that ten words , or morall precepts 
are contained in the decaIogue,£^(?^.34.i 8.'Z)c'^r,4. 13. & 1 0. 
4. Where they leave only nine, or rather eight. 

15. The J who would have that only to be morall in thi,s 
precept^ that fome time , or feme ccrtaine daycs ^ fhouldbe 
affigned to Divine worfliip, doe no more mate this ordinance 
to be morall, then was the building of the Tabernacle and 
Temple amoag the levpes. For by that very thing this was 
dechred to all t<^ be the perp^tuall Will of Ood, that fome fie 
placeisalwayesto be appointed for Church meetings, and 
publick cxercifcs of Divine worfhip : fo that by this reafon, 
there is no more a morall precept givea touching fom? time 
ofwor&ipjthen there isgiven touching the place^and To nei- 
ther that indeed (which only they leave in the fourth pre- 
cept,) Thou (halt observe Feaft-dayes, ought any more to 
be put in the Decalogue thea this, Thou (halt frequent the 
J Temples 

i5» Moreover^the ycarely FeaSs,new Mooncs^and the like 
ordinances, which were mecrcly cercmoniall doecontaine 
that gencrall equity alio in them 5 and doe ftill teach us that 
fome certaine and fit dayes ought to be appointed for pub" 
lick worfhipriinallyjby thisicaron God fhould by this Com- 
mandement command (cverall men , nothing at .all : for 
feeing the inftitution of dayes by this opinion is only com- 
manded immediatly, and it is not in the power of private 
men to ordainethefe or thofe dayes for publick worlhip , by 
this meanes nothing at all fhoald be commanded but at their 
will who are in publick office.: neither {hould any thing be 
commaadcd themjn rpeciallj but only in g^nerall-^ t;hat they 

Oo 3 doe j 

of the time ofDivme wor/fjipl 
doe according to their vvifdome in fefcUng apart daycg to 
publicke worfhip, fo that if it feeme good to them to appoint 
one day of twenty or thirty to this ufe , they cannot be re- 
proved of any fin in thisrclipeftj as if they broke this Com- 

17. If there were ever any thing ccremoniall in the Sab- 
bath in refpeft of the very obfervation of the day 5 that is to 
be accounted for a thing added to it^ or a conftitution com- 
ming extrinfecally 5 beyond the nature of the Sabbath ^ and 
the nrft inftitation of it ^ and fo it nothing hinders but the 
inftitution of the ftventh day was fimply morall : for fo there 
was a cercmoniall refpcft of fomc type added to fomc other 
Commandenients 3 as in the authority of Fathers, and the 
firft borne of Familics,which pertaine to the firft Coramandc- 
mentj there was a certaine adumbration of Chrift, who is the 
firft begotten among the Sons of God. 

18. Neither yet doth it certainly appcare in the Scriptures, 
that there was any ceremony properly fo called , or type, in 
the obfervation of the fcventh day : forwhereas, Het.^.^ 
there is mention made of a fpirituall Sabbatifmc , prefigured 
before by a type , it is under the refpeft of a type referred 
only to the reft prpmifed in the Land of Canaan^ and by com* 
parifbn of things like , to the reft of God ; but in no fort, 
or in the leaft fignification is it referred to the reft com- 
manded in the fourth Commandement 3 as unto a type or 

19. But whereas in £W*ji. 13.17. Knd E^ch.io, 2€m 
The Sabbath is called afignc betweencGod and his people^ 
it cannot thence be made a type or reprefentation of any 
future grace : Becaufe i. A fignc doth often note the fame 
that an argument , or inftru^ion , as alfo the moft learned 
interpreters doe note upon Exodns^x. It isafignebctwcen 
me, &c. that is^an inttruftion. Soourmutuallloveisafignc 
that we are the Difciplcs of Chrift. lohni^.^^. Butitisnot 
a type* 2. The Sabbath in thofc places is not faid to be a 
fignc of feme thing to come, but prefent, as every vifiblc 
concomitant adjunft is a ligne of the (ubjcft being pr^nt. 
For in the obftrvation of the Sabbath thcreis acommon^and 
publike profcffion of that coEnmuaion wbkh is between God 


of the time of Divine worfijip. m ^ 

ftnd u$:as therefore al folemn prcfeflTion is aligne of that thing 
U'hercof it is a profeffion, fo alfo the Sabbath is in that com- 
mon refpefl called a fignc. 

to. And this is the mod proper reafon, why the obftr- 
vationoftheS-ibbathisfomuch urgedj and the breaking of 
it To ftverely punilhcd in the old Teftament : namely becauft 
there was in the Sabbath a common andpublikc profcffion of 
all Religion; for this Gommandementasit is aclofeofthe 
firft Tible of the Law,doth thus fummarily conraine the whole 
worfhipofGod, whileft it commands a ccrtaine day for all 
the cxercifcs thereof. EyQj' 5^.2. 

21. There were many ceremoaies ordained about the ob- 
fcrvation of the Sabbath : but the obftrvation of the Sabbath 
was no more made ccremoniall by them, then ic was judi- 
cial! or politicalljbecaufe of thoft jiadiciali LaweSj whereby it 
was then provided that it flbould be celebrated moft religi- 

2 2. That accommodation of the fourth Commandcment 
untothefpeciall ftateofthe/^75^^/i which was ia theobler- 
vation of the fevcnth day from the beginning of the Crea- 
tion, doth no more make the precept it lelfe cercmoniall^then 
the promife of the Land oi Canaan , made to the people of 
Ifrael^ That thou mayft live long in the Land which the Lord 
thy God giveth thee 5 makes the fift Gommanderaent cere- 
moniall : or more then that Preface, I am the Lord thy God 
which brought thee out of the Land of Efjft^ makes all the 
Commandementsceremoniall. ^ 

23* It may indeed be granted that a more ftrift obfervation 
of the Sabbath was commanded in thole day es5 applied to the 
Xim^ of Pedagogy and bondage , which is not of force in all 
g^ges 5 yet this hinders not but the oblervation it felfe is plain- 
ly morall and common to all ages* 

24. Yet there can be nothing brought o^it of the Scrip- 
tures, which was at any time commanded about the ftrift 
obfcrvation of the Sabbath to the Jewes / which by the fame 
reafon doth not pertains to all Ghriftians, except the kind- 
ling of fires , and preparing their ordinary food. Ex9d,^'^t 
5.& 16.14. And thole precepts feeme to have been (peciall, 
and given uDon partiwlac occ^lion 5 for there is noting 


2^Q efthe time &f Divine worfljip'i 

faid about the kindling of fire, but in the building of the 
Tabernacle 3 which God would declare was boc fo holy a 
workcbutit might and ought to be intermitted on the Sab- 
bath day. Neither is there any mention of the preparing of 
viftualls, but when manna was by a miracle fent from Hea- 
ven ^ which ivas alfo by a aiiracle prelerved on the Sabbath 
day. And by the Hiftory of Chrift it appcares very likely that 
he did approve of preparing viftualls,donc by kindling of a 
fire , upon the Sabbath day. For being invited by the lewes 
to a feaft which was had on the Sabbath day, be refu(ed not 
to be prcCcnt.Luc. i^.i.Scc. 

2 $• Whereas the reafon of the Sabbath doth fomctimefeem 
to be referred to the delivering of the people of Ifyael out of 
the captivity oi Egypt ^ it doth not turnethe Sabbath into 
a ceremony. For i. AH the Commandements are in fome 
fortreferredco the fame deliverance, as appeares by the Pre- 
face of the decalogue. 2. It doth not appeare that the Sab- 
bath it felfe had any Angular relarion to this deliverance, 
but that there is mention made of the deliverance out of 
Bgjft^ Deut.').i'y. For that reafon onely 5 that feeing the 
JfrAelites had been fcrvante before mSgyft^ they ought the 
laore readily and willingly grant this time of reft* to their 

26. Whereas the laft day of the wccke was of old obftrved, 
this wasanciently ordained by Gcd from the timeofthefirft 
Greation^becaufe God did that day ceaie from the workes of 
Creation. ' r 

27. Whereas the laft day of the weebe is now changed in- 
to the firft day, this was not done by humane, but Divine 
authority. For he only can change the day of the Sabbath, 
who is Lord of the Sabbath, that is, Chrift. Marc^ 12. 8. 
Whence alfo.that firft day which (uccecded^is properly called 
the Lords Day. 

28. If this Lords Day be granted to have been of apofto- 
Kcallinftitution, yet that authority which it is built upon, 
is nevcrthelefle divine j becaufe the Apoftles were no Ic^ 
f uided by the fpirit in holy itaftitutionSj then in propounding 
file doAririe of the Gofpell, either in word or Writing?* 

^^t Alfa (eeing this infiitmion was grounded upon rio (pe- 

of the time of Divine tcorjhip. 29c 

ciall occafion that was to continue for a time only, whereby 
it migfat be made temporary, it doth neccfla'^ily toUoWj thac 
the minde of the Ordainers was , that the oblervacioii of thii 
day (houtd be of perpetual! and unchangeable right, 

30* Yet it is more likely that: Chrifthiinfclfe was the au- 
thor of this inftitutjon m his owne pcrfon. i. Becaufe *: h. ift 
was no IcflTe faithfuil in ordering his whole houfe, or the 
Church of God, as touching all things that are generally ne- 
ccflTary & ufcfuU then was M9fes,Hek^,2.6.Biit no Chriftlan 
can with any reafon deny that the obfcrvatton of this day is 
generally-profitable & in fome Ibrt neccflary for the Church- 
es of ChrilK a Becaufe Chrift himfclfe did often appeare 
upon this very day to his Difciples gathered together in one 
place after the rcfurreftion, Mp^ 2o.ij?.25. 3. Becaufe bee 
powrcd out the holy Spirit upon them this very day, ABs 2:. 
4* In the praftife of the Churches in the time of the Apoftlcs 
when there is mention made ofthisobfervation ofthcfirft 
day, ^ABi 70.7, i Cor, i6.2. ft is not remcmbred as fome late 
Ordinance 3 but as a thing a good while received among all 
the Difciples of Chrift* 5# The Apoftles did in all things de- 
liver thole things to the Churcheswhich they had received 
of Chrift, I C(?r. 1,1.23. 6* This inftitution could not be de- 
ferred not one week after the death of Chrift, and that law of 
one day in every week to be fanftified according to the deter- 
mination of God him(elfe remaine firme : which law hath 
" becne demonftrated before to beofperpetuall right. For the 
TuWifh Sabbath was in refpeft ofthe determination which it 
had to the levcnth day abrogate in <\\t death of Chrift : 
For whereas it is read chat the Apoftles fometimc after were 
prefent in the affemblies ofthe Jewes th.it diy of theSabbath, 
Ahhx^.i^ic 16.13.& 17.2.& i8.4.they did that chiefly in 
that rcfpcft becaufe chen was the fitteft occa(ion to preach 
the Gorpell to the Jewes ; as alfo afterward the Apoftle did 
greatly defirc to be ac Jerusalem on the d^y of Pencecoftjt^^/ 
20.16. becaufe at that time there was the greateftconcourfe 
of the Jewes to be in that place. 7. If the inftitution ofthe 
Lords day wasdcferrcd to long, till the Apoftles had made a 
reparation from the Jewes, and had their meetings apart, ASls 
18,6,7. & X 918. as fome would have it $ then all that fpace of 

P time 

^^2 0//^e time 4 f Divine worJJnf. 

time v;lrch came betwecne the dt'a^h of Chrift anJ this fepa- 
ration Avhich w^s above three ycarcs 5 the fourth Cottiman- 
dement had bound none to that obfervation of any day : bc- 
cauft the Jcxves day was already aboIiOied, and by this opini- 
on there w^is no new brought in the roomc, and fb there were 
only nine precepts in force all that time. 8. Ihereafonit 
feifeoithi? change confirmcs the fmie, which isbythecon- 
fcnc of all referred to the refurrcclion ofChcift : namely^be- 
canfe this day the creation of the new world or the world to 
come, Hck2. 5. in which all things were made new^ 2 ^^^•5t 
ij.waspecfcfted, fo that God did now in Chrift riling again 
from the dead ccafeor re U from his greateft work. As there- 
fore in the beginning of the creation, when God refted froni 
his workes. hethea blcffed and faoftified that day wherein he 
did reft : fo alfo it was meet that that very day wherein Chrift 
did reft from his labours, himfclfc alfa fhouldfanftifiethe 
fame day. Neither is that eafily to be rejefted which is urged 
by fome of the Ancients, out of fy^/. 118.2 4, F^//;V^/;^^jr 
rvhich the Lord hath made ; for in that very place is treated pf 
Chrifts rcfiirrection, as Chrift himfclfe ioterprecs,^^^^.!!.^^. 
9. It was alfo moft oueet that the day of worftip in the New 
TcftAHicnt Ihould be ordained by him, by whom thv worlhip 
it fclfe was ordained ^ and from whom all blefling and grace 
is to be expcftcd in all worftiip. 

• 31. They who account the obleivationofthc Lords day 
for a tradition not written , they are hereby iufficicntly rcfii- ' 
ted. 1 . Beciufe there is no one thing which depends upon t^> 
dition not written of fuch momcnt,as is the obfervation of the 
Lord^ day, by common confent^ aad the confent of all Chri- 
itians almoir. 2. By this meanes there is a doore opened to 
bringin divers fuperftitions, and humane devices into the 
Church ot God 5 or at leaft to prop them up when thsy are 
broughtin. 3. Many aaaong the Papiftsareaftiamedofthis 
iivention: tor although all the Papifts to cloak their fuper- 
ftitions 3 are wont to give too much to Ecclefiafticall traditi- 
on? , yet in the obfervation of the Lords day that impreffion 
of Divine authority appeares that it hath compelled not a few 
of them, to afcribe it not to any humane^ but to Divine right. 
^ "Bjinncs in z.l.q* 44. ^. I. t/f;ith:^r fi^ppUmsmi ddfkmmam Ti* 


of the time of Divine worpnf. 295 

^ fanAmverh.Dominici I Abhiu in eapJicet defcr.ft.^.^^f^g, 
^ver.ftrui, r.3. Stive fier. ver. Dominica ^Xy^ ^lexoinder a]^ 
^ fo the third Pope of Rome in the very Canon liw, dfcriu 
^ cap. licet affirmcSj that the Scripture as well of the old as ne/j 
' 1 eftament, bath fpecially deputed the (evcnth day for man? 
^reft, that is (as Su^rf^intcrptttsdedicl?.fijl.cap.i.) fcorh 
^ Teftaments have approved the manner of deputing every fe- 
' vcnth day of the week for the reft of man 5 which is to depute 
' the feventh day formally , although materially the fame was 
^ not alwayes deputed : and in this manner it is true that that 
^ feventh day in the old law was the Sabbath , and in the new 
Ms the Lords day, 4. They among themfelves who account 
the Lords day among traditions doe account baptizing of 
children alfo and that with greater (hew in the ftme place and 
number. But all our DivineSj who have anfwered the Papifts 
touching thofe examples of traditions , do alwaycs contend 
that thofe inftitutions and all other which are of the fame 
profit and neccflity , are to be found in the Scriptures thcm- 

3s. Thofe things which arc wont to be brought on the 
contrary out of tke Scriptures, Rom»ii\,.'^, Gal,^.\o. CgL2.i6. 
do nothing at all hinder this truth. For firft, in all thole pla- 
ces the obfervation of fomc day to religious u(e by the ordi- 
nance of Chrift^ is no more condemned or denied, then the 
choife ot fomc certaine meat to a religious ufe by the ordi- 
nance of the fame Chrift : but no Chriftian is fo void of all 
rcafon , that he would conclude but of thofe places, that the 
choife of bread and wine in the LordsSupper for a religious 
uft, is either unlawfullj or not ordained by Chrift: neither 
therefore can any thing be concluded from them againft the 
obfervation of the Lords day by the ufeandinftitutionof 
Chrift. Secondly, the Apoftle Rom. 1 4. doth exprcfly fpeakc 
of that eftimation of dayes, which did at that time breed of- 
fence am ong Chriftians ; but the obfervation of the Lords day 
w^ the Apoftle himfelf teacheth, had at that time taken place , 
in all tbe Churches, 1 C^r.i6,i. & 2. could not giveany occa- ' 
fionx)f offence. Thirdly, it is moft like that the Apoftle in that I 
place doth treat of chafing of dayes to eat or refufe certaine] 
meats ; for the qucftion of that difpute is propounded verfe 2. 

P 2 of 

2 54 ^'^^ '^^^ of Divine worflnp. 

of meats only : in the 5. and 6. vcrfts, the eftecme of a duty is 
joy ned with ic as pertaining to the fame thing, and afterward 
through all the red of the Chapter he treats only of meatSjina- 
king no mention of dayes. Fourcbly^ in that place to the C?^- 
latians, it is exprcfly treated of that obftrvati ^n of daycSj mo- 
neths, and yeares, which pertained to the bondage of 
weake and beggerly elements,Chap«4.9. but it was farrefrom 
the ApoHie, and altogether ftrange to Chriftian religion fo 
to account any precept of the Decalogue, or any ordinance 
of Chrift. Fifthly, in C^l* 2. it is fpecially and exprefly trea- 
ted of thofe Sabbaths which were of the famekindewich 
new MooneSj and were ceremoniali (badowes of things to 
come in Chrift : but the Sabbath commanded in the Deca- 
logue and our Lords day arc altogether of another nature, as^ 
bath been before demonftrated. 

33. Neither is Chriftian liberty at alldiminifhedbythis 
opinionj (as fome without caufe do (eemetofearej foritis 
not a liberty, but a licentioufnefle not Chriftian, if any think 
themfelves freed from the obfervation of any precept of the 
Decalogue , or from the inftitutions of Chrift : and experi- 
ence alibteachcth that licentioufnefle, and negled: of holy 
things doth more and more prevaile,where a due refpcft is not 
had of the Lords day. 

34. Neicher aifo was A^dm{{\h]t^ to any bofidagc^becaufc 
be was tyed to fandifie the feventfa day by a fpeciali obfer- 

35, But as the beginning of fhe old Sabbath was at t^e 
fvening; becaufe the Creation alfo began at the evening, be* . 
caufc the common mafle was created before the light, and the 
reflation of the day from the work of Creation began alfo at 
the evening ; fo alfo the beginning of chc Lords day doth 
fceme to begin from the morning of that day, becaufe the re 
farredion of Chrift was betimes in the morning, Mark^i6.9: 

36a For the right obfervation of this day two things arc- 
^ neccfiiryj reft, and the fanftification of this reft. 

37. The reft which is required is a cefl^^tion from every 
worke which might hinder the excrcifts of Divine worfeip : . 
,we muft therefore abftaine that day. i • From all thofe works 


Of the time of Divine v^orfljif. 29 5 

lUfhich are prapcrly called lervile ; for feeing fuch Works we^c 
of old by namecxcludcd^in all other folcmnc \tz&%^Levit.2^. 
7.8,25 32.36,A^/i^^. 28.15. much more were they excluded 
from the Sabbath. 

38. But itisridiculuusby (ervile worke&toiinderftandfiiis 
or mercenary good workcs^ or done (after the manner of fer- 
vantsj for reward (as fomcdoiindtrlland them by a cert ihie 
Allegoricall fport :) for fins are not forbidden and unlawfull 
at fomecertaiaetimes, but ahvayes and every where : neither 
doth it pertain to the fourth CommanJcment to deal with all 
finnes to be forbidden 5 although this may in fome ftnce be 
granted that divers (innes doc take fome aggravation from 
thence if they be committed upon (b holy a day, T;^^; 58.4. 
tbofc evill workes alio which are done iipon feare or hepe, 
that is, altogether fervilc, have in rclpcfl: of their manner the 
fame i.ature with other linj. 

39. But fervilc workes are properly thofe, to the perfor- 
mance whereof fcivants or fervile men are wonttobeufed, 
fuch as arc mechanick workes , and all thoie to the perfor- 
mance whereof great labour ot the body is required, as to 
plough, to dig, &c. 2. Befides thcfe worker there are forbid- 
den alfo upon that day all workes that arc ours : as is gathe- 
red from the oppofite conceffion which is given in the fourth 
precept. Six dayes (halt thou worke and doall thy work. 

40. Whence we may gather with the words tollowing, 
on the Sabbath day thou (halt doe no worke : that all tha(c 

I works are forbidden which are propedy called ours^alt hough 
they be not to fpeak ftriftly, fervile, or mechanicall. 

41. Now thofe arc our workes which pcrtaiwe to the u(es 
ofthislife^ thatisj which are exercifed in naturall and civill 
things, and do properly pertaine to air gaine and profit : of 
which kinde are thofe which cf their owne nature arc not 
(ervile but liberall 5 asftudyingSj cxercifesofliberallarts'^ 
much more tiiofe which are common to iit^ men and (ervant^j 
as to jorney, to handle civill eaules, &c. 

42. For i'o this phrafe is explained, Ef^j 'yZ^y Ye do that , 
which delighteth you^that ye may exa^fl all your Iabours,that 
is^yc do carefully your owne matters, Verfc 13. doing thine 
owne wayes. Bjt becaufc £/^j.^^ in that Chapter doth alfo 


of the time of Divine Vfiorjhip^ 

and chiefly treat of wicked aftions ^ and thofc workcs which 
arc unUwfull at all times, asappearethverfe^, Therefore 
fome godly Divines do feerac to crre, who arc wont to gather 
out oUhat place, that every word or thought that is hu nane, 
or pcrtaincs to mcn^ufed on the Lords day, is to be accounted 
fihne. for all humane words, deeds, or thoughts upon that 
day, whereof that Chapter handleth, (^whether it be the Sab- 
bath properly called, or a folemnc feaft) arc not there judged 
to be impertinent, and in that rcfpeft limply reprehended ; 
but thofe only which are wont to concerne our gaiae , either 
fimply unlawfull or repugnant to holy exercifeSj as appcarcs 
verfe 3.& 6* Concerning iiich (ervilc and vulgar workcs there 
is fuch a drift law , that upon the Sabbath day men may not 
go on in their work , no not in time of plowing and harvcft 
{imply ; that is, at thofe, times which aremoft opportune and 
as it were ncccffary for mans life, f'W.34.ii, Norintbofe 
things which doe mediately and remotely pcrtainc to holy 
things, as was the building of the Tabcrnaclc^flv^i/.jr. 15. 
Much lefle is it lawfaU to enter into any ordinary journey, 
Exod. 1 6. or to frequent Marts or Faires, Nehem, i j. 

43. Yet here arc excepted; i« All thofe workes which 
belong to common honefty : for feeing at all other times wc 
ought, fo cfpecially upon that day which is fpccially dedica- 
ted to Divine worfttip, to behave and carry our fclves decent- 
ly : all thdfe things which doe iimplypertainc thereunto arc 
undcrftcod to be permitted. 2. Thofe things which are im- 
j^fed on us by fome lingular neceflity. Mat. 12.11. In which 
number notwithftanding thofe things arcnottobeaccoun* 
tedj which men make or fainc to themfelves as neceflary : but 
thofe things which it appcarcs to be neceflary and unavoid- 
able, by the providence of God, and which wc arc not aware 
of, that is, when fuch a nccelfity urgeth as the Scripture it felf 
allowcs as a fiifficrcnt caufe to do any ordinary thing. 7. All 
thofe works which do direftly refpeft the worfliip and glory 
ofGod,J<f^r.i2.5, Ma? 5^.839. For in that cafe thofe workes 
whichareofthcirowncna'urefervilcj do paflc into the na- 
ture of holy aftions, neither are they properly cur workes, but 
Gods works. 

44 This reft, although in it fclfc abfolutely confidcred, it 

Of the time of Divine t»drj})ip* 2 ^ : 

h not, reither ever was a part of worftiip ; yetas it is coniimn- 
ded oiGoJasacertaineneccflaiy thing unto his worfhip,||nd 
isrcterrcd alfo to it, fo far it is a part ot that obedience whith 
pertciines to religion and the worfhip of God. 

45. The fanftification of this reft and day is a fpeciall ap- 
plying of our feives to worfhip God3Upon that day which is 
intimated in tho(ephra(e«5 He raniSihed that day ^ and it is 
a Sabbath to the Lord thy God. 

46- Here publick ivorfhip ought chiefly to be rcfpcitedj 
whence alfo it is that the Sabbath is called an holy Convoca- 
tion, Zf^/V. 23 13, «x^ff/ 13.14. & 15.23 & 16.13. But that 
that publick convocation of the Church ought to be had both 
before and <ifter noone upon the Loi^s day, it appeares fuffi- 
ciencly, by that double burnt offeringof the Sabbath, in the 
morning and the evening, iV//w.28,^. 

47. But the reft of the day ought to be fpent in excrcifes 
of piety : for although there was of old an offering peculiar to 
the Sabbath 5 yetthe continuall or daily offering with his 
drink offering was not to be omitted^ A^//^.28.io. • ' 

48. Alfo the publick worQiip it (elfe feeing it is mod (b* 
lemnely to be ceiebratcdj doth neceflarily require thcie excr- 
dies of reading the Scripture, meditationj prayer, h^ly con- 
ferences aiiti contemplation of the workes of God : whereby 
we rany be both nioreprepared to publick worfhip^ and that 
worfhip may be made truly effeduall to us. 

49. Contrary to this ordinance of the Lords day are all 
feaftdayes, ordained by men, they being accounted for holy 
dayeSj as the Lords day ought to be accounted. 

50. For it is moft agreeable with f he firftinftitution, and 
with the writings of the Apoftles, that onconly day in the 
Week be (anftified. 

51* Thejcwcs had no feaft dayes rightly fanftified^but by 
divine inftitution. 

5 2 • Yet any dayes may be pioufly turned into occafions of 
furthering the worftip of God, 

53. Alfo when God by his fpeciall judgements cals to 
morelolernnefaft'ng^ thoft dayeS arc to be accounted as it 
were fpr extraordinary Sabbaths. 

54. Contrary 

7^8 Oflnfiice andcharity tcwdrdeuf fuigfjhcnr. 

54t Contrary alfo to the obfcrvation of this day and all 

traiila^ftionsotbuiincflrc, cxcrcUcs^fcattings, fports, andfuch 
like, whereby the mindc of man is this day drawn away from 
thcexercifes of religion. 

Chapter XVI. 

of Infliceand ^aritjf toward our neighbour. 

Thus much of Religion : Ju^icefoHowes^ which is contained in 
the Second 'tahlc 

I. TT Ufticc is a veraic whereby we arc inclined to pcrforme 
I our duty due to our neighbour. So the duty ofchil- 
JL drcn towards their parents is faid to be juft, Ephsf6.i. 
And the duty ot matters towards their fervants is called right 
andequall, O/.4.1. And all thole things which we owe to 
our neighbour, are performed in living jultly. 

2* But juftice in this place is wot taken moft generally, as 
(etting forth every duty to another : for Co it containes even 
religion it (elfe: for that juftice which is faid to be gencralJ, 
is no other thing then vertuc in gcnerall ; as hath been before 
declared; when we did fticw that juftice was the chiefe a-^ 
mong the generallaffeSions of vertuc : neither muftitbeun- 
derftcod moft particularly to relpeft the quantity either of 
the thing deftrved or received , for lb it containes only a few 
duties of the fccond table^namelythofe whereby like is retur- 
ned for like:but it is hercufed in a certaine middle way,wher- 
by it fets forth the mutual! duty between thofe who are bound 
by the (ame right ; in which fence it containes all the force of 
the fccond lablc. 

3. It hath for the objeft our neighbour, that iSj every one 
whether man or Angeli alfo , who is or may be with us per* 
taker of the fame end and bleflednefic, Lhk£ 1 0.3^,57. 

4. Hence neither holy men, whatfoever they (hall be, nor 
Angels themfclves c-jin be a fit objcft of religion, or of that 


Oflufiice and charity to our Ueighhour. 2f^ 

religious worftiip which is commanded in the firft Tabkj tKit 
only of Jiifticeorofthi^t.ducic that is due to our neigh boijc 
which is contained in the fccond Table ; whence aUo thoCc 
argiinacnts taken from the natiiie of the thing, doe excUr.ic 
all adoration of the Crcaturer* Atl^ 10.26, Rife, for I my 
(elfe alfo am a man : Reve/.22,9» Seethou uoe it not, for I aai 
thy fellow fcrvanrjand of thy brethren the ProphetS;and of 
thole that kcepe the words of this Booke^ worfhip ,God. 
Rev.22» 9, ..? - 

5. But in this number and name, every one is by propor- 
tion inclui ted even in refpect of him(elfe ; for every oiie is firlt- 
a neighbour to himfelfejChen toothers- Whence aUoit is that 
tKere is no lingular precept given whereby a man may beor- 
dered toward himfelfe : for whileft he is rightly ordered to- 
ward God , and toward his neiahbour>he is^lfo ordered to- 
ward himftlfe ; but with this diiference, that that difpofition 
whereby any is made fit to performe his duty to God and 
his neighbour 3 pertainesto hi3^perfc<rtion;but hemuHalfo 
pcrformethc fame duties both to his neighbour and himfelfe, 
(but not to God^and himlclfc,) 

6. But becaufe that manner whereby duties are to be cx- 
prcifed toward our neighbour , is with reipcft and affedion 
to their good ^ hence this fame vertue is called charity toward 
ourneighbour.Af/ir.22.29.il/^rr« I2t3i. 

7. In this charity there is alwaycs love qf union, of wel- 
plcafednefle and good will, as in that love which is toward 
Ood 5 but there is alfo added oft times the confideration of 
mcrcy^whenthemifcty of oar neighbour is refpefted^which 
bath no place iti our charity toward God. 

8. But this band of Juftice and affeftion of Charity ought 
alwayes to flow , and be derived ftom Religion toward 
God ; for feeing Religion gives thediiefe honour to God, 
it caufeth that obedience be given to his will ihthofc things 
alfo which doe immediatly refpccfl the Creatures 5 whence 
all they who neglcft their duty towards men , are denied to 
honour God, but rather doe contemne him» i Sc4fp?,t.jo* 
Alfo charity towards God which is contained inRcligion, 
doth of its own nature produce charity towards men , as 
they arc in fomc fort partakers of the Image of God : 

Q^q wheace 

3©o pflnjiice and charity to our IJeighbour. 

whence alfo we are faid to love God in men^ and men ia 
God, which is onercafon of that phrafe , beloved in the 

9.Hcnce nothing is properly due to man which is contrary 
toKeligion. AEh /\ ig.&c ^.29. Whether it be right in the 
fight of God to obey you rather then God judge yce : we muft 
obey God rather then men. 

10. Hence alfo the truthof Religion cannot confift with 
the negle«S of Juftice, and Charity toward ourneighbour. 
James i. 27* Religious worftiip^ pure and undefilcd before 
GodandthcFather, isthisj to vi(it the fatherleffe, andwid- 
dowes in affli<ftior. i hhn 4. 2G. 21. If any one fay I Jove 
Godj andhatehisbothcr,heisa Jyar. ThisCommandement 
have wee from God,that be that loveth God 3 love his bro- 
ther alfo. 
' II. Hence finally religion is beft proved, and tried by 

Juftice, according to the frequent ufe of the Scripture, which 
argument notwichftanding doth (erue much more certainly 
for negation , then affirmationjf it be underftood of the out- 
ward workes and offices of Jufticc : becaufe fuch workes of 
|ufticc may be (bmetime prefent » where true religion is 
wanting; but it true religion be prefent, they cannot b« 
wholly abfent. 

12. By thefamercafbn alfounjuft worfce$ doc more arguea 
man to be ungodi/jthen chofe which are juft doe argue a god- 
ly man: whence the workes of the flefli are faid to be manif eft. 
Gal.%.ig. Which is not affirmed of the fruits of. the (pirfc, 
Verfe 12. 

13. The order of this charify is this , that God is firft and 
chiefly co be loved by charity jSnd To is as it were the formal! 
reafon of this charityrfoward our neighbour.ncxt after God 
Vtz are b >i;nd to love bur (elves, nimely with that charity 
which refpefts rruc blelfedneffe 5 for loving God himfclfc with 
love of union , we love our (elves immediatly with that chiefe 
ch trity which refpecls our fpirituail ble(l€dne(re : but wc/ 
ought to love others whom we would have partakers of the 
fiiiie good w'th us , fccondatily as it were ; moreover others 
may Be deprived of this b!efrcdne(re without our fault, bat 
tve our ^elves cannot ;therc f/re we are m.orc bound to will and 

of Iffjiice and charity to cur 'Neighbour. goi 

14. Hence it is that the love of our felves haththcforceof a 
rule or meafure unto the love of others : Thou (halt love thy 
neighbour as thy felfe. 

I"). Hence it is never lawfull to commit any fin for anothers 
(akcj although our tffcnc- may (ecmc fmall , and to be. a 
chiefe good, which we (hould feckc to another : for he that 
wittingly and willingly finneth hateth his own foulc. Pro. 
8.j6.& 29. -5^4% He that finneth againft me^ offerer h violence 
to his own foule. He that partaketh with a thicfe^hateth him* 
fclfe, and he that hearing cuffing deciareth it not. 

1 6. Among other men none indeed ought wholy to be 
rtmoved from the embracing of bur charity, who is capable 
df bleflrednefle j for if we love God above all things^no 
tamities will fo far prevaile with us^ bdt.we may love our 
v^ry enemies for God. LMHtk%*:^g.Rom.it.ij^ i Thejf.^.i^, 

I Pet.^ 9. 

17. But among men thofe are more to be loved theno- 
therSj that comeneerer to God, and in God to our (elves. 
GaUtUns 6# I o. Let as doe good to allj but efpecially to the 
houlT'old of Faith. 

J 8. But becaufe they that believe 5 are more neere both 
to God, and to us alfo fpiritually^ then thofe who doe 
not as yet believe ^ therefore alfo are they more to bee 

1 9. Yet this is foto be underftood, that it be referred to the 
tune prefent and the immediat affeftion ; for we may will the 
fame good to fomc other as much or more in time to come, 
the grace of God and faith comming between 5 in which 
fence that afFeftion of the ApotHe concerning the Ifraeliuj is 

20. If among thoic that are to be beloved there bd no ap- 
parent dil'parity neither in refpe^fl of God , nor in refpedl of 
USjthf n they are equally to be beloved. 

21. But if any apparent difparityappeare 3 cither in their 
ncerencflc to God or to our (elves, then ha who exceeds in • 
any neercnefle^ is more to be beloved ; that is, when we can- 
not exercifc the a9: of our love alike toward all , we are more 
bound to place our love on thofe whom God kath by (bmc 
fpeciall neerenefleor communion commended to us , then on 

OflHJiice ancl char}ty to om Neighbonr* 

others. Therfoie although vveoiight eqaally to will the falvati- 
oii of cthcrs^yct the exerclfe and care of this wil L«5 chkfly due 
tothoft, that are ncerejoyncd torn in fome fpeciall refpcft ; 
as a Souldkr aUhough he ought to wifh wdho all his fellow 
Soiildlers, yet he is bound to take nioftcareof thofc who 
are ot the fame band , and are next ad joyned in the fame 
Ranke,This appeares in that example QiTci%\ who did 
more fervently deiire the convcriion of th^J/ra^Mi,^s thenoi 
othecNatiojis-^ of which aif^^^ion he gives this one rea(bn, 
becaUieWcY^wwhia br^thren^ and kindred according to the 

23, Yet in tliis prerogative of charity we miift wlih to 
thofe ihic are n^ere utito us 5 rathei: thofc good things which 
pertaine to that,|Con|upftipn 3^ wliereby thfy <x>rB€;-»jr)eete 
unto us ,' as'ip^ifi^l^ood thiiigs to thofe^bo arp .moft fp> 
rituallyjoynedlous^ and natiirall good things to thoft with 
whom we have a naturall neereneiTe 5 not that thofe kiad of 
good things are iq our dcflres to be fcparated one fram-ano^ 
ther 5 but becaufe'th^ very kind of conjunvtipn^ is:^s it were a 
beck from God, whcrby he tUrs usuptobeitmvour paincij 
chiefly in this or that kind ' ' 

25. Hence it followes, firlh That kindred in bloud, C^^^- 

rA>7?.iW^/'Af ochcr things anlw.erable, are more to be beloved 

•then ftrangefs, in thofe things which pertaine to the good 

things oi chis life .* and among th jfe that are ncere in bloodj 

thofe that are the ncei eft to be moftiovcd. 

24* Secondly 5 chat^fome fpcciall friend is more to be bti« 
loved, then an ordinary kinfman in bloud, at Jeaft in thofe 
things 5 which pertdne to the common duties of this life, 
becaufe friendfhipmay be fuch that it may make a neercr con^ 
janftion then confanguinity ic felfe coniidered by it felfc. 
Prov. 1 8.24.For a friend is neercr then a brother. 

25. Thirdly, that parents are to be loved more then arty 
friend 3 becauic; the neerneffe of parents is greater then of ' 
friends as touching the communicatingbf thofe things which 
are s^oft intimate to us. i Tim. 5,4, If any widow have 
children or ncphewes , let them learnc firlt to fhew piety 
towards their own houfe , and to recompencc their pa- 
reits; for this Is honeft and acceptable in the fight of God. 

26. Foiinhly, th u p ircv-cs arc more to be loved thefi chil- 
cJicn, iothofcgood things ^'bich ought co redoiirid from 
the effv-vfl CO the caufc, as Honour^Eiiecinie.PLeYerencejThAnk- 
fiilneflc and the like. Bat that children are more to beloved 
then parents inthole things which are derived 'ft om ihecaufe 
to the cScCx'j ot which kind are, Maintenanc^j Promotion, 
Providence and the like. 

27. Fifthly5 that husbands and Avifes are to be lovfd more 
then parents or chiidreix, in thofe things which pertaincto 
focicty and union of ihls lite ; for Chit is the s^reutelV neere* 
nefTe^w hereof ic is faid , they (hall be one Rdh.' CJer.2.2^. 
tJMatthei^. 1 9. 5. Ihecefore (hall a man leave his Father, 

'and Moiher^and ihali cleave, Co bis Wifcj and they (hallbe 

One.fi^dli;; . ..;ji:.^: -- ^ " -■ '. ■'•■' 

28.Sixtly5 that they thathave defcrved wellx)f 11? are more 
tb.be '^^beloied then others, and among thote, Inch as hav^ 
commufiicated fpirituall good things to us arc mo(i to be be- 
loved :let him that is taught in the word'commu licatc co-him 
that taught bim,ail gQodthings,C'^/idd. 

29 . Sevenchly, that a community or whole focicty is more 
ro be beloved then any 'member of it 5 becaufe the con juncti- 
on of a part with the whole is greater then with another pare ; 
and therefore 5 that a prince whofc life and lafety is necef- 
fary or molt profitable for the comrnon goq^i , is more to be 
beloved then any or divers of the common people, nay more 
then our felves in temporaii things. 2 J^w.ai.iy* Thou (hale 
> goe no more with us to battell^ ieaft thou quench the light of 
IjracLLament. J^s20, , , 

3,0, There be two Afts of charicytowardioiic neighbour : 
Prayer tor his good,and working of it. 7yfat.<^.^^. Loveyour 
enemies , ble(Ic them that curft you, doe good to them 
that hate you, and pray for them which hurt you and per- 
lecuceyou* . , V, -v ...::%. -j^ 

51. This Prayer as it. ^efpefts the honour :ofGDd5>ertaincs 
to religion in the ftrll Table: but asit rcipecU tbegood of our 
neighbour, it pertain^s to Juilice, and Charity toward our 
neighbour in the fccond Table. 

3?. Wemuft pray for all thple good things^, which reli- 
gion cortimands us to wife t^hiin.whether they be fpirituall, 
orcorporall. - • - y CL^ 5 ' 3^»In 

Oftuftice 4nd charity to our Ncrghhur. 

33. In this praying is included not only petition, butalfo 
giving of thankes, whereby we praile God for the good 
things which he hath beftowed on ouv ncighbouis. Rcmarjs 
I. 8,9j^o. 

3^. To this praying is oppofed that innprecation which 
tends to the hurt of our neighbour ^ which is called curling* 

35. Working of good toward our neighbour is an endea- 
vour, concerning him> tending to his good ; whence alfo it 
is called a good deed. CMatthew 5. 44. And love in deed 
1 fohn 3.1 8, 

36. This working is diftinguilhed from praying ; becaufe 
althoagh prayer be alio an endeavour tending to the good of 
our neighbour , yet it is not immediatly cxerciled about our 
neighbour, but it is dircftcd unto God. 

37. Yet unto this working thofc endeavours niuft be referred 
which are ex«rciied about other Creatures for our neighbours 
fake ; for then there h an efficiency in our aftions of the fame 
reafon, as if it were exercifcd immediatly about our neigh- 
bour himfelfct 

58. Now this endeavour is either 3 by morallpcrfwadingj 
or reall efFefting. 

39. An indcavourofmorallperfwafion is in propounding 
of good to be perfortned with arguments by which ht may be 
ftirrcd up to it. 

40.And this is by admonition , aad good example. 

41. This admonition is taken generally for any warning, ^ 
which is u"ed by words 5 whether it be to procure and per- 
forme good to our neighbours ^ or to<lrive away and makeup 
.any hurt. 

4a. Therefore it containes in it our duty to teach and ad- 
mom{\\*Colof^%i6.To oblerve others that we may whet them 
to love and good WO! kes. Heb» io.24« To exhort them alio 
dayly.H^^.j.i 3. To comfort them againft ibrrow and griefe. 
iThfJf,^ i8« And to correfl them in a brotherly manncrjihhey 
beovcrtaksn with fomeofFencr.S'^/.tf.i./J.fZMp 17* 

43. Euc this brotherly correftion is tlicn to be n(cd ; when 
we certainly know that the evill to becorrcfted is committed, 
when there is hope of feme fruity or good to follow upon our 


Oflujlice and charity to our Neighbour. 

faI!cn,orby preferring of others from partakmgof thcfamc 5 
laftly, wheiuhere is tit opportunity in rcfpcft of time, or 
perfoHjand thecircumltances.' 

44. Ltnto this admonition isoppofed confcnt, or commu- 
nion with others in their {iny.(?/?^.57.ii. 

45. One is faid to be partaker otanothersfui nine wayes : 
which arc thus let down in Latine. 

T^ iir tic t fans ^yiHtuns^non obflAyis^ non munif^flayfSm 
That is (ummarily.confent is given to ilnners,by counfclling, 
dcfending^helping^ permitting when we can hinder , and by 
holding oar peice when we may profitably fpcak.Si?. i. 32* 

46. Good example is a reprcfcntationofa good worke, 
whereby others may be ftirrcd up to performc the like. I Tim, 
4.I2.T/V. 2.^.y.Mat.^.\6.i Pet. 2.11. 

47. To good example fcandall is oppoftd. i Cor.io.1^2. 
53. Give no offence to the //?7i'^/ 3 to the G^^^/f7.%r , norths 
Church of God. 

48. A fcandall is a rcprefentation of an evill worke where- 
by others miycitherbeftirred up to fin (whence it iscalled 
^poj-KOf^Lut or a caufe of ftumbling j ortobchindredorflack# 
ned from d6ing good, (whence it is called *^*^^^«^ or a caufe 
of weakning) and that is property called a fcandall, i Cor. 
8 9,10. Take heed that yoar liberty be not an occafionof 
ftumbling to the wcakej&c. Rom. 1 4. 2 1 . Wherein thy brother 
ftumblethjor is offended,or is made weake. 

) 49. There is m every evill workc which is made known to 
othcrS;thererpcft of a feandall. Mat.i^»6^j,S. Whofoever 
{hall be an offence* If thy hand, foot, eye cauic thee to offend. 
If thy brother fin againft thee^ 

50. There is al:b fomecimc a fcandall in a workc of it 
fclfehwfuUj ificbcnotexpcdieiKinrefpedofothers.i Cor. 
8.t3.Ifmymear offend my brother J will never eat flcfh , leafl 
I offend my brother, ^ 

5 1. But an indifferent thing is faid to be expedient^or not 
expedient when all circumftancesconfidered it Qiaketh,or 
makech*nos: to the g'o y of God , and edification of our 

5 :. There is no humane authority that can make that aft ion 


5<3>6 QfJuftict and Charity tcT^drd mr neighbour. 

lawful! 5 whereby a fcandall is given to our neighbour. 

55. But then a (csindall is faid to bt? given : either when 
roa)e niAnifefl fin is committed , or at Icart that which hath 
evident Qiew of iin is commitced, fo thut it becomes known 
toothers ; or when that is rcifhiy committed which is not 
. ncceflTary by Gods Command , and yet brings fpirituall 
hurt to others : but much more if the perverting or troub- 
ling of our neighbour be by that very aftion diredly in- 
' tended* 

5 4.But if there follow offence^ not from the condition of 
our worke, but from the pure malice of othcrs^then it is called 
an offence taken 5 asthacof the Pharlfees, which is not our 
fin^but of thole who are offended, Af.^f.i 5.12513,14 Know- ^^ 
eft thou not that the Vh^rifees were offended at that faying? 
Let them alone : they be blind leaders of the blind* , 

55. But although this offence taken c nnotlje avoydedby 
us ; yet an offence given may and ought* For God never layes 
uprn his a necelTity of offending. 

56.That fcandall whereby one is faid ( metaphorically ) 
to offend himfelfe^ or to give occafion of finning to himfelfcj 
is by proportion referred to an offence given. 

57. A realleffefting or procuring the good of our neigh- 
bour, is when we our felves pcrforme fomcthing which of 
it felfe tends to the^ood ofour neighbour without hishelpc 
comming between, fieh. 1 3, i6,To doe good, and to diftribute 
forget not. 

58. But although all afts of Juftice ought to have charity^ 
joynedtoit, yet there arc fome wherein Juftice doth moie 
(hine forthjand others wherein charity doth more ruk. 

59* Hence that diftin^Sion arifeth whereby fome offices 
are faid to belong to Juftice ftriftly taken, and fome belong- 
ing to charity ; of which difference acdformalldiftribution 
we have Chrift the author. Z«^^ n.42. Ye paffe by judgment 
_ and the loys of God. 

60. Thofe are the sfts of Juftice which have in thcEi the 
G jnfideraiionofa^cbt and equality in refpc(fl of others. 

61. Tbo(e are the afts of charity whereby the ggod of a- 
nother is refpefted more then our debt. 

62. The offices of Juftice^are beforCjand of ftraighter obliga- 
tion then they which are of charity. dj.Hencc 

ifflnflice mdchAfity to 0ur Keighhour. 
' *j# Hence we arc oiore bcnndto pay cur debtc^ then t: 
give any thing of our own 5 and he that offends another ^ rz 
more bound to feeke reconciliation then he that is o^trA^A^ 

64. There is in many tiding? a double refpeft of JtiSicc^ 
one whereof Tcfpe&s the next end^and v;ords of the Law^ that 
bindeth, which is calledjuitice in the moftftrid fence • and 
and the other ^ rcfpefts the remote cad and rcafon of the Law 
which is called equity or «^'«^-^^^e 

6 $.The parts of this Jaftice are two , one v/hcreof gives to 
every one his cwn^ and it is called diftriburlve Juttice , the o- 
:her rcftorcs to every one his owj^ and it may be calle d emen- 

^dDiftribucive Juftlcc cannot be rightly performed with- 
out a right judging of things and perfons 5 and a meetc com- 
parifon of things to things , and perfons to perfons , from 
whence arifeth that proportion which they call geometrical!. 

6j. Unto diftributive Juftice is oppofed acccption of per- 
lonSDwhcrcby one is preferred before another ia the diftribu- 
!ion of good d»e,without juft caufe« 

6%* Emendatiyc Juftice is either Commutative, or Cor- 

^9. Commutative Ju8k« is equality of the thing givcHsand 

70. CorrtSive Juftice, prcfuppofeth fome Injuftice, and it 
Is cither civill or criminalK 

7 uCivill doth chiefly corrcft the injwftice of the cauic. 
t j%. Criminall doth chiefly corrcft the in juftice of the 
per (one 

73. To correftive Juftice pertaineth revenge,and reftitution* 

74 Revenge is an aft of corre&ive Juftice whereby punifh- 
ment is infli^ed on him, who hath violated Juftice. 

75, The end hereof ought to be the amend nent or reftraint 
of the ofFendorj quietnefle and admonition to others, and fo 
the prefervmg of Jufticc^and of the honour of God. Dent. 13. 
11.&: I7.I3.&I9#20.&2 1. 21. That all //^4(f/ may hcarc^and 
feare, and do no fuch iniquity in the midft of thee. 

76.B.eftitution is an aft of correftive Juftice, whereby ano- 
ther is fee againc into the poffeffiono^f that thing ot his own 
tvhercof he was unjuftly deprived. 

R r 77. Hence 

^ of the honour of our Neighiour. 

yy. Hence an aftion binding to reftitution muft he againft 
Jultice ftriftly taken, and not againft charity only. 

j^.To this Injuitice injury is oppofed. 

79.T0 charity is evill will oppoftd , whether it be formall 
by a direa intention. or virtuall by intcrprcration. 

80. Unto this ill ^wiirper taines unjuft difcord, which if it 
break forth into reparation, efpecially in thofe things which 
pertaine to religion^ it is properly called Schilme* 

Chapter XVII. 

Of the hmonr of oar Neighbour^ 

u T Uftice toward oar Neighbour doth cither imfBediatly 
I affeft him,or by meancs of foaie adion. 

Jt 2, Juftice which doth in>mediatly affe^ our Neigh- 
bour , doth either refpeft the degree of that conditioa in 
which our Neighbour is placed 5 or the condition it {clfe ab- 
fiblutly confidcrcdi. 

5. Asitrefpeftsthedegrceofit, it is called honour w.hidb 
is cooirnanded in the fift Commandcment : which is (aid 
to be the firft Commandement with promi/e, Eph.6,2, Ei- 
ther bccaufe it is the firft of the fccond Table , or becaufe 
it is thq. firS Comrnaadement in all the Law that bath a fin^ 
gular ^nd proper promlfc joyned to it. 

4. Here fociety of men among thcmfelYes is (uppofed 
and eftabli(hed^ private or oeconomick, and publick or po- 
litick 5 wherein one ought to (erve another being joyned 
together in mutual! duties of Juftice and: charity , that they 
may exer cife and (hew towards men that celigioa , whereby 
they v.7or fh ip God. . ' t - - - ; 

5. Hence chat (blicary life which certaine Hermites have 
chofen to thcmfelvesas Angelicall, and others imbrace for 
other caufes, is fo farre from perfeftion, that unlefle it be pcr- 
Iwaded by fome extraordinary reafon (and that for a time on- 
ly) it is altogether contrary tothclawandwillofGod. 


Cf the hoHdur of cur Neighhur. 
6. But becaufe humane fociety is as a foundation to all o- 
thcr offices of Juftice and charity wh'ch are commanded in 
the iecond table of the law : therefore thofetranfgreflions 
"which do direiftly make to the difturbance, confuli on and o- 
vcrthrow of this fociety, are more grievous finncs j then the 
breaches of the ftverall precepts. 

7. But although politicall fociety beeftabliftied of God as 
wei as Occonomtcall, yet as thereis fomc certain form of this 
Oeconomicall fas alio of Ecclefiafticali fociety} prefcribed 
to all people, it is not fo of politicail ; but it is left to their li- 
berty, that (fo as they prefervc their power whole) they may 

prdaine that (bciety, which makes moft for the eftablifliing 
of religion and juliice among themfelves. 

8. And this is one reafon why there is mention only of pa- 
rents in the fifth precept ; becaule Oeconomicall fociety on- 
ly (which is plainly naturallj (hould remaineoneand the 
fame throughout all ages^ and nations : unto which that alfo 
is added, that this is the firft degree , wherein is the fountainc 
and feminary of all iociety 5 whence alfo the authority of all 
others in fuperiour power is (et forth and mitigated by the 
name of Father, 2 Kwgs 2.12. & 13. & I3,i4- C7^;/.4 1.8.43. 

9. Honour is anacknowledgement of that dignity or ex- 
cellency which is in another with a due teftiHcation ot it. 

I o. It is called both an acknowledgement and teftifying, 
becaufe it confifts neither in outward obfervance only, nor in 
IfiiWard only^ but in both. 

I r , It is (aid to refpc6l excellency or dignity ,' becaufe we 
are not affcfted with reverence^but upon the apprehenfion of 
fome excellency. 

13. Hence that duty which is due to thofewho are placed 
above us in (omc cminency ^ is commonly and moft properly 
fet forth under the name of reverence ; but by a fynecdof he it 
fcts forth every duty wherein the degree of dignity or excel- 
lency of another is rcfpeftedj whether that degree beinequall 
in rcfpeft of us^ or equalU £<?w. 12. 10. In honour preferring ' 
one another J i^et.^.y. Let men likewise dwell according to 
the knowledge of God, giving honour to the woman as to the 
weaker veflTcU J according to that i /'<r^2. 17. Honour all men. 

Rr 2 13. Buc 

2 J Q Of the honour ofowr Neighbour. 

1 5. But it jiat h the firft p'ace among thofe duties tvhi ch arc 
due to our neighbour ; Firft, becaufe it comes ncccreft to the 
natui e of rfligion and piety wherewith we wor(htp God, 
whence z\Co ic ia called religion or piety , not only by pro- 
phane anchors^ but romctimc alfo in the Scriptures, i Tim.^. 
4. Let him learnc firft to (hew piety to his owne family, &c. 
Secondly , becaufe it is the bond and foundation of all other 
)u{licCg which is to be performed to our neighbour: for by 
vertae of this duty of thofe degrees which it doth refpcft,men 
lead iL quiet and peaceable life with all piety and honefty, 
iT/j^.a.Xc which doth alfo ftemc to be the proper reafon of 
:hac proaiife which is adjoyncd to this fifth precept,that thou 
iiiayeft prolong thy dayes upon earth , becaufe without this 
:nacuiiU obfervancc of fupcriours and inferiours among them- 
iclves 5 k could not be cxpcftcd that the life of man fhould a- 
b^de in its ftatc. 

14 Honour 5 as it refpe^^s the knowledge and opinion of 
others of him that is to be honoured, is called fame> EccUf,^^ 
!. or a good name; ^/;//.4.8. 

I 5. Hence honour as it is the externall good of a man^doth 
aot really differ from fame, but only in reafon* 

16. That office of honouring which we owe to all is to pre- 
fcrve that ftate of dignity which they have, without being 

17. Unto this office thofe vices arcoppofcd whcreby^thc 
fame of our neighbour is hurt. 

18. The good name of our neighbour is hurt when thaf 
cftimation which ought to be had ot him is diminifhedj i Cor. 
4. 1 3. Being defamed we pray. 2 Cor«6.8. By honour and dit 
honour» by evill report and^ood report. 

19. We may diminifh it either with our (elves conceiving 
ill of him without jufl caufc which is called rafh judgement, 
iW*;2^7.i. I C^rf4.3,or'withothersalfo. ^ 

2c. The good name of our neighbour is diminifhcd with 
others, by words, deeds, gcftufes, or other figncF. 

%\. This alfo is done fometime directly and formally,, 
with an intention to hurt, and (bmetime virmally and indi- 
rcftly, or of the najure of the thing , or by circumflances ad- 

23. When 

t^ftht honour of our U^igbbour* 3 J i 

12. When the fame of another is hurt by imputation of an 
evillofthefaultorofpuniflimcnt, if ic bein hisprefcncej it is 
called either a reproach, or dcrilion, or a flandcrjif it be in his 
abfence, it is calle 1 dctraftion. 

23. Dctraftion is dircftly exercifed about the eviJlofour 
neighbour fourewaycr. i. When a fault is faiflylayd upon 
him. 2. When a lecret fault is difcovered without a juft cau(c. 
3. When a true crime is too much beaten upon- 4. When the 
deed is not difallowed^ but the intention is blamed. \^ xr o'v ' 

24. Itisindireftlycxerciftdaboutthe goodofourofeigh'- 
bour foure wayes alfo. i. Denying that good which is to be 
given to ourneighbour, J. Hiding it. 3. LefTeningit. 4. By 
^raifing it coldly. 

35. The former wayes are contained in this vcrft^. 
Imponens^iiugens^mamfeflans^in miiU v.rtcns^ 

26. The latter in this verfCj 

Qf£i fjegat ant mlHuity tacHit^laudattjHe remise* 

27. The good name of our neighbour is reftoied by retraft- 
ing, or defiring pardon , or fometime alfo by recompcnfing 
of it. 

28. The duties of honour, belong fomc to unequals, fomc 
to equals. 

2 ^.. Among unequals, it belongs to fupcriours to excel! in 
weli deferyingj but to inferiours to reverence and give thaniis. 

30. Inequality is either in fomefimple quality J or in au- 
thority and power. 

^ 31. Inequality in a fimplc quality, is cither in refpccl of 
agCj or in refpeft of gifts. 

32. They that arc above others in age, ought to go before 
thea in grave cximple^ Tit. 2.^. That old women teach the 
yonger women to be (bber. 

[3^ Tbey thatexcellingiftSj ought readily to impart the 
fame to the profit of other«^ Rom* 1. 14. I am a debter both to 
the Grecians ;^nd Barbarian?; to the wife, and the unwife. 

;4» They that are above others in power ^ arethofewho 
have right to goyeme others^ whence alfopower is'wont to be 
called jurifdi&ion ; whofe duty it is to adminiitcr juftice and 
charity toward others in a certaine eminent way j according 
to that power which they have conamitted to ihcm , Ioh.i9. 


31^ Oflk i6^#^ if\imr^iif^ 

14 15. I piit on juftice, and liiy judgement covered mt as a 
robe, and as a Diadem. I was as eyes to the blhide, and as 
feet to the larae, folof.i\.i. Mafter?,do that \¥hich is right and 
equal! to your fcrvants. 

••55.-Th?s /uiiiCe is adminiftred in cbarity 5 by protefting 
an i ruling, 

36. Pforeftion is an application of power todcfend others . 
frOHi^vtil, /fay 32.2. And a man (hall be as an hiding place 
from the winde, and a Covert from the cempeft, &c. Wbere- 
unti^WlibpertaineSithat providence whereby they provide ne- 
ceflary things forthemj i T't«?.5.8. 

' 37; Ruling is an application of power to further others in 
good, Romavsi^^. He is the minifterof God for thy good,*" 
I Tifn,2.2. That we inay leade'a peaceable and quiet lifein 
allgodlincfleandhoneftyf o:.w;n 

38. This ruling is cxercifed in dircftfng and rewarding* 

39. Direftion isapropoundingof that which is right and 
good, that it may be observed, B;?/?^/^^. 4, Fathert,brinc%ip 
ycttrchUdrefi irt the nurture and admonition oi the Lord.' ^ - 

40. Unto this direftion pertaines the making and promul- 
gating of good lawes in whatfoever focicty of men it be. ' 

41. Rewarding is a recompencing of that obedience which 
is perfofm^d or denied todireftiong i ^^•Sitif^ both' totakc 
vcngeaticeontfecf'Witked, and for the^raKedftheftithatdo 
well, SoRi^m.i^.' 

42. Here diftributive and cmendative juftice doth mod 
ftiine forth : for although the juftice in other men is the fame/ 
with that which is excrcKed in thofe-fiipariourSj yefit doth 
moftftine forth if it be adminiflrcd with a fit powcri • *^ k 

43. Hence the right of revenging doth not properIyt)f6- 
long to others then thoft that have fupcr-eminent power, 
5^r^J3.4.iT^r.2. 14. by whom when it is rightly exercifed, 
it is not the revenge of men, but of God, 2 (^hror.j^.6. Take 
heed*what you do for ye judge i>ot for men, but for the Lord, 
who will be with you in the judgement. 

44. They that are in higher power 5 ought to provide for 
the commodities ofthem over whom they are fee in refpe^ 
ofthctrfoulesjthat they may havcmeaneis of falvatiott, Efhtf. 
64* Im fcfptrd of their bodicSj that they may have food, rai- 
ment, and fie dwelling. 45. And 

45. And theft arecithcr private pcrfons or pirblick. 

46. Private, are the husband in refpeft of the wife, parents 
in refpsifl of children, and mafterinrefpeftoffervants; where 
iha power of the hasfend is moderated With a certainfirequa* 
lity : the power otthemafteris meerely coinnianding : but 
the paternail power is as itwere mixt. 

47. They that arc iii publick auchority , are ciitliec mini* 
ftefsorraagiftrates. r^ <^:. -^I . 1 . '<.';;' 

48. But there is this difference betweenciBagiftrates and 
minlfters of the Church, i. Migiftracy, (of this rather then 
of the other kinde) is an ordinance from man : but the ordi- 
nance of minifters is from God., which is declared in the 
Scriptures , when the power of magiftracy although it be on* 
dained by God, £^^1^.13 i. yet it is x^aiicd an hurnaice xi;€a- 
ture, I T^et. 2. 13. which name doth not at all agree to the 
lawtiill. ministers of theChurch. 2. Magiftracy is an ordi. 
nance, of God the Creator^ and fo belongsta all kind of men .• 
bati'^dbtC:EccJefiaiftlcaii miniftery 'is::a> gift, and ordinarure of 
Chcift thf, MedJ^o^y ^od (b dotli^not properly and ordi- 
narily pertaine 5 but only :o thofewhoareoftheCiiurehof 
Chrill. 3i A magiftrate hath jurifdicSion joyned to his go- 
vernmenx, andi fo^ (if he be the fupreme magiiVate):iipcai iuft 
caufe he naay.naakcafwiaboiifti lawes^ andrcomffiitprifdidli- 
on to others : but the miniiiers of the Church (con.idered in 
ihemfelves) arc meerly mandatory^ that have nothing of their 
ownjbut whatfocver they do lawfully^they do it as in Chrifts 
ftead who a>nimaiids .them, and fb carrneirher make Jawes, 
nor commit that power whichtheyhavexcceived to other?. 
4. It belongs to magiftraces toiprocure the common good 
both fpirituall and corporal! of all thoie who arficoiBimitted 
to their jiiriidiftion^ by politick meancs^ and a coercive po?.v- 
erg vTim. 2. 2. but it istoiniftersi^Jtiliiestoprocijre.theirriLpipj- 

1 tuall good Who are committed toe them b^ Eccleiiafticall 
K meanes, t/4'f?j20«28./-i'/.*i3 ty..'- :->'i * '' 
^L 49, But they cannot becxaftiydiftiiigaiflicd^ig the things 
^fchemtelVes.theperfonsandcaures , abouc which they areoc* 
^Kupied : for there is no. thing, pjerfon ,- -ar caufeifo^EccIefiQfti- 
^Krall, but in fom- refpeft it m^y pertaineto thejurifdiftion ^ 
^■ofthe mr^giftrate 5 neither is there anry a(^ioa io fccular (fo 


5 14 Of the honour of out mighbmr. 

it be done by a member of the Church)but5(b far as itrcTpcfts 
obedience to God, it may pcrtaine to the taking notice of by 
the Church. 

50. Therefore the exempting of Ecclefiaftlcall men (as 
they arc called ) from the jurifdiftion of the civil! magiftcace, 
as alfo the iinlooiing then from obedience due to Magi- 
ftratesj and Parents, brought in by Papifts under a pretence 
of Religion and perfedion, is altogether contrary to the per- 
feft Law of G o D« 

%i. In rcfpeftofthisriiKng which comes from the power 
of (uperiors, there is due from infcriour8,fubjeftion and obe- 
dience. Hchrewes I 3. 1 7. Obey your leaders , and (ubmit 
your fclvcs. 

53. Subje&ion is an acknowledgment of their authority* 

55. Obedience is the performance of thofe things that arc 
prefcribed. £/)fc.6. i . 5. 

54» This obedience ought alwayes to be limited accor- 
ding to the limits of power, which the Superior comman- 
der hath. 

55* Hence we muft not obey men inthofe things which 
arc againft the command ofGod, for we muftobcyinthc 
Lord y Efh.6.i. And in the fearc of God.C«^/*3.22. Or alfo 
againft thecommand of thofefupcrior perfons who have grea* 
ter authority then they. 

56/ Hence alLo that obedience muft not be blinde, or 
without examination of the precept : but an intei ior oughc 
to enquire fo far as is requifitc for the matter in hand , whe- 
ther the precept be lawfall > convenient and binding, 
ASis 4. 19, 

57.But if the precept be not Iawfull,theiian enduring of the 
pun5{hment wrongfully infliftcd^ hath the place and force of 
obedience.i Pet.z.i^. 20» 

58. In rcfpeft of the good that is communicated cither 
by thegifts>or by the power of fuperiors, inferiors doe o^c 
fubmiflive thankfulnifle. 

59. Thankfulncflc is a dcfire to recompence benefits re- 

60* For it is a certaine wclwiflilng affcaion,having refpeft 


of the honour of enr ntighbcur* 31 3 

and proportion, to the benefit of anot he? ^yct (b chat it ir lift 
not be contained in the affeftion it felfc, but rru(t be manifcft • 
cd in anfwcrable inc^cavour. 

6 1 . Thankflilncfle indeed is the common duty of all men, 
who have received any benefit from others^, but there is a cer- 
taine lingular way of thanktulncfle, of inferiors towards (xx-^ 
periorSj which is declared in that word^when thankfulncfle ig 
laid to be fubmiffivc. 

6t. Hitherto pertaines the relieving of their nccefGty,»vhe- 
thcr they ftand in need of fubftancc^ hcipe , or counfell* 

^3. This thank&inefle, which refpefts thoic by whofe 
benefit we doc under God fubfill , namely our parents , and 
country^or thole who fuftaine the fame perfon with them , is 
called piety, i Tim.^.j^, 

64. The duty of equalU towards all their equdlls is, that 
one prefer another in honour: Rom*i2.ioSph.').2it 

65#Fricnd(hip i« towards lomc that are foy ned nccrer in love 
and communion. Trov. 18.24. 

66. The beginning of all honour to be given to out Neigh- 
bour^cfpccially of chat which is due to luperiorsand equalls, 

67. This humility is a vcrtue, whereby one doth (o mode- 
rate his cftccmc of himfelfe , that he will not in iny kind at- 
tribute any thing to himfelfe above that which is mcete for 
him. fhiLz.^. In humility of mind thinking every one better 
ih)en himfelfe. 

68. Unto humility is oppofed pride and envy. 

6g. Pride is an inordinate affeftion of a mans ownc ex- 
• cellency* 

70. This afFeftation of a mans own excellency if it beex- 
crcifed about good things that we have, it is called boafling s 
if about thoftt hings which we would fecme to have, it is cal- 
led arrogancy : if about the lame and cftecmc which we 
feckc with others 5 it is called vaine glory : if about digni- 
ties 5 it is called ambition : if about the undertaking of 
mittcrl > which are beyond our ftrcngtb, it is called prcfum- 
71. Envy isalbrrow for the good of our Neighbour, be- 

S f caufc 

^r6 of hnmAnity toward onrNeighhur. 

cadfc it fcemes to diminifh our Qwrbty:cc\lcBcy.NHmmiQ.2^, 

72. For if there be fearc of ariotfeeis good ^ becauft we ftc 
feme evills like to come from thcacc ckher to oehecSjOC to oir 
fcivesjit is not envy, but an hoDfift fcare,iPr(? .28.28. 

73. If the caule oi fadneflc be not that; another hath good, 
but thatv^c have hot^ and that good iaCiQbe vifli^dJpf i>y.usy 
tteiik is not envy, but eniulatidn.5(W!^«l!M4»« f!:;r^ , ^z^i ni 

74. If the caufe of fadnefiebe thcanworthiricfleofhim, 
who en joya* that good J then itisnQt properly envy, but in- 
dignation. Pr<7.29. 2. ^ :?K : , b^i^ :a L: 

7$. Yet all the(e affections if they exceed meaftire, .arc wont 
tobe^noe^d in the Scripltures uadcr thentoeof envy. Ffai.^j. 

of humMtty t&Tvard^a^r Neighbonr. 

^ TjEJftice v^hkh pefpcfts* the condition of our Neighbour 
I abfolutely confidered, dotheither rcfpeft thcperfon^^f 

Jt our Neighbotir^or his out#ard comrndditJes. 
- 2rThat which refpefts his f)erfon doCh cither rcfpeft his 
\]^\ot his pH^ity* 

'^-^rthat which ir^foefts his life is hunjanity^ and it- is com* 
manded in the iL^t Commandsment. For feeing here aiaKi 
life is properly pmVided' for 5 or as thif^Scripture ipeakesj 
Gen, 9*T;^. The' foule of man and the bloud of man 5 all that 
duty which is here handled is rightly fet forth under the nam - 
o^feQrhi?rrky;-; * .1. r 

4;T>his'Co^man(}ement doth not properly treat of the life 
of the^bmte CreatiireSjbecaufe they are in mans powerjG^i;,^, 
2; 3; Neither have they common fbciety with man : yetbe- 
cau(e a fit difpofition tow^.rd the life of man doth infer fomc ' 
re(peift toanother im.^e of his, ^which is fotwid in other "^ 
living Creatures ; anrf crudty againft them is Wont to declare 
a cerraine inhumane difpofition, or by little and little ac»: 
cuftomc to it : therefore clemency and inclemency towards 
''- ■ the 

of hnmanity tof^drd onr Neighbour^ j \j 

the brute Creatures , doth pertaine alfo hitherto as a ccrtaine 

5. Humanity is a vcrtue whereby we are inclined to prcferve 
the life of our Neighbour , and quietneflt thereof by lawful! 
mcanes. '' 

6. But this is performed two way esjnamclyfcy Supplying 
things helpfulljand hindering things hurtfull. * 

j^ But feeing the life of man which ought to be periervcd 
istwofold,fpirituall and corporally hence the duties of hunia- 
nity are fome fpiriDjall, and lome cor|>oraI!^ -^ : '•> * V ^ 

8^ The (pirituall dutie is to doe all things accdlding 
to our power , which may turtber the edification of our 

9. Of this kind are,' prayer, good example and admoniti- 
on , which are required of all. - */^^ - J 

I •^. For although theft immediatly in regard of (Aeir next 
cnd,be gencrall duties of charity^ yet mediatly and in refpcft 
of the remote end 5 they pertaine to the furtherance of the 
Ipirituall life of our Neighbour. lames j.20. 

( I. There is the like reafon , of ceafing from due offices 
pertaining to the falvation of our Neighbour', of confenting 
with other in their fins , andofoffence given to them, which 
are fins oppofcd to thofc duties: for thefe doealwayes hurt the 
fpirituall life of our Neighboar,£^f.3a8.& i^.4pi'af 35,6.5, 
i?(?w.f4.i5. 1 ^r.8.11. ' - ' ^ - ' --:>- '^n • 

1 2 • But although as the (bule k more nbb?c thiftt iAi'c btidy, 
^o the fpirituall life is of greater price then thecorporall; 
and fb thofefins which doe make againfl the fpirituall iifis of 
our Neighbour arc greater 3 ( anequall comparifon being 
made ) then thofc which Hurtthe body : ^et they doe Ciot fo 
really pertaine to tbe hurting of diir Neighbour VBec^dfe 
hurting and bodily death it (elfc is wont to be brought on 
men , by neceffity of coaftion : but fpirimall dcaih cannot 
•t^ brought Hipon one by anotber unleflTc he be rn^ibmefort 
willing and doe con lent ^^fo that his own a(a;ioriiytfeeirnnie- 
diatecaufcof it. ^ ' '• ^ '^^ *" - 

13. Alfb it is required 6ffaperiors that have powefj and 
-tutlrbrityjthat they ftudyjtoliirtbcc tbe fkivation of infer fors 
by their authority. ' - •' • - '^^^^ 

S f 2 X4.There 

21 9 OfUumMitf 

14« There be divers degrees of our duty toward the cor- 
porall life of our Neighbour, that it may be kept quiet and 

15. The firft degree hereof is 5 in thofevcrtueswhkhdoc 
keepe us f<ir from any hurting of our Neigh-^our. 

16. Or'this kind,are Meekcneflej Paticnce^Long-fufFering, 
and placableneflejor pardoning of wrong. 

ij.Mcekcncffc is a vcrtue which doth moderate anger.Tr^?, 
17.17. iC0r.i^.<\. Nnmlf.ii.^. Now the man cJW;>/^/ Was 
very meek j above all men who were on the face of the Earth. 
gdU^%22., The fruits of thefpiritreft^ai^ingofanger,good- 

18. Unto this is oppo(cd,flowne(Tc and wrath. 
ip.Siowneflclsawantof Juftanger. i Sar9f. 4 a 13. 
20. Wrath is an inordinate ftirring up of anger, (^en. 49* 
7; Curled be their anger bccaufe it was fierce , and their 
wrath beciufc it wascruell. Ecclef. 7. ic. Be nothaftyiii 
thy fpiric to be angry ^ for anger refteth in the bo(baic of 
'^ fooles. 

3 1 The degrees of Wf ath are^ provoking of the mind wax- 
ing hot^and hatred. 

az. Padence is a vertue which moderates anger that is ftir- 
red up by grievous wrongs. Luks 21. 19. CoUJjfiitns j^ 11. 

%i. Long-lufferiBg is a continudaccofpatiencejalthough 
ic have becne long provoked. ^'r0verhs i^t ap. & !$• 18. 
& 16.52, ^, 

34. Placablenefle is a vertue whereby we doe eafily forgive 
a wrong done to us* Af^^^ 8.ai.»2. Luc.\j.%.^. 

1 5.The (ccond degreeof this duty is in thole vertues, which 
doe cherifli fociety of li'c,as,concord, and bencvoljcnce which 
hathpyned with itjCurtcfiejaflfability^and equanimity. 

26. Concord J is a vcrtue whereby we doe cafily agree 
wUh others in thofc chings that are good. Ph}liffUnsu%j. 

27. Benevolence is a vertue whereby we wiCh all things 
prolpcrous to others* i^<?r^i3.4.Qhafity is kind. 

28. U nto thefe are opposed difcord 9 diflencion and enmi- 
ty j&c.C7/eA 5, 20^ 


Of Humanity. 319 

Spf A third degree of this duty h in thofc i ideavou#s wher- 
by the life it Cdtt of our Neighbour, is defcuded/urchercd, 

30. An indeavour to defend, promote 5 and cherifh the 
life of our Ncighbour,doth containcdU thofc duties, whereby 
we may be conlerving caufes ot the life of man. Pro.2^n 1 o. 

3 i.Unto t hefe are oppoicd all c hole fins , w hereby the life 
of men is hurtjasfierceneflc, cruelty, & the like, Pr0.2o.1Of 

3 2. All thefc are contained under the name of Homicidct 

33. Homicide i% the injufl: killing ot a man. 

34tNow that killing and hui ting alfo is unjijft/ which is 
cither not done by a juil authority , that is^ that that is pub- 
^ickjOr which is equall topublick; ornotuponajuftcaufe^ 
or not in due order, or upon an intention that is not jult ; for 
thofe foure conditionj« ought ahvayes to concurre to a julikiN 
king;if one of them be wanting^Homicidc is commiitc J. 

35# AUbrafh anger mufl be referred to Homicide, (bfar 
forth as it tends to the hurting of the lite of our Neighbour. 
^4^.$. at Whofoever is angry with his brother nnadvifcdJy. 

36. But in thofe words it is given to underftand that all 
anger is not condemned^ for that only is reproved which is 
raih, that is, which hath no juft caufc,or cbrerves no juft mea- 
fure. 0:hcrwifc the force of anger, aszealeofGod^ is often 
commended, Gen,^o.2Sx.iJ.S & 16 20.& 23. i9.iY/#«;^. 
l6.i5,& 31.14.1 iCiVjf^/ 13* J 9- And hatred it lelfe, Tjdmt 
139.2 n22. 
jy.This is for the mofl part peculiarly belonging to thcfixt 
^ preceptjt hat thofe things which arc forbiddenj may fomctime 
(in another confideration ) be not amifTe^and f jmctimc well 
and rightly done in obedience towai d God. 

38.S0 he that killeth another upon meerc chance^to whom 
he gave no caufe^whileft he is about a lawfull worke when and 
where ic is lawfull,fit diligence being uled , doth net fin. 

39.Such alfo is the reafbn of a nccefTary defence, fo as defirc 
of revenge be wanting. For this is an unblamcabledefencc 
granted to everyone. 

40,. Sometime alfaOod is obeyed by killing. Dr^/.i 3.9. 
Nimely whenitisdone by authority, ami command from 
Godj I Sam.x^. 18. 19, Sf 3 41. No 

^i9 efChaftity* 

4i.N%man hath power from God, by common Law to kil 
that man of fei purpoic whofe innoccncy he knpweth of. 

42.Neirhcr is there any power of man, which can give fuf- 
ficieht authority to ifiy fubjeftjtoflay Bim,whom he knowes 
to be innocent^arrd not to deferve deaftH. ' 

43. Therefore a war can never be jiift on both fides, becauft 
there cannot be caufe of death on both fides* 

44.Neither is it lawful! in any wat to intend their occafion 
who are not in fome fort partakers of fuch like cau(c. 

45, Butifthercbeprefcntalawfullcaule, together with a 
juft authority and intention,and a juft manner be uftd^the war 
it felfcj or warfarCjis not againft Religion Juftice^or Charity. 

46. Alfo the fame conditions obferved ^ it is lawfull for 
^ thofe who have skill in weapons. 1 Chroff.i^»i%, P/^/«i43.i# 

To offer and apply their help to lawfull Captaines , tamake 
M^ar . Lffc*^ . f 4. 1 Cor. 9 . 7, 
^ ; 47.N0 Law of God permits any one to kill himftlfe. 

48. Yet it is lawfull and juft fometimc for ont to cxpoft 
hirafelfe to certaine danger of death. 

49. Nay fometime the cafe is wherein one may and ought 
to offer himfelfe to death. lonah* i, 1 2. 

. ChapterXIX. 

OfChafiity. ^ 

I. TTUftice which relpcfts the purity of our Neighbour is 

IChaftity. •-•' 

Jl 2.Chaftity is a vertue whereby the purity of his per- 
(bnis prfferved in refpeft of thole things which pertaine to 
generation, i Thejf.^^'^,^, 5. 

"' 4. ShamefaftncflTe is a part of chaftity drawing back from 
im(3urity,which is in the fame fence alfo called balhfulneflc. 
i'^^^Hptieltyis a part of cbuftity leading to thofethings^wtich 
-b(ic}orh^pirrit^';i, //j^io.^.. V 

OfChaJiity. 32, 

6. Shamcfaftneffc and honefty arc radically in the inward 
choi(e of a man^ bnt (ignificativcly in the outward convcr- 

7*Hence chaftity is chiefly named ihamefaftnefie as it doth 
take away the outward (ignes of impurity : i*nd it is called 
comliaeffe.as it piitteth the outward ligncs of party. 

8. Unto (hamcfjceneflejinodclty is chiefly refciTed.and to 
CO oieliaelTe gravity. 

p.Modefly is a vertue whereby wccontainc our felves with- 
in the bounds of ficfli^y defire. 

lo* Gravity is a vertue whereby th^dccornm of purity is 
' liXihaftity isvirginalljConjugaUjorvidualL ... 

12. But this diftribution is n^it of the ^^^^ into Spedtr^ 
butof tbcadjuriftintohisfubjcfts. .. .^ 

15. Forchafticy isthefamcinrcfpecflQftheeflrenceinall^ 
but it admits fome accidental! differences, according to the 
diBGsrcnt ftatcs of tho(e by whom it is ob(erved, 

f4.For virginal 1 is that which ought to be kept by a virgin 
untill (he contraft mariage. i Cor.'/.^^. 

1 5* Con)uga]l is that which ought to be kept in wedlock. 

Tit. 2 5. -^ • ■ "^ .■ •■ :.'■ ^ -:. V . 

16. Vidnali is that which is to be kept by Widowes, 

17. Unto coBjugaii chaftity mariage lawfully contracted 
and obfervanceis referred. 3/^M 9^6.1 Tim.2.i^Hck 13.4; 

1 8. For this is the difference between iingle eftate and ma- 
.iedjthat though chaftity may and ought fo be obfcrved infir- 
gieefliate, yet finglc cftate of it (elfe raaketh nothing to chafti- 
ty : but wedlock hath both of it own nature a certaine purity 
initfcire, as it is an ordinance of God, and alfoby vettueof 
that inftitutioD, it becomes a meatrepj to prelerve'purity and 
chaftity. • ;- ^ > 1 

19 Mariage is the individaallcdnjunAion of one man and 
one woman by lawfullconfent, for a mutuall communioaof 
their b^di€3,and fociety of life among thcmfelves. 

23 It isofoneman withone wom<in.Gtfr.2.22.3/if^/<^r.2, 
I "y.Maui^*^^^. I Cor.j.2, Levit»J^. 18^ 



3M OfChaflitjf, 

2f.For that pcrfcfkion of fricncl(hip,ancl mutuall offices/uch 
as mariage is cannot be had but between one and one. 

22.ThereioreF^/^^^<iw^.even that which was in ufe with the 
ancient Fathers, was alwaycs a violation oftheLawes of Ma- 
nage, neither was it of old tolerated by God by any other 
difpenfation , then that whereby he is wont to tolerate mens, 
infirmities^andignoranceSjandtoturnetheai to God. 

23. roalawfuil confcnt is required tirft, that the pcrfons to 
be joy ncd be fic:Secondly,that the cofi(cnc it lelfe be agreeable 
to thenafurcofthcthing and the Law of God. 

24.That the perfons may be fic is required. i . A juft diflance 
of blood^L^zz/V. 1 8. 

15. For neerneffc of flc(h hinders mariage by rcafon of a* 
certaine fpeciall reverence due to our own Sefli , contrary to 
which is thatcoBjugall familiarity which is iigniiied in that 
phrafe. DoenotUQCoverhernakednefTe* £^t/iV.\8.6.7. ^nd 

26 • That diftance of degrees , cither of kindred or affinity^ 

, which is propounded, Lffw. 18. tobeobferved^isofcommon 

and pcrpctuall right ; for the violation of it was among choft 

abominations , wherewith the Gentiles therafclves arc (aid to 

have polluted the Land. Ferf.2y.2S. 

27.Yet it is not in all things of fuch effcHtiall morall right, 
tut it may admit exception, either upon meereneceffity urg- 
ing^as in the beginning of the worlds or upon a fpeciall com- 
mand of God,Deut'.2^. 5, 

aS.Spirituall kindred ornecrnefle(^as they call it)brought in 
by the Papifts between him thc^t baptifetb,or the God-father,' 
and rheGod-fon or God-daughter, as they call them bapti- 
fed,as an impediment of lawfuU raatdmony, is an idlc,and ty- 
rannicall devilc ot fuperftitiop. 

29.Secondly , there is alfo required in the perfon that is to 
contraA Manimony^ripcnefleofage,! ^6^^.7.3 5. Which if it 
fliould be wanting, flic could not contract other covenants of 
Icfle moment^much leffe this To great a ccvcnant. 

30. That thii confent be conformable to the natui e of the 
things, there is required atorcband. u Confcnt of parcnts,if 
they be as yet in r heir power, i Ccr.7.36#37.38. 
} 1 .2.Confent alfo of the perfons ccntrafting ought to pro- 

OfChajiity^ 525 

cecd from certaiic and deliberate counfell , without compul- 
fion or deceit. 

32. This conjunftion is faid to beindividuall, becaufe from 
the nature of the thing it felfe , it hath the fame ends with the 
life of man5Ke?w.7, 1,2,3. i Or.7.39. 

33« They ther-efore that have concubineSjWho doc contracfl 
between themfelveSj for a time 5 doe not marry according to 
Gods ordinance and allowancc^but doe filthily elude it. 

34.Neither doth this perpetually depend upon the will on- 
ly and covenant of the pcrfonscontrafting : for then by con- 
lent of both parts,a covenant fo begun may be unloosed again, 
as it ufcth to be between mafter and fervant : but the rule and 
bond of this covenant is the inftitution of God, whence alfo 
it is in the Scriptures fometime called the covenant of God. 

35.This inftitution ofGod whereby he eftabli&cth the in- 
dividualUellowlhip of husband and wife, doth refpeft the 
good of mankind in a juft confervationof it by a certaine edu- 
cation^and hereditary fucceffion of children, which cannot be 
done without an individual! conjunftionof parents* 

36. Therefore lawful! marriage cannot be unloofed before 
death, without moft grievous guilt ofhim whoisthecaufe 
of it. 

37.N ) not i )fidelity or herefie in either part doth give a juft 
caufe of feparation. i Cor.j. 12,13. 

38. But if one party make feparation with obftinateperti- 
ifccy, the other party in that cate is freed. 1 Cor.j, 1 5. 

39. This con.unftion is for the communication of bodies, 
I becaufe there is in marriage firft fought an holy feed, MaUc. 

2«i5.Andfecondarily a remedy^gainft carnal! defires which 

are now fmce the fall in men, who havs not a fingular gift 

^ of Ci3ntinency/o unbridled, that (unleflcthey l)e helped by 

I this remedy) they doe as it were burne them, that is, m kc 

Lthem unfit for pious duties , and make them run headlong to- 

alawfuU and fouie inixturcSji^^-.j.i.f . 

.40. H^.*ace the body of the husband is faid to be in the 

ower of the wife , and the body of the wife in the power of 

^e husband , fo that they ought to give due benevolence one 

► anoiher without defrauding, i 0^.7.3 s>5- 

T t , 4i.H€nc« 

924 * OfChaftity* 

41 . Hence alfo the vow of finglc Ufe,as it takes place among 
thePapifts, is not avowofchafl:ity,butofdiaboUcall pre- 
ftimption^a (nsrc of the confcicnce.and the bond of impurity.^ 

42, Alfo fociety of life, and that moft iptimate/or nmtuall 
comfort and helpc, is among the ends of maria^e : for feeing 
a man muft leave his father and mothefjand cleave to his wife, 
(7^.2.24.And(eeing the woman is faid to be made a meet help 
untoman^G'^».2.i8,Thi8 helping fociety doth not only per- 
taine to the propagation of mankind;but it muft be extended 
to all the duties of this life. 

43. All thefearc mutuall between the husband and wife^and 
ought to be observed of equall right, as touching the cflencc qr 
fumme of the matter^yct fo as that difference of degree which 
comes between the husband and the wife ( that the husband 
governe, and the wife obey ) be oblerved in all thefc things.. 

44, Unto chaftity luxury is oppofcd in a more ftrift fence, 
whereby it fets forth an unlawfull ufe of thofe things, which 
pertainetogeneration^whichinthefame fence is called, un- 
cleanneffe inordinate affe^ion^and evill concupi(cence»^<?/,3. 
5* LafciviourncflreoZ!!/f«?.i3.i3- The diftafe of concupifeence 

45 •Unto Luxury are reckoned all the helping caufeSjeffeSsj 
ahdfignesofit a3«nchaftlookcs./<?^.^i*u Pro.^.i^. zPet.2. 
14. Mat.^.2%, Noddings^KilTings, EmbracingSjTouchingSj 
Daneings^ShoweSjSongs.Gcftwrcs^and the lik^.G'.^/.5«i 5* 

46. Llnto the helping caufes of Luxury are referred^ Giu<^ 
tony and D/unkenneffe,^^. i3«i3.E^.i5.4p./^r^.23.^T. 33, 
47 Unto the eiFcQ?.and fignes of it are referred Jafeivioufnes, 
and lafclvious h bir5Pf-<?.7.ii.Andobfeene{peech,£'/^^.5.4. 

48.The kinds of Luxury are. i. Scortation^ which is the 
mixtureof a fmgle man with a finglc woman, i (^or.6.i6i 
Whether k be5r^pr/jf^,whordomc,which is the deflouringof 
a \roman otherwile ha;jeft : or fornication properly fo called, 
which is (he mixture with a diihoneftwoman^or a whore. 2«, 
AduIteryjWhen atleaft one of the perfons offending is mar- 
ri«d or betrothed. 3. fnceft^when thofe are mixed together 
which arc neerc in the flefh. 4. Rape^when force is added to 
Luxury,5 ^ Mixture againft nature* 

Of cdmmutative Tndice. 52 5 

^ 49. Adultery i« moft properly and cflenti ally agamfi mar- 
TiagCjthc band and covenant whereof it breakcs ofit own na- 
ture 5 and lb is the proper and juft caufe of a divorcc,which is 
»ot to be admitted for many other finj^altkough they be more 

5 o. A juft divorce doth diflblve the band it felfe of mariage. 

Chapter X X. 

Of commutative fufiice. 

u TUftice which refpcfts the outward benefit of our Neigh- 
I hour by a certaine appropriation is called commatativc 

A Juftice, becaufe it is chiefly ufed in changing^. 

2* This Juftice is a vertue whereby every mans own is give* 
to him in external! commodities. 

3.N0W that is faid to be every mans own, whereof ke kath 
a lawful! domiaioQ* 

4. Dominion is a right to difpofe pcrfcftly of a matter (^ 
fiir as Lawcs permit. Mat.20. 15. 

5 . There be two parts of a pcrfeft dominion,propriety aPtd 
the ufe ofit. Lf^c, 20.9.8c l o. i C^r.^.j. 

6.N0W theft are fometimes feparated/o as the propriety is 
inone^andtheufefora time in the power of another. 

j.ThisJufticeis cxerciftd, in the getting and ufing. 

8. The Juftice of getting depends upon the caufe of the 

j.The cau(e and reafon of a dominion is called a title. 

10. A juft title is a juft occupying, an inheritaace, agifcja 
rewardjor a contrafi:, 

1 1. A juft occupation is a lawful! taking of things which 
were belonging to no body before 3 yet may become (bmc 

i2» Thofe things are (aid to belong to no body which arc 
notpoflefled, neither are in any ones dominion. 

13 . In this fence all things are faid to have been commoa 
in the beginning ot the world 5 and alfo after the flood ; bc- 
caufe they belonged to no man by pofleflBon or peculiar do- 

T I 2 eainioH, 

OfcofHmuUtivt iHJtice. 

minion : and fo were propounded in common to every one 
that did firft take or occupie, whereuatoalfopertaines,that 
' bleflTuigofGodupon aiAa-kiad. G^/:.i.2%. Fill the earth and 
fubdue it 5 and beare rule over every beaft, anvi over all foiiles 
of the Heaven, and over all thcbeafts that creepe upon the 
Earth, which is alfo repeated after the flood 5 Be fruitfulljin- 
creafe and fill the Earth. 

14. Of the fame condition al(b are now ihofelflandsof 
the Sea, and parts alfo of the continent which were never in- 

15. Of the fame right alfo are all thofe things which did 
once belong to fome body , but afterward ceaftd to belong tq 
anyjwhich are wont to be called things vacant or forfakcn. 

16. But things that are loft are not to be accoanted with 
thefe^unlefTe there have beci due diligence u(ed to find out the 
true owner : for otherwifc although they be not corporally 
detained from anothcrjy et in right^ with will ^tid mind tlicy. 
are pofleflTed. . : ,^,' V 

17. Herxe thofe wares that to lighten the Ship are caft in- 
to the Sea,or are by fome Shipwrack brought to fliorcj^are not 
to be accounted for things vacant or forfaken. 

18. Unto this occupying is captivity referred , which is an 
ocupying caufeJ by right of war jultly undertaken. 

1 9. An inheritance is a (Iicceeding into the goods of ano- 
- thereby vertuc of his juft wilh Levh42').^$,^6. Num.iy.S.p, 
1 o. & I I . 

20, A gift is a freebeftowingof a good tbing.i JC/;5f^.ro.i ot^ 

21. A reward is the recompencing of a worke done. 

22.A contraft as 't pertaines to this placejis a communica- 
ting of a good thing upon an agreement binding to it :the 
forme oi which b^l eive, that thou may eft give, or I give that 
thou mayeft doc, or I doe t^hae chou mayeft doe^ or I doe that 
thou mayeft give. 

25.Unto p(;{reffiDn by contratfl is to be referred, i. Buying, 
when a thing is had upon a certaine price , 2. Letting^ 
when the ufe of a thing is granted for a certaine reward. 3. 
Borrowingjwhen a thing is taken to be rendred freely againc^ 
f n the famcj genei ally called mutmm : or to be r€fl:or€d in the , 


OfcoMMHtatrve iHjiice* 3^7 

amc fpccialljCallcd commodatHm , to which a pledge or defo^ 
turn may be reckoned. 
24. About thefc matters a lawfull occupation ^ or courife of 
livingjisconvcviaotjbclonging toall men, except choievvho 
enjoy publick offices , of whom we have fpoken before at the 
fift Gommandemcnt : for (uch occupations of life ^ although 
they doc from the nature of the thing pertaine to the com- 
mon good.and ought to be thither dir efted by men ; yet they 
doe withall belong to the private good of this life in getting^ 
and keeping the goodsof this lirc.E/?/:'«4 28.2T^^^/.3. 11.12. 

25. All are bound who are not exerciftd in greater offices 
and doe not prepare themfelves to them, to exercife ibmc fcch 
occupation. I r/?^, 5 13. gen.^.ip^ According to that of the 
apoft!e,if any will not labour,let him not eat. iThjf^^.io. 

26. Neither is ic enough that one labour,unleile he labour 
that which is good. Epk^^iS. That is.doe follow that oc- 
cupation of life 5 which agrees with the will of God and the 
profit of men : tUidyingquictneffe and diligence, i Thejf.^ 
1 i.i2»& 2 T^^/. 5,1^; Unto which are oppofed flothfulneffe^ 
voluntary bcggcry, vsine^curious, unclean arts : and an unne- 
ceflTary care of other mens niatters, which is called. 'B/^- 

27t But to what lingular kind, of occupation every one 

ought to apply himfelfe^that depends partly upon the inward 

- endowments and inclinations which he bath.iF(?r.4,io.And 

partly upon outward circumftances whereby he is caried 

.more to one courfeofHfe then to another. 

28. But becaufe there is a Angular providence of God exer- 
cifed in direfting fuch matters ; therefore every one is i ighrjy 
faid to be affigned to this or that kind of life, as ic were by 
Gods reckning. 

29^ But although in refpcft of this divine providence (uch 
a fpeciall occupation of life is wont to be by proportion cal- 
led by Divines a vocation : yet this is not fo to be takeH53s if 
that vulgar men were as well feparated by God to their oc^ 
cupationSj as a believing man is to live well, or a Miniftcrof 
the word to fulfill the worke of the Minifteryjfor neither is 
there any where m the Scriptures, either any fuch thing decla- 
red^or the title it fclfe of vocation, fimply and properly given 
to any vulgar occupation* TC 3 5Q.For 

gai Of e^mmutatwe Jufiice^ 

30. For the Apoftlcj i Cor,j.2o,\Nhm he makes mention 
of vocation, doth not fet forth any certaiiie occupation of 
thislifcj (forcircumcilionanduncircumcifion, fovic^aiid 
frcedomcj are not occupations of life or juft callings ) bat 
he diftributcsj as it were, the calling of the faithful! , by th« 
fubjcfts, when he fliewes that lome are called being iervants, 
and fosne being frcCj as appeares r<?r/(? 24. Where he unfold* 
the variety of calling by that divers ftate and condition , in 
which the called arc found ; neither doth he there command 
that erery one abide in that ftate in which he was called : for 
he permits a (ervant to afpire to freedomc, Verfe 2 !• But he 
teacheth that there is nodifFercnceof a freemanand a (ervant^ 
in rcfpcft of Chrift aixi chriftian calling^rifr/f 22. 

31. In thedefca of Rich poflcffions poverty confifts, and 
riches in the abundance of them^i J(fhn g, i. 

32. Riches lawfully gotten ^ though in their own nature 
they be not morall good things, yet they are good gifts of 

33. And poverty hath the refpeft of dh punrfliment or affli- 

34. Therefore there is no perfeftion, in caftingaway or 
forfaking riches^ unlefle the ipeciall will of God require it, 
(v//(??/ 20.25. 

35. But evangelicall poverty which is fpirituall, may cpn- 
fift with great richcSj as in aAh-ahamJoi^.&cc. 

36. Alfb propriety and diftinftion of dominions is the or- 
dinance of God and approvedof him.Tr^.22«2.2 TheJJl'^,12. e 

37. In this right of dominion both in getting and ufing 
commutative Jufticc is excrcifed , the lummc whereof is that 
we poflefie our own , not anothcrs^ and that without the hurt 

38. Bur the foundation of this Juftice is placed in the law- 
ful! keeping of thofe things we have, 

jp^Unto this keeping is required parfimony and frugality. 

40. Parfimony is a vertue whereby we make only honeft 
and neceffary expenccs. 

4?. Frugality is a vertue whereby we order our matters, 
with profit and benefit. 

42. The 


42, The pcrfcftion of this Jufticc properly flowing froai 
Charity is in Liberality. 

45.Liberality is a vertue whereby we are inclined to commLi» 
nicateourco'nmodity treely toothers, by the Will of God. 

4|. Unto liberality pertaines notonly afreegiving^undcr 
whiclvis comprehended the forgiving of a debt ; but alio free 
lcnding.L^j.6 34,Andho{pitality,/?(?, 12. i 2. i Pet.^ 9. 

45» Alrues properly fo called doth coniift in this liberality, 
when it is done upon taking piety on the calamity of our 

46 Thett in the larger figniiication is opposed to a juft title 
©f domitiion^ 

47. Thett is an unjaft taking away of that which is ano- 
ther mans againft the will of the owner. Efh,^. 28 . 

48, Taking away comprehends, taking ^ detaining^ and 

4^ A thing is faid to be anothers, which is anothers/either 
in rcfpeft of propriety, power, or pofleilion. 

50. In divers caufes the owner upon right of humanity is 
(bppofed to confent, to the bellowing of fome part of his 
goods^altliough he hath not actually teftified his confent^ and 
thcnihe rcfpcft of theft cca{cth.'Z)^^^^5.24 25. 

5 r. But feeing that which is another mans is taken away 
either fecretly or by force : hence there are two kinds of this 
jEin5namcly theft fpecially lo called, and Rapine or Robberyc 
^£xod.t2. uHof6.% 9. L^c. 8.2 1. I C^r.5.8.9- 

52. U 'ito theft is referred all fraud whichlsuftdinbuy- 
ings, or (e! lings, or in any other unlawful! getting. 

5,5. Theft in the common wisalth is Peculat-m when things 
that belong to the community are taken away, and AnnonA 
flagelUth^ when the buying and felling of come or other 
things is made deerer then is fit , by manopolies^or the like 

54. Unto rapine are referred opprcffionj £/^j 3«'4* ^nd 
extor(ion,£/;f^. 3.14.1 5^w.2.il. - 

55. Unto parfimony and frugality is oppofed profufioi^, 
which is an immoderate beftowing of ihofc things which 
we have.. 

5 6. Unto 

Oftdlingtruth. Veracity^ 
55.Unto Liberality is oppofedcovetou(heflc, which isan 
immoderate keeping of thole things which we have, Frev. 
1 1.24. Or a greedy defire of thofe things wee have not, 

Chapter XXI. 

of telling Truth. Verdcity. 

I* TFUfticc which doth afFeQ: our Neighbour mediatlyjis 
I Veracity and contentation. For by that our Neigh- ' 
Abour is aflFefted ,by meanes of his credit, and by this by 
meanes of fome worke or aftion of ours belonging to fome 
Commandcracnt going before, 

2^ Veracity isa vertue, whereby we are inclined to obferve 
truth in giving teftimony.il/4^23•22.iE;>fe•4♦^ 5, VfaU\'^.2^ 

3/ OFthis telling truth in giving teitimonyjthe ninth pre- 
ceptdoth properly handle, and not of thoife things only or 
chieSy which pertaine to the fame, of our Neighbour 5 For . 
fame pertaines to that honour, the xonfideration whereof is 
had in thefitt precept : neither is icto be put after riches and 
the profits of this life,whereof it was handled in the eight 
Commandement.Prr.i2,i. Neither doth a teftimony trueor 
falfe pertaine to the fame of others only, but alfo to their 
pofleflfionSjand life it felfe»P>^^,30« 14. ^ 

4, It is alfo maniicil that the words tnemlelves of this pre- 
cept doe mo(t direftly refpe6t proceeding in judgement, 
iV^w^. 3 5. 30/7)^^^.17. 6. & 19.15. In which places many o- 
ther things are handled belide fame, although they ought al- 
fo to be extended to all publickjpoliiick , and facred tcftiaio- 
niesi C^r.i$.i5. lohn 1.7 8.15. 19.32*34. 

5.Hence aSions in places of judgemenCj have not only ap- 
probacion , but alio direiStion frorti this precept ; namely that 
judgements ought alwaye^ito be grounded on fit teftiirony 
( unleffe there be that evidence of the matter which needs no 
vvitne(re)orat leaft ftrong and violent (asthey call them) pre- 
fumptionFjWhi.h are cquall to tcftimonicst 


of telling Truth* Veracity. 55 r 

6^ The words of a teftimony mu ft al wayes be H(ed rn chat 
fence as they areundcrltood, or are thought to be underilooi 
bythofc towhomthewicnelles endeavour to give credence, 
without equivocation jdoubtingjor mentall refervacion. 

7.Truth in a teftimony is threefold. i.Whenchat v;hicn is 
faid is conformable to the thing which is in hand. 2. When k 
is conformable to the mind of him that fpeaketh.j. whcntis 
conformable both to the thing and to the mind. 

S.The fecond truth is that which ismoft properly looked 
at in a teftimony and in veracity : yet the third is required 
in iho(c things, a certaineknojvledgeofwhichweare either 
bound or profeflc to have. 

^•This veracity is in a fimple aflertion,or in a promife. 

I o. The truth of an aflertion is al wayes thus far neccflary 
that if we affirme any thing, it doe conient with the mind and 
our judgement. 

Hi Alfo fomctime an aflertion it (elfc is ncceflary when ei- 
ther Juftice or Charity requires it of us. 

1 2. Juftice requires ic in publick judgements of the Judge^of 
theplaintifetbe detendant^of the witneflc,of the advocate,thc 
notary 9 and the proftor, and out of judgement when we 
arc bound tobeare witDeflTeby fome(peciall right. 

I3# Charity requires this when good comes to our Neigh- 
bour by it, without equivalent hurt to our felves or others. 

i4.Truth of a promife is called fidelity. 

1 5tFidelity is a vertuc , whereby we are inclined to kecpc 
gonftantly our credit given. 

i^fThis Fidelity is the foundation of civil! Juftice , and all 
agreements, andcontrads : for a reciprocal! promife is a 

17.T0 the truth of a teftimony is oppofed a Lyc.EpL^, 25/ 

iS.Alie is properly a teftimony, whereby one pronounceth 
otherwife then is in his heart. ^^^.5. Whence is that phraf- in 
Scripture of a double hcart,of a man that is a ly ct .7 fa/. 12^^. 

If. But l>ecau(e a thing pronounced, doth not confift only 
in outward words^but chiefly in their fence^therefore the fame 
Words which are true in one fence, in another fence by^come a 
lye* ^aU26.6i. 

29. Ironies, fables, jtfti, repeatings alfo of falfe things,and 

Uu the 

of telling truths Verdcity. 

the like arc not lies, becaufe they are not teftimonics ; and 
they are not teftimonics becaufe they are not confirmed by 
the credit aud authority of the fpeaker. 

21. An mtention oi deceiving , although it doc almoftal- 
waycs accompany a falfc teftimony, yet it is not of theeflence 
of itjueither is it neccffarily required to a lie ; for although one 
know that he with whom he hath to doe cannot be deceived 
by his lic^yec if he have an intention in (peaking to affirmc that 
which is faife, hclyeth no Icflethen if he had hope of de- 

2it. An intention of hurting doth indeed increafe thcmif- 
chiefe of a lie ; but it mafeech not the nature ©f it : for if a man, 
outof|eftingorade{ire toplcaft and. be officious, confirme 
that by his credit which he knowcs to be falfc,ic is a lie : per- 
nicious of its own nature, if not to otherSj yet to the author 
himfelfras it is in thofe who are given to flatteries or boaftings, 
or are delighted iu confirming monftroiis fables or fiftions 
unto others. 

23f An intention to fpeafce that which is falfe, makes a lic^ 
although that which is fpokcn be moft true, 

24. The aflPevcration of a thing incertaine forccrtaine,ia[ 
accounted with a He althoug^i we tbinke it to be true. ^ 

25. Alfo that fecrecy whereby one doth not fpcakcthe 
truth when Jaftice or Gharity requires it^ doth partake of the 
oaturc of a lie. 

t6. But when neither Juflicc nor Gharity requires to give 
teftimony,then the truth or part of it may be concealed with^ 

27. Among lies, thofe are more hainous^in which the tefti- 
monic is more folerane, as in publick judgements, whlchare 
dhiefly refpeftcd in the words of the ninth precept ^ ia (acred 
mattcr^and in the like* Mat.l6.^^, i C^r.\%.i<^. 

28.Hence fwbfcriptions.^teftimonieSs or commendatory Ict- 
terSjgiven againft the knowne truth are foulc lies. 

29. That diflTcmbiing which confifts in deeds or figneSjand 
not in words, is not properly a lie : unleffc the fame either of 
their own nature.^ or by fomeceftaineippointmentj have the 
force and ufe of {peech ras, \ Sam. 20.20*2i.i2n Mf(.26^f.' 
Becaufe luch deeds and Cgnes that are^not verbally have no 

OftellingTrHth. Vtracity. 

ccrtaincand determinate fignification , fo as th^y can haw the 
force of a teftimony. 

30, Therefore fuch diflTcmbliag is (bmetinw lawfull , as in 
warlike ftratagems, I^/.8. 

3 1 . But it is made unlawful! when in refpcft of the end or 
mdnnerjit hghts with religion^ Juftice or Charity. 

32. Unto fidelity is oppofed perfidy or unfaithfulneflei 

33«A lie is committed in a promifejf there be not an inten« 
tion of doing that which is promifcd, unfaithfulnefle is com- 
roittcd , if there be not an anfwcrablc indeavour to performe 
the fame . thcrefca'c a lie and unfaithfulnefle ^ may be joyacd 
tog€thcr,and they may be aUo fevered. 

%^. When a teftimony toward our Neighbour is confirm- 
ed by an oath^ then the oath is an ad jun(9: of that teftimony : 
and although it doe in it leifc refped God only, yet in this 
ufe it refpeSs our Neighbour alfo. 

3 5* Therefore perjury in fuch a teftimony is dircdWy ami 
immediatly a fin againft reverence due to God : bat mediatly 
it violates alfothat Juftice which is due to our Neighboar. 

36. Aflevcration is the manner of a teftimony whereby the 
fincerity of the witnefle , and the certitude of knowledge 
vrhich he bath of the thing witneflfed , is declared : whence 
alfo it is not unfitly by fbme called a proteftation, becaufeic 
produceth a witneffing by explication. 

57. Therefore in an aflcveration there is not a ftcond con- 
teftation comming to the former as there is in an oath : but aa 
^lluftration of one and the fame thing, 

38. Neither is there any calling upon God \n a mere af- 
ftveration, which is eflcntiall to an oath. 

39. Yet an aflevcration is not convenient but to the more, 
grave teftimonies, for it is as it were a middle degree between 
a fimple teftimo ly and an oath. 

40. We muft moft of all abftainc from thofe affeverations m 
our common (jpeech, which have fome (hew of an oath« 

Vv 2 Cap, XXL 

^1^ of Content Mton^ 

Chapter X XL 

of Content Ation. 

I. X^Ontcntation is a vertue, whereby the mind doth reft 
I in that portion that God hath given him. i Tim.6*6. 
V^ Hek 135. FhiL 4. 1 1. 

a. This Contentment is commanded in the tenth Com- 
mandement,as appeares by the words themfelves, neither is it, 
any way meet that this Commandement be referred to that 
iiiward and original! purity of righteoufncfle, which is the 
fountaine of all obedience ; for that is not generally commaa^ 
dedinany one Commandement , but in all : neither doth it 
more pertaine to the ftcond table which is the condition of 
this precept, then to the firft. 

3. Yec becaui'c of all venues which are contained in the Se- 
cond table there is none more internally or more intimate to 
primicive righteoufiieffc then contention^and we are a? it were 
lead by the hand from this, to contemplate and (e^ke that 5 
therefore that purity is not unfitly by occation of this pre- 
cept handled here. 

4. Unto this contentation is joyned joy for the profperity 
of our Neighbour as of our own* Rom. 1 2.15. 

5.1n that contentment and Joy coRfifts the top and perfefti-* 
on of all charity toward our Neighbour. In which refpeft 
alfo ccatentmcnt is in a certaiac manner the pcrfeftion of 
godlineflc and a godly man. l Tim. 6. 6. For godlmefle is 
great gaine ( p-st' dura^^il^d') with contentment^or producing 
the pcrfeftion of contentment. 

6. Hence it is commanded in the laft precept according to 
that order which proceeds from the more imperfecSttothc 
more perfcft, and from that which is more known to that 
which is leffe knownc. 

7.For this is a duty moft perfeft , and moft tinknowne to us 
by nature, that whatfocver we conceive or will 5 k be joyned 
with the good of our Neighbouri. 


OfContentation. 53 5 

8. Therefore although this of its own nature hath the firft 
place among duties to our Neighbour 3 as the foundadonof 
all the reft , yet becaufe it is lait in h aving a being in man cor- 
ruptedjtherefore ic is commanded in the laft place. 
p.Unto Contentation is oppofed co:Kupifcence.H^^.i3»5. 
10. But by concupifcencc is not underftood the power 
and faculty of Infting, and defiling which is naturall:nor 
the acft or operation of that natiirall faculty wkich is aUo 
naturall and lawful!, neither the whole inclination of our 
nature which is corrupt, which is not fpecially condemned 
in any one precept^but in the whole Liw r nor all thofe chiefe 
aftuall luft« which areinordinate^ a great part whereof is con- 
trary to religion and condemned in the firft table; nor laftly, 
all lufts which tend to the hurt of our Neighbour, for thofe 
which have a deliberaOe confcnc, and purpofc of profecuting 
joy ncd w ith xhem,are condemned in the feverall Commande- 
nients : But that dciirc whereby the mind is firft inftigated, 
and tickled , with defire of the good things which are our 
Neighbours, although it be not yec come into the mind to get 
them by unlawfuU meanes, i Kings ii..2%Mar.io*i^. 

I r. By realon of that affinity, or neere consanguinity which 
thofe firft motions of mjuftice have with original! corrup- 
tion^ whence they doe arile, they are wontby many tobeas 
it were confounded with icBut.i. Originall fin, is as it were 
an inbred habit, perpetually dwelling in m, having it (elfe 
in refpeul of the exiftence alwayes in the fame manner ^whileft 
€We live here; but thefcniotions are tranfient a&ions pro- 
ceeding from that habit. 1. That fin dwelling in us^isno 
more originall , then a generall principle of all vitious afti- 
ons, but thofe afts, which are condemned in this place are 
manifeftly circumfcrlbed ^ as having refpeft only to our 

12. The Apoftle himfclfe, Rom.'].Aot\\ plainly open this 
precept by a Synecdoche of the operations of fin , for concu* 
pifccncej Ver.j, is the fame with the affections of finnerSj^'irr. 
5.And withconcupifenceeffeftcd by fin, r<?r.8. And fb muft 
neceflTarily be diftinguiftied from fin dwelling in hm.Ver.j. 

13. Neither is it any raarvaile that the Pharifees ( of whom 
Panl was on-^ ) did not acknowledge the firft motions of con- 

U u 3 cupifjence 


capi(cencc to be fins , feeing the fame is yet ftiffly denied by 
their cofen germans,thcPapifts. 

14. They that divide this iaft precept of concupilcncc into 
two, fo as one is of coveting the houfe , and the other of co- 
veting the wife, with that which followes in this matter, x. 
They are forfaken of all reafon.2.They are conftrained cither 
to roote out altogether the feconi precept of the firft Table^ Or 
to turnc it at leaft into a needlcflTe appendix of the firft ^ that 
they may (eeme to retaine in (bme fort the number of ten 
words^or rather (which is evident in many of them) that ab- 
fcuring the force of the fecond precept » thev may with fome 
(hew remove it fronl thcmlclves, and their fup<;iftitions, they , 
are conftrained to teare in funder this teniTi precept. 3 1 hey 
cannot certainly defigne which is the ninth, and which is chc 
tenth precept, becaufe in the repetition of the Law, Deptu^. 
27.Govetingofthe wife is put before the coveting of the houfe 
4. They can declare no dittindinjuftice, between theleco* 
vetingSjW hence alfo it comes to pafle, that they thcmftlvesin 
explaining the decalogue, doe alwayes joyne or rather con* 
found the ninth and tenth precept. 5. The very words of the 
decalogue ^ doe expreflely note one precept when they forbid 
one a(^« Thou (halt not covet^ and one common obje^ what- 
foever is thy Neighbours. 

1 5.There is referred to concupifcence as a caufc^the inordi- 
nate love of our {clves,which is called 9'>'AutU^2 Tim.^.2» 

i6.This (elfe-love is the foundation and originall, in a fort 
of all fins^not only againft our neighbour^but alfo againft God* 
himfelfe. 2 Tim*^.^. 

i7.Thi8 concupifcence is that which is diftributed by loh^^ 
into that which is of the flclh^refpeClingthofe things which 
pcrtainetofoodandluft, and into that which is of the eyes, 
refpec^ing tho(e things which pertaine to outward delight 
and profit ; and into that which is of the pride of life^rcfpciSt- 
ingthofc things which pertaine to the glory andpompeof 
this world, i John 2.16^ 

1 8. U nto joy and well-pleafednefli in the profperity of our 
Neighbour is oppofcd^envy,,or ancvill cye.^/^f.20. 1 5. And 
iTTix^piKcc/.U or rejoycing in the hurt of our Neighbour. Pf.^.12. 

I pJn 

OfCcntiHtaiiOH. 337 

ij Jn thislaft precept that perfcftion of Jafticc is comman- 
ded , which is in fomcforcexplained throughout the whole 
lecond table ; as in the firft precept of the firil table, all Re- 
ligion is in a ccrtaine manner commanded , (o that in the firft 
precept of the firft table is contained that firft and great 
CommandemeafjThoq ftialt love God with all thy beai f.and 
the (econd table like ro this , thou fhalt love thy Neighbour as 
thy (elfc is contained in the laft of the fecond Table. 

20. From this pertc6lion which ftiines forth in any one 
of thefe precepts it is maniteft, thataperfeft and accurate 
fullfillingofthcLavv, isia;po(ribleevenio the faithful!, by 
that grace which is bcftowed upon them in thislife^ For 
feeing ( as it is well faid ) the ru!c and meafureof our obedi- 
ence is in affirmaiiveSj Thou fiiaklove with all thy heart: 
and in negatives, thou (hale not covet, both of which is 
impoffiblc in this life^it doth neceffarily follow^thar none can 
exaftly (atisfie the Law. 

21. In this life v;e know only in parr,i Cnr.i^.^. And 
therefore we aft only in part : we haveieceived only the firft 
fruits of the (pirit, Rom.%.2^. And chercfure we cannot exact- 
ly obferve a Law altogether fpiriiuall. Rom.j.i^. We carry 
about us flwlh that lufteth againft the Ipiiiti G^/.S*! 7. There- 
fore wecannot obey Without concupifccnce 3 inclining and 
drawing another way , Finally we aicnotpeffeftj "PH/.^. 
Verfe. i 2 • We cannot therefore performe perfeft obedience : 
but we h^.ve alwayes need toh^vethatpeiitionin theheartj 

^and in the mouthjforgive us our debt?. 

21. Yet it is truly and rightly faid that the yoke of Chrift 
is ea(y,and his burden light. <^Mat. 11.30. And his Com- 
mandements are not grievous, i fohn'y,^. Bccauft the Law 
is there confidered, i. As it isobfervedbytheFaithfuHwho 
delightinir. Rom.j.zi, TJa/.ii^, 1^.16. Not as it ought 
to be obftrved ^ for that obfervacion brings reft unto the 
foules of the faithful!. LMat.xi.ip. Although imperfcftion 
cleaving to them is grievous and troublefoms to them. 2. In 
rerpeftotthefpirit, notinrefpeft oftheflefh. LMatthew26, 
4ii 5 Remiluon of fin and of all imper-eclion which cleaves 
to cur indeavours being jjyned with it. 4, In cosiparifon 
of the Letter of the Law which kilieth. 5. Acomparifi)n 


558 Of Cmtentathn* 

alfo being had of the reward appointed by God to imperfect 

obedience begun : in which fence even all affliftions arc 

counted light. 2^<?r,4.i7. The eafinefle therefore and light- 

neflc of the Law of God is not in the proportion of it to 

our ftrength : but in the grace of our Lord Jefus Chrift , and 

the Love of God together with the Communication of 

the Holy Spirit : which is with all thofe 

that love the Law of God^ 



A A A A A A A A A A ^^ A A A A A ^^ A ^^ A ^^ A A A A A ^\ 

To tKe Reader. 

. Thefe words explained are not 

intended for the learnedj but for the un- 
' yiearned^whereby they may come to the 
►^ underfianding of this booke and others of 
I the fame nature,and the rather becaufe 

P many (cntenccs may depend on the o- 

peningof a word. 

SYnecdoche , A figure containing a part far the 
vphole p. a 

"Genuine diftribution naturaU or proper divifiom. 

Metonymy 4 figure by which the caxtfe it put for the 
ejfih^or thefiibjeUfor the Adjunli or contraritpije, 
the efieUfor the caufe. ibid. 

■Inaccellible that cannot be gone Hnt«, p>9 

fE&iViCC the beginning. ^ p.. JO 

I ConfeftarieSjor conclnfions. ibidein. 

jyjubfiftence the manner of being* ibidem. 

mhHtaCtthe finhfiantiveaSitphitenefe. p.li 

I X Con- 

The Table, 

Jmpkntie Ir^e^&ality . . j ibidem. 

E^ivocally V^ibijulL ibidem, 

Analogically ^y^^iy^^K p. 1 2 

Niimeucall,^ 1^^ T;t/i:))^^^ nit on- 
Individuall c /j^ in naiure^Jjul in fiumhyr^ 

^ f ^^ „-. ibi^etn. 

Dim-nfion *^l|^J[^§^J!?i/%^^^ ibidem. 

Relatives /{£//^#.7/z;t-f ^' p^i 5 

IrtfllM Juating; K^f^.lj^^ij;?^^ o^Limitirtg.^ ibiJem . 

Syifegiii^eW'^^^^ p-^^ 

Id enti ty Sameneffe vfa thing. p. 2 2 

Ternr.i latio'a 7/jc? r^Utio/iof'a works to a particular 

perfon. » \ ^^ „ ibidem, 

An^iyusrefulfilron. p ^24 

Idea i^ for^e cr image of a thivgin amdns mind. 

'it tv^O'^H '* pv^\t^MAt\^':i tjn^A-- -^*i^- ibidem* 
Qdiddity the being of a thing. 2 5 

Exiftence thea&uall being of a things ibidem. 

Goritingent accidental. 26 

Simpte ifitelligehce Godr abfolHte Knov^ledge. 

e^(-":n--^- \v \ . ^ :. '^^\^\V^x = . j t-Vr ' ^ ibidem- 

Scifeffce is Knowledge ' ^ i bidem . 

Sapience is Wifdome. - - ibidem* < ; 

C<ii\<:omii:i}M Accompanying^ p-27 

Antecedent ^t;;>^^f/J?re. ibidem. 

Gonnexiony (?;'»/>§: before* ibidem, 

BlLi^tohaveanc^Haflbarfg^ p. 2 8 



Contingency hj chaftce> '^^'^'' ^^^^'^^'^[^^.p 
MetonymJcally h^ a figure, fl^-V^'^/^/fepM 

•' '' or ihe Juhje^f for the quality, orcoiitrariwife, 

.n^*;v;i\ -.'.^^ ^ibidem. 
Formally tranfient reattxfajfiag. ^^^- . p.5 1 
Virtually thaHs.ihpmeH - v?\\\ov^ah xs \\^q^^ 
PraeexiCl/o be ^e/w^*i -« i^it^4V.■^•^'^«^ 'i^ <^^«^ ^^'t>.32. 
Emitte thtbi^ (fathing, - ^'-^^^-^ ^^^'^^-^ 

'Aggregation heaping up or joyning together.. 

Incompleat ImperftU. .j^v^^v^l aiUima^^jj 

Intrinrecallyi«B!^r4p, ,< .-..ci^i^ V ' '^'' ' '^P- 4^ 

Pfe^3ous^OT>^^Q(»r^.■^'i^ ^«t'VinniV^ Ikooiqr^;^^ 

Sijnfereff s thitfrn ^ofihem^mMnt^Wmiitt 
kfepefeverall Notiont. .'^'^•^ '.»v.\ •" ^\. 1^.47 
/knirbaJI living' •■>^"^^^^^'^H^^^^ Ibitferi. 

' Detraaation with -drmifi^f^pmih tm.^':^ p-^i 

. IniMguTatiooinfialliftg. ''^'^'^%^S 

A UU^aUsi^thdhrt^ii^rywher^^^^^^ -^p^ 

1 1 PfOftiifcuoufly cof^fed 102. 

X 2 Adequate 

To the Reader.' 

^^t^MSACcf the fame txte»f» p.i3t7 

li/tanum\{^onffee^ome. P"»25 

'ffapfmutation change* P V2"9 

Colieftiv^y ^^^ei^^r. . " p-»?6 

ltit;egrally jp&t'/^. ibidem, 

deaus 4 togicatt terfm intimating a nature common 
tofeveraUkitndt..^^. *37* 

'^tfOjes is alogicallferme ^gmfyUtg <^ itatttrt agfte- 
'^^^Utondy to fever all f articular sr^A 'A . . ibidem. 
'Jti^ologieall Axioms ^^^^rirfs, t«^\I?jl«/?»/>/V. 

'\4^;-, V .,.:r '■' --■-■■^ '■■■•■■ -^P- ^5<5- 

Bxprdium Pre/iice. ibidem. 

lf«|StlT i^^f^'f f»y."^*: ^■*^" ) 

Kefiprocall inier^ange(Aile>}^,:^^J\0S^'i. ^'*^ \| 

fiiiWfionpr alfi6*t^m»it1^«it^g^l\ e'l ., P.*'^ 

VMdytesfolhwers. . wvo\\ I' P-^T^'l. 

IntcnGvely thein^ardvermpfii ^mextinfmif^ 

are outward aSfs of a thing, .vvvv^^.r., .f'^yiP ' 

jGlaffes/Ae /(^r meeting.' .5nt\\v -l^*' "^ 

lynpds the greater mating. . {'-yhV^ < ! : ibideaa,^ 
Oedumenicall j^j^i^^erfalL ^ .,, i\^- A\\«: ' ibidetn. 
Cotifubftantiation the %4f^ :4^\^m :iii#»W^'^- 
.- ; 0ther. - ..>^. ^,V.,^\-.\ V im '■ t-' ■ ■ f' » °4- 

ttii^peff 4 tranjlation^^rik^'^tmi^m^^ 

"■ '■' , , ■■-■ ■ Lesbian. ' 

To the Reader.' 

Lesbian crooked- p.fM. 

Ethtcks tftattftert, p. 200 

Mediocrity the v/eane. ip.2G6 

Specificall thefa^e in kind, ibidem. 

Ens incom plcxum a^mpk being. p. 22 2 

Specificative that ntakes divers %ndj, p. 222 

ltn^\K\XQmexfrefed, V 2il 

Ex^cit<, expnjjed. ibidem 

iA ppretiatively valuablely. p,2 g^ 

tCoiBpeUacion»4«»/»^ 9r ^^4/%. ^^ai^ 

Sym^ihksthtagr(kmmti0fn4tttre\. 7 ^* ^\ 

.Antipathies Me ^j/%ref«,g;?.v^/«4^»^<. JP* 2^43 

^VV^O'pnsiXioti applying to one. >"^ ''f 6. 249 

VMcntall i« the nnderftanding, p.^.^^ 

. A^aUi«_»^ni -:- ibidem. 

^' Y^Pf^cation /tf pray agaiuji, , yikor ^.^-^ 

Impetration obtaining. i s*\Vv.Aj.i\ llf oin: -^gLj 

Apprccation/r<j;z«gJtfr. x^Wivi^i^s^ V^'-'pi'^ 

Celebration ^r<?|^»g. \Vvii -i-^-; -i yvh/;! *> jt > 
Metaphorically tht property ^pm fhing:iii¥ma^ 

^foamher. -W lkn^55 

^omiflory^r^^,/«g. . ^ -u^^r^ntji^^ 

. ^rtory affirming, . .V. v J-o-^-^i 

Candidly /»g^»«^^. WibGrnr,£.k2fe 

, Spontaneous »//%^. ^'^J: 

\ ^"^^'f^^^conJHratioft, ^[2^ 

Indefinite »«//«,;>,^ , . ibidem. 

Fortuitous ../«^. • -^ ^ iby^^ 

LConjedure^w^. ^ 

Pertinacious obfiiMate* f 265. 

^ * 3 Monoiflachicj 



Monomachie? D«e///. p.^ifS.' 

h^.r\X^2Lte perfeSf. P*^7i 

Rcdunriancy abounding* ibidem. 

V^tixh(X\or\flander. P*^72 

]oi2LQ^tittks. ibidem. 

Subje<ftively in this place terminated, p^VS 

Ob)ed[ive\y referred by* . ibidem. 

Idolpthites thingt offered to idolls. p. 276 

^\t^jihi\ox\featingn '\' \ .. p*28o 
jPrplepfisor 5 The declaring of a nhikgi before 

Anticipation S that Jball bee -done /ifterw^d^ ' 

Polygamy many mariMg£s%' ' . p.2&i 

Adumbration /W^w/if^. it -av ^. ' pM^^. ^ 
Judiciall the Latpesfor the Comwon-Wedtf^ p* 2^8^. ^ 

J^\fz%on(:2\\y fignrativel]^ r fli^ ] 

G0nceffion^r4«^/«^. v^)»^\e^riibidem» 

Mtchzmc^W Handiwork* p. 9 01. 

Difpar ity inequality* ^ . - ibidem . 

Ependative correBing. / v. f \ rioi ? • p-307 

Coffi^n^Utiye ^i^4wr^ i li bn .ibiden!. 

Crimiinall faulty. *^.^i\Vw\ibidem :^ 

V^xf^moxiyjfaring. r^)}^,Y^^ 7 irrHp^^iB \ 

Pedagogy Child -hood. .^^^m u 2 89. 

^C9|nmodation//^/>r^« p«28w^ 

■^^}^ F IN I s:^*"*'» TXn- i 

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..'- -r 

. > 

' vtiV 

That which may be known of 
God,or his back parts^is his 





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