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Full text of "Conscience with the power and cases thereof :"



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Casbs thereof.. 

Divided into V. Bookcs. 


Learned, William Ames, Dodor, and 

Profeflor of Divinity, in the famous Vni- 

verfity ofFraneker in Friejland. 

into English > for morepuMique benefit. 

lot 14. if. 

When he glues quietnes » who can make trouble i when he hides his f a « 
who can behold him ? . lus 13Ce > 

And herein doe I exercife my felfe, to haue ai wales a Confcience voide of oft n « 
toward God, and toward men. "««ronence 


Jmprinted, <^inna MDCXXXIX; 


Gladly call to minde the time, when be- 
ing yong, I heard, worthy Mafter Per- 
kins, (6 Preach in a great AfTembly of 
Students, that he inftiu&ed them found- 
ly in the Truth, ftirred them up effeftu- 
ally to feeke after GodlinefTc, made them fit for the 
kingdomeof God; and by his owne example shew- 
i ^d them, what things they should chiefely intend, that 
they might promote true Religion, in the power of it, 
/ / unto Gods glory, and others falvation: 

And amongft other things which he Preached pro- 
fitably, hee began at length to Teach, How with the 
tongue of the Learned one might fpeake a word in due 
feafon to him that is weary, out ofSfai. 5 o . 4. by unty- 
ing and explaining diligently, CASES OF CON- 
SCIENCE (as they are called^)/ And the Lord 
1 found him Jo doing like a faithfuU Servant. Yet left 
he many behinde him affe&ed with that ftudy j who by 
their godly Sermons (through Gods affiftancej made 
fit to runne, encreafe,and be glorify ed throughout £ng+ 

My heart hath ever fince been fo fet upon that Study, 
that I haue thought it worthy to be followed with all 
care, by all men. Since alio (Gods good providence 
fbdiipofingit) that I lived out of mine owne Coun- 
^trey^ I did obferue that in divers Churches , pure both 
for Doctrine and Order, this Pra&icall teaching was 
much wanting,and that this want was one of the chief e 
caufesofthe great negled, or carelefTeneiTe in fome, 

A 3 duties 

To the Reader. 

duties which neerely concerne GodlinefTe,and a Chri- 
ftian life. My minde was fet on, as it were by violence, 
to try at leaft in private, whether I were able to pre- 
vaile with fome young men that purpofe the Miniftry, 
more to apply their mindes to this kinde of handling 
of Divinity ; whence no fmall fruit was to bee hoped 
for. Being afterwards called to a publike charge of 
Teaching in the Vniverfitie, I efteemed nothing bet- 
ter, or more excellent, then to goe before thofe that 
wereStudents for theMiniftrie,in this manner of teach- 

This part of Prophecie hath hitherto beene lefle 
pra&ifed in the Schooles of the Prophets, becaufe our 
Captaines were necefTarily inforced to fight alwaies in 
the front againft the enemies to defend the Faith, and 
to purge the floore of the Church ; So that they could 
not plant and water the Fields and Vineyards as they 
defired ; as it ufeth to fall out in time of hotte 
warres. They thought withthemfelues in themeane 
while (as one of fome note writes) Jf we haue that fin- 
gle and cleave eye of the G off el if in thehoufe of our Heart 
the candle of pure Faith be fit upon a Candlefiicke, thefe 
fmall matters might eafily be difujfed. But experience 
hath taught at length , that through neglect of this 
hufbandry, a famine, of Godlinefle hath followed in 
many places, and out of that famine a grievous fpiritu- 
all plague > infomuch that the counfell of Nehemiah j 
had need be pra&ifed \ namely, that every man should 
labour in this worke with one hand> holding in the o- 
ther a Speare or a Dart, whereby he may repell the vi- 
olence of the enemies.The fame Experience hath like- 
wife taught, that thefe fmall matters ( if fo be that fo 
neceffary things may beefo called) are delpifed with 


To the Reader. • 

no leflc niadneffe, then if one would fliffcr the fingers 
and toes of his hands and feete to beecutoflk as fome 
fmall things,without which he hoped to walke and ufe 
his hands well enough. All things therfore being right- 
ly weighed^ haue taken in kind (God alio liking it, as 
J am perfwaded ) thefe inftru&ions touching the 
power of Confcience-Not that I hope that any perfect 
thing, in this kinde, can come from me : (for there are 
more kinds of things this way, then that certaine an- 
fweiscanbegiven(bymeatleaft) to every one) but 
that I might doe fomething, whereby the unlearned, 
and fiich as are deftitute of better helpe, might fome- 
*vhat be helped; and that the more learned might bee 

fr excited to fet forth fome more perfed and exadi thing. 
Of which duty the godly, learned, graue ancient Prea- 
chers are properly the Debtors , whofe dayly labour 
it is to deale with the Confciences of men ; who 
through their experience haue learned much better, 
what thofe queftions are, in which the Confcience u- 

^-feth moft to doubt, and out of what grounds they may 
be beft unfolded; then can eafily be vnderftood by one 

. that Hues privately in an Academicall profeflion. And 
tpdeede* if inch things were handled in the meetings of 
Preachers, according to the variety of Cafes that foil 
out; and the more remarkeable decifions fet downe in 
writing • the children of Ifrael should not neede to 
goe downe to the Philiftims (that is, our Sutdents to 
Popish AuthorsJ to sharpen every man his Share, his 

I Mattocke, or his Axe, or his weeding Hooke, as it fell 

j'out in the extreame neceflity of Gods people, i Sam . 

Furthermore if fuch as are addidted to the Miniftry, 
were firft inftru&ed in thefe things, and were ferioufly 



i Of Confctence. Booke i. 

fcience doth alwaies fuppofe an aflent that is firme and 

3 By the definition of Confcience 3 it appeareth that 
Confcience is not a contem} n } atiue judgement, whereby 
truth is fimply decerned from falfehood : but a pratti* 
call judgement, by which, that which a man knoweth 
is particularly applyed to that which is either good or 
evill to him.to the end that it may be a rule within hiixv 

Whether Con- tO dircdt his Will. 

fcience be a Fa- *■%-»■ i i • r * r • r 

cuitie 3 Habit ? or Seeing that this name 01 judgement, lslometimes 
taken for a power and faculty* fometimesfor an habit, 
fometimesfor an ad; this queftion arifeth, to which 
of all thefe Confctence is properly. 

4 The moft graue Divine 3 William Terkins, whe 
onely of our Countreymen hath fet foorth a peculiar 
Treatife of Confcience > doth place it among Vacuities ,* 
and'he doth fb define it, as he putteth for the general^ 
nature of it a part of the Vnderftanding, that is to fay, 
as he explaines himfelfe, ^A natur all power or facultie. , 

. He giues this reafon of his opinion, namely* becaufe 
the ad of Accufing^Gomforting, Ttrrifyin^&c can- 
not bee afcribed to the Confcience, if it felfe were an 

ad. But this reafon is w r eake : becaufe in the Scriptur < 

i * sit* 

fiich kindes of effeds are attributed to the thought - 
themfelues 3 which undoubtedly are ads. Rom. 2 . 15. 
Their thoughts- Accufing one another^ or Sxcufng. The 
reafon is, becaufe things done,, are the effeds not onelyf 
of the Mover 3 but alfo of the motio it felfe. Befides^Ma-'' 
fte.r "Terkinsmakcth Gonfcience^Vnderftanding^Opini- 
•on 3 Knowledge^Faith^and Prudence^to be of one kin.p 
or fort / but none would define thefe lb, as that they 
should be taken for diftind faculties of the foule. 
5 Some of the Schoolemen will have Confcience 


Booke i« Of Qonfcience. 3 

f o be an habit : as ScotmJLonaventurefDurand. Which 
though it might be granted of fome pait; or of the 
principles of Confcience : yet it cannot be granted 
(imply of all that which is fignified by the name of 
Confcience * for the onely office of an Habite 3 as it is 
an Habit, is , Inclinare ad promote agendum 3 to make 
one doe a thing readily : but Confcience hath other o- 
perations ? which belong properly to it , as to Accufe, 
Comfort, &c. 

6 By Judgement therefore 5 in the definition of Con- 
> fcience 5 ( I underftand moft properly with the beft 

Schoolemen) an aft of pra&icall judgement, procee- 
ding from the Vnderftanding by the power or meanes 
I fa£ ahabit. 

7 The ads of judgement are, either a fimple S'X' 

apprehenfion, or a difcourfe. Whence it may be asked, Dta ™ ettcu ™- 

to which of thefe belongs Confcience- -C^ # 

It belongs to judgement difcourfing, becaufe it can- Anfa* 
not doe its ad of Accufing, Excufing, Comforting, 
v unleffe it be through the meanes of fome third argu- 
ment, whofe force appeareth onely in a Sy llogifme,by 
J that which is deduced and concluded out of it. 
&t 8 The force and nature of Confcience therfore is 
f Contained in fuch a Syllogifme. 

Be that Hues in(inne> shall dye : 
lliueinfinne ; 

Therefor e, J shall dye. 


Whofoever beleeues in Chrift^shallnot dye but line. 
w J beleeue in Chrifi ; 

Therefore,^ shall not dye but liut. 
9 Confcience in regard of the Propofition is called 
a Lighted a Laws in regard of the AfTumption and 

B % conclufion 

Of Conference . Booke i. 

conclufion a Witnejp j but in regard of the afTumption 
it is mod fitly termed an Index, or a Booke^ and in re- 
gard of the conclufion^ mod properly a Judge. 

i o That which doth didate or giue the proposition 
is called Synterejis, by the Schoolemen SynderefisJ\\\z 
afTumption efpecially and peculiarly is called Syneidefis^ 
the conclufiea-is.the Kr/fis^ or Iudgement. 

1 1 There be mafly^ether Syllogifmes which be- 
long to Confcience^as either they doe prooue the pro- 
position of fuch a principall Syilogifme 5 or illuftrate the 
conclufion it felfe : but in that Syliogifme alone is con- 
tained the whole nature of Confcience. The Propo- 
sition treateth of the Law ; the AfTumption of the fad 
orftate 5 and the Conclufion of the relation arifing 
from the fad or ftate 3 in regard of that Law ; The j 
Conclufion either pronounceth one guilty 5 or giveth 
fpirituall peace and fecurity. 

Chap. II. 
Oft hi Synterejis^ oy for eh o life ofTrinciples. 

THat Synterejis out of which the proposition of 
this fyllogifme or the Law of Confcience is taken^ 
is moft properly a habit of the under ftanding.by whica 
wee doe affent unto the principles- of moral! aStions^ 
that is 5 fitch adions as are our duty > becaufe God hath 
willed., or commanded them j whence it hath the name [ 
in Greeke from confervin^f or through the soodnefTe " 
QfGod^the knowledge of many things which wee 
ought to doe or shun., are ftiil confeived in mans mind& ■ 
even after his fall 

That expofition ofT^^r^iwhodreames that the 
Creekeword Synterefis ligaificsaCoeledion^ istoo^ 
l»8£sb..andabfiird^ 2 Be* 


Booke I Of Qonfcience. 

2 Becaufe this Synterejis is an habit, therefore many 
doe call Conference, an habit : but it is onely the prin- 
ciple of confcience., neither doth it make up any part 
of confcience 3 but only as conference is in its excercfe. 

3 This Synter-efis is termed a naturall habit in rc- 
fped of the iight,whereby the underftanding of man is 
fitted togiue afient unto Naturall principles ; it is like- 
wife called an acquired 'habit. ) in regard of the Specie, 
or of the fuller underftanding, of that whereirnto the 
understanding is naturally inabled, and can fas it were) 
under ft and prefently. 

4 This Synterejis differs onely in refped or appre- 
henfion from the Law of Nature.or from that Law of 

) ,>Ood, which is naturally written in the hearts of al men; 
for the law is the obied., zndSyntereJis is the obied ap- 
prehended, or the apprehenfion of the obied. 

j This Synterejis may for a time be hindred from 
adingJbut canot be utterlv extinsuished or loft . Hence 
it is that no man is fo defperately wicked as to be void 
of all Confcience. 

6 To Synterejis being taken after a large fenfe 5 ought 

to be referred^not onely generall conclufions touching 

right or Law, which are deduced by good confequence 

JMSut of naturall principles , but likewife all pradicall 

truths,, whereunto wee giue a firme affent, through the 

revelation wee haue by faith. 

Jl 7 From hence arifeth the diftindion of Confcience 

into that which is Naturally and that which is Inlighte- 

md. Naturall Confcience is that which acknowiedgcth 

jfor: law the principles of nature 5 and the conclufions 

srifing from them . Inlivhtened is that which doth befide 

thofe 5 acknowledge whatfoever is prefcribed in the 

Scriptures, The Scripture fometknes fpeaketh of this 

B 3 laft 

6 Of Confcience. Books £ 

laft : as Rent. 6. 3. and fometimes of the other as 
1 Cor:6:S. 

8 From hence it appeareth that the perfed and only 
rule of Confcience is the revealed will of God,, where- 
by a mans duty is both showne and commanded. For 
Synterefis in a more large fenfe confifteth,partly of mo- 
rall principles that are naturally in us, together with 
their conclufions ; and partly, of thole which God be- 
fides them hath injoyned. But the revealed will of 
God whereby man knowes his duty, containeth both 
what it is that 9 Hence it is that the Law of God onely doth bind 

bindes the Con- ^ Q^fa^CZ Q f man . By the Uw Q f Q^ ^ ^ 

derftand that revealed will of God, whereof we haue 
made mention : vi^. as it doth alfb containe thofe things ; 
which are commanded in the Gofpell. 

10 Tobinde (In this morall fenfej is to haue fuch 
an authority, as the Confcience ought to fubmit it felfe 
unto : And it wereafinne to doe any thing contrary 
to it. 

1 1 Henceit is 3 that though men be bound in Con- 
fcience by God to obferve in due and iuft circumftan- 
ces the lawes of men , yet the fame lawes of men lb far 
as they are mans lawes, doe not bind the Confcience.' 

why mens laws 1 2 The Confcience is immediatly fubjed: to God, 
doc not bind the anc j j^ w yi anc } therefore it cannot fubmit it lelfe unto 

Conscience. ■*- - _ 

any creature without Idolatry . 

1 3 God onely knowes the inward workings of the 
Confcience ; he therefore onely can prefcribe a law 
unto it, or bind it by one. 

14 God onely can punish the Confcience when it ;. 
finneth j Ihe therefore onely can forbid any thing to it. 

i) Even apromife (which in it felfe is facredj 


Bookl i. Of Qonfdcnce. 

though it be confirmed by an oath : as it is an a<ft of 
man doth not properly bind the Confidence, for the 
former reafons; though men are bound in confeience 
by God to a ftrickt and faithfull keeping of them. For 
as it hath beene (aid before of the lawes of men, it may 
alfb in fome fort be affirmed of all covenants and other, 
conditions, which being made^a man is bound to keep 
out of Confeience to God j as for example, the fickc 
perlbn is bound in Confeience to obey the counfell of 
| Phificiansforhis health: But the receipts prefcribed 
by Phificians, doe not binde the Confeience. So a- 
gaine. Parents and Children are bound to mutuall du- 
ties ; he that hath received a benefit is bound to shew 
^ ^nmfelfe thankefuU, (and the like may be faid of many 
'p'fbthev thingsj yet none of thefe, either Parent, Bene- 
1 fdttor, relation, or benefit 3 doe of themfelues binde the_ 
' Confeience, but the will of God in them. 

Cha p. III. 
^>.v Of the Office of Qonfcience* 


THe office of Confeience, ( if we fpeake withre- 

ipe& totheSjinterefisor Lawes of it , ) is one in 
•^JecefTary things ; Another in things of middle and in- 
different nature. In neceffary things Confeience hath, 
two acts., i To binde, 2 Tq inforce to praclife. 
'. 2 Confeience bindeth according as it is informed ™^£f n ^ a 
"*r of the will of God : for in it felfe it hath the power of a bo° n " m^V 
will of God, and fo ftands in the place of God him- 


3 Godswillasitisunderftoodvor may be under- 
ftood, binds the Confeience to affent; As it is ac- 
knowledged and received by Confeience , it binds the 


8 OfC on fii ence - Booke i. 

whole man to obey and doe it prefently . 

4 Confciencc bindeth a man fo ftraitly that the 
command of no creature can free a man from it. 

5 Hence man,as he maketh Confcience of the will 
of God commanding him fomeduty, is in that regard 
called a Debtor, Rom: i 14. zfervant, Rom 6. 16. is 
faldtobz bound, ^A£fs 20. 22. conjlrainedy 2. Cor. 
$.14. to haue aneceffity laid upon him. iCor, 9. 16. 
fo that he cannot doe otherwife. <.A8s 4% 2 o. 

6 Confcience inforceth to obedience by vertueof 
this its ad of Binding. For that is to the will an impul- 
fiue cauf e to make it carry it felfe confeientioufly. 

7 This inforcement is fignlfied in the fore-named 
places and phrafes : the ftrength and power thereof is 
declared, Ier. 20. 9. Wherefore I thought from < 
henceforth not to fpeake of him , nor to preach any < 
more in his name 5 but the word of the Lord, was a ve- 
ry Burning fire in my heart , and in my bones : <lAwos. 
3.8. The L ion hath roared, who will not be afraid ? 
the Lord hath fpoken who can but Prophecy ? Afts. $7** 
1 6. his fpirit ysrzsftirredm him. 

8 If there be a conftant difpofition of will in a man I 
confenting to this inftigation of Confcience > they doe 
together make up a Confcience morally good. 

Theaasofcon- 9 In Indifferent things the Aftions and Duties of 
fdence abom in- Confcience are likewife two. i. Todifcerne. 2. To. 

difFere*t things. _. 

Direa. | 

The difceming „ io To Difcerne is to shew and declare the diffe- 
rences of things what is necefTarie,what is free, what is 
lawfull, and what is unlawfull. V 

The direftion of 1 1 To Dircft is with regard had to circumftances, 
to order lawfull anions unto a good end. 

1 2 The ends which are alwayes to be aimed at, even 


Booke I. Of Qonjcience. 

in indifferent things alfo, are the Glory of God, the E- 
difying of our Neighbour, ahd the Helpe of our ne- 
cenarie Actions. 

1 3 The power of this direction is Co great, that it 
makes an action to be good, which in its owne nature 
is but indifferent j as on the other fide, not oncly an e- 
vill direction, but the want of a good direction, makes 
the fame a&ion to be bad. 

Chap. IV. 
Of an erroneous Con/lie nee. 

Touching this do&rine, of the firft ads and offices 
of Confaence,divers queftions are mo ved, which 
'\ being of great weight and moment, for the directing 
of our Anions aright throughout our whole life, 
ought of neceflitie to bee heere expedited y though 
j$>ueft. The firft queftion is^Whether an erroneous 
v Confcience doth bind ? 

Anfw. to unfold this queftion rightly, thefe fiue 
I things are bricfely to be opened : i . What an errone- 


us Confcience is. 2. About what things it is conver- 


lant. 3 . Whence the errour of Confcience commeth. 
4. the generall differences of thefe errors, p Thefe- 
verall waies of binding, 
^ 1 An erroneous Confcience is either oppofed pri- f^^l vc 
* vatiuely to a good Confcience/o it comprehended] e- 
very Confcience that judgeth not rightly when it 
^bught, even the doubtfull and fcrupulous Confcience 
alfb : or pofitiuely^ fo it fignifieth onely that Confer- 
ence, that judgeth otherwife then the thing is. This 
kinde of erroneous Confcience* is diftinguished from 

C a doubt 


10 Of Confcience. Bookei. 

a doubting and fcrupulous Confcience, by the firme 
affent it glv.eth 3 though it erreth in giving it. In this 
qucftion we fpeake of a Confcience pofitiuely erring. 
2 There are fome principles (6 cleare, and written 
in the hearts of all men, that they cannot erre to obey 
and pra<ftife them : fuch as this is, That God ought to be 
loved i Peyjurie ought to be efc hewed: no mans Con- 
fcience can erre in fuch like things as thefe, or doe them 
againft Confcience. A man cannot loue God againft 
his Confcience, &c.. Confcience therefore doth erre 
properly about conclusions that are gathered from j 
fiich principles . 
Theaufeofthe 3 the error of Confcience comes , either becaijje 
cpcfa- t | iat t j 1€ p ar ticular conclufions are not rightly drawnV I 
out of the generall principles : Or becaufe thofe things " 
which God in the Scripture hath commanded us to 
beleeue, are not fufficiently underftood : Or finally-, 
becaufe the affent of Faith is not given to thofe things 
which ought to be beleeved, though they bee under- . 
flood. The caufe of this (befides Gods fecret judge% c 
ments) is either the not confidering of thofe things 
which ought to be confidered, or fome evill difpofiti- 1 
on, which either keepes the minde from due inquir :e, 
or averts it from judging rightly. 
*»r U& et u- 4 The error of Confcience is either about the 4jfc 
or the rule of it. The error which is about the rule , is 
either after the adion done, or before it. The error a-v 
bout the rule before the a<ftionbe done 5 eonfifts.Bither 
In that it judgeth that to be lawfully which is unlawfully 
Or in that it judgeth that to be unlawfull^which is law , 
full ; Or in that it judgeth that to bee bounden duety, 
which either is unlawfully or but lawful!. 
oMt*t tu- 5 To binde to a things and to binde , are diftingui- 
*"' shed 

Bo o k e I . Of Qonfcience. x j 

.shed by fome; Confcience is faid to bind to a thing 
(Obligare) when its not onely a finne to doe any thino 
againft it, but alfb not to doe according to it. Confer- 
ence is faid to bind {Li gar e) when one cannot lawfully - 
doe a thing* whilft he maketh fiich a Confcience of it. 
One shall finne in doing againft it* and finne though he 
doe according to it. The fenfe and meaning of this di- 
ftin&ion is to be approved • as for the termes of it* let 
the Authors thereof anfwer. 
^ To binde to a thing , ( Obligare J is by fome 

! in regard of the obj eft* or thing bound to, diftingui- 
shedthus. Out is either bound to doe according to 
Confcience erring , or to lay afide that Confcience. 
} But this diftin&ion is not exad* becaufe Confcience 
Tbindeth not, but fo farre as it doth di&ate, or declare a 
) thing : now no Confcience while it erreth doth de- 
clare., that the error thereof is to be left. Or that it felfe 
is not to be regarded, becaufe it is erroneous. 

Others put a difference betweene that Obliga- 
tion * whereby one is tied to doe what Confcience 
commandeth,and that wherby one is tied not to do the 
fcontrary. But neither is this diftin<ftion alwaies good, 
/For if a mans Confcience told him he might lie to faue 
r fiis life, he muft either lye, or of neceffitie goe againft 
] his Confcience. 
• 6 Outofthefe grounds the queftion may bee thus JJ^ ^? 1 ^ 
...j^fwered : Firft, confcience,though erroneous, bindes 
alwaiesfb, that hee that doth againft it, finneth. The 
reafon is* becaufe he that doth againft confcience,doth 
againft Gods will : though not materially, and truely ; 
yet formally, and by interpretation : becaufe what the 
confcience doth declare^ it declareth as Gods will. As 
For example. 

C 2 H€ 

12 Of Confcience. Booke i. 

He that ufeth a private man contumelioufly^ taking 
him for the King,& not to be a private man^he is inter- 
preted and judged to haue done it to the Kinghimfelf ; 
fo likewife, he that contemneth Confcience, contem- 
neth God himfclfe; becaufe that which Confcience 
why he dwayes doth didlate, is fuppofed to be the will of God. Hence 
^Tohis con- iX ls l ^ at ^ e a ^ wa ^ cs fi nnet h who doth any thing againft 
faen^ Confcience : but if the confcience doth not erre, but 

the thing is as erroneous confcience fuppofeth, then he 
iinneth doubly . Firft,in doing that which is ill in it felfe,-- \ 
and fecondly, in doing it after an evill manner : evill it; ^ 
is in its owne nature, and evill becaufe of the defpifing 
of confcience : but if the confcience doth erre* djait- 
which it doth is, not evill, but it doth it after an evill, f 
manner 5 fb that the evill is pnely this, namely, the ^ 
contempt of Confcience. 
■c ..rofronfci- 7 The error of confcience which is about an adion 
ence is ^ mt ^ s (that is, the error which is about the obj t£t or matter, 
times worthy of about which an. action ought to be exercifed) is either 

nonvoluntary and tlamelejje y or voluntary and worthy ■ d 
of blame. If it be unvoluntary and blamelejfe^ then i 
. confcience binds to do a thing as much , as if it did not 
erre. For example,Ii a man should verily beleeue fome 
thing to be his owne* which is an other mans, he may, 
and ought in confcience to make ufe of it as his owne.. 
If one doe verily beleeue hee is his Prince, that is in 
truth a Tyrant ; or that he is a lawfull Magiftrate, whfc 
indeed.ufurpes the title ; be is bound to yeelddue obe- 
dience unto him. We haue an example hereof in Iaa- 
cob that went in to Leah that was none of his wifc^. 
whom he verily thought was his wife Rachel. 

8 If the error be voluntary ^ then it is to be judged 
of, as an error is which is of the law or rule. 

9 confci 


feooiCB I- Of Qorfcience. 

9 Confaence erring touching the Lawe after the 
jfaff, (Inbeleeving that which it kith done well, to be 
finne; or contrariwife J hath no power to binde in re- 
gard of that action which is part : becaufe binding and 
obliging haueever a regard to future a&lons : and a 
morali a&ion (as the will it felfej is alwaies guided and 
informed by a foregoing apprehenfion,and not by that 
which followes after. Hence no a&ion is made better 
or worfe, for that confcience which is after it. Yet doth 
this confcience fo farre binde (through occafion of that 
which is done) that one cannot lawfully goe on to doe 
the like againe,fo long as he hath fuch a confcience: viz. 
fyat hee hath finned (though he hathnotj in doing fo 

i o Confcience through error, judging that to bee 
\awfull which is unlawfully as that it is lawfull for one 
jto lie , to faue his owne , or his neighbours life j 
bindes indeed, but doth not binde to doe Jo. It bindes; 
becaufe he that hath fuch a confcience, can neither lie, 
nor abftaine from lying, without finne. Hee cannot 
lie, becaufe this is fimply unlawfull. Hee cannot ab- 
ftaine from lying, with fuch a confcience,. becaufe 
fiich manner of forbearance is forbidden by God ,. 
* ^thou^h forbearing it felfe bee commanded : for 
God requires not only that we doe good, and abftaine 
from doin<* evill ; but likewife that wee perform e both 
thefe with a good confcience, and not with a bad one. 
Such a confcience doth not binde to doe what it faith. 
Firft, becaufe their is no obligation to unlawful tilings,. 
Secondly, becaufe Confcience bindeth not to doe, but. 
by vertue of fome command of God j but fuch a con- 
ference is not grounded upon any command: for the 
Law. ofGod can neither incline nor bind any man to 

Q 3 finne. 



OfConfcience. Booke i. 

finne. Thirdly, becaufe this error is alwaies afinne,but 
a finne doth not bind to pradife it. Fourthly, becaufe 
fuch a Confcience hath never Co fare a ground 3 as 
* that there needeth not further examination and inqui- 
ry into things. -Fiftly, becaufe man is bound to lay 
downe fiich a confcience ; for although that be not ex- 
actly enough fpoken which fome doe affirme, namely, 
That fuch a Confcience bindeth a man to lay downe it 
felfe; yetitismoftcertaine, that a man is tied to lay 
downe fuch an erronous Confcience , for it is a part of 
that old man, whom wc are commanded to put oft 

1 1 Confcience iudging that which is lawfull to b& 
unlawf ull 5 bindeth to abftaine from the pradife and ufe , 
of it. Rom. 14. 23. The reafon is i becaufe one may 
abftaine from lawfull things without finne. 

1 2 confcience iudging that to be bounden duty 
which is unlawfully binds, but not to the pradife of it, 
for the reafons fet downe in the ninth Thefis. 

13 confcience Iudging that to be bounden duty 
which is onely lawfull, bindeth to the pradife of it •> as 
for example. If any mans confcience tell him that it is 
neceftary to uncover his hands alwaies when he pray es<- : 
publiquely;Hemuftprayfo, becaufe lawfull things 
may be obferved conftantly without finne. 

°of^ P c e rionc-" ObjeB* If an erroneous confcience doth fobinde 

ens confcience. that we may neither follow, nor not follow it without 

finne,then there lies a kind of neceflity of finning on 

thofe that do thus erre,which cannot ftand with the e- 

quity of Gods Law. 

cAnfw. This neceffity of finning when one is en- 
tangled by his owne erroneous confcience, is not the 
fame both wayes.'w^. whether one do p or do not^accor- 


Booke I Of Qonfcience. j~ 

ding to confcicnce;for if one do according to his erring 
confeience, the fin is in the a&ion done \ Ifhe doe what 
is not according to it., the fin is in the manner of doing. 

2 Itisnotanabfolineneceflity,butupon fuppofi- [ 
tion;namely> if he keepe ftill fiich a confidence , which 
he both may 5 and ought to lay downc 

3 This neceflity doth not flow from the nature of 
Gods law 5 but is contra&ed and continued through 
mans fin* for no man is thus intangled without his 
owne fault., 

£>ueft. Whether is it a greater finne to doe a- whether 2tbe 
gainft fuch an erroneous confeience , or to doe accor- \F^t^% t 

CJin^ tO it. a gainft an erro- 

^Anjh. We ought to iudge of the greatnefle of fm ence, 
^according to the quality of the thing which is to 
be done or omitted , as it Is in its owne nature, and 
as it is apprehended by us* If any man through errour 
of confeience should hold it to be an unlawful! thing to 
goe to the Church,and feme God there (which other- 
wife he is tyed to doej becaufehe knowes the Prea- 
cher to be a lewd and naughty man, and thinkesthat 
he shall be partaker with him in his wickednefle; his 
finne is greater in flaying away ,then if he were prefent 
'there : becaufe it is a greater finne, to negledt Gods 
fervice,then to communicate with an others perfbnall 
} wickeclneffe in that fervice. But if he should thinke it 
£ unlawfull to be prefent at holy duties for Idolatry, 
which he iudgeth will be committed there , he should 
finne more hainoufly if he should be prefent there: be- 
" caufe the finne of Idolatry 7 , is greater then a negled of 
true worship. In the firft inftance; he fins more that 
followes his confeience , then he that doth againft it; 
but in this, his finne is greater that doth contrary to 


What opinion 

16 OfConfcience. Booke I* 

it : No certaine and generall rule therefore can bee fet 
downe in this matter. 

Chap. V. 
Of afurmijing anddouhting Qoufcience. 

^uejl. i.T V7Hethera man may content hirnfelfe 
W with a doubting Confer, nee? 

Anfw. For the unfolding of this queftion,it is to be 
noted, that 0//»/^fometimes fignifies a certaine and 
fetled judgement without all doubting. A certaine 
judgement nor arifing from Senfe, Knowledge^ true 
Faith , but Reafon. Sometimes it is taken mo^e 
itri&ly; For that judgement whereby indeede we at* 
fentto the truth of a thing, but not without (uipition, * 
feare, or doubting of its being otherwise. 

Vpon this diftindionj anfwer : Firft, in fuch things 
3S are neceflarie to falvatioib and Gods worship, no 
opinion can be fufficient, though ;t haue never ib great 
certainety of reafon ; becaufe Faith is required to thefe^ , 
and Faith takes onely the infallible word of God. 

2 In fiich things which are more remote from their I 
principles, diligent care is to be had, that we alfo get a 
certaine perfwafion > or beliefe of them,out of the 
Scriptures ; but if that cannot be obtained, it is lawfull 
in our anions to follow fome fuch opinion^ is certaine 
and tried by the rule of Sci ipture. J 

3 Vfing alfo all diligence to bee certaine (though 
webenotj it is lawfull in many things to follow that 
opinion, which is moft probable. 

4 It is never lawfull to doe againft our owne opi- 
nion, whether it be certaine, or probable, for refpe<5fc 
to other mens authority. 

5 No 

Booke I. OfQonfcience. 17 

5 No man can at the fame time hauetwo con- 
trary frob able opinions^ concerning the fame thing; 
fo as he may lawfully leaue the one, and follow the 

jgneft.i What shall one doe when his Confcience 
is doubtfull ? 

^Anjw. For the declaration of this queftion, wee 
muft obfeme : Firft., Confcience is faid to be doubtful 
in a large fenfe, as when the affent even of Faith, or O- 
L pinion prevaileth ; yet there is fome doubting joy- 
t ned. But ftridly^and properly, that Confcience is na- 
med doubting^ which yeeldeth to neither part of the 
queftion in hand, but ftickes and ftaggers betweene 
) affent anddiffeht, not knowing which to doe. 
7* Touching the firft fort of doubting , it hath part- 
ly beene ipoken in the former queftion, and shall part- 
' ly be fpoken of in the queftion following. Heere wee 
treat of that Confcience, which in a proper and ftrid 
fenfe, is called doubting. 

Secondly, doubting is either Speculatiue^ or Praffi- Af cuktiuc 
call. Spc culatiue is that, which is not immediately con- doubt, and a 
1 verlant about a pradiie or aaion : as when one doubt- 
I eth, whether this or that thing be his or not.Prafficall, 
' is that, which immediately is converfant about fome 
particular adion. 

^Attfa. Thefe things being laid downe, it is an- 
M fwered/ 
• r Firft, in all thole doubts which doe any way belong 
to our pradife, diligent enquiry is to be made, that we 
may clearely perceiue the truth and not doubt \ becaufe 
while the minde remaines in dmbt^ the adion muft of 
neceffity want that perfedion which it would haue, if 
it were done with Knowledge, and certainty of judge- 

D menu 

i8 O/Confcience. Booke r. 

ment. For the more certaine our knowledge is 5 touch- 
ing thofe things which we doe , the more confident we 
are in doing 5 and more toy full when wee hauedone, 

2 Oft times it is lawful to do a thing,though a Jpecu- 
latiue doubt remame, becaufe he that doth fo, doth not 
neceflarily doe either againft a doubting Confidence, 
nor without a perfwaded Confcience j for notwith- 
ftanding xhztfpeculatiue doubt , he may affuredly con- 
clude with himfelfe ; that, that which hee doth^ought % 
to be done. Asforexample,AmanpofTefTethapeice *■ 
of ground lawfully, and begins to doubt whether it be 
kis owne or not ; yet if he know not, thgt it belongs to 
any other body, he niay lawfully keepe the fame ftill T A 
becaufe other things being considered, poflfeffion is a <^ 
better ground to keepe it, then doubting is to lcaue it. , 

3 It is not lawfull to doe any thing againft a TV* #/- 
tall doubt; that is, a doubt whether the thing to bee 
done be lawfull : The reafbn is, i . Becaufe a man can- 
not doe it of faith, TLvm.i^ 23. 2 Becaufe, he that ■ m 
dorhfo, Joth not fufficiently abhorre finne : for wil- 
lingly and wittingly he expofeth himfelfe to the dan- 
ger of finning. 3 . Becaufe he is not fully enough acj- 
didled to Gods will * for as he that doth that willing- 
ly, whereof he doubts, whether it bee acceptable to 
Jus friend or no , doth againft the law of friendship : ( ' 
fo he that doth that, whereof he doubts, whether it bqt ^ 
acceptable to God or not ; doth againft the law of loue 
to God. 4. In thiugs doubtfully thefafeft way is to 
bechofen; but that is thefafeft part, which if we fol- 
low, it is certaine we shall not finne. As for example, 
A man doubteth whether Vjury be lawfull or nor ? the 
fafeft way is \o abftaine i for herein is no danger of fin- 
ning- Som e 

Bo o ke I . Of Qonfience. 1^ 

Some of the Philofophers had fome knowledge of 
the equity of this rule^whofe Iudgement thereof Tullj 
relates, and approoues i Office: Lib. i. Thoje giue 
good counfell ( fayeth he ) who for hide to doe any thing 
whereof one doubts ^whether it be iujl or uniuH\ the equity 
thereof is apparant in itfelfe, becaufe r Doubting imports, 
thought, orfeare of being hurt. 

Chap VI. 
, Of a Scrupulous Qonfcience. 

J jcpueff. T Y7Hat is to bee done when the coflfci- 
W ence is fcrupulous ? 
* Anjh. For ^he underflanding of this queftion, wee 
\ muftconfiden? 

i That a Scruple is a feare of the minde concerning 
i its pra&ife 5 which vexeth the confcience , as a little 
ftone that cannot bee difcernedinamansshooe.pai- 

2 Every feare is not properly a Scruple, but that 
. which arifethfrom7%/^or no arguments. 

3 One is fcrupulous either in examining what hee 
hath done y or in ordering what he is to doe. 

; 4 Scruples doe arife, ( God fo ordaining) to the end 

he may either punish , or try men: fbmetimesout of 

thefiiggefKonoftheDeviU 5 fomtimes from want of 

.knowledge > fometimesfrom Melancholy, or fome 

o^fuchlike conftitution of body j ibmetimes from the 

Society of fcrupulous men. 

5 A Scrupulous confcience differs from a Doubt full 
one, in this, that a Doubtfull confcience doth affentto 
neither part of the queftion; but thefrupulous confci- 
ence doth affentto one, but is follicited to the other 
part, by a kinde of feare* 

D % Thefe 

2 a OfConfcience. Booke i, 

Thefe things being fet downe , it is anfwered to the 

queftion. i. (God being inftantly called unto for 

grace,) one muft labour dilligently to remooue thefe 

icrupleSjwhich reafon can take away by due triall of 

the grounds of them. For then is the confcience moft 

quiet 5 when it hath moft certaine knowledge. 2 It hel- 

peth much (if it may be conveniently^ that the thinking 

upon thofe things be shunned , from which fcruples 

may rife ; for the fancy being once ftirred > many 

thoughts arife , which cannot be fuppreffed againe, 

without greate difficulty. As we fee in Tyles , that arc 

linked together in order 5 if one happen to fall downe., 

the reft will follow : and from hence are fcruples 

multiplied in timorous confciences. 

3, Many fcruples when they cannot well be taken 
away by fome contrary reafon> ought to be laid downe 
as it were by violence, refufing to thinke or confider of 
them. For fo long as fcruples are not actually apply - 
ed, they are not troublefbme : And fome befotrou- 
blefome that the weaker and more unskilfull fort 5 can 
by no other meanes be ridd of them. The bending of 
the mind attentiuely to remooue a fcruple by reafon, 
doth often either ingenderoi encreafe a fcruple : as for 
example , All people know that the name of Go(i ; 
ought to be called upon dayly: yet one may bee fo 
vexed with impious thoughts , that this fcruple may 
arife in a man^whether he ought to pray or not?Here it. 
is not alwayes a fafe way to examine thefe thoughts-, 
nor yet to difpute about this queftion long 5 but 
to throw away this feare, as it were with violence^ and . 
to fall upon the duty of prayer fb well as one can. 4 If 
they cannot be fo remooved , but that they doe ftill 
arioleftjitislawfull^ndthebeftcourf^ to da a thing 


Bo okb i. Of Qonfcience. 21 

againftfuchfcruples. As for example Jf there be any 
man that is fo molefted through the confederation of 
his unworthinelTe 5 ihat he dare fcarce be (b hold as 
to come to the Lords Table,, though he finde in him- 
felfe true Faith and Repentance; he may and ou°ht 
notwithftanding this fcruplc come to the Lords Sup- 
per. Neither is this to doe againft Confcience, but 
according to Confcience. Forafcruple is a rash feare 
and without any ground , and fo cannot binde to doe 
j according tojt ; yea through cuftome of doing againft 
\j fuch likelcruples D Confcience it felfe is made more 

Chav. VII. 

f . Of the attention of Confcience to its Faffs. 


Hitherto we have fpoken of that Synterefis, or Pro- 
pofition 5 whence Confcience telleth what is 
Law. Now followes the fecond part of the judge- 
ment, whereby a mans confcience hares witnejfe of 
, his fad: according to that Law. By reafon of this ad: 
Confcience is named a witnejfe^ and in the common 
VxoNtfot^athoufandwitneJfes . It is likewife called a 
I Booke, ReveL 20. 1 2 . becauie it is left written in mans 
w iiiinde* at it were in a regifter, what he hat h done, and 
w 7 ith what intent, and at length is read and fpoken of 
by Confcience. 

.♦ The Affumption of that pra&icall Syllogifme 
• wherein Confcience confifts, is nothing elfe, but the 
recognising, or confidering of our a<5fron : oreftate> as 
' it hath refped to that Law which Confcience giveth.- 
For the better underftanding of the nature hereof/ome 
things muft bee made cleare concerning the a<ftion 
which is recognised; and fome things concerning the 
D 3- recognizing 

22 OfConfcience. Booke i. 

recognizing it felfe. 

The aStion is either agreeable to that which Con- 
fcience teacheth, or is contrary to it. 

The dictate of Conference , whereuntoan adion is 
to be conformed y doth fometime goe before and *t± 
company the a&ion, and hmoximes follow it. Againft 
the dictate of Conference thatgoeth before , or accom-. 
^?#/W; the adion, we haue an example in thofe, of 
whom the Apoftle fpeakes, £0 w. 1.32. Who knowing, 
the Judgement ofGodjbat they which commit fuch things 
are worthy of death ^not onely doe the fame ', but haue plea- 
- fure in them that doe them. Wee haue an example of 
an adion committed againft the judgement of Con- 
fcience, following the fad: , in thofe I ewes which put 
Chrift to death through ignorance, Afts 3.17. 1 Cor. 
2.8. yet being afterwards better taught, they judged 
far otherwaies of their fad, then when they did com- 
mit it, ASfs^. 3 7. 
Howamanfms Jpuefl. From hence arifeth a hard queftion? how a 
faence. 1S ' man can do any thing againft the di&ate of Conference 
which goeth before , or accompanieth his a£tion> the 
Queftion arifeth thus. 

The Will) as it feemes to many, cannot will or niU a 
any things unlefTe Reafon haue firft iudged it to bee 
willed or nilled \ neither can it choofe hut follow the 
laftpra&icall judgement, and doe that which Reafon 
doth didate to be done : and by confequent , the Will 
cannot moue againft the determination of 'Confcience. 

^Anfw. For the unfolding of this matter 5 thefe con- 
clusions are to be laid downe. It is fo cleare that no 
man can queftion it, 

i. That many both maydoe,and doe againft Con- 
* Sjntcrejis fcience, as it is an ha bite , or * Summary of Principles : 


BOOKE I Of C° n f cience ' 23 

and in fo doing, they doe in fome fenfe, goe againft 

2 . Againft Confcience as it is an act , all thofe doc, 
who do any thing againft that Iudgemcnt which they 
had actually ^ and yet hauc virtually or in the principle, 
though a&ually they judge not as they hauc done for- 

3. The Will cannot willy dejire , cboofe , or follow 
after any thing , without zfpeculatiue apprehenfion of 
it,becaufetheobje<5toftbewillis knowne Good. No 
man was ever knowne to defire what hee no waies 

4. A bare and Jimple apprehenfion of the objeft, 
^ without any praffic all judgement , that forthwith it 
Vmuft be profequuted, or avoided, may be fufficient to 

draw forth the A3 of the Will. This appeareth fufficient- 
ly in Mad men,, Infints, and in every 7 undeliberate mo- 
tion of the Will. The reafon of this is,becaufe a Good, 
apprehended or knowne* hath all thofe Conditions, 
, which are required to the Objeft of the Will. The Will 
is as able about its Objed, as the fenfittue appetite is a- 
bout its : But Senfe is ftirred up at the apprehenfion of 
its objeft, as the Eye at fight of Colours, the Eare at 
Sounds, &c. 

5 The Will can at pleafurey^W' its ad about that 

| which is apprehended and judged to be good, without 

^jany foregoing a£t of judgement > that it should doe fo/ 

/foriftoy^^^anad,andtoleaueofading,ari ail of 

judgement 3 bee ncceflarily required ; then to fofpend 

" that judgement, another judgement is requifite j and 

to fufpend that, another ; and fo in infinitum. 

6 The Willtzw turn away the under ftanding fro the 
confederation of any objed , which at prefent it appre- 

* hendeth 

24 OfQonfcience. Booke i. 

hendeth and judgeth to be good > to the consideration 
that it hath formerly apprehended and judged to be fo. 
By reafon of this commanding power, the Will is the 
firftcaufeofunadvifedneffe, and blame-worthy error 
in the Underftanding. When the Will doth firft begin, 
to draw away the underftanding from that, which it 
hath judged to be good, it doth it, by its owne inclina- 
tion without any judgement that it should doe fo; o- 
therwifethefetwo judgements should bee together; 
namely ,this ought to be followed, and this ought not, ^ 
which were abiurd, «u 

7 The ?T///canmoueit felfe, towards an objed 
that is apprehended and iudged good for profit or 
pleafure in forne refped, though reafon iudge that it is ( 
not lawfull but finfull. The reafon is : i. Becaufe ? - 
whatfbever good the underftanding propoundeth to 
the will , in this life y it propoundeth it with a kind of 
IndifFerency of Iudgement, as not having any necefta- 
ry connexion, with the univerfall good. Upon 
which the will is naturally fet and determined, 4 
Hence it is that freed owe or liberty in an a&ion, is 
faid to bee radically in the iudgement and reafon. 
2 Though the will bee determined by the under- 
ftanding in regard ofchejptcijication or kinde of thin^ ** 
to be willed, becaule it willeth nothing but that which 
the underftanding hath firft appreh ended s yet in re- 
gard of excercife or ad of willing , it mooveth both it [ 
(elfe, and the underftanding with the reft of the facul- ' 
ties. And hence it is that liberty is in the will formally y 
which should not be true . if it were rteceflarily deter- 
mined by the underftanding. 3 If the iudgement 
being right, the will could not but will aright ; then 
before the iirftfinne of Angels and men , ( which was 


Booke I. OfConfcience. , 25 

in the Will) there muft necefTarily bee an error in the 
Vnderftanding : and if fo 3 then the punishment of finne 
should be before the fii ft finne; for all Pra&icall error 
in the Vnderftanding, is either finne, or the punish- 
ment of it. *. If the Will doe necefTarily follow the 
judgement of the underfhnding ; then there should (in 
proper fpeakingj be no finne of 'malice, diftind from 
thofe finnes, which are committed through ignorance > 
or paflion. But it is manifeft, that this kind of finne is 

, found in Devils,& likewife in fome men- 5 . If the Will 

i doe necefTarily follow the Vnderftanding, then in Re- 
generation the will it felfe neede not bee internally 
renewed by grace : for the inlightening of the Vnder- 

i ftanding would be fufficient. But this is repugnant to 

* «*vFaith and godlinefle. 

8 Though the Will doth not alwaies follow the 
Judgement, yet doth it ever follow that command 
whereto it is fubjeft ; and that agreeth oftentimes with 
Judgement. But this command though as touching the 
direction, it doth belong to the underftanding; yet as 
touching the power and efficacy, it belongeth to the 
Will. From hence we fpeake truely, and by the con- 
fent of all Nations, fay, I will Will. V9l} ■* 

Chap. VIIL 
OfConfcience examining and reviewing aftions. 

^TVTEare to treat next of that reviewing, which is 
W converfant about our a&ions and ftate. 

1 I call this a Reviewing, rather then a knowledge, 
Firft,becaufeabare and naked knowledge is not fuffici- 
ent for this ad of Confcience, but things muft bee 
weighed over and over* Secondly, becaufe there is a 

£ know-- 

2$ Of Confcience. Bookei." 

knowledge which goeth before , and accompanieth the 
adion, but this Reviewing follow eth it. 

2 This Reviewing is a refled ad of the Vnderjlan- 
ding^ wherebv a man underftandeth, and with iudge- 
ment, weigheth his owne actions with their circum- 
flances.lt is commonly called, Cofideration^rmedita- 
tio on our w ayes .It is called in the Scripture,^ refpett or 
beholding by the mind, 7^/. 119-15. ConfideringJfaL 
50.22. Thinkings or thinking againe^Pfal. 119.59. Lay- 

ing of the heart. Hag. 1 . 5 . a Saying in the hearty lerem. A 
5. 24. Sayingto theheart^ Hof.7.2. Returning to the ^ 
hearty 1 Kings 6.47. a Laying to heart,Jer. 1 2. 1 1 . Mai. 
2.2. and laftly, a Troving or examining of our felues, 
2 (>. 13-5- ; < 

3 The caufe of the Reviewing of our anions ought f 
to be, Firft. a care to pleafe God in all things. Second- 
ly, a feare of finning : For if we review our actions up- 
on other grounds , it is not an ad of Confcience : be- 
caufe it refpedcth not the judgement of God ,• which 
without doubt, it is neceffaryan ad of Confcience 
should doe. 

4 The manner of this Reviewing doth confift in 
thefe two things : Firft, that wee confider our owne 
adions , not materially onely, butformally alfo,that is^ 

VMurs t ^ iat we con fider not oxiely,what we haue done, as it is 
u ordint ^ an affionybut likewife what>and after what manjiei; it is 
done, as it is good or evili. As for example, It is not 
an Ad of Confaencc, for a man to thinke, whether he 
hath overcome I is adverfary, or not; but whether in 
fo doing,he hath committed murther or not? whether 
it be juft, or unjuft , that he hath done ? 2, The atti- 
ons and thcruJemuA be compared together. For as 
he that fpeaketh the truth, kno.weth not that he fpea- 


Booke I. Of C on f c i enc *» 27 

keth truth ,• unleffehe compares his fpccch with the 
thing it felfe : So hee that doth well or ill 3 can- 
not know the fame 3 unlefle he compare the fa<5t with 
its proper rule. The rule of this triall or judgement, 
muft not be cur natural reafon,\hz cuftome of "others 3 or 
the like ; but the Law fir revealed will of God j For o- 
therwife Gods judgement is not refpe&ed (1:o which 
Confcience looketh) but mens. 

5 The time which is to be allotted to this Review- 
J ing\ In regard of evill deedes, is in Scripture noted, 
1 fometimes to be before fome threatning of Gcd 3 2 Sa. 
24.13. fornetimes after a threatning^ but before the 
ludgementbt executed. MaLi. 2. and fometime after 
^ that God hath inflifted his Iudgements, Hag. 1.5. but 
•^hefoonerwegoeinhandwithit., the more accepta- 
ble it is unto God, and more profitable it is unto us. 
1 Hence it is, that this Meditation of what we doe day- 
ly 3 is reckoned amongft the dayly exercifes of the god- 
ly, Ioh 1. 5. 

6 Through want of this Reviewing^ comes i.Im- 
■penitencie in the greateft finnes, Ifai 44. 1 8. Rcdef.^ 2. 
Trefumption in greateft mifery,2te#. 3.17- and fo great 
a StHpiditiejhdX thofe which know many other things, 

f are altogether ignorant of themielues, and what they 

doe. Hence it is, that fome after theyhaue fworne 

rafhly, and are admonished of their finne, almoft with 

>the fame breath affirme with an oath, that they did not 

i fweare. 

7 The peculiar effe&s of this Reviewing of our 

- waies 3 are /.in regard of God, ^A right judgement of 
our waies. Eqek. 19.25. and thankefklnejje. 2 . In re- 
aped: of our felues, Humility ; and j. Inrefpe&ofo- 
thers, Equity and (jentlenejfe, Tit. 3.3^4. 

E 2 Chap, 

2% O/Confcience. Booke i. 

Chap. IX. 

Of the application of the Law by Qonfcience to the 
per/on, upon the Reviewing of the 


THe third ad: of Confcience folio weth, where- 

by the conclufion is gathered from the premi- 
fes. This conclufion is an ad of Confcience., whereby 
a man apply eth unto himfelfe the Law of God 3 which 
co ncerneth either his Adion or Condition . 

2 This conclufion therefore dependeth partly on 
that generall Law., which is pronounced by the Sjnte- 
refs, in the major Propofition ; and partly, on that / 
Reviewing of the adion or condition which is contai- - 
ned in the minor Propofition. So that it gathereth to- 
gether the ftren^th of the former ads of Confcience, ( 
and maketh xhzjudgement thereof perfed. 

3 Like as therefore Confcience is a Law in the ma- 
for Propofition^ Rom. 2. 14. and in the minors. Witnes, 
Rom. 2. 15 So in this conclufion^ Confcience is mod 
properly a Iudge> 1 lob. 3 . 20. For as in the Propofition 
Gods Law is declared y and in the AfTumption> the 
fad or condition of man is examined 3 according to th^ .. 
Law,- So in the conclufion, the fentence concerning 
man is pronounced according to his faff, or condition, 
by vertue of the Law that hath beene declared. 

4 It is well defined therefore by application, be-^ - 
caufe in filch a conclufion, Gods Commandement and 
mans fad are mutually joyned together, and as it were 
linked with man, whilft both pafle fentence qn him. 

Snfdwcefn o£ ? This tslppJi cation, though in its owne nature it 
the making of follow the former ads of Confcience 5 like as the coa- 

thc Application. . * . r 


Book* 13 Of Qonfcience. 29 

clufion of a fyllogifme is faydto follow neceffarily 
from the premiffesyet through mans fault it falleth 
out often. That Confcience doth not doe it for a time. 
Both propofitions are granted^yet the coclufion is not 
made :as for example^ A man may in generall know 
and grant that every man that worshippeth not Godjs 
curfed : and may alfo be confcious to himfelfe > that 
he is no true worshipper of God : and yet not Ivdge 
himfelfe accurfed. One may alfo undcrftand fuffici- 
ently^that God is ready to pardon him who repenteth 
of his fins; He may likewlfe haue witnes in himfelfe of 
his owne repentance : yet cannot prefently apply to 
himfelfe pardon,and the mercy of God. 

6 This Staying^ or Hindring^heConclufion is more 
ufuall in paffing Iudgement upon evill a&ions^but hap- 
peneth fbmetimes alfo in fuch 6 as are good. 

7 Wee baue an example of the firft fort in thofe 
lewes ofwhorn the Apoftle fpeaketh. Rom. 2. 18. 
20. 21. Andin David himfelfe. 2. Sam. 12. 5. 6. 
who knew well enough 3 what his moft evill fad 
deferved by law, and like wife could not be ignorant of 
that which he had committed : but halted in the appli- 
cation of the conclufion. 

8 An example of the latter kind, wee haue in all 
thofe Believers who repent truly 5 yet for a long time 
cannot apply Gods mercy to themfelues . The caufe s 
why Sinners doe it not , are; 1 Becaufe they doe not 
confider ferioufly enough* Gods law , and their owne 
fadts; for the conclufion proceedeth from the power & 
efficacy of the premijfis. 2 . Becaufe they haue flat con- 
trary conclusions in their lodgements to the Law of 
God. meut. 29.19. 3 . Becaufe they are afraid of, and 
avoid theie conclufions of Confcience, as moft. oppo- 

E 3 fite 


OfC on f c i ence * Booke I. 

fite to themfelues and their purpofes, loh 3-20. 4. Bc- 
caufe they are carelefle and forgetfull of fuch things, 
7^.1.23.25. From fuch like caufes wicked men ufe 
to gather falfe conclufions, and deceiue themfelues, 
lam. 1.22. 

9 The caufes why beleevers , and godly men , oft- 
times doe not conclude for their owne confblation, 
are /. Some prevailing temptation. 2. The rem- 
nants of unbeliefe, which remaine even in thofe that 
are regenerate. 5. The greatnefTe of that mercy 
which they ought to apply unto themfelues. And *. 
the Confcience of their owne uriworthinefTe, efpecial- 
ly after they haue committed fome grievous finne. 

10 Becauie of this flowneffe in men to conclude, 
and apply, there is a ncceflity laid on all Minifters, not 
onely to declare Gods will generally ; but likewife fo 
farreas they are able, to helpe* and further, both pub- 
likely and in private, the application of it, fofarre as 
mens condition and confidences require. 

Chap. X. 

Of the effe&s of this ^Application^ in the Conflu- 
ence it felfe. *- « 

1 T7Rom the conclufi 'on of Confcience 3 fome effeds 
Jl follow* according as the judgement thereof is-. 
2 Thefe effects are eitherc^ffj of Confcience,which ^ mm 
are virtually contained in the conclu(ton>or ^AjfeBions 1 
and ^Adts of the Will, which arife from thofe ads of 

3 Amongft the ads of Confcience, fome there be 
that refpelf that which is well done: fome refpedyftf. 

4 Thofe that refped what is well done , are Excu- 

Booke i Of Qonfcience. 31 

fingy^Abfolving^vA Aprooving^Rom. 2. 15. 

5 J^^^ is an aft of Conlcience 5 whereby a man AnExcufmg 
is freed from the guilt of finne in what he hath done : 
For Excujtng heere is not taken in that drifter fenfe, 
whereby it fignifieth a lejjening or extenuating of the 
fault, but in thatfenfe which importeth, a perfeft ta- 
king away of the fault >and guilt. 

6 tAljolution is an c.£t of Confcience, whereby it Abfoiution of 

, ■• r '. t * r Confcience. 

pronounceth a man need not reare punishment for 
what he hath done. 

7 Theie two afts are tyed fo clofely and faft toge- 
ther with a bond that cannot be loofed, that they dif- 
fer onely in our apprehenfion not really. For £xcujing 

9 doth moft properly refpeft guilty and ^Abfolution the 
~Vpunishment \ but neither is the guilt taken itway fo 
long as the punishment remaineth; neither doth the 
guilt remaine, the punishment being once taken away. 

8 tA&Prr&mis an aft of Confcience , pronoun- Apportion 
cing that a man in his action hath pleated God. 

9 Abfoiution and approbation, differ from JLxcuJing 
inthis 5 that in Sxcujtng, Confcience doth the part of 
the Lavp^ and hath refpeft unto God, as he is a Judge, 
before whofe judgement feat it excufcth a man as a 
witnejje ; but in Abfblving and Approving, Confcience 
properly doth gods part > and kith refpeft unto man, 
whom like a Iudge it abfolvcth, and approveth. 

10 The afts of Confcience., which refpeft/&#*, are 
" J Accufation, and Condemnation. 

1 1 Accufation is an aft of Confcience^ convincing A«ufati<m. 
• and prooving a man to be neere unto punishment, be- 


12 Condemnation is an aft of Confcience, judging condemnation, 
a man that is guilty,to the punishment of eternal death 

13 Ac* 

32 O/Confcience. Booke i. 

i 3 Accufation and Condemnation differ in the fame, 
degree and manner that Excufing differeth from Abfo- 
lutien and ^Approoving. 

14 Accufation and Condemnation fbmetimes fol- 
low prefently upon the fact, as in David, 2 Sam. 24. 1 o 
Sometimes a little while after it, as in Iudas, <JWatt. 
21.3. Sometimes a long time after, as in Iofephsbrz- 
thren 5 Gen.^i .21.22. For a man is not free from them 
by length of time, but by repentance onely. 

Chap XL 

Of the affettions which arifefrom the judgement 

1 'T'HefirftafFedionthatrifeth in the heart, fronr 
joy, JL Excusing, Abfolving, and Approoving of Con- 

fcience, is Joy, whereby a man taketh delight in that he 
hath done well, as in a true good that is come to him, 
Trov. 15. 15. 2 C or * **i2. Now this loy differeth 
much from laughter, and vaine joy : 1 . Becaufe it ma- 
keth the heart glad. 2 BecaufL it is zferious difpofi- 
tion of the heart, not a light ftirring of it. 3 . Becaufe 
it hath a good ground, and therefore growes ftronger 
by right meditation. 4. Becaufe it bringeth foorth 
found and good fruit. None of which things are to 
be found in common and ordinary laughter and joy, 
£cclef 2. 2. 

2 The fecond affe&ion is Confidence, whereby the 
heart is fetled and ftrengthned againft the feare of evill, 
andtheweake hopeofgood !) P/^.io.9.& 28. For all 
miferie fpringeth from fin;and to thofe that do well>all 
good things are promifed, 1 T/w.4.8. 

3 The firft affection rifing from the accufation and 



Booke I. OfQonJcience. 23 

condemnation of Confcience^is J/^/^wbereby a fin- shame 
ner is difpleafcd with himfelfe, in and for that finne hce 
hath done. For finne alvvaies changcth a man from 
better to worfe. Gen. 5 .7. This shame if it be becaufe of 
finne 5 and ifitmakeaman forfake it 3 it is one of the 
fignes of repentance,^;??. 6. 2 1 .as impudency in finne, 
is alwales a token of an impenitent and loft man. 

4 The fecond aftedion is Sadnejft^oi Sorrow jn\\zx- sorrow, 
by the heart is troubled, becaufe of the evill that is 
come upon it, 1 Sam. 25. 3 1. Atts 2,37. For the ac- 
cufing and condemning of Conscience., doth not onely 
make the finne* and the guilt thereof to be in a manner 
prefent, but likewife the punishment. 

5 The third affe&ion is Feare^ whereby the heart Fear*, 
*V%ethfrom the evill that hangeth over it* and from 

God himfelfe, as from a i evere Iudge, Cfen. 3.10. Prov. 
28.1. Revel.6.i6. becaufe the fulneffe of mifery is ex- 
pefted. The great degrees of this feare, are called 
Trembliw2X\& Horror. 

6 The fourth affedion is H^ifpaire, whereby the Difpakc 
Soule cafts away all hope of efcaping, Heb.10.2j. 

7 The fifth and laft, is Anguish and vexation offpi- Anguich. 
r/V,becaufe of the mifery, which lyeth on it. This is 
that fpirituall worme, that perpetually tormenteth the 
damned foules in hell. Mark. 9. qq.jfiai. 66* 24. 

J» Cha p. XII. 

Of a good Qonfcience. 

Hitherto we haue fpokenof the nature o/Confci- 
ence y according as it was laid downe in the defini- 
tion : NowfollowcththzdiftributionofConfi 
cording to its adjunfls. 

F 1 Con- 

34 Of Conference. Bookei. 

i Confcience is either good or eviS : 
OutMoneftatem. 2 Confcience may be called good, either for its ho- 
Quo A d qudetcm. neHy and integrity, or tor its quietnejje and pace. 
conference ho- 3 That Conscience is honeftly good>v?hofc judgement 

lie ly goo , ^ ^jg^ t an ^ p ower f^{] # 

3 . Things make 4 That the Confcience therefore be bonejlly good, 
confaencc ho- j t j s re q U j rec j . u That it uprightly and fincerely judge 
that thing to be good, which God judgeth fo ; and that 
tobcevill, which God judgeth evill. This uprightnejfe 
mull: firft be in the judgement, of what is to be done, 
which belongeth to the ^^r Proposition ; and 2.\x\ 
the judgement of w 7 hat hath been done, which belongs 
to the minor. 

5 To a Confcience boneftlj good , its 3. required 
that it excufe, abfolue, and approve a man in what is well" 
done ; and accufe and condemne him, for what is evill. 

6 Concerning the firft office, which confifteth in 
Excufing, Abflv/ng, and Approving, there is no con- 
troverfieamongft Divines: But of the fecond, which 
confifteth in Accufing and Condemning>{ov&z doubt,and 
thinke that xhegotdneffi of Confcience doth no waies 
confift therein, but in Excufing onely. 

7 They bring two reafons : t. Becaufe Adams 
confcience by creation, did onely Excufe > and not ac- 
cufe. 2 . Becaufe a good Confcience Is troubled and 
wounded when finneis committed, and occafion is 
miniftred to accufe. But the firft reafon is not good,-^ 
becaufe though Confcience in ftate of Xnnocency , did 
not accufe actually, yet had it a power to accufe , if there 
had beene occafion. Neither could the Conicience be 
more blamed for accufing and condemning juftly, theft 
the Law felfe> and the chiefe Judge? who did fo after fin 
had once entred, and not before. 

Booke I. Of C on ftience. ^ 

8 Sofarre is the juft ^Accufation of Confcicnce 
from being to be blamed, that Sinners haue mod need 
of it, as the onely way to make them repent them of 
the finnes which they haue committed. For to the end 
a Sinner may efcape Gods judgement , hee muft judge 
himfelfe : that is,doe juftice and judgement upon him- 
felfe, as in Gods roome, whom he hath offended, i 
Qor. 1 1 . 3 1 . He doth this, by pleading Gods caufe a- 
gainft himfelfe, that is, by accufing himfelfe, witnejftng y 
alledgingyZnd confejjing^oi by acknowledging Gods Law 
againft himfelfe, by revealing the fecrets of his heart, 
and his hidden filthinefte, to his owne ignominy and 
shame. Then by condemning himfelfe, that is,by decla- 
ring what torment and punishment God may juftly 

*Vinfli<5i upon him ; or by Proclaming of himfelfe guilty 
of everlafting death. Vnto this judgement of Confci- 
ence, ftirring up furable affedions ; if God of his great 
mercy adde a change of minde y with an appealing by 
Faith to the Iudgement Seat of Gods mercy in Chrifb 
then is that truf (which fome ufe to fayj that the Iudge- 
ment of repentance maketb voide the judgement ofpu- 2S^S 
• nishment ,• that the accufation 1 witnejjing^and condemn a- ««"»/"**• 
tion to wrath to come^ are prevented by thefe Actions 
which fupply there roomes ; Tea^ that God himfefe^in 
Chr (ft shall be an Advocate^ a Witnejfe, and Judge ; for 
thofe that haue pleaded againft themfelues^ in the court 

^ofConfcience by repentance. 

9 Neither are we bound onely to this Accufation 

and condemnation of our felues 5 as to a meanes of 

Salvation^ but by natur all juftice alio. For if wee finne 

againft a man, wee ought to doe h/m juftice en our 

felues, by Accufing^Condemningfind Acknowledging cur 

F 2 offence: 

36 OfConfcience. ~ ^ Bookei. 

offence ; much more then are we bound to doe this to 
God. Befides, we are related to God as hisjerv ants ,by 
which we are bound to take his part in all controver- 
sies, debates, or quarrells,that he hath againft finne,and 
chiefely againft our owne finne, which doth us moft 
hurt,and againft which we are able to doe much more, 
then againft other mens. Adde to thefe, the confide- 
ration of the equity of it, if we be bound (when it will 
be no hurt to us) to affift a brother, in any of his lav/- 
full and iuft fiiits, or judgements, either in appearing as 
a Witnejfe^ or as an Accufer^ in his behalfe : how much 
more are we bound to do the fame for God ? for with- 
out comparifon, eachperfon is more bound to fticke 
dofe toGod,thentohimfelfe: and to affift God by 
accujing, teff(fyittg,judg/ng«xhongh it be in the control 
verfie which he hath againft himfelfe. 

Thefe particular illuftrations (which upon another 
Guiieivarif. occafion are propounded and urged by(?. P.) I haue 
thought good to relate,hoth for the light w ch they giue 
to this prefent queftion, and for the excellent ufe, that 
they haue in exhortations to the pradife of repentance. 
10 Thefecond reafon (wherein the trouble of con-, 
fcience upon accufationjN?& brought to procue that an 
accufing Confcience, could not be good) is alfo of no' 
ftrensth : Becaufe that trouble and wounding,is either 
the accufationit felfe, or znajfeffion following it.. The 
fame Iudge that condemned} rightly and iuftly, may, 
and ufeth to be forrowfuil, that he hath occafion to doe | 
fbrfor he abfolveth more willingly thofe that are good, 
then he condemneth malefadors. 

ii To fpeake home to the Matter ; The ad of Ac- 
ciifationfollowetb indeed from finne, not as zjinne^ but 


Boo kh X. Of Qonfciencc. ?j 

^punishment 3 Confcience therefore acatjing, To farre 
as it accufeth rightly, ishonefilygood, though in refped 
of the trouble it bringeth., it ufeth to bee called fcvill, 
as all other punishments are. It may alfo be called evil!, 
becaufe the ground of it is alwaics fbme fin comittcd. 

1 2 Thirdly, that the Confcience be honestly good, 
it is requite that by this upright judgement. \xjiirre up 
Jltongly to doe good, and draw backe ft t ongly from that 
which is evill, Heb. 13.18. but this cannot be done by 
Confcience alone, there muft be alfo an honeftdifpo- w ' "'*'"'• 
fition, and bent of the JF///> anfwerable to the judge- 
ment of Confcience. 

1 3 A Confcience peaceably good, is that, which £*- 
cufetb, <LAbfolveth, Qomforteth, A£ts 24.6. Hence al- 

1 Vfo unto a good Confcience. in this refped, doe belong 
the affection of loy, Confidence , Security ,and FreeJome. 

14 A Confcience that is both honeftly and peaceably ycuQaoA. 
good, is that, which by the Apoftle is called pure and iweAii. 
cleane^ -2 Tim. 1.3. Beautifull, Heb. 13.18. Without of- ct7r^a-y^ 

fence, or not offended, which is the confutation and re- tt(^. 

joycingofthefaithfull, 2 Cor. 1. 12. To keepe which 
•they are content to fuffer ail forts of trouble unjujlly, 

1 Vet. 2. 19. 

1 5 Confcience fifice the fill, or after finne,is made H ow cogence 
good againe : /. By the blocd of Chriil; applyed 
through Faith, whereby the gtiil^ accufation , and con - 

^demnation of it, are taken away* Heb. 9.13.14. and / . 
\ 22. 2* By the vertue of the f;me blood, in repen- 
tance zndjanffification of the fpirit, 1 Tim. 1. j. ^Afts 
a u 8.9. whereby beleevers haue afetled and conftant 
purpofe to feme God. 3. By the witnefe of the Spi- 
rit, whereby we are affured of the grace of God., not 
onelyforthe prefent, but alfo for the continuance of 

F 3 it, 

is m~de sood. 

~g Of Confcience. Booke i. 

it, to the doing of every good wovke, Ephef /. 18. i+. 
Rom.9.s.& iPet.i.f.6. 

16 A good Confcience is maintained by that exer- 
cife, whereof the Apoftle fpeakcth-ASr 24.16. Now 
this exercife doth chiefly confift in thefe things : / .That 
thefeare of God bee alwaies liuely and fresh in our 
hearts,^/. 36.2. For this maketh us looke what Gods 
judgement is,in all things,?/?/. 1 1 9 . 6 . 2 . That we me- 
ditate on Gods Law both day, and night, TfaL i. 2 . 
For by this the zSMajor Propofition or Rule whereby 
Confcience judgeth, is efbblished. 3. That we ex- 
amine our owne waies with quicke and sharpe judge- 
ment, Tfal. 4. s- For this infer reth the application " 
the dM,inor Propofition. 4* That by dayly repe: 
tance and renewing of Faith, we wash oflP the filth thai 
wecontrad, / Iohn 3.3. For therein lyes the ftrength : 
of the conclufion or judgement of Confcience. 

Chap. XIIL 
Of a weake, and of a ftrong Confcience. 

1 A Good Confcience admits of degrees,for which 
ZJLcaufe it is by the Apoftle diftinguished>into a 
weake and aft rong Confcience, Rom. ij.i. 

2 A weake Conicience is that which is purged by 
unfained Faith, but is troubled with thefe imperfe&i- 
ons, which all beleevers, for the moft part,doe out-^, 
grow by time* 

3 True Faith is fappofed to be in a weake Confci- 
ence, for he that is weake, is a Brother, Rom. 14.1 5*2%. 
not to be condemned or Jet at nought, verf. 1 . One for 
whom Chrift hath dyed, 1 Cor. s. it. This Confcience 
therefore being good,differeth in kind from that which 


Booke I Of Confcience. 39 

is weake through malice, Prefumption, or Super ft:t ion. 

4 The imperfections wherewith this rreakeConfci- 

ence is difeafed, are 3 / . Lacke of knowledge>becaufe ons o^^kc l 
as yet it underftandeth not well what is lawfull and Confcicncc - 
pure, / Cor j. 7. Rom. 14.14. Thisweaknefleof Con- 
fcience> is called the weakenefe of Faith z Rom. 14.1. 

5 Thefecond imperfection which dependeth on 
the firft D is in ^ffettion^ becaufeit eafilyis madefor- 
rowfuUyixxx&difquieted, when it feeth others doe that 
which it feife approoveth not, Rom. i4>tj. Becauf of 
meat thy brother is grieved. 

6 The third imperfection is in Judgement, becaufe 
it quickly Iudgeth and condemneth the liberty of 
others , 1. Cor. 10 29. Rom. 14. 3* 15. Why is my 
liberty iudged by an other mans Confcience \ Let not him 
that eatethdifpfe him that eateth net. 

7 The fourth imperfection , is in the purpofe and 
fetlednes of heart 5 being eafely drawne to what is 

evill- /. Cor. 8.10. For if any man fee thee which haft 
knowledge y ft at me ate in the Idols temple : shall not the 
Confcience of him which is weak 3 be Emboldned to eat* 
thofe thingsjvhicb aye offered to Idols? From this^a man 
is moft properly (aid to bee Offended 5 Scandeli^ed, 
wounded^deftroyed. Rom. 14. 2 1. 1 Cor. 8, 9. 12. Rom,, 
14. 15. 

8 hjirong Confcience , is that which is ejlablished 
'in the truth. Rom t 14. ;. Terfwadedinbis ownemiv.de* 
) 2 . Tet. 1. t2. Te know and are ejlablished in theprefent 


9 This f ability confiftetb in knowledge 5 yet not 
fb much in the clearnej/efazvto^ as in the certainty. 1 . 
Cor. 8. 4. 7. Wee know that an Idoll is nothing in the 
world > but there is not in every man that knowledge, and 


40 Of Qonfcience. Booke i. 

their Qonfcience being weake 5 is defiled. For certainetji 
bclongeth more to Faith ^ which wee are here to un- 
derftandhy Confcience., then Evidence or Clearnejft> 
which belongs to knowledge, taken in the proper 
fenfe. 2 In fuch an affe&ion , whereby it is alwayes 
willing to beare with, and beare the infirmities of o- 
thers. Rom. 15. i. Wee which are Strong ought to 
beare the infirmities of the weake . 3 . In Judging fo, 
as that nothing be fet before a brother,at which he may 
Jlumble or fall^Rom. 14.13 .but Judge this rather 5 that no 4 
man put a/tumbling blocke, or an occafion to fall in his « 
brothers way. 4. In fuch a resolution and fetlednejfe 
of heart, whereby it is fo ftrengthned in truth and gcd- 
lineiTe, that it cannot eafily be rcmoovedj He b. 13.9. It 
is agood thing, that the heart be established with graced* 

Chap. XIV. 
Of an evil! Conference . 

1 /^ Onfcience is faid t o be Evilly either becaufe its' 
\*sAfts are Jinnes J or becaufe it brings trouble and 

2 A Confcience Evill becaufe offinne in its A&s 5 is 
that which giveth not a right and powerful judgement; * 
fuch is the Confcience of all men that are unregenerat, 
for it is in men according as Originall corruption is. 
Of this ^polluted Qonfcience is not the fmallcft part.37^ 
1. 1$ + 

3 The firft fault ofdnevill Confcience is Blindne^ 
whence it judgeth oiCfood and Svillno otherwife:then 
one that is bodily blinde ufeth to judge of colours : He 
calleth good evilly and evillgood^ Ffai. j.i 0. 

4 The fecond fault, is a kind offpirituall dulnejfe, 


Booke i Of Qonfciencel az 

whence it neither ftirreth up powerfully to that,which 
it feeth Is good^ nor draweth backe from that which 
it acknowledged! evilly Rom. i . 1 8 Which withhold the 
truth in unrighteoufnefp. 

5 The third fault, is falfe-witnefie-b'earing, which 
principally appeareth in Excufingjmd Accufingfalfely. 

6 An £w// Confcience doth Excufe falfely, either 
when it doth not accufe where it ought,or abfolveth and 
approoveth where it ought to accufe and condemne. 

7 The former fault is efteemed as a piece of Reli- 
gion, by the dangerous Se& of Libertines, who place 
their chiefe happineffe and perfe&ion to haue the fenfe 
of finne extinguished. 

8 It prevaileth alfo in all thofe,who being free from 
great and groffe finnes, doe feeme unto themfeluesto 
be as it were perfe<fc, and not to be blamed for any fin, 
Luke i8.2o.z5Marke 10.20. ^thefe things haue J ob- 
served from my youth. 

9 The fecond fort of £xcujzngfalfely y when an evill * 
Confcience approoveth, where it ought to condemne; 
is chiefely to be found in thofe that are fuperftitious. 
They think to be heard through their much babling. Ioh. 
1 6. 2. The time commeth thatwhofoever killethyou } will 
thinke that he doth (fodfervice^Rom. 10.2. J be are them 
record that they haue a zeale ofGed^ but not according to 
rp 10 hfalfe Ac cufat ion otzn evill confcience is, when 
it accufeth zwdcondemneth^ where it ought- to excufe : 
•zve.For well doing : Rom. 14-2 2 .Happy is he that con- 
demned not himfelfe in that thing which he alloweth. 
I Confcience Evilly through trouble andforrow is that 3 
which accufeth and condemneth : / 'John 3 . 20. If our 
heart condemne m. 

G 12 When 

42 Of Confcience. Books i. 

12 When Confcience is evill in this kinde, thefe 
affedions follow. Sadnefe,Feare, ^.Anguish. 

1 3 This Confcience is honeftlj/ good, if it accufe iujt- 
lj : it isfnnefullj evilly if it doe it uniuftlj. 

14 A Confcience £t>/7/ through trouble^ and honejlly 
good^ is to be found both iribeleevers and unbeleevcrs. 
In fuch as beleeuc not, it is a preparation unto true re- 
pentance and Faith. A&s i,j 7- x 

15 A Confcience Evill, both through trouble and 
Jinne > is common alfo both to heleevers, and thofe 
who beleeue not. But in thofe that beleeue^ there is a 
principle of grace, by ftrength whereof they are up- 
holder they nvraftle and withjland> and by little and ljfoN 
tic are healed of it. 

Chap. XV. 

Of divers degrees and forts of an Evill 


N Evill Confcience may bee diftinguished into 
k divers degrees : 1 . In relped of defe£t y into 
a benummed.Jlupidy and feared. 2 . In refped of ex- 
cejfe, into a troubled 'and defperate one. 
co b nfcknc? cd 2 ^ kenumyned Confcience is that, which is fo duM % 

and /^^ in its A<5te,that there f bllowes no ftrong ftir- 
rings of heart after it ; nothing to purpofe comes of it. 
Thofe that haue fuch a con{cience,are oppreffed with ai 
kind of fpiritual^*/*, wherein the fenfe of confcience, >4 
is fo bound 5 thwit it is no more moved, then a man that 
fleepeth is by his owne dreames. 

3 This dulnejfe appeareth, 1. In a dull or faint 
pricking on to good : We haue an example in Agrippa> 
Atfs 26.28. thou almoBperJwadeftmt. 

4 it 

B o o i e i . Of Qonfcience. 43 

4 Itappearexhfccondly inadull accufation for the 
evill that is committed, we haue an example in Saul y 
1 Sam.i4.iS* 

5 The caufe of this benummednejfe in many that are 
not apparantly wicked, is a certaine carnaftfecurity, 
which creepeth fecretly upon them, from long peace 
and profperity, Ier.4S.i i. 

6 Afupide Confcience is that,which doth not its office £.%>i<*e con* 
in accufing and condemning , unleffe it bee for the grea- 
test Jinnes y and when it is forced by moft grievous 
Judgements. For like as men ficke of a Lethargie or 
Drow/ineJJe^ are not wakened commonly, unlefTe it be 
through fome great noife : fo like wife this Confcience 
is not mooved^unlefle it be by the thunder of Gods 
Iudgements. Wee haue an example in Tharoah. 
Exod. 8.9. 

7 The caufe ohbisfupidity is un&eleife^nd cuftome 
infnningwhkh taketh away the fenfe of it. 

8 A feared or cauterized Qonfcience , is that which confciencL 
nowaies^tf^ mooved^ no not by greateftfnnes^ 1. 

Tim. 4. 2. Which haue their Qorfciences feared with 
an hot Iron : This fort of Confcience is found chiefly in 
thofe , who after they haue been enlightened , againft 
their Conferences, doe giue up themfeiues to a wicked 

9 In thefe the Synterefis it felfe^or Law of Confcience, 

p hath its courfe ftopped 5 & for time is in a manner extin- 
guished, lude. 10. Whatibever they know naturally ',as 
beaftes which are without reafon > in thofe things they 
corrupt themfeiues. This fuppreiling of the natural! 
pra&icall knowledge , which is ingrafted in all men , is 

.by the Philofopheis called a7ro>JQc*)<ri$ becaufe fuch 
kind of men are changed as it were into ftones,as in the 

a^ G 2. Scripture 

44 Of Confcience. Booke i. 

Scripture they are (aid to haue a hard and Jlony heart, 
by other Philofophersit is called 0^/o'tw and O^iM*, 
becaufefuch men become altogether brutish. 2. Pet. 
2. 12. Or rather put on the nature of the Divell. 

loh. $. 44* 

10 The fi?nes of fuch a kinde of Confcience arc. 
1. If one reioyce in fmne. Trou^. 14. 2 If af- 
ter he hath finned he will not bee reformed, Tvou. 27. 

sicerttthfe d*- 22. 3 If hec giue up himfelfe to commit knowne 
finne 5 with all his might ftriving to finne more then 
others. Ephe, 4. 19. 

1 1 Contrary to this evill Conference, or hard heart, 
a tender con-_ [ s a tender Confcience which is eafily moved by the word 

ofGodj whereof v/ee haue an example in Iofiah. 2. 
Kings. 22. t?. Becaufe thine heart did melt and thou 
haft humbled thy ielfc before the Lord D when thou 
beardefrwhat I fpake. 

1 2 A troubled Qonfcience, is that which accufeth in 
a troubled con- fuch a manner, that it fiiffereth not the Confcience to 

fcienee. n. 

be at reft. 

1 3 It bringeth with it an aftonisbing feare, and op* 
preffing grief e. 

14 It is called in the Scripture, fadnejfe, a c a fling 
downe, affliction, or difquieting of the minde, a broken 
fpirity Trov. t$* 14* 

1 5 A troubled Confcience is fometimes honeflly good* 
and fometime finnefully evill, 

1 6 Hone flip good it is, when it accufeth juftly. This 
is properly in thofe which yet beleeue not in Chrift : 
but happens fometimes to be in thofe, who haue true 

17 In thofe which yet beleeue not, the Confcience 
*viU indeed through trouble, but honeflly good, doth 


B o o k e I . Of Confcience. 

make this ktnde of S\ Ilogifme. 

Hethat beleevethnot in Qhtifi^ hfubjici to the 
wrath of god : 
But Ibeleeue not in Chrijl: 
Therefore, Jamfubjeftto the wrath of god. 
This whole argument is to be granted; The cncly 
waytopacifiefuchaConfviienccis^to bring him that 
is fb troubledjnto another ftate.by true convcrfion and 
Faith. For then the dftUnor of that Syllogifmc 3 which 
before was true, will be fhlfe 3 and may lawfully be de- 

1 8 In fuch a* haue true Faith, After grievous finnes, 
which wafte the Confcience 5 the Confcience Lvill 
through Trouble^ but honestly good^ maketh this kind of 

Hethat hathfaned grivoufly, and hath notduely re* 
pented of his fnne ^cannot by true Faith finde com* 
fort in god. 

I am fuch a one. 

Therefore* I cannot by true Faith comfort my felfe 

in god. 

Here likew 7 ife muft Confcience accufng be belee- 

ved, and.true Repentance be gotten, that he who is Co 

troubled, may at length rightly deny that Affumption* 

19 A troubled Qonfcience^ Ev/li through fault , or 
faulty in beingtroubled^ is mod: properly in thofe that 

o' are true beleevers. For although unbeleevei s doe finne 
y moft highly, in not feeking after the true remedy in 
Chrift, when Confcience acculeth juftly* (but either 
£dl downe under the burden 3 or through hard- 
nefle of heart keepe out trouble* or feeke eafe from 
things that are moll: vaine 5 as it were from the leaues of 
the Figge tree) yet the fin properly is not in the judge- 

G 3 merit 


4$ o>f Qonfiience. Booke i # 

ment of conicience 5 or in confcience fo judging them, 
but in the Conclufions^which are deduced and drawne 
from it. 

20 The Confcience of Beleevers is finfull 5 in being 
troubled 5 many vvayes. In fuch a cafe the reafoning of 
Confcience is diligently to be examined. For the ma- 
jor or minor may, arid o ught alwaies to bee denied and 
confuted, that Confcience may bee healed. As it is in 
thofe Accufations which come from want of fenfe of 
Gods favour > from the fenfe of Gods wrath/rom out- 
ward afflictions, from horrid temptations to finne, and 
from divers kindes of finnes. 
confcScef 2I A Vtfp erate C on f cience ^ that which fo dccufeth 

and condem.net h y that it taketh away not cnely quietnes 
zndpeace, but hope alfo of any quietnefTe 3 or remedy. 
22 That manner o£l>efpaire : that taketh away "all 
fuch Hope as may come from our merits^ orf?rength> is 

2 3 But that kinde otVefpaire, which in this life ta- 
keth away all fuch hope as commeth from the free mer- 
cy of God, is not onely Evili in relped of trouble and 
vexation^ but offinne. 

24 The Defpaire of the damned, which utterly 
rooteth out all hope ^/remedy, is the bottomlefe pit of * 

2 5 Hence it is 5 t h at a Defperate Confcience (Tully re- 
prefenting all finnes, together with their exceeding M 
great and unpardonable guilt^and Gods feareful wrath ■ 
abiding upon Sinners, with the endkffe mifery that 
foliowes thereonjis Gods moft powerfiill meanes to 
torment the Reprobate ; like unto a worme,that moft 
sharply biteth and gnaweth their hearts for ever: Mar. 
9. 46, their Worme dyeth not. 

16 To 

Booke I Of Qonfcience. 47 

26 To Trouble and H^efpaire^ FullPeace^ Tranquil- 
Uty,mA the joy of a good Confcience are contrary; which 
properly rifeth from perfed hope in God> whereby 
the unchangeable injoyment of happinefTe, is appre- 

27 Hence it is, that a good Confcience^ that is perfect- 
ly peaceable ^ and joy fill (as it reprcfenteth to the foule, 
a full deliverance from the Evilly both offinne and pu- 
nishment : Such a life to be led with God, as is with- 
out all trouble or end/ confiding in union and com- 
munion with him in peace, and greateft joy) is the/^r- 
m all and efientiatthappineffe of the Saints in the life to 
come : zSMatt. 2 5 . 2 1 . 2 3 • Enter into thy Matters Ioy : 

Job. 1-5 . 1 1 . That my Ioy might remaine in you,and that 
your Ioy might be full; 1?^. i.8.Rejoyce with Ioy 
unfpeakable^ and glorious. 

Booke I. OfQonfcience* 




mcr Treatife, according as it was fet f boith in 

a publike Difputation 3 to encourage 

and ftirre up to the fludy of 

Pra&icall Divinity. 


concerning Confcience. 

, I Tf Nowledgepuffethup; Loue edifieth : But gvea- 
3\^tefconfcience ought to be made of edifying the 
Confcience^ i Cor.8.i.io. 

2 C on fti ence ™ aman$ judgement of himfelfe* accor- 
ding to Gods judgement ofhim^ Ifai. 5.3, 
F 3 There is a cert aine inclination of the will > whereby 
it can naturally both Jlirre up the understanding to this 
kinde of judgement y and alfo follow it : This inclination 
byfome is named Confcience, by others a part of Confci- 

• ence y but not truelj; For neither the name ofQonfcience* 
por the affs thereof which are mentioned in the Scrip- 

f 'tures , import any other power or faculty », then the under - 

* ftanding,Rom.2.i$. 

4 Tet every aft ofunderftanding is not Qonfcience, 
but onelythofe which make upfuch a Traffic all judge- 
ment^ as was before handled inthefecondTofition. 

5 By ludgementy is mo ft properly meant the aft of 
I judging^ and not the habit or faculty onely^ Rom* *• i jf • 

\ M 6 The 

jo Of fynfcience. Booke i. 

6 The whole nature of Qonfcience is contained in no o- 
ther judgement, but what u Dianoeticall, or Difcurfue ; 
becaufe Accu(ing,£xcufing£omforting, and fuch like atts 
of Confience ^cannot be^butbyfome middle or third argu- 
ment jvhofejlrengtb appeares in a Syllogifne,onely by tjhe 
confluence, Rom. 6- II- The word tranfated, Reckon 

koyifyrS-i. yourfelfe,fgnifies Reafon out. 

7 The dM>ajorofthat Syllogifme, wherein the whole 
judgement of Qonfcience is layd open., treateth alwaies of 
the Law the Minor cf the faff and ft ate\ and theConclu- . 
Jion of the relation that arifeth from our f aft or fate, by 

reafon of that Law;which is either guilt ^orfpiritu all Ioy. 
For example ^ He that liveth infinne, shall dye y 
• ^ Hue infinne: 
Therefore I shall dye. 
Or thus> Whofoever beleevnh in Chrift, shall not dye, 
But I beleeuein Qhrisi : 
Therefore Ishallnotdye :> butliue,Rom.%.i'$. 33. 
34. 1 Ioh. 3,19.20. 

8 Confcience in regard of the Major, is called a Law : 
fn regard of the Minor and Qonclufion,a Witnejfe;but in 
regard of the Minor m oft properly, an Jndex, or Booke, . 
and in regard of the Conclufion, mo ft properly a Iudge y 
Rom. 2. 14. 15. Reu. 20.12. 1 Ioh. 5.10. 

9 The dAtajoris given bytheSyiMtx^ds, which the 
Schoolemen call Synderefis : the Minor is peculiarly cal- 
fed Syncidefis, or Confidence^ the Conclufion is the Krifi: , 
itjufe, or lodgement. 

1 o Synterefis is properly an rntetleSfual habit yvhere- 
by wegiue our confint to the principles of moraU affions* 
It differ eth not therefore from the Law ofnaturewhich is 
naturally written in the hearts of all men : but in refipeF 
mely. n Tkoug 

Boo kl I. Of Qonfcience. <- r 

1 1 Though therefore Confcience may he kindred from 
working for a while, yet can it not hee fully extinguished 
or loft. No man is fodefperatly wicked, a* to hee with* 
out a Confcience altogether : No not the Libertines, who 
place their deadly perfection, inputting out the Confcience 

1 2 To this part of Confcience Synterefis being largely 
taken, belong all PraSticall truthes whereof wee are per- 

faaded; whetherthey be drawn out ofnaturaU principles > 
by confequence^or communicated by Divine revelation. 

1 3 Hence arifeth the distinction of a naturaU and an 
inlightened Qonfcience* The Scripture fometimes doth ap- 
peale to this,asKom.6^. fometimes to that, a* i Cor. 
6.9. and 11. 14. 

1 4 Hence the adequate or full rule of Confcience U the 
revealedwillofGod,which both declares and prefer i be s 
mans duty. 

1 5 Confcience therefore improperly fribjeft to Gods ifr/'j? 
and authority alone, Iam.4. 1 2 f Neither can it befubjeff 
to any creature,without Idolatry. 

1 6 Hence alfo it is, that though men be bound in Con- 
I fcience before God, to obey and keep the iutt Lawes of men 

after a jufl manner, Rom. 1 3 . 5 . Tet thofe Lawes ofmen> 
v.- as they are mens Lawes, doe not bind the Qonfcience. 

1 7 Confcience fo bindeth man,in al thofe things which it 

judgeth are his duty , by the will of God ; that he cannot be 

V 'fee from it, by the authority of any creature,hSi.^. 19. In. 

I thurefpettitu>thathethatknowethqodswill,ufaidto be 

debtor^Rom.i.iq.afrvanty Ro.<5.i6. bound,A£t*2o. 

22. co/jf rained,! Cor. 5. l^.tohauenecejfitylaid upon 

him,i cor. 9 .16. fo that he cannot do otherwaies, A&.3. 20 

j 8 The power of Confcience ufo great, that it ma- 

H 2 keth 




Of Confcience. Booke i. 

keth an aSlion^ which in its owne nature is indifferent , to 
be either good or bad: and that which in its owne na- 
ture is (rood, to be evill: although it cannot make that be- 
come <?ood,which is evill in its owne nature. 

19 Tetno action is better or worfe^for that Confcience 
that one hath after he hath done it. 

2 o ^An erroneous Confcience bindeth alwaies Jo far, 
that he that doth againjl the judgement thereof finneth. 
For formally and by interpretation hee doth it againjl 
Gods will. 

21 If the error of Qonfcience about the aSlion (that 
is, the objeSfor matter about which the affionis) bee not 
finnefull^ the Confcience erring^ binds a* much as if it did. 
not err e. 

2 2 Confcience ^through errour judging that to be law- 
fully ornecefary^ which is unlawfully doth fofarre binde^ 
04 that a manfinnesy who doth contrary to it y and Jinnes 
alf)) if he doe according to thedireSlion of it. 

2 3 Tet this necejfxty of finning^ wherein fome are in- 
tangled^ is not contrary to the equity of Gods Law : t . Be- 
cause the fnne is not the fame on both handes : on the one 
hand amans finnes indoingwhat is unlawful!- and on 
the other ^ in doing it unlawfully : viz. without or againjl 
Confcience. 2 . Becaufi it is not an abfolute neceffity, but 
uponfuppefition onely^ viz. if they keepejiill fuch a Con- 
fcience 3 which they ought to lay downe^ Ephef. 4. 22. 
j> Becaufe it doth not flow fromthe nature of the Law of 
God) but both is contracted and continued by mans finne. 
For no man is thus int angled but by his owne fault. 

24 Confcience jUdgingth at to he unlawfully which s is 
law full, bindeth to refrainefrom that I aw full thing Jlom. 
14. 1 4 . 1 5 . He likewife thatjudgeth that to be necejfary, 


Booke T. Ofi Confidence. 

which is but lawfully hound to the doing of it: becaufie tt 
man may abftaine from lawful! things : and may alfi 
conjlantlyprattifie them without finning. 

25 Nothing may bee done whereof the Confidence 
doubts ^ Rom. 14.23. 

26 In doubtful! cafe s^ thefureftpart is to bee chofien ; 
now that is the fiureft part > in doing which, its fur e there 
is nofinne. 

27 It is lawfully and the beftfiometimesjo doe againft 
fiomeficruple ofiQonficience. 

28 7 he reviewing of our affions , or eft ate ^ as it re- 
fipefls the Law, which Confidence diftates, maketh up the 
minor of that pr attic all ' Syllogifme^ which the Confidence 
maketh. It is called in Scripture ^a beholding oft he mind^ 
Pfal . 119.1%. Vnderftanding^ Pfal. 50.22. A casting up 
ones waies,V£\\. 1 19.59. A laying ofithe he \art 5 Hag. 1.5. 
Afaying to the hearty or in the heart ofithem^ Hofc. 7.2 . 
^A turning againe unto the he art > Ier . 1 2 . 1 1 . Mai. 2.2. 
And I aflly^a proving and examining of our fieluesy 2 Cor. 
13. 5. 

29 JnthecenclufionofthatSyUogifime> amanappli- 
^ eth to himfielfie the Law ofiGod^ which concerneth his Ac- 
tion or conditioned pajfethfientence on himfielfie : whence 
there followethnecejfiarily^ either an Excufing, ^Abfiol- 
ving and Approbation ; or an Accufiation and Condem^ 
nation^ with affections anfwerable to them^ Rom .2.15. 

/ 30 Though this application in its owne nature follow 
the former acts ofiQonficience .at a conchifion doth thepre- 
mifies : yet through manswickedneffie^ itfalleth out oft- 
times jh at though the Maj or be f illy andfirmely acknow - 
/edged , and the Minor alfio in a fort syet the Conclufion 
and Application is not made,Rom. 2. 18.20. 21. 2 Sam* 
12.5.6. H 3 3 X Hen€e 



54 Of Conference. Booke i. 

3 1 Hence it is y that a necejfity lyes upon all faithfull 

TaJlorS) not onely to propound Gods will in oenerall 

hut according to their abilities, to helpe men , both in 

publike and private to apply it^ according 04 their under- 

flandings, and confeiences shall require, Rom. 12.7. 

Matt. 14.4. 

32 <l^4 Confidence honeftly good is, that which judge- 
eth rightly and powerfully, Heb. 13.18. that which doth 
otherwifie^ is finnefuUy £w7/ 3 Ifai.5 .20. Rom. 1. 18. 

3 3 ^A Qonfcience peaceably good^ is that, which ex- 
cufeth, abfiolveth, comfort eth^ Ads 24.16. 

34 C on f c l ence fi nce the fall) is not both honeftly and 
peaceably good,but by the fiprinkling of the bloudofchrijl 
Heb.9. 13. 14. and 10.22. and the vert ue of him in the 
fanttification of the Spirit \ 1 Tim. 1 -5 • A<ft. 1 5 .8.9. 

3 5 <lA Confcience peaceably good may be finnefuUy e- 
vill, and that which is evill through trouble and accu- 
feth^ may be honeftly good. 

36 c^ weake Confcience differ eth in kinde from that 
which u affed, either by malice, or arrogance, or Super- 


37 There is but this one way, to pacifie a Confcience 
troubled upon good grounds: to bring him that is troubled 
into fuch a fate by true Faith and repentance, that the 
dfylinor oft hat Syllogifme which troubl'eth him., may up- 
on good grounds become fialfie, and prooue fuch a* may 
be lawfully denyed. 

38 When the Confeiences of Beleevers are finne full 
in beingtroubled, the Major or Minor of that reafonino 
which caufed the trouble, may alwaies be denied and con- 
futed. And this is the onely way to heak Juch a Confid- 


Booke i Of Confcience. 55 


1 The gre ateft violation of Qonfcience is the great eft 

2 The great eft anguish of Qonfcience is the greatefl 

3 That uncertainty of Gods favour^ which theTa-^ 
p/Ifs hold> and that uncertainty ofTerfevering ingrace y 
which others teach^ u cleane contrarie to thatfolidjoy^and 
flrong confidence >whichproceedeth from a Qonfcience tru- 
ly good. 

3 The interpretation of the Scriptures jr a judgement 
to difcerne Gods will for amansfelfe^in his owne Confci- 
. ence^ belongs to every man. 

The End of the Firft Booke. 






In which thofe Cafes arc handled, which 
concerne the flare of man. 


Of a cafe of Confeience ^ and tbejiate of mm 
in getter all. 

Hitherto we have fpoken of the Nature , now we 
are tointreate of the Cafes of Confeience. 

Cafe of Confeience is a pra&icall que- 
Ition , concerning which , the Conscience 
may make a doubt. 

a. It is faid to be a queftion,becaufe it is 
not an axiome or proportion that is ma- 
nifeft of it fdfe, but hath need of illuftra- 
tion and proofc, by fomethird argument. 

3, It is a praliicall que/Hon, becaafe of the doubti 
which doe not immediately belong to praftife , doe not 1m- 

A me.A*t\M 

2 The fecond Books 

mcdiatly pcrtaine to the judgement and aft of Confcience, 

which thing is not well obferved by them who under the 

name of cafes of Confcience doe handiemtny things , which 

do no more belong to Confcience then any other head of 

Divinity., purpofely omitted by them* 

- . .. 4. It is called a cafe , becaufe it is wont to fall out , or to 

£ Se happen in the courfc of mans life, and a cafe of Confcience, 

/♦fei. becaufe when it falls out 3 the Gonfckr.ce ought,with all pof- 

fible care, to give judgement about it. 

5. Ofthis fort are all thofe qieftions wherein t r uppofing 
the generalldoftrinc of Faith and Obedience) wee enquire 
what our duty is 5 upcn any particular occafior, 

6. Of thefe queftions one faith welU "Becaufe that Law 
which is written and ingraven in nature , containing the rales 
ef hone fly and natural! jufiice , is in a manner wholly buryed by 
original corruption^and almoft totally overwhelmed by cufiome 
in finning, as it were with fome he ape ofevilllujlsdaiduponit^ 
and becaufe al/o the light of the under/landing is inv ilvci , and 
obfeuredwith manifold darkenejfe f fo that neither thofe rules 
cfhenefty , which are within the book? of the mind, are fully 
end perfeBly legible % nor can our under fianding read any thing 
therein ? dtftinttly and plainly : Hence it is 5 that God , in his 
mercifull providence hath given Hi three helps, viz. The light 
of Scripture, the affiftance of his Grace^ and the helpe rf teach* 
i*g. About this laft,we are now to intreate. 

7. Now every queftion, or cafe of Confcience (as the 
nature of the thing ir felfe, and experience ftieweth ) is either 
about the ftate of man before God 5 or about thofe aftions 
which in that ftate he doth put forth, and exercife. 

8. The ftate of man belongs to the firft part of Divinity^ 
which is about/V*/7^and the aftions to the fecond partwhich 
is about obedience. 

9. The ftate of man before God s ia that relation which maa 
hath to God , as he is the original! of fpirituali life , and 

io.Concerning this ftate, the Confciente ought i« to de- 
clare and determine what it is. 2. to judge, that it is to be ef- 
chewed if it be evilly and to be preferved, and increafed if it 
be good. 

11. Con- 

&f Conference. % 

il. Concerning the ftateof man in generall there be three 
queftions : The firft il whether a man can certainly knew 
inwhatftatehe is? 

Anf. He may, I. Becaulewuhout this knowledge he can- 
not have an accufing, orexcufing Confciencein refpe&of 
his eftate, But fuch a Confcience men both may and are 
wont to have, Rom 2.15. % Becaufe no man can either ef- 
chew or defire an unknowne ftate : But one of tbefe ftates 
a man ought to efchew , and to labour for the other, 

12. Queft. 2. Whether men ought to make inquiry into 
their eftate?. 

Anf.Yt^ and that with all diligence poffible, for 1. This 
is a thing that God requireth s 2 Or.13.5. 2. without this 
knowledge a man cannot have peace, ortranquillityinhis 
Confcience, Rom*$.i.%l 8. 1. 3. Ocherwifc a man cannot 
performe worfhip toGod,with that preparation which is re- 
quifite, I Cor. 11.2$. fl 

13. gueft. 3. By what meanes comes a man to the know- miy come X9 
ledge of his eftate > / the knowledge 

Anf.i • By eonfideration of thofe aftions externall, and in- of his eftate^ 
ternall, which proceed from him. Mat. j.\j. 2. By the in- 
clinations, and difpofitions,from whence thofe aftions flow, 
Row.*}. 1 5116,17. 3. By that reflex aft, whichis proper to 
man,whereby he hath a power , as it were to enter into, and 
perceive what is in himfcife, 1 Car. 2.11. 4.By a kind of (pi- 
rituall fknl^Lnkg 24.32.***. 7.2 1.28. Thehinder- 

14. Que ft. 4. what is it that htnders this knowledge ? anC e of this 
An[ % 1. Wicked and prophane thoughts in many, P/%14- knowledge. 

12. 2. Preemption, «>4jp0r.3. 1 7. Mawj.%\%\^% 3.Tbeo- 
verchargingofthe heart by the lufts of the flefc, and care 
about the things of this life, Luke 2 1. 34. 4. An evill Con- 
fcience, John 3. 20. 5. Spiritual! floth ,and idlcneffe, Ef*y 
^4.11, *Jgnorance,R*».$.ii. 

A a Chap. 2. 

T 1 

1 i 

The fetOnd Book* 

Chap. 2. 

Of the ft ate of jinn*. 

He ftate of man fince the fall of Adam is twofold. A 
ftatc of finne 5 and a ftate of grace ABs 26.18. 1 John 

2. The ftatc of fume confifts in the privation of fpirituall 
life 3 and happineffc. From this eftate therefore we are to fly, 
as from death and the greatcft evill ^Concerning this ftate 
offinthenrftq'!eftionis,Howamanmay diicerne., whither 
he do ftill continue in it? 

3. Anf.Tht fignes, or arguments , whereby this ftate may 
ttToi&L ' ccrlainI y be difc €rn'd 5 are in generall , all thoi'e which are 

oppofitetoaftateofgrace, and fpirituall lite. Forifaman 
be not in the one ftate > he muft neceffarily be in the other. 

4. The firit figne is a groflTe ignorance of thofc things, 
which belong to fpirituall fife 3 Ep. 4. 18. for hereby % men 
areftrangerstothclifc of God. The rcafon is bccanfeitis 
impoffible tkat any man ihould pleafc God without faith," 
Heb. 1 1.6. And for Faith it is impoflible to be had without 
the knowledge of the will of God, which comes by the 
preaching and hearing of the Word, R*»M 0.14. 

T , - - 5 The fecond figne, is a perverfe difpofition of will,wher- 

rakaingX. *>y ic l% in ^jeftion to the rule, and dominion of fin , Rom. 

6. 12. The reafon isbecaufethofewhodoyeildthemfelves 

fervants to obey fin, are in a ftate of flavery to fin,unto death 


6 Now the fignes of raiging finne, are firft ifamandonoi 
fcrioufly 3 and in good earneft , make oppofition againft the 
lofts of finne 3 but rather yeild up himfelfe unto them. Rom. 
6>i j.Secondly,If in delibreate coonlell either profit,or plea- 
fure be preferred by him 5 and prevaile more with him, 
then either honefty and piety, Fhif.%. 19. Thirdly, if the 
committing of finne ftit him up rather to plea(ure,then grkfe, 
Frc.i'H Fourthly, if he take delight in the company of the 
wicked//.5o*i8. a O. 6.14. 


ef Confchnce. 

j* The third figne , whereby it may be difcerned whether 
a man be in the ftate of Cunc, is the difpofition of will, 
whereby a man oppofeth himfelfe , to the will of Cod, 

8. The fignesofthisperverie difpofition are, i. To rejeft 
the knowledge of Gods wayes, lob. 21. 14, 15. 16. 2. To 
bate correftion,and inftruftion,^/^ o 1 7. 3. To contemne 
the threatnings , and judgements of God> Pfalme 36. i 4 2. 
Dcnt.\). 1 9. 

$. The fourth figne,is perverfnefle of the affeSions wher- 
by men, turne away from God, and wholy cleave, and 
adherc,to worldly things, 1 M.^.2.15. 

JO.TheaverfneflcofamanfromGod,i8 wont tobefeene, 
1 . By his alination from the Word of God, efpecially when 
ic is preacht to him powerfully 2 Tim.+ 3.4. 2. By a neg- 
leftofprayer, and other parts of Gods worrtiip, Pfal. 14 
3,4. Pfa.jq.6* /^riio.25. J.By an alienaioo froai the £er- 
vantsofGod,Pr(?.2 9.27. ilohn$.io. 

1 i/The fignts of a man cleaving tj and as it were drownd 
in the things of this world are , 1% It be imploy his chicfeft 
care, and diligence about thele things Mat. 6.25. 3T. 32. 
The rcafcn is given J^r/e 21. & 24 for r*he~e jour treajurc 
is, there will jottr heart be aifo. 2. If he be ready rather to 
forfake God and his righreoufneffe then theft worldly 
things.Afof.37.38. 3. If he do in his heart Judge thofe men 
~to be happy which have an abundance of tbcfc worldly 
goods.Frtf.11 28.8c 18 1 1, 

1 2. The fifth figne is the corruption of a m^ns life j or of 
the works of life Rom.S. 1 3. This corruption of life doth not 
confift inthofe fins which even the godly fometimes through 
infirmity fall into, but in a continued cou^/e,3ndtenour of 
*finning* Icfc called in Scriptures theyeaj of fwne y Pf«/.1.u& 
-working of iniquity , M^t .7. 23. /4 walking infinite, Pfal.I.J* 
Pro.I.l^* *st ' walking after ftnne, J^r.p. 14. And acujicmein 
finnc^tui^i^ Theft wo '.ks of the flefla are mani eft by then> 
(elves, G*t.%*ift» 

13. The fixt and theav^ftdefperate figne is, obftinancy in 
evill,w hereby a mm (huts and Hops u^ the way to all amend- 
ment^/*/ •£• 910, 7*r. 6. 1Q« 

A 3 Cuai.$* 

Thejecond tool$ 

Chap. 3. 

Of deferring or jutting off ones Converfion* 

QVefi. Thefecondqueftionis, whether a man may fife- 
Jy, reft for any time, in a ftate of finne, efpecially if 
he purpole with himfelfe t® reforme and amend his life 

1. Anfwcr, it is not lawfull to make the lead delay at all in 
our converfion unto God. The reafons are, i;Becaufe God 
requires this for the prefent , PfaL9%.y.Heb. 4. 7. And feing 
finne is a debt , and an injury done to God,it is manifeft, 
that repentance for the fame ought not , unlefte God con- 
lent and like of it, to be defer'd for one moment. As foone 
therefore as God (hail require us to correft our lives, and to 
be converted/o (bone ought this duty to be perforrrAi;be- 
(ides this, no (ubjeft can keepe and receive atheife, and mur- 
derer , or a publikc enemy,agalnft the will of the magiftrate, 
but he (hall be guilty of a hainous crime. Now finne is a 
theife , a m«rderer 3 and an enemy to Gods glory. Whofoever 
therefore (hall keepe and nourift; finne againft Gods Will, 
although he determine to do it but for a certaine time 5 he 
thereupon doth bring upon himfelfe a very grievous guilt* 

a, Bccauie all delay oi Repentance incrcafeth hardnefle 
of heart, Hck. 4.7. It doth produce a cuftomeoffirning,^ 
and makes the worke of repentance to be harder and har- 
der h. 13.23. The reafon is,becaufe thereby cvill habits 
are more ftrengther/d and confirm'd, the underftanding 
becomes darker, £0.4. 1 8# The will growes moreobdurat, 
and addi&ed to finne, Heb. 4. 7. AH the faculties are more 
bound, and tied, as it were with chaines, and knots, /f#j 8. 
23. A yong plant is more eafilypluckt up then that which 
hath taken decpe rootc» A nayle the oftner it is beaten with 
a hammer the more firmly it is faftned , and the more hardly 

J. Bccaufe continuance in finne doth increafe the num- 
ber of finnes,cur guilt, and the wrath of God, Pfal.9^.10. 
1 1. For that finne which by repentance is not taken away, 


Of Confcience. 

hath through its owne naturall inclination , the curfr 
of God fomcthing in it like to tht which in Cods things 
proceed from Gods blcfling, ihumMwcrcafetbsndmulti* 
plies y and it dotb,with its ownc waightrfraw unto other fins, 
even as the deepe is (aid to call unto the deepe. 

4. Becaufc the duration of our life is altogether uncer- 
taine, Iaw.<\. 13, 14, Delay breeds danger. Thou focle this 
night Jball thy foule be required of thee and then where will 
that converfion be 5 which thou haft defer'd ? when therefore 
we hays opportunity ,bt us fet upon this bufinefle. 

5. Becaufe repentance isthegifc of God, which he be- 
ftowes at his owne appointed times,not at our pleafure,i Tim. 
2.25. 2 fir \i.i. Luke 13.9, We muft therefore let flip no 
occaiioii , but convert to day j And it is jufl with God that 
( if we negleft our duty , in this point f and refufe to fall to 
it* while we may) through his judgement and leaving 5 and 
forfaking of us , we fbould not be able to do it , when wee 

} would. 

6, Becaufe the purpote of deferring repentance cannot 
ftand with a finccre purpofc to repent, I Peter 4. 3. It is a 
point of diflioncfty 5 and fraud, and afigneofadebtorthac 
never meanes to pay what he owes 9 when amanbecsufehce 
is not minded to pay 3 defers : and puts it of,from one day unto 

7. Becaufe late repentance is very feldome true, and almoft 

~*lwayes fufpition*. The example of the theife which we 

readj of in the Scriptures is onelyone, neither yet do wc 

reade of him, or of any other that was afterward converted 

that did defer and put off his repentance. Yea,thec!eane con- 

\ ~ary is threatned to fucha man,3/*if. 24.48. 

L 3. Becaufc though we could be certaine that we might 

afterwards repent truly, yet it were a bafe and unworthy 

part to deale fo with God 9 as it isnotfitwefhoulddeale 

wkhmen,2>r. 19.13,-R?.^ 28. And as we would be loath 

God fhould deale with u s > P J £i3.2.8.& Qm4fc 

9. Such kind of delayes tray be conviaced of folly , and 
of madnefTe , even by common fenfe, and experience 3 for all 
men would account him for a bedlam D that fhould when his 
houfe were onfire, defer the quenching of it, though but for 


The fecond Book? 

one hourc. Or that having received (bmc ooyfbn into his 
body,(hon!d not indeavour inftantly to cxpell k;or the have- 
ing received fome grcivous wound , (hould not with all po£- 
fiblc (pee4 fcekc for remedy. But in negle&ing the burning, 
the poyfon 5 and death of fin , as there is more danger fo the 
folly is much more pernicious. 

Chap. 4. 

Uw the [inner ought to prepare himfelfe 
to converjion. 

QVefi% 3. What ought a man to do, that he may be trans- 
lated out of a (late of fin, into the ftate of grace ? 
u4*/Ofthofe things which arc neccflarily required to this 
purpofe % fome pertame to the pulling a man out of the ftate. 
of finne, and fome to the fetting him in the ftate ot grace, 
Thofe things which pertaine to the pulling a man out of the. 
ftateoffinnc, are fuch as feme to (hake a man out of that 
carnall fecurity, in which he flept before, and to worke in 
him a carefulncfle of bis falvat ion above all things elfe AQ.%. 
37. &16. 33. That this may be done, many things are ie« 
cedar y. 

!• For it 3s firft oftll requircd 5 that a man ferioufly lookj 
Into the Law of God, and make an examination ot his likj 
fnd ftate according to I. lam. 1 . 2 3, 24 25 . 

2, It is required 3 fecondly that upon that comparing of our 
(Utewith Gods Law a there do follow a convi&ionofCon- 
fcienrcwHch in Scripture is c%llM**«**o>/*a being without 
excu(e,2?ror»i» 20. And a concluding one under fin, Rom A 1 i, 
$i*Rom*t*20 &7-7» 

3»Third!y,aftcr this conviftion of Gonfcience 5 there muft 
follow, adefpareof falvation* bothinrefpcft 5 ofallftrength 
of our ownc 5 and of any hclpe which is to be had from the 
Crcaturcs,R(?^7. 9. 1 1. 1 j. 

4. Fourthly > after all thefe 5 there muft follow, a true 
humiliation of heart, which confifts in griefe and feare be- 
caufc of fin, and doth bring forth confeflion, R4nt.$* 12. ^ 


Of Confcicnc*. y 

5 . For the procuring of this humiliation, it Is alwayes ne- 
c^ffary that there be a diftinft confideration of fome parti* 
cularfinnes : foragenerall apprehenhon offinne, caufetha 
confuted aftoniflament, but no right and true humiliation* 

6. This humiliation is oftentimes occafioned bythefight 
ofiomeonelm, ^#.2.23*37. 

7.1c is helped forward oft times by (bme heavy affli&ion, as 
in A/Anaff:s,2 £%'0«33«i2.The degrees of this humiliation are 
not the fa a e in all that be converted : for fome fecle greater 
trouble, and fome lefle. But all thofe that are truely converted 
are aifo truly humblcd.So put a man in t he ftatc ot grace, it is 
required, that there be i.Suchanapprehenfion^upon theGof- 
pell aswhereby a man judgcth it pofllble that hisfinnes flbould 
be forgiven,#wtf.i 2.23. P/i. 130.4. 2 An eirneft defire to ob- 
taine that mercy , which in Scripture is called a fpirituall 
hunger, orthirft, jE/i.55.1. Iohnq*\*]. Luke 1.53, 3 An 
a&a 11 union with Chrift, which coniifts in Faith, that is 
wrought in us by cffs&uall vocation, Iohn\^\. 4. True re- 
pentance , whereby forfaking all (in , we give up and con- 
fecrate our fclvcs wholy to God in Chrift , tARs t. 38. 

Chap. 5. 

Of the effetltiAU Vocation. 

BY effeftuall vocation, we have the fifft entrance into the 
ftateot faving grace j But here (in generally arife foure 
queftions, which doe necrely belong to Confcitwce > The 
firft queftion is, whether he that hath Faith , may by ordina- 
ry means certainly know,that he is effe&ually called of God 
and in the ftate of grace ? 

Anf. He that hath Faith, may, and is wont to know T jj C Faithful*] 
certainly that he is iu the ftate of grace. Divers reafons of thi6 may be certainj 
aflertion, (befides thofe which before were, delivered in the of their rcct-j 
queftions of the (iate of man in gencrall) may be produced. t10 * 
1. It is the office and the worke of the (pint of God which 

B the 

ic thefecOndBookg 

the faithfull have received, to certify and aflfure them of thofc 
things which God of his free grace hath conferd upon them, 

I Cor. 2.1 2. Re.S, I 5. 

2.The faithfull are commanded to make their calling and 
eleftiop fure, neither is this a legall precept but an evangeli- 
cally Per.1.10. 

3. That grace which we have received hath the nature and 
force of an earned 5 in refptft of that inheritance which is 
promifedto«s 5 gf.i.i^ & 4.^0. i^r.13.14. 2 Cor.i 21 • 
%2. For afmuch therefore as it ferves forthcafTuringusof 
the certainc of fomething which is to come 5 it ought not ic 
felfe to be uncercaine : for no certainty can be grounded upon 
an uncertainty. 

4. A certainc knowledge of the grace of God is required, 
as a neaffary foundation for that joy and thankfulneflie 
which God requires of us, in regard ot that grace, 1 Peter 

Jt Oft 0* 

%. A Confidence purged from dead works doth neceffarily 
bring with ic a certainc knowledge of grace, Heb. 1 0.2O.Kcm. 
8.16.& $>.2. 

6. The faithfull are exprtfly faid to have had this affu- 
rance 5 and that by fuch arguments as are common to all be- 
lievers^ CV.13.5. 1 /<?/?» 3. 14. & 4.16. &. 5. 20. 

The fecond queftion is by what ugnes the certainty of this 
eff^&uall vocation 3 and grace may be confirmed. 

7. Jxf.The firft figne is, a confhnt inclination of the will e 
towards God, as towards the chief e goo J.> Pfa/.ng.sj.For 
there is no man that can indeed place his chiefeft good in the 
in joying God D but fach a one as is called by God out of the 
world , and converted from his idoils 3 which before he had 
fetup to himfelfein his heart. 

8, The fecond figne is a purpofe, and readinefle of mind ' 
to hearken unto God in everything, 1 Sam.^AQtABsg.6. 
P/rf.40.8, ?.For in Co doing a man anfwers to the call of God* 
and becomes caWd Pf.2 7. 8. 

p. The third figne is, a vehement longing after the word 
of God.i Pet. 2. 2. For by this word the faithfull arc call'd, 
and regenerated, 1 Pet. 1. 23. 

fO.Thc fourth figne is a fiagular love towards them which 


Of Confcience, It 

arc borne of the fame feed, and bloud, I tohn 3. 14. 

The third Qveft.i*, what a roan ought to do that he may be The duties of 
partaker of this gi\ace * * m * n cM%<i t0 

11. ^/.Although God ofhisunfpeakable Grace be often h- s ^ c Jj^ 
times found of them that fcekc not after him , yet there be to J| ake j^-^ 
diverfe duties, which ly upon a man about his vocation, and unto himfelfc. 
which both ought, and are wont ordinarily to be performed 
before the certainty of this grace can be gotten. 

12. He therefore that defires to apply himfelfe to Gods 
Call ought to fettle in his mind an eitimation of the Word of 
God, above all riches, Pfal. 1 1$. 14. Thereafonis,becatifca 
man will never feeke the Kingdome of God to purpofe , un- 
leffe he efteeme it fo highly that he judge all other things to 
befetafterit 3 ^/^MO,37.Z«^f 14. 26. 

13. Secondly , hee ought toimploy his greatsftcare la- 
bour and induftry,about this bufineflTe, Iohn 6. 27. Pr*. 2.4.8c 
S.ver* Thereafoni3 becaufetherecanbenoferious, andfo* 
lid eftimation of a thing^w here there is not an anfwerable in- 
deavorto obtain? it. 

14. Thirdly , he ought with all diligence, care, and con- 
ftancy,to apply himfelfctotheufe of all thole meanes which 
God hath fan&ifyed for the communicating of hi* grace. 
Tro. 8.34. The reafon is,becaufc God only who is the author 
of grace, can appoint meanes , and make them effe&nall. 
He ought therefore to imitate thofe fick perfons which lay at 
thepooleof Hethefda, waiting for the moving of the water, 

/ff&fl 5*3-4 7 # 

1 5.Fourthly,he ought to bring himfelfe to that paflethat 
he may (ell all that he hath to bay this pearlcpr.23.2 $.Mat. 
13.45,46. Foralthough God doth freely beftowlifeupcji 
us,and receive nothing at our hands in liew of it , Efa% 5 5';4. 
2. Yet we ought to forfake all unlawfull things aftually , and 
all externall and naturall goods aifo, in the purpofe, and dif- 
pofition of our minds, elfc we cannot obtainethe grace of 

The fourth Queftion is by what motives a man may be 
ftirdup to embrace the call of God. 

i6.Anfwer,firft if he do ferioufly, and much confider with 
him(elfe,who it is that calls him: for it is an omnipotent God 

B 2 ca 

17 The Second B to ke 

to whom vrt ought to hearken and give eare ; although we 
(honldnot know what the eventwouldbe,fckivi!.8. 

i7.Secondly, if he do confider attentively often what ic 
is to which God calls him : For it is no (mall matter, or light 
ching^buteveneternalihappineflTcj and glory, I Pff.5.10. 

i8.Thirdly,if he do alfo waigh what that is out of which he 
is call'd : For he is perfwarted to forfakc nothing, befides fin, 
and death, ABs 26.1 % y L^ 3-7- 

ip.Fourthly, if he doe alfo confider what thecatife is that 
moves God to call him 5 which he (hall finde to be nothing 
elfe but Gods incomprcheofible mercy towards his enemy. 
Rcm&.io.z 0.5.10. He muft have a heart of Iron 3 that is 
not moved with fuch gocdnefle as this 3 as we may fee by Saul^ 

1 S4ztf.24.i7.1p. 

ato. Fiftly, if hee doe humbly compare himfelfe with 
others 5 to whom thisgrace of vocation is denied. 1 Qor%\.i6. 

2l.Sixtly, if he doe call to mind how hainous ancffenfe 
it is to negleft this call of God D much more to defpife it, Mat. 
22. 7.8. £#.4 24. 

2 a*SeventhIy,if he do alfo confider of that miftry , which 
he doth by the Law of equity bring upon himfelfe by this 
fia,Pnr»i. 14— 32* 

Chap. 6. 

Qf faith 

THe workeof eftfcftull vocation , h to workc in man a true 
FairhinChrift, and repentance towards God. 

Concerning Faith , the firtt qucftion is what a man is 
to doe that he may obtaine true Faich in Ghrift. 

i< Atf. Befides thofe things which were propounded be- 
fore, it U further required, I. that a man do go altogether 
oat of himfelfe, renouncing his owne righceottfneflcvRtfwr. 10. 
frPbiI.5.9. The reafon is becaufe no man will fcekerighte- 
oufhescxicofhimielfe by Faith, uolefle he do firft acknow- 
ledge himfcife to be deftitute of all righteoufnefle in himfelfe. 

2. Se- 

Of Confcknce 13 

2. Secondly , hee ought to propound unto himfelfe the 
rightcou(hcfleofChnft,as his chiefeft aime,and fcope.fo that 
he doth contemns Jill things in refpeft of that, Vhtl. 3. 9.1 2. 
The rcafon is, becaufe Chrift is never fought as he ought to 
be 3 unltflchebe preferr'd before all things elfe, as the onely 
meanes of eternall falvatioiv 

3. Thirdly,he ought to faften the eyes of his mind, upon 
the promifes of the Gofpell ; For the Gofpell is the Miniftry 
of the fpirit of righteouineffeandoflife, 2 CV.3. 6. 8. the 
reafon is,becaufe Chrift is neither offk'd of God, nor can 
be apprehended by man, but onely in the promifes of the 

4.N0W in faftning our eyes upon the promifes of the Gof* 
fpell, we muft confider fir ft, that Chrift onely is propoun- 
ded in them, and that crucifyed, 1 CV.i. 23,54. & 3.2. 2. 
Secondly, that in Chrift there is a per fed efficiency of re- 
demption, and&lvation, provided for them thatbeinhim^ 
Ioh*$.\6. Whence alfo in Scripture it is cah'd a rich, and 
flenteouty abun<Unt^ and flentifull gracc 9 Ep.l.6.y^2^Rom m 
?.io. i.Tim.1.14. Thirdly , that this graceis particularly 
offer'dtoallthofetowhomitisprcacht, Mark* 16.13. 

The fecond queftion is by what motives a man may be 
ftirr'd up to believe in Chrift. 

5.ax/^Firft,if he confider that this is the Commandment Motives t* 

>of God, that he doe believe in Chrift, ilohn 3 23.becondly t F*"h. 

if he meditate of that mifery , to which all thofe.are fubje<Sk 

which believe not, lohn 13. 18* 

6. Thirdly , if he do meditate of the happineflc ofthofe 
which do truly believe, 1 John 3. 1 <5. 

7. Fourthly , if hee confider that ther* is no other way 
1 whereby hee can efcape that mifery, or obtaine that happi- 
neflc but onely by Faith in Chrift, Afts 4. 1 i.Hcb. n.6. 

8. Fifthly ,ifhe doe confider the iruiry which is offcr'd to 
God by the man that believes nor, 1 lohn $.10. 

9« Sixdy, if he waigh with himfelfe how much they do 

v honour God,which believe in him, Kar.^io.hbn 3.33. 

10. Seventhly , if he looke u^on the cloud of examples, 

which hehatbof thoie which have believed and have beenc 

j fevedby Faith, Hth 12, 1. For they were ior patterns to 

B 3 them 1 

™ The faond B#ok$ 

them which (hould afterward believe, i Tim. u 16. 
The third Qacftion is by what figncs Crae Faith may be 

difccrnd ? 

Anf. Faithinrefpefloftheadiun&s, maybe diftioguifibt 

into a ficfc Fait h and a lively. 
A lin«iifliing i *• A fickly Faith is that which is opprefled and hin- 
Ruth, dred fo by temptation?, and corruptions , that it cannot puc 

forth it felfe in t^ofc Fruits, which bring to the Confcience 

the fenfe of peace, delight and joy , Ep .4* 30. an example 

heicofwehavein£>4t^, Pf. 51.14. 
A lively Faith. i2# A lively Faith is that which doth t freely exereife its 

a&s fo that it is felt of the believer himfelfe with a greatdeale 

oicomfort,i Pet.\. 8. 

13. Faith alfo in regard of the degrees is diftingui/ht into 
a weake and ftrong Faith. 

14. A weake Faith is that which is eafily hindred in its 
cour(e,#0. 1 4. i.Ga.6. iJc is called in Scripture iviywu*. little 

A ftrong 1 5 # ^ ^ r °ng Faith is that which overcomes all difficulties 

Faith- & proceeds freely in its eourfc,it is calM isSccipture ***&*&* 

a full per{wa(ion 5 Rom 4.24. Luks 1.1. 1 Theft, u 5. CV.2. t. 
16 . A lively and ftrong Faith is eafily manifeft and known 
to them in whom it is, firft becaufe they have theteftimony 
thereof in themfclves, ifrhnf. ic. viz. the Spirit ofGod 
bearing- wicnefle with their fpirit that they ar the children. 
oi God> Kom.S.i6. Which fpirit they have as theearneft 
of their inheritance,! Ep. 1 J. 14- and by it they are feald till 
the day of redemption, Ep.+.$o. % They have the Love of 
God Ihed abroad in their hearts by the fame fpirit, Kotn. 5. 
5 Whe eupon it is that they have peace, and joy unfpeake- 
abfe,and full of glory, 1 Ttt.i.S.i.Rm.^.i.i. 3 Theyhave< 
and bring forth thofe Fruits, whereby true Faith is wont to 
fc- ;:;an'.iefted 9 and perfe&ed, Gal.2. 18. Cjal.^6. 
17* A languifhicg, and weake Faith may be difcernd to 
The fignes of be true,and (incere,principaUy by thefeno'.es. 

:te F rft , if there be a fincere defire of Union, aud Commu- 

nion with Chri ft, 2Cor.B i2Thisdefireisdiftingu:ftttfrcHB 
that which may be tcund in the u r regenerate, 1. becaufe it 
h hot a conditional! dtfuc , or a kinde of wiftung a which 


Of Confcitnce. V$ 

even many tricked men have after thefc fpiritaall good 
things, if they might alio enjoy and ftillkeepe their finnes, 
butitisanabfoluce choile, Hel.iU2<). 2 Becaufe it fsnet 
caried after thefe fpirituall things, oncly as beneficiall unto a 
mans felte, but as fimply 3 and in themfelves good, and things 
fortbeiroweefaketobedefircdofall, T/a/ 73.25 &4?. 3. 
3 Becaufe it is caried after all choife that is as well aiter th« 
lan&ification, as after the juftification and redemption 
which are in him, 1 CVm.30. 4 Becaufe fach a man more 
eftcemes of Chrift then of all things elfe, 1 Pet.t.6. 5 There 
is alwayes joynd with this defirc, a fenft of finne, and a fed- 
ous forrow for k^Mat.n.iS. 6 This defire is not vani/hing 3 
and ficklejbutconftant^^iS.it 7 hU not flo t hfall bu t -in- 
duftriou%Pr^ ll 2i.& 26.15. 

18. The fincerity of Faith appearesalfo, if it hath been, 
begotten 3 and is preferved and ftirred up by the powerfull Mi- 
nistry of the Word, R tn.ic. 14. Whereupon it comesto 
paflc 9 that a man is affe&ed towards the Word 3 as towards 
fpirituall Food , 1 Tet. 2.2. The reafon is becaufe fuch a'kfod 
of defire being a motion of fpirituall Life 3 muft needs prcfup- 
pofe life it felfe which confifteth in Faith ; for carnal! 
preemption both confiftcth without the Mlniftry of the 
Word, andcanbynomeanesindarethe eflPeftuallapplica- 
tton,and fetting home of thofe things which belong to the 
power of godlineffe, 2 Tiir.^* 3. But Faith cleaves unto the 
word as its principal! and foundation. 

1 p. The 6ncer!ty of Faith appearea in the thirdplace from 
hence, that although it fceke juftification in Chrift , yet it 
embraceth,wkh a fincere affent, and fubje&ion of heart, the 
whole Word of God, th?.t Is every precept, prohibition and 
threatning, which comes from God, PfaLup.6* lam.!. io> 
1 i^Herod did afflnt unto many things D C%*r/^- 6.20. The rea* 
fon is becaufe Faith doth unite a mans heart to God, and 
deliver it, up unto him 3 (imply without any exeception. 

20. Fourthly ,it appeares by this, becaufe as touching the 
purpoftof the minde, and his uttermoft indeavor» it purifyes 
a mans heart from ailfinne, &43s 1 5.^/^^.5.7, T he rea- 
fon is becaufe Faith doth principally, and fingularly feekein 
God the utter abolition or fin. 

*2i # Fffo 

l5 The Second Book* 

21 ? Fifthly,! t appeares by this, that it ftirs up in the heart 
afi tcreaffctticnof love towards God , whereby it comes 
tupaflTe , that we prefer the glory of Gods Name above all 
things elfe 5 I lohn^x^. Henceitistbatchefaithfullin the 
Scripture* arc wont to be defcribed by this property of their 
love towards God>Rom. 8. 28. I Gc. 16.22. £/>.d. 23,24. The 
reafon is 3 becaufe they place and apprehend their chicle good 
in God. 

22. Sixtly 5 it appeares by that fincere love which it works 
in a mans heart towards his fellow Brethren, 1 Iehn$. 14, 
Sc 5. i.Thc reafon is becaufe the Image of God appeares in 

Chap. 7. 

Of thofe temptations which fight againft 

I Ecaufe the whole fpirituall life of a man doth depend 
>jpon his FaitbjH^.i 0.38. And by Faith as by a (heild, 
amanispreferv'd f a *c againtt all the temptations of the De- 
vill, the World and the Flefti, £p.6.i& 1 Pet. 5.9 . Heb. 1 1. 
25. Therefore it is that thefe three enemies doe bend their 
forces principally againft Faith. It will be profitable there- 
fore to be acquainted with the principle afTaults in this kind, 
as alfo with thofe means whereby through the grace of God, 
we may repcll them, that they do not overmuch weaken our 
Of the want The firft Qucftion then is, how the believer may (iipport 
ofthefenfe ofhi m (elfe againft thofc temptations, which arc drawncfrom 
pMC# henccjthat there arc no notable Fruits of his Faith to be feenc 

and difcert/d. 

uufnf. firft he ought to confiderthat Faith in its owne 
nature is of thofe things which are not feene or felt, Heh 2 1. 
1 .And in this it differs from vifion^^m.8.24. 1 Cor. pj.il. 
And therefore there is no more required to the being of Faith 
but that man do with his whole heart makt choiie of Chrift 
for his Saviour 5 and with his whole heart adhere unto him. 
Ocher things belong to the veil being of Faith* not abfolutcl y 
#0 the being of U 9 fcLi t y. 2 Sc* 


Of Confcience. * 7 

2. Secondly, he ought to confider a that the tvant of many 
fr aits may argue Faith to be Iangnifhing,or weake.but it can- 
no? argue that thcreis no Faith, 2 Pct.i.%. 

3. Thirdly, he ought to consider that the Confcience is 
often fnpported much by the remembrance of what is paft, 
though for the pretent grace appearc not, Pftl. 77. 6. 7. 1 2* 
And by the judgements of others that are godly, and wife 
concerning us, when our own judgement is croabled, Heir. 
6.9. 2 Cor.2.*j.$. 

The fecond Queftionis , how a man may (upport himfelfe Of thefenfeof 
againft thofe temptations which are drawne from hence, that ^jc wrath of 
he feels upon him the fignes of the Wrath of God > God# 

4. Anf.Yiv&y heoughttoconfidler, that many fignes of 
Gods wrath may ftacd with his love and favour. Pfal. 99. 8. 

5. Secondly ^ he ought to remember that Chrift himfelfe 
who was the Sonne of Gods love , did taft the wrath of God 
in this fort, Mat. 27. 46* 

6. Thirdly, he ought to confidcr that it is required of the 
Faithfuil that they believe againft hope under hope , Rom. 4. 
1 j. And that they do , and they wraftle as it were with God, 
by Faith 5 (7^.^2.24.H^.i2.4. 5. 

The third Qoeftion is how hee may hold up his head a- Of the want of 
gainftthofc temptations, which arife from hence , that his g f owthand 
Faith increafeth not, Rom.u i 7 . PSh * 

7. AnfMt ought to confiderfirft that it is with Faith, ask 
is with plants and living Creatures, which wee may more 
eafily perceive to have growne, then to grow. Secondly, that 
the increafe of Faith is not to be expe&ed at every moment, 
and at all (eafons of our life, Heb % 5. 12. But then cfpeci- 
ally when the Sun of righteoufhefTe approacheth nearer to 
our Horizon , by a mote mercifull communication of his 
grace, Attsy.^u 2 Pet.i.t,}. Thirdly, that thofe tempta- 
tions which do hinder the increafe of Faith for the pre- 
fent do advantage it for the future, like the winter to the 
Plants , and like diverfe fieknefles to the bodies of young 

Fourth Ghieftion is how a man may comfort himfelfe a- 
gainft thofe terrors which arife from the guilt of his fins, es- 
pecially if they be grecvous ? 

C %.Anf. 

x g The fecond Books 

8.y4tf/.He ought to remember, i. That fuch temptations 
as thefe 9 do proceed from a defeft in Faith , Rem. 6* 1 1. Ep. 
6. id- I P^5.9-And therefore that we are not tocaftaway 
our Faith becaufe of fuch fins, but rather fo much the mere 
to Strengthen it 3 £tf»22. 32 . 

9, He ought fecondly to confider that it is the duty of the 
faithfull not for finne to fly away from God , but rather for 
God to fly away from finne^and to adhere to God in Chrift, 
that finne may be remitted , ancj aboliftit , hhn 3. 14. With 

Num.2 5. 19. 

The fifth Quefi. is howaGhriftian may fuftainehinikife 

10. AnfMe ought to confider 5 1. That fiich kind of tryalls 
are fruits of Gods love, Heb.ii.6. 2 They (hall worke for 
his good,#£/».8.28. 3 The grace of God in all thefe ought 
to be fuffieient to him, 2 Cor.i 2 9. But of afflictions more 

Chap- 8. 

Of Repentance. 

Concerning Repentance the firft Queflion is, what a man 
is to doe that he may repent > 
i.Anf Heought,i. attentively and fcrioufly to confider' 
his finnes, according to that nature which is moft detettible, 
Efa. it 4. tsfpoc^.iy. Forastheconfiderationof finne un- 
der Tome falfe thape as a thing lovely , anddefirable, doth 
draw a man to finne : fo the true consideration of 
finne, as a thing abominable , and by $li rueanes to bee 
efchew'd 9 doth withdraw the minde from finne by trueUe- ( ' 
pentance. To let on this consideration it will be profitable, 
1. To meditate upon the Ma jefty of God , which is by 
our finnes moft grievoufly offended. 2. Weigh well the in- 
finite and manifold obligations whereby wee are bound to 
pleafe God 5 which yet we have not ceaft wickedly to vio- 
late. 3.Tothinke upon the terrible wrath of God, which 
like a confuming fire, remaines upon impenitent finnersc 


Of Conference. *9 

4. To fet before our eyes , thole fupernaturall good things 
of which our finnes deprive us. 5« To call totninde thofe 
great evills which by ©ur finnes we bring u on our (elves, 
and other s.a.nd the diftionor which wc do toGod. And to this 
purpofe it will be exceeding profitable rcligioufly to medi- 
tate upon the unfufferable torments, death , and curfe which 
befell Chrift for our fins 

- 2. He ought , 2. to let before his eyes. Obedience to- 
wards God 3 as a thing abfolutly to be fought, necefTarily 
to be followed after, Luke 13.3 & 10. 42. fhey which are 
caried after any other thing 3 as abfolutely neceffary, are by 
that very affeftion by which they are fo caried, drown'd in 
perdition. 1 Tim.6*9* 

3. He ought, 3. to confefle his finnes before God, \Uhn 
1. 9. Pfal^t.^Sc $1.5. Forconfeffionoffinnemakesaman 
take all the guilt , and feame unto himfelfe , and afcribe ail 
the glory to God , Daniel 9. 

4. He ought, 4. by Faith in Chrift to expeft, and pray 
for the change of his heart according to that promife which 
we have, £^.36.26.32. For thofe which go about the workc 
of converlion leaning upon their owne ftrength, do no* 
thing to the purpofe in this bufinefle,2 CV.3.5, 

5. He ought, 5. in the power of God, toturne himfelfe 
with all his heart from that which is evill, and to convert 

■„ himfelfe to that which is good in the fight of God, Pfalmt 
34. 15. Now turning from evill , confifts primarily in the 
hatred of evill , ?f*L\s&. Which hatred in refpeft of thofe 
finnes which are paft, doth neceflarily bring forth an un- 
feigned forrow, Zack.i 3.io.Together with a (hame, and difc 
like, Rom* 6. 21. And converfion to good, doth pri- 
marily confift,in a defirc, and purpofe to doe wdl 9 Pjiilme 
119. 33. 106. 

The (econd Qnefiion is , by what motives a man may be 
ftir'd tip to true repentance V 

6.A«fil<et him confider, 1. That this repentance is a thing 
very plcafingto God, Pfal. 51,19. The force of the argu- 
ment lies here, becaufe he which hath given himfelfe hd to 
God by Faith, cannot but indeavour after all thofe things, 

r by which God is weJIpleafed. 2. That it is abfolutely ne- 

C 2 ccflary 

2® The Second Btokg 

ncceffrry to falvation, Luke i^. The reafon of thecon- 
fequence lies here, beewfe he which defires the end, defires 
alfothofe means, which heefees to have a nectffary con- 
nexion with that end, 3* That finne is the caufe of our re- 
paration from God, Sfa.^c.2. This reafon holds becaufe the 
believer by his Faith doth adhere to God, and therefore 
turn-es away from all thofe things which worke a reparation 
twixc God, andhirn, 4. That there is an utter oppofition 
betwixt finne , and out vocation and Faith and Life, 2 Qor+ 
£•15,16. 1 TArjf.4.7. 1. The argument is ftrong becaufe he 
which affirmes one of the contraries denies the other, 5. That 
the mercies of God toward* him , C^y all which he is lead 
unto repentance ) are exceeding great, fi^^.2.4.5. ^r.84. 
5^12. 6. That Chrift fuffered molt grkvoas anguifh for our 
fins, Zac. 12. 12. By which we may learne how horrible, 
they be 3 and how much to be detefted, 7. Thatimpeniten- 
cy in it felfe is the raoft grievous finne D and that it is the con- 
tinuation.thefealingup, and the amplification of ali finnes 
befides D 8. That there are great promiGs made, and that the 
Kingdom of Heaven ftands open to all iuch as repent, £fa. 1 • 
18. 1 Kings 8.48 49,50. 
nes of Re- The third Qxetiien is , what bee the fignes of true Re- 
pentance ? 

7. tsj'nfwer, FirO agriefefor fin in ref^ed of the offence 
done to God by them, andnotcnely in xdptEt of punifti- 
ment; the reafon is becaufe repentance doth turne a man 
from finne as it is finne , now it is finne as it doth tranfgrefTe 
the reveai'd will of God 3 and fo offendeth him , and pro- 
vokes him to anger. This griefe ought to be the greatest of all 
griefe, Zachm\2.io 9 n. At the leaft intelledlively, in regard 
of the difpleafedneffe of the will, although in re/ped of the 
fenfe other griefes may fometimes appeare more vehement. ^ 
Gricfe,orfcrowisanoffenfeofthefoule, arifingfirorn hence 
thatitfuffereth fomething which it abhors as being a thing 
whereby it feels it (elfe to be feurt. Griefe therefore for 
finne doth neceflarily accompany true converfion, for the 
mind while it converts itfelfefrorn finne 3 beginneth toniil 
finne,or tOabhorre it, It perceiving therefore that fbmewhat 
flicks to it which it doth abhorrexannot chufe but be troub-. 

led- ^ 


OfConfcience 21 

led* Andbccaufe the chiefc reafon why the converted foule 
dothabhorre finne, is that repugnancy which finne bath to 
the will of that God, to which the foule being converted is 
now joyned, hence it is, thatgriefe for finne if it be right 
arifcth rather from this ground 3 becaufe God is thereby 
offended, then becaufe any mifery is brought upon our 

8, Secondly, a hatred of iinne , as a thing above all others 
mofi deteftable, Apocal.2.6. This hatred if it be fincere, 1. Is 
caried againlt all knowne finnes without any exception, 2. It 
is cofiilanfc without intermifilon ,. 3. Ic is implacable 
without reconciliation , 4. Ic is vehement without tcle- 

9. A third figne is an earneft defile, and fefled pur- 

pofetoavoyd all finne, and to live after Gods Law for the 

future 1 The reafon is becaufe he ivhich doth detefi, and hate 

, finne, for this reafon becaufe it is linne, and offends Gods 

Majefty, will as well abhorre future finnes, as thole which 

, are paft , for thefe do every whit as much offend God as the 

other : and no man can avoid future finnes unlefleheedo 

purpofe and determine with himfelfe y as ftrongly as he can 

that he will never,, upon any condition commit iinne againe. 

This purpofe if it be fincere, 1. Doth catife a feparation as 

far as poffible may be from prefent finnes , and from occa- 

v fions of future finnes, 2. It intendeth every thing that it is 

good, 3, It feekes for it effectually in a diligent indeavour 

and ufe of the meanes,4;It carefully labours to remove all im* 

pediments as well internall, as externals 

The fourth Queftion is how a man can repent of fuch fins as Repentance 
he cannot come to the knowledge of? for fins un- 

io, AnCwer, He which formally and diftin&ly repents of known. 
all his knowne finnes j hathavirtuall, and confufed repen- 
tance even for thofe finnes which hceknoweth not, Tfalmc 

19- 1 3' 

The fifth Queftion is, whither it be fuScient for a man to of the conti- 

rcpent once ? nuation and 

x i, i4tf/.Firft,paft fhnes are not to be forgotten , Dent. 9. renovation of 
7. No not thofe which were committed in youth, Tfalme Repentance,- 
r 25,7. a.This remembrance of former finnes is profitable, 1. 

. G 3 to 

22 Thefecond Book? 

tto humble us, Dent* 9.6*7.* 2 To ftir up thankefulnefle to* 
jtwardsGod, 1 Tim. 1.12.& 3.10. 3TomakeuspitifulIand 
gentle to other finners, Titus 3. 2 . 3. But as oft as our firme s 
come tominde we ought to be affe&ed with fhame , and for- 
row for them, Gcn.41 9. £*. 16.61,63. l£V.i5<9Jtistrue 
that horrour which is wont at ones firft convcriion to ceize 
uponthefoule, returnes not to the faichfuli by the remem- 
brance of their old finnes , becaufe of the Mercy of God, 
which thorough Chrift they have obtained , but yet ftiame, 
and bluftiing is a thing that doth become Saints very well, 
Rcw.6. 21. So that it is made a note of a wicked man that 
hath not yet repented of his finnes if hee can thinke on 
them D and call them to minde with pleaftrc, Tob* 20. 1 2. 

12. Secondly, Repentance is to be renued dayly, as finnes 
are renued , 2 Tim. 1 ♦ 6. hr.%. 6. For as a Candle newly 
put out, and yet finoafeing/iskindledagaineandreviveth by . 
a fmall blaft , fo the foule is freed from ordinary ftraights 
and dangers by a feafonable , that is by a dayly renuing of 
Repentance. A member out of joy nt is to be fet as (bone as 
maybe. 3* After extraordinary finnes extraordinary repen- 
tance alfo is neceffary, TfaU 51. 1. 1 C 9T% ** 5* *• 2 Cor. -j. 

?»& 12.21. 

Chap. 9. 

Of Adoption* 

VPon Faith in Chrift followes juftification and adopti- 
tion , but becaufe juftification doth properly confift in 
relation therefore there is no peculiar thing about it that 
belongs to Confidence , befides thofe which either were 
fpoken ot before , in the Queftions about Faith, or are here- 
after to be fpoken of, amongft thofe things which belong to 
Sanftificadon.GlorificatioB^nd Obedience. 

If any one be certaine of his Faith in Chrift, and yet do 
doubt in Confidence whether he be ) jftificd before God, 
this happens through want of wifdome to infer the con-, 

clufion A 

Of Confchnce* 33 

clufion out of the premifts. Tkis defeft therefore is reme- 
died by a right information about the nature of purification. 
Forallthepromifesof the Gofpell concerning remiffionof 
finnes 3 justification , and life eternally do as well belong to 
every particular believer, and may and ought as well to be 
apprehended, and applied by him unto him(elfe,as if his 
owne name were written in the Scriptures. Thereafon is, 
becaufe vvhatfoever is promifed to Faith , or to the faithfull 
in generally is promifed exprefly to all and every true believer 
in particular. 

There is the fame reafon for adoption alfo , fave onely 
that to this benefit 5 there is attributed as an ad Junft a cer- 
taine operation of the fpirit in refpeft whereof he is called 
the fpirit of adoption. For although it be the fame (pint, 
which doth, I. convince men of (inne> and of righteouf- 
nefle, and judgement, John i6.3. 2 Illuminate them with 
the faving knowledge of Chrift, 1 Corinthians i.io.i^Ep. 
I. 17. 18. 3 Ingraft them into Chriit 3 £p. 3. 6. & 4. 4. 
4. Quicken them being ingrafted, 2 Cor*^.6, 5.Leadthcm 
into all truth which is neceflary to (alvat ion 3 lohn 14*1 j.Sc 
16.13. Iohn 4 # i^.Yet becaufe adoption hath a primary place 
among thofe benefits which are feal'dtous by the holy fpi- 
rit^hence it is that he receivetha fingular denomination there 
from, and is cai'd the fpirit of adoption, Romans 8. 15. . 

Concerning this fpirit the firftQaeftion is, what a flvtotainetheftirii 
bought to do that hee mayobtaine the lively aft, aad fenfeof Adoption. 

i.Anf. Hee ought, 1. to give diligent attention to the 
preaching of the Gofpell, 2CV.3.6.8. The Minifters of the 
newteftament are calfd the Minifters of the fpirit,and the 
Miniftry thereof the Mioiftryofthe fpirit, becaufe by that 
meanesGod doth offer, and communicate his fpirit 5 Gal. 
3. 2. Tee have received the jpirit by the hearing of Faith , 

In whom jee alfo trufled after that jee heard the word of 
truth , the Gofpell of your falvatior^ in whew alf* after thatjee 
believed , yee were fe at d with the holy ffirit efpromife. 

2. He ought, 2. to beg this fpirit ot God, Lake 11,13X0/^ 
Heavenly Father will give the hcly ffciritto thtm that aske him. 


24 The Second Book? 

3.Heeought, 3. To open the dorcs of his heart that the 
ipirit may enter in, Pfal.2^.j. Apcc.$. 20, That is to call off 
his minde from earthly thing? and to raife it upwards and to 
prepare himlelfe, by all means to entertainc the motions of 
the fpirit. 
Signet of ^ e proper Queftion is , what be the figaes of the (pirit of 

Adoption. Adoption, 

4. Anf. The firft figne is a fpirit of Prayer,whereby we call 
upon God as a Father. ZachA2%io. Rm». 8.1 5,26. GaL^6. 
For no man can have a true filiall affc&ian coward, and 
confidence in God , but by communion of the (piric. 

Now this is in that regard proper in a fort to the time of 
the Gofpell, or new Teftament, becaufe God hath declared 
himfelfe principally, fitly ,and in a more excellent manner 
then formerly to be our Father. 

5. The fecond figne is an high eftimation of the dignity of 
Adoption, Ioh.%. it* ilob.^i For the fpirit doth not on- 
ly fealeunto us our Adoption , but doth alfo (hew us how 
greatableflingitis, and how much to be prifed. 

6. The third figne is the feare and honour of God, 1 Pet. u 
ij.'CMat. 1 .6. For true reverence followes upon an apprehen- 
fion of great love and kindneffe mixt with great power. 

7. The fourth figne is filiall obedience, 1 Pet.i. 14. Which 
proceeds not (b much from hope and reward, as from love 
anddefiretopleafeGod, Row. 8.14. For obedience fprin- 
geth from a religious reverence. 

8. The fifth figne is conformity to the Image of God our 
Father, andChriit our elder brother, -^^.5*48. Re$.2$. 
1 loh.y 9. For the Son is begotten after the fimilitudeand 
likenefle of his Father. 

9. Thefixth figne is afirme hope of theeternall inheritance 
R.0«8.J7.For the inheritance and the expectation thereof is 1 
proper to fome, not to peccants or ftrangers. 

Thethird Queftion is how the tcftimony of the fpirit may 
be preferved? 

S.^/.i.If weextinguifli and quench it not by contempt or 

ne ofJeft of the meanes of grace, 1 Thejf.^.i 9. 20.The reafon is, 

xife the word with the like means of grace are the force of 

tU .pirituall lite, by the ufe of which the fpirit is ftrength- 


ef Ccnfchnct* a * 

ned within cs , and in the want of which the fpirlt ift regard 
of its inhabitation failes in us, and is faid to be quenched. 

ii. 2. If we grieve it not by thefilthineffeot finne, Sph. 
4.30. Thereafon is becaufe as natural griefearifeth from 
theprefence, orreprefentationoffome repugnant, and un- 
welcome objeft, which is incumbent and prevailes again ft us, 
fo that fpirit is in a fort grieved by the prevailing offitfnej 
a thing to him moft odiou9 arid repughane. 

12. 3. If wee ftir it up by holy exercifes. 2. Ttosi.6. 
Thereafon is becaufe as fire in greene Woodburdes nb't but 
bythehelpof bellowcs and blowfng D fb neither dpth any 
fpirituall heate cbritinue in the hearts of firinferi * S&hlefle'dqfc 
meanes be uftd for the ftirring it up. 

Chap, ro- 
of StnBificatibn. 

Concerning Sanftification the firft queftioft is & #h*t* H - . 
man ought to doe that he may be fariftified t t ?™ c ^andi- 

1. Anf.Ht ought^ 1. wholy to fubmit himfelfe to the Word fication. 
of God. For the word of God is that truth which TanSifies 

lit* M 17.17. Ier*$u'tfl And it is effe&uill rpWorkefan- 
ftification 3 i. Becaufe ot that utter oppofitiori which it hath 
againft.finne 5 by reafon whereof it repdlsGnrieoutof the 
heart^bere it is feated, 2; Becaufe it h the powerfull in** 
ftrament of God to regenerate men 3 t. p<?M*23. 

2. He ought 2. By Faith to apply Chrift unto himfelfe, as 
in San&ifkation, iQbr.1,%0. Hee ought therefore, J. To 
fackasitwere hdlinefTe^utot Ghrift, chat is 3 Cxmfiderirfg 
thatChrift is the Foentalne of all fjuHtuall life and Sanctify- 
ing gt&cejoh.i. \6.GcL 1. 19. & 2.9.He ought to rely & put his 
confidence inChrift for the obtaining of San&ification.and to 
draw it ought of chat Fountain?, Efii.12. 3. He oqght, 2. T6 
provoke bimfd-fe uritait by the meditation of Chriff 3 that is., 
ferioufly Weighing and confidering the blefiings of God in 
Cbritt, he cught to ftir up himfelfe to fuch an endeavor after 
ur&ification as becomtth fuch benefits. 

D 3.N0W 

a $ ThefecdndBooki 

3. Nowbecaufe there are two parts of our Sa notification, 
namely mortification) whereby finne or the old man is put 
off, and v wipe ation^hsvtby g» ace or the new man is put on, 
T.fh.^i 2.34. QoU 3. 8. 10. Therefore there are two parts of 
the application otic tor Smftificatian., thefirtt is theappli* 
cation of his death, the fecund of his Refu rc&ion and life, 

4»The application o£the death of Chrift tp the mortifying 
sf iinne, is w hen Faith dot u cifc&ualiy col left this mortifi- 
Catlonof fin,from the deathof. Chrift J\.om.6* 1 1. 

$. By this application fin is (aid to bee crucified. Romans 
6A.G*L').7^. To be killed, Kpmaaj 6.a*-Andtobe burled, 

6. The Nailes whereby in this application finneis faftned 

totheCrofiTe, arethevery fame with thofe, whereby Chrift 

was taltned to the Crofle* For there is nothing more effeftu* 

all , then if one would cdnffdfer fcrioufly, 1. The nature and 

defert of his finnes. For he which ferioufly considers that his 

fins doe deferve, and will procure his death, and deftru&ion, 

he cannot but fecke by all meanes to prevent it, by the rn©r-* 

tification of finne ; for either finne, ortbefinnermuft needs 

die f R0W.8.13 . 2 The love and mercy of G jd tbexKather 

toward him a tinner , in fending Chrift to take away his fin. 

For the love of God will conftraine m to fteke that for our 

felves, which God foearnettly fought for us 5 1 fohn + iu 

3 The love of Jsfiis Chrift in undergoing, and fulfilling alt**"* 

things that were required for the taking away of our finnes* 

I*or this grace and love of Chrift, if it wbrke but upon us 

as it ought, will conftraine us to fet about this worke, 2 C or » 

5. 14, 15* Thofe were the very Nailes whereby Chrift was 

faftned to the Grofle,and not thofe materiall ones, which his 

murtherers did ufe for this purpofe. 

7. The application of the refurreftion and life of Chrift 
unto vivification, is when Faith doth effe&ually colleft this 
life of grace , from the refurreftion and life of Chrift. 
Rflfffc&n.Nowit iseffeftually collefted, by a meditation 
of the efficient caufc, and end, and fruits of the reftrredion 
of Chrift, Co/.$+ 1. The meditation of the efficient caufe 
affordeth this argument } If the faidfpirit which raifed up 


Of Confcitnce. 27 

Chrift: from the dead , dwellin me, it will alfo raifeup my 
foule from the death of finne , to the life ofgrace,^^?. 8.1 1, 
The meditation of theend^thisjAs Chrift was raifed up,that 
(inne might have no more dominion over him, but that he 
might for ever live to God f foalfomuft we, Rom.6.9.im. 
The meditation of the fruits yeilds this argument : As Chrift 
being raifed up dtteth at the right Hand of his Father in 
Heaven , fo ought we alfo to live ai Citizens of Heaven 3 TbiU 

J. 20. 

8 # He ought, 3. by a lively Faith, not onely to apprehend 
the generall promises of (alvation, but thofe particular ones 
aIfb,whichdoe in a lingular manner pertaine to fan&ification 
Ex.} 0.24. 

9» He ought', 4. To yeeld up himfelfe Wholly to the holy 
Ghoft 5 to be afted and led by him in all things.R^.8* c 3. 1 4, 

The fecond Queftion 5 by what motives may a man be ftir'rf Motives t<* 
up to labour for San&ifi cation * Salification.' 

10. Anf. Ifbeconfider, i.That without holineflenoman 
(hall fee God. Heb. 1 a. 1 4. Mat.f, 2 o. 2 That holinefle is the 
Image of God, and thatperfe&ion, wherein we were created 
at the beginning.E/^.4. 24. 3 That holinefle is the end of 
our ele&ion, redemption and vocation^ J5/>A.i 4. iTim.+y, 
Tit.2. 14. 1 Cor. 1.2* 4 That it is not the leaft part of glory 
andeternall bliffe. Eph.^17. 5 That there can be no true 
Faithor juftification>or adoption without (anftification,/^ 
2,26. tPet.l.lo. 1 CV.6.II. 

The third Queftion , what are the fignesof tniefanfti-Thefigncsof 
fication. San&ificat/on. 

*Anf. 1. A reformation of all the powers, and faculties of 
thewholeman, xTheff^.2^. 2 A refpeft to alltheCom- 
mandements of God, PfaU 1 i?.<5. Ja,mes 2.10. 3Aconftant 
care to avoid all finne, TV*. 28.14. 4 A walking before 
Go& % Gcn.ija.*AEls 24.16 .1 C0r.io.31.C9/-3.a3. 5 A com- 
bat betwixt the fle(h and the fpiric. 

D 2 Chap.11. 

2% Tkt StcondBoofe 

Chap. ii. 

Of the combatc of the Spirit ag*i»ft the Fie fa 

iVcftion % hpw m*y the combat of the fpirit agajnft the* 

Jdifla which fc in the regenerate, be diitinguiftit from that 
fighc \\\v,ch is ok tgRWi in the unregenerate when they 

Eiribyrfe^J; ThǤy4iffer in the caufc?. For, u the relu&a- 
tion whish is in the wicked proceeds either, from horrour* 
and a fl wifh feare of punifhment , or from fome evlii difpo- 
fition, which is eafily overcome , but the fpirituall combat 
arifech from, a cert^ine new nature , whjch of its owne ac- 
cord, U carried after thofe things which are pleafing to 
God, and doth firmly y and conftantly (hun, and nuke op- 
pofitioa againft whatsoever iscontrary 5 2. That fighc and 
reludation^ which is found in wicked m$n D takes place on- 
ly 3 in fuch groflfe finnes, as either arc condemned by the Law 
of nature jpr are wont to be abhop d by all (uchas aijein any 
fraali meafrre illuminated : but the fpirituall combat of 
the regen^e js^rcifed againft all fin, though it never come 
tobeperrc&edinany groffe crime. 

Secondly, 2. They differ in the objc<fls : For that fighc 
wjijch is found in the wicked,is either betwecne the di&ate of 
their Confc/cnce and the inclinif \qxi of the will* or between ^ 
fon^e light inclination of the will to fome morall gcoi 
things, and heady affe&ions which rule 3 and bearefway .- 
but that combau which is in the regenerate, confirtcthin 
theoppqfjtion aqd ftrife of a certaine new aad fupfcrnaturall 
quality of fpirituall life 5 which hath its feat principally in 
ths will, agaji nil corrupt inclinations, which dwell indeed ' 
within them 5 but beare no fway over them. 

Thirdly, 3. They differ in the effe&s. For 1. that fight 
which is in naturall men , may and is wont to confift with 
a dayly andordinary courfe of finning : But the combate 
©fthe fpifck, doth alwayescauft that (although there may 
be many flips 5 and infirmities) the courfe, and tenourofa 
asani life be fquared , and ordered according to the will of 


Of Conference 29 

God, ihhtf^fylo, 2!Tliitoppofitlon innatnrallrnen, al- 
though ic may Sometime be a caufe, why-fume good i? done 
by them , yet it cannot make a g^od principle, a good end, 
and a good manner of working t all which the combats of 
thefpiritagainft the fl~(h doth bring along with it, 3. The 
fightof natural! men, doth ordfmrify admit ffich anions 
as are for the (ubftancc of themevill : but the fpiritrfoth 
Co prevaile for the moftpart that it admits not a finne in the 
fa& it felfe although there may be a failing in the degree, 
s>!*d manner of doing, 4» Forthofe^vills which the* un rege- 
nerate man doth commit, this fight that is ^ithfn him hhr 
ders not, but that the dnne may bt*in ait refpefrs confumma- 
ted, in regard of the precedent confutation, anttpurpofe, 
the concomitant plea fare, and delight, and the following 
obftinaey afid* impertltency : butehfe'fpirit fey its combats 
with theflelhdoth abate tlWpower offinne, partly before 
the commiflTiOn, party in the commifflon, and doth afterward 
utterly breake it , 5. That refaction which is in natural! 
raeflfeefcesonely toreprefle, and kcepe finne under , but the 
f|)iriit in hscombate contends alwayes forthe very mortifica- 
tion' oBfean^the higheff perfeftton ofgrace, although be- 
fore death it be-not attainable. 

CH A P. IZ. 
Of growth in Santtification. 

THe fifth J&eftion is whether wee ought to content our 
felves with this, that wee have fome beginnings of Grn- 
dification > 

1. Anfw.No> there are two duties to be performed yet by 
u$i in either ofwhichifweebe negligent all our labour is 

2.The<u Is a care to keepe that holinefle we have, 1 Tim. 
1. 19. The reafon is becaufe that many have efcapt in fome 
degree the pollutions of the world^aed yet have beeneintan- 
gled therein and overcome, and fo the latter end hath beene 
worfe with them then their beginning, 2 Pet. 21. 22* 

D 3 3. Now 

3 o 

The fecond Booty 

3. Now wee dull hold faft our holinefle, 1. If wee be 
inindefuil of the Covenant which wee made with God, 
Job.^i.i* And of our redemption , 1 £V. 6.19. 20. 2 If we 
take diligent heed 3 that we never repent of any repentance, 
Ier^.it. That is if we be carcfull that we never fall in love 
with that fin which we have hated,or flight any duty which 
ourConfciences have approved 5 no not in thole things,wfiich 
the world counts imaliand as nothing. 

4. The 2. duty isaftudy, and care to increafe inholineffe, 
with the iacreafe ©f God, CV.2.19. 2. Veter 1.5. PhiU 1. 9. 
I 77;#4, 15% 

5 -The reafon is, 1. Becaufe fuch is the nature of grace that 
it alwayes ftirs up then in whom it is to an earneft defire of 
a larger fruition of it, iPet. 2. 2. 3. So that although that 
thirft which is a thirft of totall indigence or want be exclu- 
ded by grace, Iohn 4.14. Yet that which is for a more plenti- 
ful! fruition is no taken away butincreaft, 2. Becaufe as 
the vitall heat of our bodies doth never continue in one fiat*, 
but is either increasing , or decreasing alwaies* fo in this life 
of grace, unleffe we do give all dilligcncc that we may be 
on the growing hand s ft cannot be avoided but there will be a 
confumption through that oppofition which the (pirit meets 
with from the flcfti. 

6. NowwefhallmakeaprogreflTeinSanftification, U If 
we excrcife our feWcs dayly to a more perfeft denying of 
finne 3 and of the worldj ana of our felves 5 and to a more ear- * 
neft and fcrious fceking of God and his Kingdome., 2. If 
we have our end alwayes in our zye$,Pro.^.z |. 3 If we keep 
our hearts with all dilligence,Prtf.4.23 4 If we watch to the 
holy u(e of all thofe meanes which make to fan£ti6cation 3 anid 
jome earneft prayer with tbem. 

CHAP. 13. 

Of Confcience* 3 l 

Chap. 13. 

Of the firfi fruits of Glorification cmfifiinir in 
the Jenfe of Gods Love* 

AMongft the firft f ruhs of glory which are granted to 
the (aitbfull in this life, the apprehension and fenft of 
Gods Love is the chicfcft,for as the procurement of our falva- 
tionj hadirsbegining, and firft foundation, in the eleftion, 
and love of God , fo the beginning of the perceiving thereof 
isinthe perceiving of the fame love : , now concerning this 
love , the Sr(i Question is how a man may obtaine the appr#- 
henlion and fenfe of the love of God ? 

\.*s4nf. The proper caufe of thb apprehenfion is the holy How to obtain 
Ghoft, who (heds this love of God in the hearts of believers, the Senfeof 
Rom.5.%. That is 5 certifies them particularly that this love of Gods Lore. 
God is extended abundantly co'theou But yet there are ma- 
ny meanes whereby this wor£c is promoted 5 and whereby 
alfo beleevers come to bee rooted, and grounded in this 
love , Ef he fans 3. 1 8. The principle of them are thefe that 
f ollowt 

2.Firft,if thebeleever do apprehend that (God in regard of 
that relation wherein he ftands to him and the reft of the 
faithfull is mcercly love ) ilobn^.%. Forfothatphrafeis 
to be utidcrftood , not of God corifidered abfobtely , but in 
relatioji unto the faithfull, beeaufe all things which God 
doth 5 to and about beleevers, proceeds in fome fort from 
his k>ve,for the love of God is to be fought for, and to be con- 
fidered in the effefts thereof. 

3<Secondiy,if heconfider how admirable alhhecircum- • 

fiances be in the love of God, Iohn%.\6. 1 Inrefpeft of the 
perfon loving* For God who hath in himfelfe all good , all 
fofficiency , and perfeftion , that could receive no profit, ei - 
therby man.crby mans love and befides that was grievoufly 
offended with man , this God notwithstanding loveth man 

4. Secondly , in refpeft of the perfon beloved, For God 
hath loved man^that deferved no fuch thing from hioynan 
hisencmy,manumhanful],#^5»8. 5.Thfrd- 


3 2 The Second Bdokp 

5.ThirdIy 5 in refpeft of the gifts which are the fruits of 
this love* For God out of love h)th given man his owne 
Son, and in his fon himfelfe, I John 2.24.And with him all 
good thingSjX^w.8.32. 

6. Fourthly, in refpeft of the manner of the giving 5 which 
was out ofmeere and abundant grace, without mans requeft, 
and beyond his expeftation,R^w.io.20. 

■7. Fifthly , in refpeft of the continuance,£br this ic&eof 
God was from eternity, andftiall remaine immutably unto 
all eternity 3 Fp,i..4«^«3i*3« Tohn 13.1. 

8, The third meanes to promote the fcnfe of Gods love in 
tho heart of a belkveris for him to labour with all his might 
in t he ufc of tfaofe meanes which tend to thispurpofetoget 
a more plentiful! tafte of this love , Pfalmc 34. £♦ 1. 

The fecond Queflion is how a man may know that God 
loves him? 

9. Anf.i. If bete certaine that Chrifti* his, GjaLi.iQ. 
that is, if he be certaine that he hath a trne Faith in Chrift. 
ForChriftisthe Son of Gods love,by whom his love is de- 
rived unto others; ; r .5 

The figncs of 10.2. If he be certaine of his love to God, I John 4,1 0. 
Gods love to Pro&iy. 

lls * 11. 3-If he follow after righteoufne(fe 5 ?r(?.i5.9.For God 

cannot but love his own Image. 

12. 4. If the love of God do conftraine, anieflFeftually 
fUr him up, to all duties of piety towards God , and of love, 
and Juft ice towards tnen 3 1 Cor. 5. 14. ihhnq.u. 

A third Qucftion is 3 whether a man may not colleft the 
Love of God , from the common good things which he 
m beftpwes? 

1 3, An fa. All the benefits of God , of what fort feever 
they be 5 do bring with them an obligation , to love and o- 
bey that God which is the donor, but it is proper to fome 
of them to bring befides that 5 (olid and fpirituall com* 
fore to the receiver, by a demonflration of the lingular iove 
of God,, which is made by them. For nothing that is com- 
mon, can demonftratc any fpccKill love. Creation therefore, 
zd:\ prefervarion , and earthly and niturall good things 


Of Confcknce. 3$ 

cannot by themfelves be any fignes of a fupernaturali love, 
Eccltf.y.i. But yet tbefe common good things, when they 
are received by Faith 5 as given in Chrift, are (inicfpeftof 
the manner w herewith thty are then clothed ) proper to the 
iaithfull , and are fecuodary fignes of Gods love to them, 
<?/*/. 22.10,11, 12. for Faith maketh fuch a kinde of argu- 
ing as there the Pfalmift ufeth, to be of force, whereas with- 
cue Faith there could no fuch confluence be drawnefrom 

C H A P. 14. 

Of the hope of turttall life* 

FRom the apprehenfion,aRd fenfe of Gods love,folIowcs 
a confirmed hope,or confidence, and undoubted expecta- 
tion of eternall life.Now concerning this hope D and certainty, 
the firft Qjjeftion is whether a believer may be infallibly be 
affured of his falvation ? 

5 . Arf There is not onely a poffibility for the believer to H ope may an 
come to this certainty, but itishisdutyalfo , neverto reft ought to be 
contented til} he have obtained it, Heb*6.ii t & 1o.22.S0???. ccmine. 

4.21 &?-35. 39. For 

2. Firft, God hath confirmed this to every believer by 
prGmife^ by oath.by earned, by feals, hhn %\6%Ut^ 1.40, 

3. Secondly, Faith ought to receive all that which God 
hath thus confirmed, H^.4.2. 

4. T his certainty is pcrfefted in us by three A<5ts, 1. by an 
aft of Faith properly Co called whereby we reftuponGod 
by Chrift D fortheccrtaine obtaining of falvation : 2 By an 
a&£*i>*»V§»s of knowledge , Whereby we believing do un- 
derftandthat God bath certainly adjudged this (alvatioa 
unto us. 3, By an aft of confidence or of hope,whereby we cer- 
tainly iooke for this falvation 9 which is thusadjudg'd-to us 
and made ours. But yet for all that the whole application is 
attributed to Faith, becauie it dependeth firft, and chiefly 

a on faith* 

E 5. Third- 

34 Tk Second Book* 

5. Thirdly, falvation,and life eternal! is contained in the 
objeft of Faith. For we believe life everlafting, 1 Peter 1. 

6.Fourth!y,true grace ( of the certainty of which we fpake 
before ) is never feparated from life eternal! , Hd\6 9. For 
the grace of justification is amorecertainecaufeofiife, and 
the grace of (anftification is a part ofeternall life. J^. 17. 3. 

7 F'ifthly^God the Father feath decreed to biing to eternal 
life all thofe that believe, for Faith is a fruit of ele&ion, ABs. 
247.8c 13 48. 

8.Sixthly, Ghrlft our Saviour dcth perpetually intercede 
for the faithfull,thac they may be preferved from evill , John 

9. Seventhly a the holy Ghoft doth direft, and keepc the 
faithfulltoilife eternal!, John 16.16. £^.36.27. 

1 o.Eighthly,by the power of God, and Ghrift, the faith- 
full are preferved, 2^« 10.285291 1 Pet.i. 5. And ftrengthned, 
£fh.$.i6.Col.i.iQ.Vil.^. i,. 
Motives to in- ThefecondQueftion by what motives a believer may be 
deavour for ftirred up to fcekc for this certainty of hope with all diii- 
certainty of ggnce £ 

^°P C * 11. An f.i*Go& requires this,Rw». 15 13.CV. 1. 23. lhb.6. 

II.& 10,22.1 Pet. 5 9. 

I2 # Secondly 5 this hope is as neceflary for a believer in time 
of temptation , as a helmet is for a Souidier, and an anchor 
for a Ship } Ep.6. 1 7.1 Thef$$. Btb.S.xy. 

^•Thirdly, it brings with it freedome, and ftrength and 
courage and conftancy 9 in every worke of the Lord, Beb.% % 6. 
1 C0r.15.58. Thereafonisbccaufethe end , and fruit of a 
mans worke doth allure , and whet hijrn on to induftry, and 
eonftancy in working. For although our falvation be not the 
chiefe, and laft eed of our obedience, yet it is the fruit of it, 
andinthatrefpe$, partaketh of the nature of an end, Rem. 
6.22* So that it is not only lawfuil but very expedient alio, 
for the helpe of our infirmity to fet about the worke of piety, 
with aneye upon the recompence of re ward, lames ^q.GaU 
6rf$.Heb.l2.2.P '/ilp.12. 

14S Fourthly, it is the end of the calling of the Faithful!, 


Of Confcience. 55 

whence alfo it is Sil'd the hope of their callings Eph. i*i8« 

1 5.Fifthly 5 this hope makech not a(hamed 5 becaufe it is never 
vaine a neither doth it deceivejlflw^.^. Rom.8. 24. 

i<5.Sixtbly 5 it is hope by which a belecvcr is faved, Rentals 
8. 34. 

The third Queftion is what a beleever ought to do for the 
obtaining and prclerving of a lively hope. 

17. lAnfMz ought, i.topreferve his Faith firme s and lively* 
For hope flowes from 5 and depends upon Faith, and that not 
only 3 the being of Faith ; but the degree, the meafure , and the 

1 8. Secondly, he ought with all care to keepe a good con- 
fcience : for ftch a Confcience doth make much for the con- 
firming of Faith and hope,i Tim. 1 , 19,2 T/w.4.7,8. 

ip.Thirdly^he ought diligently to obferve the experiment 
which he hath had of Gods love towards him.For experience 
caufeth hope,ff 0*0. 5. 4. 

20 Fourthly,he ought oftentimes to fet before his eyes the 
examples of thofe,wbo have with happy fuccefie placed their 
hope in God, lames 5.10,11. 

2 i.Fifthiy >he ought to be frequent in the excrcifes of pie- 
ty^Rem. 15,4. 

The fourth Qtjeftion is what are thefignesofatrueaad The fignes < 
lively hope ? true hope. 

ttmAnf.i. True hope is carried upon Godonely, who is 
therefore cal'd the (jod of hope^ Rom. 15.15. sAnd the hope of 

23 .Secondlyjt refts upon that free mercy of God which is 
manifeftcdinjuftincation,and not upon any humane merits, 
or ftrength, nor upon any externall and common bleffings of 

24.Thirdly,it doth expeft not only happinefl^but fan&i- 
fication al(b 3 G'^/.5«5. 

25.Four5hly : \t is begotten,and preferved by holy excrcifes, 

26.Fifthly,it brings forth patience, 1 Thetf.i. 3. 

27.Sixtbly,it caufeth fpirituall joy^Heb^^ 

28, Seventhly, itbegettetha conftant care # of holy ncflc, 
1 /<?/?/* 3.3. 

E % Cxa p.i5« 

af ThefecOttdBook? 

CHAP. 15. 

Of Confolation. 

FRom Ghriftian hope or confidence, arifcth confolation, 
which is 3 a confirmation of the fonle, againft thcgricfe 
and fearcthat doth opprefleit, for it is not properly a re- 
joicing of the foule (asfomethinkt) but rather a repreffion, 
or a mitigation , or an allaying of gricfe,feare 3 or iadnefle. 
For that man is faid to receive comfortand confolation,when 
he hath in fbme fort put away griefe, although joy be not yet 
come in the place, cr i f his fadneflcj, and forrow, be at lcaft 
in fbme fort mitigated, and leffend* For fometimeS there 
may be a mixture of for row and confolation together. Nei- 
ther are men either perfeftly well or perfe&ly ill, when they 
begin to receive confolation,£/i.4o. 1,2, Now concerning this 

The firft Queftion is , whether a believer may attaineunto 
folid comfort againft all kinds oi eviJl > 

1. Anf He may. For, 1. God the Father in refpeft of the. 
faithfull is the God of all confolation, comforting them in 
all aflftiftions^ ^r. 1*3,4. 

§2. Secondly, Chrift is the principle,or fountaine by which 
the comfort of the faithfull doth flow, 2 ^r.1.5. 

3.Thirdly 3 the holy Ghoft is the comforter of all believers 
imparting unto them all confolation ; M« 14.1 1.26.8c 15^6- 

^ 4. Fourthly 5 the whole Scripture maketh for the confola- 
tion of the faithfull,/^**?. 1 5. 4. 

5. Fifthly, this confolation ismadeftrong by the immu- 
table counfell of God, and by his ftrengthning of believer** 

6. Together with this confolation God doth joyne the 
confirmation of his grace,which confifts in a reparing of their 
flrength, and in a fortifying ofthemagunft troubles For 
whereas the faithfull oft times like weake women, through 
the apprehenfion of ibme terrible cvill^doe fall as it were in- 

Of Confcktue. 37 

toafwound, and all their ftrength is diflblved, God on the 
other fide in this defeft makes a fupply by his grace of con* 
Sanation :we have a notable example of this, Dan.io.& 8. 

There remained no ftrength in mt , & \Q t *s4nd beioold a hand 
touched m$ -which fet me upon my knees , and upon the palms of 
my handstand he f aid unto me^ ft and upright, and 1 8 Then there 
ctme againe and touch me one like the appearance of a man , and 
hiftrengthnedme andfaid^ man greatly beloved feare not, 
peace be unto theejse Jfrcng, yea be ftrong^and when he had fpo- 
ken unto me I wasftrengthned, and f aid let my Lord fpeak^ for 
thou haft ftrengthnedm?. Aad this is a grace which we are com- 
manded to feek fovyHeb. 12.12. 

CHAP- 16. 

Of AffittUnx- 

THe fccondQyeftion is,what thofe evills be againft which 
the faithfull ought to feeke confolation > 

Anf.Wvj are either corporallas the affii&tons of this life 
and dcath 3 or fpirituall 5 a« fpirituaJl temptations and fins. 

The third Queftion is, by what arguments, a believer Confolation 
may be confirmed, and corr forted againft the affliftions of f ° rthc affllfi ~ 
this life > 

1 % Anf Fir ft, filch fcinde of aflkftions are common toman, 
1 Cor. io, 1 3. And are wont to be accompliftit in believers 
while they live here, 1 Pet, 5.9. A 8.14.22* 

2. Secondly, without Gods Providence not fo much as a 
haireofour head (hall ptri(h,Mat.io 30.^^.21.18. 

3. Thirdly, the fatherly love of God is wont to be manifeft 
in the affliftions of the faithfull, Heb.12.6- 

4.Fourthly,Ghrift himfelfe hath fuffered.and overcome aU 
the affl fttons ot the Worlds to the intent he might fuccor us D 

5. Fitthly,God together with the temptatron,will ftrcnth- 
cn by the fpirit,*nd make a way to efcape, 1 CV.10.13. 

6. Sixthly, the time of affliftion is but fhort ,2 0^4.17. 

E 3 7 .Seven*- 

^t 2ffo Second Book§ 

7. Seventhly 5 the fruit of afflidions is faving.For every 
chaitening yfcildeth the peaceable fruit of righteoufhefle 5 unto 
them that are exercifed therewith , Hek 1 2. 11. 

The fourth Queftion is whether we are to comfort our - 
felves after one fort in all affli&ions ? 
Diver fe kinds H.AnfThcre be diverfe kinds of affli&ions, fo there be (eve- 
ofaffliaions. rail wayesofconfolation. Forfome affli&ions are brought 
upon us by men for righteoufheffe fake D for the cauft of Chrift 
andhisGofpcllandKingdome, Mat.^.io.&c n.Markeio. 
2$.Luke 18.39. Thefe affL&ions are commonly ftyled by the 
name of perfecution , or the Crofle, becaufe of the refemb- 
lance which they have to, and participation with the Crofle 
of Chrift, PhiL$. 10. In thefe kindcs of affli&ions D confola- 
tion is eafy and at handj for we ought even to account the 
affli&ions of this nature , and for fach acaufetobethem- 
(elves an argument of great comfort. Mat. 5. 12. Atts<}A^ % 
lames 1.2. 1 Pff.4,14.16. The reafon is becaufe in thole 
perfecutions which wee fuffer for righteoufhefle fake there 
is the nature of a teftimony, martyrdome, and exam- 
ple whereby we glorify God before men. And fo out of 
the eater comes forth meat according to Sampfons riddle, 
JucL 14. 

9. Some affliftions are laid upon us by God 'to prove 
us, and to trie us, £•*•<?. 15. 15.& i&><}.Deut.$.2.i6. Thefe are 
properly call'd tryalls and temptations. In thefe kinds of 
affli&ionsourconfolation is hot tobefetcht from the tem- 
ptation ic felfe,but from our manner of bearing k,when we 
through the grace of God in (uch a condition , do fan&ify 
and glorify his Name, 7^.1.24. Ourprincipall care there- 
fore ought to be to frame and compofeourfelves to a right 
bearing of thefe affli&ions,and the comfort tyill follow of its v 
own accord. 

10. Some affliftions are laid upon us , as puniihments and 
corrections,/^. 36.9,10.2^.12 6, Forchefe although there be 
fome comfort contain'd in Gods Fatherly mariner of cha- 
ftenihg,H<r£. 17.738. Yet this comfort cannot be folidly ap- 
prehended 3 but onely in making right ufe of the affliftions 
themfelves, ibid. 6 . 1 1 . Here therefore our fit ft care muft be to 
make right nfe of thefe visitations before we feeke after com^ 
fort. 1 1. Thefe 

Of Cottfchnce 39 

11. Thefe kind of affli&ions arc not fo different but that 
they may meete together, in one, and the fame trouble. For 
in perfection the faithfull are alwayes tried, fomctimes cor- 
rected , but yet there may be trials and corrections often 
times without perfecution , and when they do meet toge- 
ther fome of thefe kinds may more appeare in fame then 

Th^firft Queftion is what a man in affb&ions ought to The duties of 
do to the end that he may obtaine true and folid comfort ? the affiled. 

12. ^«/.Firft,hc ought to acknowledge the hand of God af- 
fli&inghim, E[a.i6.iidob.5.6.%. Jmos$.6. For this con- 
sideration is the foundation of patience 5 1 Sam.%.\8* <pf. 
39. 10. And of all thofe faying truths, which are received by 

13, Secondly, he ought to fearch his wayegani acknow- 
ledge his finnes, Lum^^^o. Iob.%6 9,10* For although 
all affli&ions are not alwayes fent dire&ly and princi- 
pally for finne,yetfinne is the fountaine 5 and foundation of 
all affliftions, Rom.^ii* It is therefore a courfemofteqaall, 
moft fafe,and moft ple3fing to God,that in our affiiftions, we 
behold our fins.which either have dire&ly procured them, or 
at leaft deferved them. 

i4«Thirdly, he ought to fubmithimfelfeintheprefence 
of God,and under his mighty hand> lames 4.10. 1 Pet. 5. 6* 
2 Sam.i l y.20*Levit*26 t 4i. OtherwifethechafteningofGod 
is contemned , and men (hew their (ecurity and vaine confi- 
dence,Pr(?,3.Ji.H^. 12. 5. 

1 5-Fourthly, he ought by humble repentance to Cctkc the 
face,and favour and mercy ofGod.7/a^y.2.Lam.^i^Amos 
4,I2,H^/I5 # i5.&6.i & 14.2. There are three feafons wher- 
^nweoughttofeeke God by repentance, 1. prefently after 
finnecommitted,j£V.5,i.2. 2. after fome iearecfpunifii- 
ment, orfomethreatningof God, Eph.i.i.2* 3Afterthat 
the wrath of God hath in fome fort broke in upon us "Dan, 
9.13. Thofe Chriftians are the beft which lay hold upon 
the firft opportunity, for they declare that they do hatefsnRe 
limply fork felfe, thofe that make ufeof the fccond feafon 
come next to them. For fuch believe although they fee not, 
but thofe that repent not in the third feafon are altogether 
defperate. 16; Fifth- 

^0 thefecond Booh$ 

I ^Fifthly, he ought to fee that he profit by his affli£tion 
in all the parts of new obedience.2 ^rw.a8.a2.£/2r.itf.p./^. 
36.IO. Hebrewes ii.\o.Efaj 2j.\i.Leviticm 26.18.21.-— 28. 

i7.Sixthly D he ought patiently to expeft what end the 
Lord will make, i^V.io.ij. Jam. 5.7,8.11. 2 S*m.\^2%. 
Mka.j.y. He that feekes freedomc by unlawfull meanes doth 
offend God more, i Kings 1. 3. Neither yet is he free but 
by an exchange ot a lefleevill for a greater, Sfa* 24. 18, 
Amos 5.19* 

CHAP. , 7# 

Of Death. 

Concerning Death the firft Queftion is whether it be a 
thing to be contemned? 
1.^/. Death is not fimply to be contemned, u becaufc 
it is in its own nature a grievous judgement of God againft 
the finnes of men , and fo doth reprefenchoth our defert and 
Gods wrath; 2. becaufe it is in its owne nature, apaffageto 
an eternall feparation from God, fo that it is a point either 
of defperate fecurity, or affe&ed wifdome 5 and valour to 
contemne death after that manner that fome of the heathen 
have done, who have been praif d for fo doing. But yet com- 
panion being made betwixt death and thofe things which 
after death are prepared for the faithfull 5 death may, and 
ought in lome fort co bee contemned by all believers, 

The fecond Qjeftion is whether a believer ought to deiire 
and pray for death? 

Anfw. Death is not (imply and abfolutely to be dtfired, i. i 
Becaufe it is in^ic (eifea evilL 2. Becaufe God as a General! 
hath placed us in our ftation of this life , and without his 
Cornmandernent we ought not to forfake 5 nor fimply to de- 
iire tobedifrnift before the time that hee hath appointed, 
2 CV.5.4.9. But yet the faithfull may and ought fo to ex- 
pert the life which is to come after death that they do ac- 
count it much more plealing to them then thisprefentlife^ 

2 Cor. 

Of Conference. 41 

2 Cor. 5.8.And to tend thither, with thedefire*hat is mode- 
rate, and&bjeft to the will of God , asbeingacondiiioH 
much better,?^;/. 1. 13. #0.8.23. 2 Titn.^.%. 

The third Queftion is, by what arguments the mind of a 
believer may be ftrengthned againft the feare of death ? 

2. ^^.Firft 5 ifhe ferioufly confider, and by faith appre- „ .. -J 
hend that Chrift hath by his Death deitroyed the power of ni Q lthe <wre 
Death, Hcb.2. I4,and taken away its fting, 1 Cor. 1 5 . 5 <5. So of death, 
that death hath beene fwallowed in vi&ory by Chrift, 

and that victory is imparted to btlt^tvijbidcm & 54.57. 

3. Secondly .if heconfideralfo that this was one end of 
Chrifts death,to free us from the feare of death,as being a great 

4. Thirdlyjf he confideralfo with faith, that t<he love of 
Chrift and of God in Chrift isfbfirmeandconftantthatno 
death can feperate us from it,# 0. 8.35, 

5. Fourthly, if he confider with himfelfe that for Chrift: 
> thedeathofthefaithfullispretiousin Godstyes, Vfal. 72. 

.14. And be alfo fully perfuaded that the good hand, and 
1 fatherly providence of God,is prefent with, and watcfaeth o- 

ver the faithful! for good both in life and death. Mat* 10.28, 


6 ¥ Filthly.if he well confider from how many , and from 

how great evills heefhall be freed by death, as, u From 

fin,2. From thofemiferies that follow finne, Efay 

Which caufe others often times to feeke for death , tApoc. p. 

6. 3l r rom the temptations of the DevilLApoc. 1 2.8. 4 From 

the oppofition and vexation of the World and the flefti, 

j4poc.iq.il. Eccles. 4.1.2. Hence it is that death is caula 
• reftandafleepe, £fa.%y<2.6. iTkejf.q. 13, 14. Thus much the 

Devill himfelfe in the (hape of Samuel did acknowledge i. 

y.Sixthly, if he caft his eyes alwayes upon that happinefle 
to which^we (hall come by death , For after death. 1. The 
grace of God (hall beperfe&ed in us, 1 CV.13.1a. . 2 We 
(hall be with God, 2 O.5.8. With Chrift and theblefled 
(pirits,P^7.i.23. 3. We (hall in joy a firme and immu- 
tableeftate of heavenly life, 2 C or % m ^' 1% ^ e h l^r 10 * 1 ^ 9 
Luke 16*9. F 8.Se- 



8. Seventhly 5 if he ferioufly fet his minde to confider 
thoanity of all thofe things which depend upon this prefeut 
life , and which we forfakc at our death,£cr/,2.i 8, 

£. Eighthly 5 if he perfuadehimfelfe that Gods providence 
without him is fufficient to provide for all thofe things con- 
cerning which he cao be careful', and do know withal! that 
without it,no ggod can be done, though he (hould contmne 
in life. 

The fourth Qgeftion is what a belce.ver ought to do that he 
may in joy this confolation ? 

loMnf. Firft, he ought to labour that he may have a fpe- 
ciall fitftb in God through Ghrift,and that this faith be lively, 
and ftrong,£*ltf 2.28,2 Tim. 1. 12.1 John 5.4. 

1 1. Secondly 3 he ought with ail care to prcferve his 
Confcience pure and without offence, Alls 24. 1 5 3 1 5» 
Heb.io. 22. 

12. Thirdly, he ought with this faith and Confcience to r 
liveinacontinuallexpe&ation of the commingoftheLord, 
fo cary ing himfclfc here as becomes a Citizen of heaven,?/?//. 

13. Fourthly, he ought alwayestothinkethchowerofhis 
death to be neare and at hand, Pfalme 19.20. Efau2%a^ 
2 Tim*$6. 

14. Fifthly ,he ought alwaies to exercife himfelfetoade- 
Bialland forfaking'of the world, 1CV.7 2930,3 r.6W.6 '4. 

!5.Sixthly, he ought to make death familiar ina fort to 
himfclfe both by a freqaent meditation of it, and by thofe 
exercifcs to whieh God calls him, 1 Cor. 1 5.3 1.2 £V. 1.9.8c 

16. Seventhly, he ought to labour that as the outward 
man drawes to corruption^ the inward man may be renew* 
ed more and more, 2 ^r.4, 1 6. 

i7.Eighthly,he ought not to thinke fo much upon death it 
felfe , as upon Gods grace both in death, and in thole things 
which follow after & 2 Ti/^.4.8. 

i8,Nipthly,he ought in all humility to commend his (bale 
wito Goel as unto a faithfoll Creator 1 P^.4.16. 


Of Confcience; 43 

Chap. 18. 

Of Temptations. 

Concerning temptations the firft Qtfeftion is by what 
arguments a beleever may lengthen himfelfe againft 
their aflaults ? 

i./fo^Firft, if heconfider ferioufly that thefe temptations ° f rcflftfn g 
are part of that> warfare to which the faithfull are called, tcmptatlons * 
JE/?£.d.i2. and unto which they have given up their names 
inbaptiime,ai>d have bound themfelves by'oath. 

2. Secondly, if he confider that Chriftis our Captaineand 

Oenerall in this war, iApoc t \2.j. That he is every where 

present and beholds the combate with his eye. This muft 

needs be a ftrong incitement to provoke us to do valiantly. 

1 For he doth exhort us to fight, helpes us to overcome, aids us 

when we faint,and crownes thofe that conquer. 
> 3. Thirdly, if he confider that the direction of the temp- 
tations themfelves doth depend wholy upon the providence 
anddifpofingofGod, Mat.6.i$. iThtf[.2.iu xQro*.\%. 

4. Fourthly, if he meditate upod the fruit andtbeufeof 
temptations,£#.2 1.31.2 Cor. 12.8^9; 

5. Fifthly^ if he propound unto himfelfe Chrift who was 
tempted 5 overcame temptations , and fuccors them that are 
tempted 5 Hf£.2.*8 &4.i5.Go/ f 2.i$. 

6. Sixthly^ if he diftinguifh betwixt the evill of temptati- 
on 5 and temptations themfelver. 

ThefecondQaeftionis, what a beleever ought to do that 
>hee may apprehend this comfort in the hower of tempta- 
, tion? 

7. Firft 5 he ought to account all thofe temptations which 
• Intice him unto fin ^Hris utter enemies, 1 Pet. XII. 

8.Secondly, he ought to abhor and deteft thofe very fug- 
geftions themfelves which lead unto fin^m.*]. 1 5 . 

9, Thirdly, he ought to arme hitnfctfe diligently againft 
his fpirituall enemies,£j*£.0. 1 3. 

F 2 io # Fourth- 

44 The SeeondSoaks 

10. Fourthly, hee ought to refift them w'th all his might, 
la mis 4. 7. 1 Tet> 5.9.' 

1 1 . Fifthly, he ought in this c:>mbate not ro truft unto his 
own ftrength,but to implore the helpe of God 3 and to reft up- 
on him 5 Mat, 61^* 

12. Sixthly, hee ought in fcuie temptations to abftaine 
from all difputation * and fpeciail deliberation abouc the 
thing fuggefted/eftinghimfelk iatbfyed in that hedoth da- 
ted them, Mat 4 10. For fuch temptations are vile and do 
eafily cleave to us. 

13 •Severn hiy, he ought to avoid all thofe occalions which 
may further the tempt.ition,7Vr.4 I4 3 i5 . 

14, Eightiy , he ought to rep®] I and extinguiflh with all 
poffible ftan^th troublcfome fuggcitions 5 £/^ 6.16.. Yea, and 
fbmetimes to concern le them alio* when after ail means ufed 
they ceafe not to be troublefcrnf. 

15, Ninthly, he ought ( if they reiwne againeand r gains , 
with new aflau'ts after that they have beene oftrepeiM) to 
remember that it is the part of a valiant Souldier net onely , 
tofuffcr, and come eleare oft from affaulcsandskirmifhes 
afhi&enemy, but aHo to indure the tedioufnefle of along 
fiedge when there is occaficn. 

The third Queftion is, \\ov a man maydifcetne whether 
a temptation have prevailed againlt him yea or no I 

16. Anf. Firft, this is not to be jud^d from hence that 
a man is either troabled in his mind,or doth recaine his calm- 
nefle. For a vexation of mind for the moft part, which fol- 
fowes upon foule temptation?, is not onely no figne of their 
prevailing, but is alfb ademonftrationof a&nftifyedhcart* 
and a quiet fecurity doth often time? (hew that the tempta- 
tion hath prevailed* The reafon is becaufe the opposition , 
which is apparent in this perturbation, is a figne that there 
is (bme thing in the foule contrary to the temptation, and 
a quietneffe doth betray fome confenf. For water is not 
troubled by the powring in of water but by the cafting m of 
fire. He which finds leaft trouble is in moft danger, Luks l * • 
21. So Atjaniat and Saphira were quiet, ^fff.5.3.8. ButP^tf/ 
found a great deale of inward trouble,/^. 24.2 C0r.12.758* 

But ; 

Of Coxfckncc 45 

But if this trouble be fuch that it drives away a man from 
God,and doth not rather ftir up to fceke him , it is not to be 
allowed or cherifhed, for then the temptation is, (although 
rot directly and of ks owne nature ) yet indireftly and 
through the pcrverfntfTe ofour nature;e&£tuall : and the temp- 
ter hath obtained his defire. 

18. Secondly, a manifeft figne of a prevailing temptation 
is tbecoaimiffion of that finne to which the temptation did 
provoke, A£& % 6.i%>. But here it is to be obfeived that this 
tails cut not onely when the finne is fully a&ed and com* 
mitted 5 but alfo when there isevrn the very firft degree of ir, 
intheconfent of the will, or in the leaft delight in the evik 
thought of, although there be no purpofe to commit ir. Jam* 
iii^,!^ And this is fo much i he worfe if the delight [be as 
they fay -Morofa that is,if it continue for any while , and be 
not presently repeld. 

19. Thirdly, although we give no cenfent unto the temp- 
tation ? yet if the temptation arife from cur felves, there is a 
finne of ours in it, even in its firft conception, becau'e ic 
flowes out ofour flefti and from cur corruption , althoughic 
may be kindled and blowne up to a flame by the DeviiJ, Mat* 
15'iS.ip. £^.6.5, & 8, 21. lames 1.14. But this degree 
oifinne is fiichthal though it requires perpetual! humiiiati- 
on^yec it ought not to deprive us of comfort, becauic it is ths 
common condition of ail the faithfull , who this notwith- 
ftanding are inChrift beloved, and accepted of Gcd. Bet if 
the temptation proceed meerely from the Dcvill we ought to 
deteft ic,as much as poflible we C3n , but are not to acknow* 
ledge it for our own (in, Mat^.vfi.g. 

20,Now a temptation is then to be judged to proceed from 
the dcvill alone and not from our felves, 1. when it is repug- 
nant to the light of nature, or to reaibnicfelfc, andtoour 
natural! inclination, 2. when is arifeth not as other ordi- 
nary thoughts,but ceafeth upon , and invades tjie minde fud- 
denly,and with akinde of vehemency, after the manner of 
flafhes of lightning. 

2f. Foiathly, fo long as by fervent prayers and fuch like 
fpirituatl weapons we dorefiftand wraftle with any tempta- 

F 3, tiosfc 

thefecond Booty 

rionwe may be fure that it hath not yet prevailed over u$ f 
and that it hath net as yet gotten us within its power, 2 Ger. 
ll.?$,9>Iawes 4,7. 

The fourth Queftion is how theConfcienceofabeleever 
may be fupported in a temptation of God, that is f in (bme 
fpirituall defertion upon which there followes much 
anxiety i 

22. Anf.Fix&jNc muft remember that even the beft of Gods 
fervants have had experience of thefe defertions, as lob. 6.4. 
9. 13.16. & 16.9. <David Pfa/me.6.8c 77. AndevenChrift 
himfeife the beloved Son ofGod>A4at. 27.46, 

23. Secondly, we muft know that thele deftrtions are not 
fo much rcall and in very deed,as in our fenfe, and apprchen* 
fion 3 H^.i3.5t 

24. Thirdly, we muft know that God doth not forget his 
people, no not then when he ftemes to have forfaken them, 
Sfa^y.i $,1 6.But doth for his own glory and their good on- 
ly feeme to do fo, 

25. Fourthly>we may be fure by Gods Word and Cove- 
nant that this defertion (h^ll be but (hort , efpecially if it be 
compar'd with the time and continuance of his mercies,^. 
54.7,8.8c 57.20. 

26 . Fifthly ,we muft make inquiry in our Confciences with 
all diligent examination whether our owne finnes have not 
b«ne the caufeofGodsfb dealing^*. 57. 21. Which if we 
(hall finde to be fo^we muft confefle them humbly,inrcate for 
mercy, andfcrioufly forfake them me Pfitl. 51. 

27.SixthIy,we ought to live by Faith, fiV£. 2. 4. waiting 
for the Lord which hideth his face from xx^SfaM. 17. 

28. Seventhly,we ought to ftir up our felves to lay hold 
upon God^p.64.7. 

2 9.Eighthly 3 weought alwayes to remember that although 
Cod do feeme to be abfent from us a long while, yet he doth 
only wait for a fit time to (hew mercy, £f.$o%\ 8. 

Chap, 1 9. 

Of Confcienct. 

Chap. 91. 

Of the Confcienct of fitwe. 

Concerning finncs the firft Qyeftion i% , how a Chriftian 
may be comforted when his Conference doth reprove 
him for,and accufe him of diverfefins? 

i e Aaf. Sinnes are of two forts, For fame be properly 
cal'd infirmities, or fauhs which do comonly cleave to the 
bciUndmoft vigilant of the faithful], i CV.d.7. Ochers are 
more hainous wickednefle which neither are to be found in 
all the faithfull nor in any of them at all unleffe very ftdom ; 
and by reafon of fome violent temptation, Kom&ns 6* 13. 

2. An infirmity is whena purpofe to do well isprefent, 
but power of performing it is zb(cnx,RoM.j. i&A wickednefle 
is wnen the purpofe it felfe at leaft in fome particular faftis 
impious , tSam. 12. 10. Now in cafe of infirmities thefe 
following arguments may ferve for confolation. 

3. Firft, even the beft apd raoft perfc& of Gods Children 
whi^e they live here are fubjeft unto thefe failings, James $.2. 
I I$hn 1 .8. 

4. Secondly,God doth pitty his fervants in their infirmi- 
ties as a loving Father pitties his little children, Pf*to$ 13, 
Mat. 5. 27. 

5 # Thirdly 3 Chrift himfclfe is touched with the fenfc of our 
infirmities, Hr £.4. 1 $. § 

<5.Fourthly,Ghrift himfclfe isfiich a propitiation for fach 
k'mde of finnes, that he offers us confolation for them before 
they be committed, lohni.xji, #0.6.14. 

7. Fifthly, by Chrift we have accefle with boWnefle to 
the Throne of grace , that wee may obtaine \ mercy, 

%. Sixthly ,God at our prayer will cure our infirmity, Efa. 


^♦Seventhly,thc fpirit hclpeth our infirmities, Rom.%.26. 

10. Eighth- 

48 The Second Book§ 

L \Q. Eighthly , thefe infirmities (hall not be imputed to us 
for fins 5 #0;#.7. 17.10. 

ji ii . In more hainous finnes^ there can be no folid comfort 
had, till they betaken away , i CV.5.2.6. Thereafou is be- 
cause fcch kind of finnes make even beleevers themfdves fub- 
je&to thethreatningsoftheLaw, and doin a great degree , 
exclude them from the promifes of the Gofpell D waft the 
Confcience , H*£.io#22. And expofc them to the wrath of 
God, as being partakers with the wicked and unbeleevers. 
Sph.'y^j. Gal.6.\j> And therefore haveinthemacaufeof 
terror not of confolation. Heb.10.%1. Yet a beleever may in 
fome fort fufteine himfclfe even in the greateft finnes with 
the poffibility and hope of mercy, Romans 11. 23. Lnks 
22. 23. 

The fecond Queftion>whatabeleeveristodothathemay 
have confolation, in cafe hi's Gonfcienceaccufehimforhis 
finnes * 

i2.Firft 9 heoughttobeaffe&edwithfinne, andtogroane 
under it as a burden. Mat. 1 1.28, 29. 

13. Secondly 3 hee ought continually to deteft all finne, 

14. Thirdly, he ought evermore to have a care that he ful- 
fill nottheluftsoffinne,^/.5.i6. 

15. Fourthly, he ought to indeavour the mortification of 

26. Fifthly, he ought looking upon the promifes to fly 
unto Chrift and to cleave unto him more and 1 more D Rom*j* 
2$.Phil.2 p. 

2j. But grofle finnes muft firft be removed and taken away 
before a man can be fit ta receite folid confolation , Efo.u 


Of Cotofcience. *a 

Certaine colle&ions out of the Bookc of 

WilliamFaris concerning temptations,and the refitting 

of them, which I thought good here to fet down for 
the further illuftration of the Do&rine of tempta- 
tions, becaufe they are not read in the Au- 
thor except by a very few« 

Flrti $ Temptation in one fen fe is nothing elfe but a m*ll> and 
to tew ft U nothing elfe but to make * triaU or experiment of 
anything^ that we may know it % that is, that it may bedif- 
eover'd, and become manifeft , and this is aR that the 
Devill can doe , hee cannot with ftrength conqnev^tu , 
or caft us down. For nnlejfe we of our awne accord trttffhim^ 
and deliver oturfdves into his hand^ he can have n* power over 
us. He can prevaile no farther again ft us^ then we give him 
leave or permit him. *AU that he can do therefore is t$ tempt 
us % that is to make an experiment what we are , whether 
Ttveakeorftrong) whether we be fuck as will jeildto him 9 or 
whether fuch as will rejift him valiantly. And if in the begin- 
ning of the temptation , he jinde that we make valiant re- 
JiftAnce> hedefpairingofthe viftory, and being over come a*i 
confounded, for the mo ft part departeth prefently* And this 
is the property of a tempter when hee hath made his or* } 
gument , ana found what he fought for, to fur c cafe the work^ 
j J. In another fenft temptation fignifies 9 a fighting a* 
gainft one, or a warmer a battell 9 ani it is very likely that what- 
soever the Devil! attempts, againft us is by way of fuch a fight \ 
ifweconftder the matter but diligently. F or he doth aU that 
he doth with a purpofe anddefire to conquer , whether he lay 
fnaresforus 3 or whether he make try all of tu , or whether he 
pretend fome good things to deceive us $ or whether he fmite us 
with the ftaffe , or [word y whether he undermine the w til of 
our defenfe^ or whether he take from ws our fpirituall food, or. 
frocure it to be taken away , for he doth do all thefe things 
with a defire to do its a mifchtefe. And in very deed 5 all thefe 
are parts of that war i or combat e j wherewith hee fights a- 
gainftm. G Thirdly, 

5o The fecond Book? 

I I if* Every finne hath its temptations , and againfi the 

mink of man doth the devill fight , befiegtng it , in a circum* 
vntingway^and ordering his armies , and forces, againfttbe 
armies of vertues, and againft the fafile cfmansfoule. 
1 V. The fightings which arife from the faculty of teafon 
within our fe Ives are thefe , I. Curiofity^ that is a tuff to 
know things not necefiary, and things the knowledge of which 
tend nothing to, nor helpe forward at all falvation, 2* Slow 
nejfe to believe, 3. Levity in believing every things "0 >ubt~ 
- fulnejferf. Stiff) it iottfneffe , 6. *sl ' Sfirit of lla r pb my which 
u a fpring and fomtaine of jbitmtmble thwghts % and of 
thought sfo horrible and troublefome, that fuch a kind of temp- 
tation hlike a m&Hrdome , and there have bane fome that 
ha$e rather defiredtoftsffer Martyrdome then to endure fuch 
V. tsfny one may refifi any temptation of the Devil I, if he do 
fimply and purely will it , without any mixture of unwitting- 
nejfe* For no man is overcome , oryeilds to the temptation ut- 
terly againfihis will, forfo his will remainss unconquered, 
an&viftorieus and uninclined to confent unto the temptation^ 
andfo a manfhould bothy eild, and notyeilL But that a man 
mayi fimply^ and purely be willing to make refinance it is not 
fromman himfelfe , or from any naturall power in him but 
• from the gift of God, and the helpe and affi fiance of his grace. 
V h Now wee mufi objerve that when the queftion is , ivhe* 
ther a man may have a will to iefifi temptation ? this word 
may doth admit two fignifications • Tor it fignifies fometimes 
- a pofftbility which is pajftve, [in reffieti of capacity, and fame* 
times in regard of vertue or power, or efficiency, now it is ma* 
nifefi , that no man can refifi any temptation by way of efficim 
V< 1 1. Befides the gifts of graces and of vertues the provi- 
dence andproteSiion of God is necejfary for believers , that 
they may refifi temptations, and fb are thofe manifold helps 
wherwith God fuccors his eleft in the comb ate* 
Vlll.The firfi of rhefe helpes is a driving away of the enemies 
wherebjthey are fimetimssnot fufferedto tempt the Eleft, 
Job. 1. 

Of C$*fek*&* %\ 

e amet umpt ft mum *t tkey w#$t£ J6b, a s 

X# The third helpe is from the tempter himfetfe^ when even 
that very Jhape under which he tempts affords m fome help* 
mdinftruttion , fo the forme of the Serpent might hav$ caufed 
Eve to have fufpe&edbis temptation. 

X I- The fourth helpe is from the tempt at ion it f elf e, when it ei- 
ther ft irs npfeare in us % which is the be ft peeper, orftirs us up I 
fight, and incourageth us again ft the enemy. 

XII* The fifth is $ anewgrace^ or an increafe of the firmer* 
For to thofe that imploy their talents well God gives an in- 
crease either in the greatneffe % or number ^ Mat.? 5. Lukf • 1 9* 

X I I I» The ftxth is a cejfation, or peace^ or rather a truce 
from the temptation. 

X I Vt The feaventh is a refrefbment in the he ate of temp* 
tat ion, which is a mitigation of it 9 as whtn the tribulation is 
turned into a follace* 

X V# The eighth is a comforting , that is a ftengthning^ 
and lifting up of the heart by apromifeofftrength anh vi&ory^ 
and by a aemonftrationofthe weakenejfe of the enemies^andthe 
lightnejfe of the fight. 

XVI. The ninth is confolationjthat is achearing of the he#rt 9 in 
troubles \inJorrow and grief e. 

XVII. Thetenthisabeflowing of Faith and Hope^and acon^ 
frmation of "the fame 5 againft the /baking offeare^whichari^ 
fithfrom our own defeEt and infirmity. 

XVIII. The eleventh is an upholding of them that are fit upon 
that they faill not) that is^ that thej receive no hurt* Nor* 
they are oft times fo ajfaulted that they are ready to fall, and 
that for this end that thej may acknowledge their ownimfirmi- 
ties 9 and may afcribeit to Gods meyey and not their own pow- 
er, that they are kept from falling. 

XIX. The twelfth is^ Gods receiving of them that fly unto him, 
in refpeft of which he is called^ the hiding place of the Eleff. 

X X» The thirteenth is Gods fighting againft and overthrowing 

the enemies'. 
X X f . The fourteenth is outward tribulation of which there' are 
many profits helping this way. 

g 2 xxir* 

The SecondBook§ 

XXI !• The fifteenth is the remembrance of the lajl things, 

D eath, judgement ^damnation and happineffe. 
XXIII* It is very difficult to overcome temptations becaufe 
that in this corruption of our nature no man fights with ai 
hu firength againft any temptation^ but partly for it, and a* 
gabtfthimfelfe. A believer in temptation is as a Kingdome 
divided within itfelfe^U\e an armed Horfeman that fits upon a 
winching, unruly^ and unbroken Colt Jike a BoufeweH built, 
but npon a weakjfoundation 3 Uk$ A ft out warriour ftanding 
upon aflipp:rypavement,rr he is partly armed^dpartly with* 
out armourer loaded with a grievous burthen . 
XX IV. Amongft the mo ft hidden treacheries and mo ft fubtiS 
temptations of the devill^ whereby the moft wife ^ and valiant 
Chriftians are often timet brought tender i the fir ft is along 
tediou/neffe , whereby he wearifs him, by which he indea- 
vourSy not only to bring him whom he tempts into the tempta- 
tiony but into dejperation alfo,to make him believe that he be* 
longs not to God, and that (jod cares not for him, And from 
hence comes this folly andmifchiefbecaufe men know not what 
a great deale of advantage arifcth from a long and often com- 
bating with temptations , how it fervesfor the breaking of 
pride which is rooted within us for the discovering of other in- 
firmities which would elfe hav e never been feen^ and for the 
prefer vat ion of humility. 

XXV. The fecond craft of the dcvillis^ the Flrangeneffeoftbe 
temptation^ for he oft times fc is upon many of the e left with 
unufua/l temptations 3 whereupon it happens that they become 
very f ear efu& that they belongnot to God,becaufe they cannot 
heare of any that have bin temptedin the fame fort. 

XXVI. The third fubtilty is , when the Aevill goes about to 
mak* a man change that ft at* wherein he is 5 and wherein 
heiswell^ even as 'Birds and Fifies^ are oftentimes^ bjp 
noife 9 and vehement ft ir ring , driven out of thofe places in 
which they stisre fafefromthe nets andthefhares oftheFoulers, 
a>td Fifhers. 

XX V I J* The fourth fubtilty k when he invites a man to thofe 

things that are above his ftrength. 
XXVIII. The fifth fubtilty is when under the pretence offbme 

goodhedrawes man into danger* ■• XX' X. 

OjCovfcience 3 5 

XXIX. Theftxthfubtihy U when under the pretence of vertne 
e per/wades a man tofome vice. 

XXX* The feventh And moft dangerous fubtilty of all ^ a peace. 
And cejfation from temptations ^whereupon follows fccurity 3 
floathypride^contempt of our brethren f hardnes of heart* 

XXXI. A man may refift temptations three wayes, I . He re- 
fifts that confers not. The tempter is overcome^ if he over- 
come not us, 2. He refifts temptations that fiyes from them and 
pMnnsthim>*%Herefifteth -which beateth them backe & ma\cs 

XXXI F. With a panning oftemptations we muftjoyne an-in- 
dignation . For even as a Marchant that hath fome pretious 
commodity t? iH [come to look? after , or to hearken tofuch a 
chapman as pall off ^r him for it a great deale under the worthy 
and fome times falls into an indignation again ft him 5 fohe 
which laves God intirely will not vouchsafe to looks after or 
hearken to the Devi II, wharfoever heofer him^ that he would 
forfak e him y yea and he cannot but have an indignation when 
he offers him that which is infinitely of It fife worth and even no* 
thing at all in comparifor. 

XXXIII. Andhere it is a point ofmfdom, and fpirituall skil- 
fnllneffe+fo to cleave unto vertm avh topreferve and defend it 
that the darts of the tempter may not come at pis. So many 
which l$ve Cjod fervently y do fo cleave unto him and bend 
themf elves to do his pleafure 9 and do imploy themfelvesfo 
Ailiotntly therein 9 being fixed in fuchkntd of excercifes im- 
movably 3 that the Darts of the temptation do not touch 

X X X I I'll. A tempi at 'on is fa ft of all beaten btckjy its owne 
weapon^ now every vertue dothfo^ as oft as in the temptation 
its beauty and pretioufnrffe it feriovfij thought upcn % for 
byfuch a k[nde efmeditation 3 both thefnnes that do tempt us^ 
^nd the thoughts and darU that Proceed from them are alivayes 
04 it were wounded % and weakned , and feme times a 1/ 'o they 
vanifb into nothing 3 even as darfynfffc vanifhethy and fir- 
ethaway, where light apprcachtih • f$r this cauje cnely do\h 
vice* and the pleasures and profits thereof fecme to us in the 
hener of temptation to be of feme moment worth , bee an f 

a Y v 

^ The ftcondBtokg 

#t that time the Law ^fvevtmu hid from $wt Bje$, either 
thrwgh igmrtmt ) er negligence ^ even at the anefy re a* 
fonwhy rotten wood, and the fcaks of fijhes d& Jhine in the 
night is^ bdeaufe the light of the fitn or at leafl othr lights 
are wanting 


The end erf the fecond 






Chap, i. 
Of Obedience in General!'* 

|Itherto we have^fpoken of thoft things that 
belong to the date of man, now it followes 
that we inquire into the aftions, and conver- 
fation of his life. 

And here in the firft place we are to intreat 
of obedience to God in generall 5 where 
The nrft QjJeftion is what are the fignes of true obedience ? 
i •€•/»/". Firft 9 if we make more account of Gods will then Signes of true 
any commands of men, or any pleafureofourowne, Atts obedience, 
4. 1 9.8c 5.19. Mat.26.39. The reaibn isbecaufe obedience 
properly confifts in this, that we do fimply, and abfolutcly 
apply our will to the will of God. 

2. Secondly, if our hearts bee flexible, and eafy to be 
wrought upon by Gods perfuafion, 2?p.2«2i& 5.6. CV.3.6. 


5$ The Third Book* 

'I \a ^hcre the w««Ti«rtf7r!ifl«;*5 children as 1 may fay infu&fibUl- 

)f^rf!^ rCn tatis « that are not to beperfwaded. For they arcoppoledto 
crWi thole which i P^r. 14. arc card t*kv* uttwow; obedient chil- 

dren. Oppofite to this difpoficion is a hard 9 and ftony 

3. Thirdly, if we 4^' prepare our felves to follow the will 
ofGod in all things, 2X^.5.53 Even in thofe which feeme 
to be oppofite to, and to crofTe our profits , (o that thefltfh 
apprehend8thecntobeevilI 3 /lfr.42.2.H^.n,8tPfe//.2.8. 

4. Fourthly ,if we do apply our leives to the obedience of 
Gods will 5 eveH then when we fee no reafon for it John 1 37,8. 
i^w.5.9.15. Otherwife we follow not (imply Gods will, 
but the reafon of it. 

5. Fifthly, if we be ready in regard ofthedifpofition and 
bent of the heart, to obey Gods will not only in thofe things 
wherein we know his pleafare , but even in thofe wherein tor 
the prefent we are ignorant of his m\l,Ex.io,27* 

6. Sixthly 5 if we defirc moft of all, to know that part of 
Gods will that concernes our felves, and our own duty , Pf. 
1 19.33,34, ABs g.j.Job. 21.13, 14* 

7.Seventhly, if the feare of God be continually before 
our eyes,(b that we take heed of diligently, and (ban carefully 
the offending of hkn,J& £.12. 28. 29. 1 Pet.i.ij. 

8. Eighthly, if we depend not upon that fuccefle, and event 
of our obedience which we find in this world, but refolve to 
hold on, though our obedienee procure us never (b many af- 
fli&ions,i 7*/. *• 1^20,2 1#& D^.3.17. 

9. Ninthly, if wee excrcife our felves in theufe of thofe 
mercies whereby our hearts may be framed to obedience, 1. 
Cor. 29. 

The fecond Queftion is , by what motives a man may be 
ftird up>to yeild obedience unto God ? 
I .Motives to io./^»/;Firft, If he apply his mind to confider of Gods 

f. obedience. Authority, CMatthtw 1.6. lenmj 35, Romans. &18.20. 1 
Coy. 6.1 9. 

ir« Secondly, if he confider alfo Gods power,J>r.i 8.6. 

1 2.Thirdly 3 if he confider thfct the obedience that God re- 

cs of u?,tends not at all to his advantage but to our?, lob. 

n 2.& 35-^7. i^Founh- 

Of Confchncz* 47 

1 3. Fourthly 5 if he confider , the benefits of God beftow- 
ed upon him, what and how great they be, Rcns.n, hSxito. 
2, And upon this point our foule (hould fettle as upon a con- 
fideration moft cffc&uall ; for it is manifeft, that the obliga- 
tion of debt , towards a benefaft or is augmented and increa- 
sed, according to thegreatneffe oft he benefit. For there is 
noQ^eftion , but that every benefit doth bind him that re- 
ceives it to the benefa&or , and the greater the benefit is the 
lC greater the bond. Well therefore doth William? m urge this 
u consideration after this manner : if any man (hould give to 
u another a ioco marks ; queflionlcfle he which receives fuch 
<c a kindneffc (hould be much bound to the giver, and if he 
cC (hould give him 2000 marks, the bond would be doubly. 
cc greater 5 and fo on infinitely* If therefore he ftiould give 
tC him any thing which were infinitely better , or more pre* 
<c tious, the receiver would be infinitly more bound. Now a 
€t mans ey e*or his tongue alone^much more his whole body) 
cc is incomparably better , then a 1000 markes,thereforec- 
<c very one is infinitly more bound to God, I or his tcngue, 
ct or eye alone,then he (hould be for thegift ofa 1000 marks* 
" Againc let us fuppofe that God (hould give to one man , a 
c '.iqoo marks Pnly D and to another a 1000000 it is manifeft 
Cc that the obligation and debt of thankfulnefle , and fervice, 
Cs from him that received the greateft benefit infinitly , is in- 
Cc finitly greater then the bond, and obligation of him that 
"received the lefle 5 feeing therefore the obligation whereby 
Cc a man is tied to God for his tongue, or eye alone is infinitly 
€i greater then the other, it is manifeft that this obligation 
Cc is infinite. Now then that obligation , wherein a man is 
Cc tyed to God, for his whole body is after a fort more infinit 3 
" and that for his fbule is yet greatcr,and that againe for eter- 
Qi nail & eyerlafting life, mud needs be much grcater 5 and fo in 
C; the reft, it is manifeft therefore that our obligation and 
(C debttoGod, of thanktulneffe and fervice is in many ref- 
<c pedis infinite. 

1 3, Fifthly, if he confider that the end of@cds greateft raer- 
cieis obed,erce f £#4? 1,74 1 7Vm.i8. 

1 5. Sixthly jif he do atcend how he is called upon by God 

H con- 

* t 8 The ThirdB<H>k§ 

continually to obedience > Titus 2. it. I Tbejfa. 4.7. I 

id. Seventhly,tf he remember how we are bound by a raoft 
firme covenant to ktvcGodJoL^u u HcbJ%, io« 

17. Eighthly^fheconfiderthemifcry ofthofe., that obey 
not God D for he* is the lervant of finne 3 to death, Rom. 
6a6 21. 

18. Ninthly, if he meditate of the promifes that are made 
to obedience,x Jim. 4*8. 2 fir.?* 1. H^.5.9, 

19* Tenthly, if he alwayes fet before his eyes the threat* 
nings againft, amd the vengeance whicfus prepared for the 
difobedierit^T^jf.i. 8t 

The third Qieftion is by what meanesa man may be made 
fit,to yield obedience unto God ? 
I The manner 20 * A*f. 1. He ought to have a fpeciall care that his Faith 
\m toftir up, bt folid and lively. For all the obedience which is acceptable 
)A promote uotoGodJs obedience of Faith, R0W.J.5.& 16*26* 
f ^ dy of 2 i.Now faith brings forth obedience foure wayes 5 1. be- 
I * caufe while it cleaves unto the Word of God , as the Word 

of eternal! truth 5 it mikes all thofe motives toobedience, 
which are found in the Scriptures to be forcible, and effeftu- 
all, 2. Becauft it doth obtaine all grace from God,}. Becaufe 
it doth joy ne us co Ghrift, as to our head y without whom we 
can do nothing, and in whom we can do all things,/^ 15. 
PA?/. 4. 1 3.4 Becaufe it doch as it were drive fcch a fpirit of 
Kfeouc >t Chrift. 

22. Secondly, he ought to yield himfelfe up to the fpirit 
lPr r i.2i. ihac he may be in the fpirit, Row.S 9. And that 
the r^irir nuy- dwell in him, r<r.2.that he may be moved by 
the fufnt.^ r.I^walke in the fpirit, gaL*>. \6. beledbythe 
V; rr >-\ 1 S.L e and %o in the Tpirk, Vcr.zy. 

ii /,heou£ht to apply his mind to receive the word 
of God in the po^er of it I* Theff.i* $. 2 Cor. 10. 4 5. 
Rom.6 9 ij 9 

24. Fourthly, he ought to ufe ^11 his indeavo or t > present 
himfelfe obedient cm according to his W rd R*m. 

G K AP.2. 

Of Confciznct. 49 

Chap. 2. 

Of Knowledge* 

BEcaufe to tkc performing of Christian obedience there 
is neceffarily required fome knowledge. Concerning 
knowledge therefore* 

The firlt Qut fticn is, what a kind of fli^dy of knowledge 
ought to be in us? 

i.Anf. Firft, wee ought inthisftudyto take heed of all 
affe&ed ignorance^ 2 Vet.^.Vrc.iM.if.j. 

i . Secondly we ought aho to avoid all curiofity JO cut. 29 
2$*?yo.2S.\* 1 Tm*6 20. 2Tim.Xl$. Tltu* 3.9, Iohn%\. 

3. There is a fivefold curiofity of knowledge, 1. when we 
Would know thofe things that God hath not reveal* d, a. 
when we feek to know thofe things which belong not te our 
lelves,but to others^. when we fpend mod ftudy about things 
leaft net efla ry ,4. When we defire to know the hardeft things 
and negleft the principles, and fundamentalist 5« When we 
reft not fimply in the Will of <5od , but would ice a reason 
of it. 

4* Third! y 5 we ought to ftudy for the knowledge of thofe 
thine* efpechlly which are molt neceflary for us in curlife^ 
1V<% 9,1 3.1 Tmw.6.8. 

5 .Fourthly 3 we ought to labeur for a growth in knowledge, 
not contenting our (elves to be children in understanding 
1 Ccr.i^.20.Heb.%.i2. Cer.$ itf. 

<.Fifthly>we ought to take heed of all pride, which is wont 
to ipnng from knowledge,! CV.8.1, 

Thefecond Queftion is what a man ought to doe that Meanes tooi^ 
he may obtatne fchd knew ledge ? tiine know: J 

7. Anf. Firft 3 thc mind is wholly to be devoted unto piety, l ecJ g c * 
JV*. 1.7. 910. fyrfZ.25.14 Iok* 7.17. For as knowledge is 
eafy to the godly, t ro.$j$c 14.6. fo to the wicked it is im- 
portable, Pra.24»7. 

8*Secondly 5 wemuftdeny ourcarnall wifHosne,! £0^3.18. 
Pr0.2d.12. H 2 $. Third- 


j 50 The third %*ok$ 

9. Thlrdly,the lufts of the flerti arc to be avoyded, becau fe 
they blind the mini, E/^.4. 1 8. By afc>ufing>difturbing 3 allnre- 
ing,and preffing it down. 

10. Fourthly, Heavenly wifdome is to be highly prized 
and to be fought with proportionable care, Pro* 2.4. 8c 3. 
14,8c 4.7. 

11. Fifthly, it is to bedefiredofGodbyearneftprayer, 

i2.Sixthly>hamility andmodefty and fobiiety rimlt be ob- 
ferved,Pr0. 1 u$.Rom.i2*$. 

1 3. Seventhly, we mult confer and confiilt with thofe that 
God hath indowed with a larger meafure of this knowledge, 

i4.Eighthfy , we ought to glory in a holy nunner in the 
poflellion of Heavenly knowledge, Ier*$* 2 4. 
, 15. Ninthly 3 this wifdome is to be fought/m a daily and 

i ttligious heeding and hearing of the Word of God y 

i6< fenthly^ that knowledge which we have obtained 
muft be turn'd into ufe and praAife D tMttnheT*. 25. 29 1 
j . fohni^hy* 

Motives to *j»k e third Queftioa is by what arguments a man may be 
Knowledge, ^ r ^ U P ^fceke this Divine knowledge ? 

s esfnf, 1 • fiecaufc knowledge pertaines to the natiirall per- 
feftion of a man , as appeares by the temptation ofourfirft 
parents,, Gw.3.5. 2. It-is that which makes a diffcrehce be* 
twixcmanandthebruitbeafts^P/*/^^. 3 They whichare 
deftitute of this> knowledge are in fome fort mare ftupid 
then the bruit beafts 3 Efauify 4 Knowledge brings along 
with it a ccrtaine Angular 9 and honeft delight , Pro. 14 13. 
I4» 5 Without knowledge the heart of man cannot be good, 
Prci 9.2, 6 Knowledge is the key of the ( Kihgd6me of 'Hea- 
ven, Luke 11.52. 7 Knowledge is the fpiriruall food of the 
foule^r^io. 8 i his knowledge is neceflary to make* us 
partakers of the covenant of God, Heb&tA 1. 9 The faithfutl 
are all of them children oflightnotofdarkeneffe, Fphefi 58. 
Io The want of this knowledge, and averfrieflfe to it is foo- 
lifhaefli, Pr^i.7.22. ix It is thecaufeofail wickednefle, 

ef Confckttce* 51 

1 Con 2.8. 12 It doth (b corrupt good affections that it 
makes them become tv\\ Row. 10. 2. 13k isacaufe, and 
note of perditionjH^^ 6* 2 Cor. 4 3* 

Ch a p. 3. 

Of the Feare of Cod. 

THt feare of God,hath very neare affinity with the know- 
ledge of God, P/i/. 11?. 79. Concerning this feare 
therefore : 

The firft Queftion is whether all kind of feare of God be a good and 
good? evil] feare of 

Anf There is both a good and evill feare of God 3 8x. 20. God * 
20. And hence it is that feare is fometimes generally com- 
mended, Pr0.28.14. Sometimes againe it is generally found 
fault wit b,e/4f*c 21.8. 

TheTrcond Q.ieftion is what is that feare of God that is 
to be found faille with ? 

2 AnC-i. I hat feare which fcarres men away fr >m God, An cvill feare, 
or which drives them to fly away from him 3 £#.20.18. Gen. 
3,8, e^0frv5.t£i a The feare of them aifo which are onely 
atfraidot Gods anger, fa t 2* 19. YtaS.c 5. 

The chicd Queitioji is what is 1 hit feare of God which 
is commendable? 

AnJ 1. When we reverence the Majefty and Power of 
God, (o that the principal caufe of our feare is not any evill 
which we are in danger ot, but the excellent -perfection of 
God, G '.28 \j. & 31.42.53. Ecrltj^.2. 2\Vhenweare 
moi\zfoAdQteffmdingGoA^Ecdes'9.$.Pro.i5 13. 3 When 
we aredff v fted with.trembiingupon the fight of Gods wrath, 
P/i/. jo.;o» 

The fourth Queftion is whether the feare of punifhment 
be not a fervile feare? 

4 Anf. If k be only in refpeft of punifhment it is meer- Servile fcarej 
ly fervile, and vicious, 2. It in puniftiment wehaveachiefe 
refpect unto our own rnifery , to fat it is fervile 3. Buc if 

H 5 punifli* 

The Third Btok§ 
punilhmcntberefpefted only fecondarily, and be feaf d c£ 
pecially for this caufe that it fepacat's fromGod,and tcnd f 8,to 
this end to mifee us more wary in waiting before God , foch 
a feare islaudable.4. It theM nifter ot God , and the revenger 
be to be fear'd tor wratb,ZJ c 1 3.4.01110 h more is God himielfe, 
Heb.12 29.Amos.%%L.%. 

Thefitth Qiicttion is what be the figncsofche true feare 

^•nAhf.jJLl we (erioufly and carefully avoid thofe things 
that are difplcafing in G^ds fight, Pro.$ 7. & 14.16,8c i& 
6. 2. If out of Conference to God, we abftaine iroin thofe 
finnes that are moft fecret and thofe which in rcfpt&of men, 
we might with fafety enough commit, Zw.19.14. Get 42. 
1 $.Iofa$i.ix.ti i t$. 3 If we not only abftaine from Ons fcut 
even hate them and that for this cauic ef pedal. y becaufe God 
doth deteft them, Pr^.8.13. 4 If we be molt careful! to take 
heed that we depart not away from God, hu*2 40. 5 If 
we not onely abftaine from evill but ftudy to do that which 
is good EccUfiaftes 12.13. E**t. 5.20. 6 If wee labour af- 
ter perfe&ion in every part ci Salification, 2O.7 i.Vhil. 
2.12. 7 If we neither feare men nor any creature fo that 
they can fcarre as from doing our duty,Af**. 10 28./?'* 8.1 2. 
i3.iPrr.3.i4,i5. 8 If we imploy our felves in tht Word of 
God, and other holy things with feare, 1 Cor.j *$< 9 If 
we ufe the very name and attributes of God with reverence, 
Motives to The ilxth Q ue ftion 3 by what motives a man may be ftir'd 
* , up to feare God? 

6. ^/Ii.ByaconfiderationofGodsOmnipotency, Ier. 
%.22.hb 37-23. t^Pfal.76^7. 2 By a confideration of the 
Kmgdomeof God Tfal. 99.1. Jer. 10.7. Dan.6.%6. 5 His 
powerfull government of all things, E/2r.2 5. 1,2,3.4, 4 His 
particular judgements againftfinne, P/*/.i 19. ii8ji 9,120.17, 
Htb.$ 16. Eptr.^.^.j. 5. His univerfall judgement ot the 
whole World, SccUs 12.13,14. iprr.1.17. 6 His threat- 
nings 2 JT/Vr 2*.if.Heb.$.i6. 7. The pnnifhments that lie 
upon in.Luke 2% 4. 8 The mercy of God,P/*/, 130.4. pHis 
benefits,/^^ ?fal,ji^, 1 The prcmifes that are made 


OfConfcknce 53- 

to them that fcare God, Pfa/mt 55. 12, 13,14, &34.J?. & 
Proverhs 10, \y. & 13. 1 3. & ip. 23. & 21,4. Eff/<?/ 

& 12, 

Chap. 4. 

0/ humility towards God. 

BEcaufe the nature of obedience (lands in fubjeftion, there- 
fore in the next place we mutt treat of humility towards 
God in which there is a fubmiffion, /*. 4.6,7. which is joyn- 
ed with the feare of God, 'Pro, 2 3.4. 

The firft Queftion is what are the fignes of true humility 
towards God? 

u Anfl Firft, A ferious acknowledgement of our owne Sins of tu- 
imperfe&ion before him, 'Pfafyo.i.}. £74.40.*. 1 P*M.24. ^oSitf. 
For pride ttands in an imagination and affedation of ex- 
cellency ; 

2. Secondly, an acknowledgement of that fame great guile 
which lies on us by reaibn of our (ins committed againliyhim 
Rom. 3. 19. For pride doth exclude the ferious conteffion 
hereof, Lnke 18.11. 

^.Thirdly, a fuom (fi m with filence to the judgements of 
God^P/i'.^ 5. 1 £0^.3. 18. /^•i.ix.ac 3^.37. For a proud 
man anfwer? againe, Rom.g.zo* 

4.Fojrthly, an amplification of the grace and mercy of 
God in all his benefits, 1 Chrort* 29. 14 For a proud man 
doth in fome fori thinke hiuifelfe worthy of all good things, 
and that they are no more then his due, Deutri.%* I4'i7« 

& 9*4> 

5. Fifthly, an holy admiration of thoft wayes of God ^ 
which *re paft finding 011^/^.42.3. Rom.u. 33^34. Tfat.ij;. 
I. For a proui man thinks himfelfe able to comprehend ail 
things, and that all things ought to be communicated to 
him . 

6.Stx:hly 3 a laying afide all our dignny and excellency 
ab jvc others 3 in the prefence of God and duties oi his wor- 

54 ' TheThirdBeoke 

fhip 3 <4/w«4 10, For a proud man hath his thoughts upon 
hisowne excellency, and doth cpntemne others even in the 
prefence of God. Ltfke 18.! t. 

7. Seventhly 5 an apprchenfionofourownemeaneffeand 
bafeneflTeinthe prefence of God, and a trembling becaufeof 
of his Ma jefty, Gen. lS. 27. 

8, Eighthly ,an holy modefly in the worfhipofGod^^j 1 

p. Ninthly ,a voluntary Undertaking of thofe taskes which 
God puts upon us although they may fceme to be but men 
and bafe>Pi?//.2.$. /<?/?# 13.14, 

Thefecond Queftion is by what arguments a man may 
be ftir'd up to the fiudy of humility towards God ? 
Motives to 1 0. Anf. Firft , if he fee before his eyes die majefty and 
humility. power of God D i Pet.f.6. 

1 1. Secondly , if he consider of the nature of this humility 
to wit that it makes thefoule of man fit^that it may becoarie , 
an houfe or temple of God , Sfey .66.3. That it may be a fa- 
crifice for God, Vfal.^ui^. that it may be a receptacle for 
the grace of God , /w.3«3-5" that it may be capable of wif- 
dome, prc.iuim For this is the mother of all other yer* 
tues, and is alfo it felfe a lingular ornament of the foule, 

1 2^hirdly 3 if he confider of the promifes which aremarfe 
to the humble.God will refpeft thera,£/*/ 6 6.2. He will give 
them his grace,/^*^. i pet. 5.5. He will exalt them,/<*«r. 
4.10. 1 pet.^A.Lftke 1 S.i^He will reward them with all kind 
of good thing*, /w.22.4. 

13. Fourthly 3 if he confider that humility isnecefiary to 
the end that we may (eeke God and turne away his anger, 
Eph.2.^2 Chrcn.i2.-J. 

i4.Fifthly,if he confider that humility is required in every 
duty that we.performe to ,God^Mica.6,S t 

Chap. 5, 

Of ConfciMtoi £ ; 

Chap. 5. 

Of Sincerity* 

BEcaufe fmcerity is a proper quality of obedience, coneer* 
nine it therefore* 

The fcrft Queftion if, wherein confifts the finccrity of obe- What fine 
dieitfc? rhjri* 

1 jfnf.¥ir&, that it be not only cxternalj,bu t chiefly,and 
principally 5 intcroall 5 vfal. 5 i&.M*t,2$.2 %• 
%. Secondly^ that it refpeft Ood efpecially,and not men. 

3 • 1 hirdly , that there be a (hunning of all mixture of cor- 
ruption D and by-rcfpc&s, iOr.5.8. 

4* Fourthly, that nothing be omitted,or neglcftcd,which 
belongs unto perfection. 

5 ; Fifthly^hat it expeft its fruit from;Gtd,and not from 
man, Rom%2%2<). 

The fecondQueftionis^whatarethefignesoffincerity? Q . r 
6. Anf. Firft, if a man love the light of the Word , and fime ^ s 0I 
come to ic that his deeds may be made raanifcft,/<?£# 3.21. 

7. Secondly, if he be obedient in the abfence,as well as in 
the prefence of lookers on,in fccret as well,yea and morc,then 
in publike, fbil.2'.i2.CMat.6.6. Not only when God makes 
his prefence manifeft by his judgements, but even when he 
feemes to be abfent* pfal*7%*& 

8.Thirdly,if he cleave faft unto God in adverfity,as Well,as 
in profperity,7<?£.i. 8,^10,1 u 

^Fourthly ,if he have a care of all GodsCommandements t 
even of thofe which feeme to be Ua& 9 Mat. 5. ip# 

10. Fifthly, if he abftaine from all appearance dfevill, 
Thef 5.22. 

1 i.Sixth Jy 5 if he neither cover, nor excufe his fins,but con* 
fefle rhem,andforfakethem, Pr^.i8.i3«2.C^7.iJ, 

The third Queftion is by what Motives a man may be 
ftir'd up, to endeavour after fincerity? 

I l2>zsfnf. 

iotircs to 

erity. re i ns 

56 The Third Bottg 

is. ^CFfrftjbecAufe^ 

tins, Pr*» i6.*.8e 11. 3. PftLj* 10. & 26. a, e^r. 2.23. 
r^.31. 4. 

1 3-Secondly , becaafe it is chc means to procure true pcace^ 
j oy^and (ccurity, Pro. 10 $• 

14. rhirdiy,G)d is delighted in fincerity , p/y.51.8. pro. 
10.20. And will bfefe thofe that be Upright with aJ ; 

1 S F. >iirchiy 5 a doubte heart is abafe^onftroih^wl abho* 
minable thing* 

I . - . ■ , ■■■ ; ■ ■ ' . ■■ " >- « ■■ ■■ ■ ' 

Chap. 6. 


BEctufe the higheft degree of cur obedience* oward* God # 
confifteth in zyalo T&refoe corcerningthifzeaie. 
The nature The firft Queftion is wherein the nature: of zeaktjcuh 
* w,e - confift. 

\>A*f* It ccnfift3 inth^t, that the s#e<P ion ofpleafiug 
God^nd promoting his glory be, in the higheft degree, 4po* 
3,15. 19. New becaufe iuch a kind ofVchcBttrcydothprin-- 
cipally (h-W it fdfein the refitting of thofe drlng* tthiclfop* 
pofe the will and gloiy of God ; Theiefore for their; ofc 
part it is referred to that opptfiiiori^hichisnoade^gairift 

Signes oi jh e ftco^r? Queftion i^wtiar he the figms of true *ealc> 

* €tIc# 'il&nf. FUft, if it be according t©Knowleg^«r» 

io* *• 

3.$econdly ? if a man be ready toperforme wha t foe vrr duty 
may be in joy ned, according to his ftrength yea and above his 
3rength;a O.I3. 

4. Thirdly, it he be diligent in the execution of his cfuty 5 

5. Fourthly , if hee put no other limits and bounds to 
his- obedience 5 then thofe which God himfclfe (hall ftt, 

6 Fifth*. 

Of Cdnfcienc$. ^ 

6.¥iithly,\fxit)&tobtfhildtm Iris owne cawSe, and in thofe 
things which conccrne himfelfe, and fervent in thofe which 
concerne God, Nnmb. i 2. 3. with £oxod^%. 1 9. QdUtu^. \ 2. 
mtWAHs 13. 9,12- For trucaealeis therefore called the zeale 
of God 5 bettatife it is* priflcrjvalfy carried toward God; 
Whereupon one faith 5 it is *n aft ft ion to rcver.gt the injuries 
ef Ged % or f root out the enemies of Go J , §r a jealoufy perfi eat- 
ing the adulteries tf thrifts Spovfe , together with the occt* 
fims Abdfigues ef Adnlttrus ; or 4 vehement I0V4 which 'doth 
bj * clojt and findt g*ard'feelude theSptrfr'tffhriJt fro* 
IVorld. -• '- 

7.Sixthly 3 if th^t ferv6ur and heat of it Me not prircipalJy 
in contentions about queftions andoontiwerftes 5 bat in tfee 
ftudy of good works«77r.2.i4. 

8, Seventhly ,if a man be af&fted in gr eater matters 'fcore,and 
in fmaler 5 Ieffe. cJWar.33^23. 

9.E!ghthly 5 if he be no more indulgent unto himfclfe then 
he is to others 5 (JW^^.7.4. An example cf checontr-aty wher- 
of we have3GVtf.38.24. 2 Sam.i 2.5. 

io.Ninthly,if he cannot bearc with fuchasareevill.v^pr. 
2.2, though they be (uch as in other refpe&s are neere unto 
him r i Reg. 1 5. 13. 

ir. Tenthly , if his indignation againft firine be joyned 
with griefeand pity in refpeft oi the finners 3 2 £V. 12.21- 
For fo«afwell that dull remiffenes which is oppdlite to zeale^ 
as that fury which looks like the heat of zeale 3 will be with 

12. Eleventhly, if it be c6nftant and the fame in every con- 
dition, GaL\ 15*18. 

The third Queifion is by what motives a man may beftir* 
red up to a zeale of God ? 

1 3. iA*f.T\x% becaufe zeale 19 the property of the people * Motives * 
of Chrift, and one of the things lvhichChrift intended to c * ^ 
our redemption//</.2.4« 

J4.SecondIy , becaufe thofe things which belong toGpd 3 
to our duty coward him, are (above all thing?) moft wor- 
thy to begone about 3 arididowe with 2eale,GW.4. 18. Although 
we ftould be even as it were eaten up with it, ffal$6g. 1 o.Joh» 
2.17. I 2 i5.Third-, 

$8 The Third B^ 

1 5* Thirdly,becaufe there can beno true religion without 

16. Fourthly ^becaufe if zeale bewanting/innesandfcan* 
dais are not taken away , but nouriftied i« our felves, and o« 
ttars , with the offence of God^and diflionouc of his name* 

i j. Fifthly, becaufe the want of zeale provoReth God to 
inflift heavy judgements, Apoc.2* $.& 3.1& 2Thetf.i,io, 

1 8. Sixthly , becaufe there 1^ fingular promife of Gods 
pretence and communion with Ghrift* made to fuchasarc 
zealous, Afc.$. 20. 

1 9.Seventhly,becaa(e zeale perfe&th,and inaketh more ac- 
ceptable all the duties which we performe unto God. Jam 9 % } 

20. Eighthly,becaufe that is the way and fitted manner of 
feetting the Kingdom of God,Mat.i 1. 1 2, 

au Ninthly, becaufe that many that make only a (hew of 
Religion , are zealous perfceuters of Fteligion . Matthew 

The fourth Qgeftion is,what is to be done of us, that we 
may get, confirme , and excite the true zede of God in our 
felves ? 

2%.Anfi»erJNe ought, 1. totake heed of all chofe things 
which are enemies to zeale.Such are,* 1. Sundry fpeculations, 
and qucftionSjWhich tend not to the edification of men in 
Faith,and obedience. 1 Tim.i 4.& 4.7. 2 Tim.2. 1 4.2 5. Tit. 
1*9. For the intention of the mind about thofe things which 
aremeerly fpeculative, alchough it may be a means to and 
out the truth, yet it hindreththeintentionoftheaffe&ions 
about things prafificalL And this is the reafon why there is 
more true zeale often found in poore fimple Chriftian9 5 then 
in our Doftors and Matters , 2.. Intention of the affe&ions 
about worldly things, Luke 8,14, 3 Afpirmnllfatiety or 
falaefle, that is, a prelumptionofour ownfufficiency, and 
a refting in that degree and meafure to which we have attain- 
ed, -P&t 7.3*1 3.1 44 4 Sloth,Feare, and carnall wifdome. Iud. 
i.ip.ar # 27,2?.29 5 3o.3i,32.33.5 Familiarity with the world, 
Qr the corpmoneffe of finne abounding in others. cJW^.24. 

22. 6 The 

Of Confcicncc 59 

%2. 6 Thepra&iceof fuch things ai our onfcience allow* 
ethnot $ ikw. 14.20.21. 7 Indulgence to our felves in our 
own corruptio u 3 i Cor. 5. 6, 2 Corinthians 7. 1 i.Ephef* 4. 
29. 30. 

23«SccondIy, wc ought often and ferioufly to medicate up- 
on t he love and mercy of God toward us. Pro. 2 5 . 2 1 • 21. 

. 24. ThirdlyjWe ought to meditate daily of oar imperfe&i- 

2 5.Fourthly,we ought to be diligent in the w(e of all thofe 
meanes 9 which God hath appointed for the begetting of grace 
- in us 3 i 7^^.5.16.20. 

26. Fifthly, weought to affbciat with them,that have the 
zealcofGod, Prr.22. 24,2*5. & 27.17. Among fuch we mu(t 
efpechlly defire thofe Mimftecs whole tongues havebeene 
touched with a coale from the Altar, Efdj 6. For by notori- 
ous and lamentable experience (even inxeformed Churches ) 

> that is found to be true,which the author^heretofore praifed ) 
writ long (ince*The words of life in the lips of many Dolors & 
preachers are dead \in regard ofthevcrtue* and efficacy 5 For they 
doefo coldly and dully preach the wordkofGodjhat they feemwen 
to be dead in their lips iWhence it comes to papjhat as they them- 
felves are cold and dead 3 evenfo doe they leave their hearers cold 
and deadend I would to God they di X not make themfo. I knew a 
mm that for thU caufeleft the City Paris 5 For he [aid that he 
was mads colder, and colder daily ^ with the Ltttures and Sermons 
in Paris: And that he was afraid if he foonld flay longer there ^ 
hefhouldbe quite frozen to d.?ath i\ iritually.TVhcrefore he got him 
to certaine nial-QHs pe'rCo/is^Murdo hot coals ^that converfing amor.g 
thtmjoe might nourifh. andincreafehis heat. 

The fifth Queftion is whether zeal is to be judged accord- How wee 

, ing to the fence thereof,and the manner of .exercifing ? mv,ft .Ng* °f 

27. tAf Not alwayes ;For zea!e is greater effentially^n ^* 
regard of the things about which ithconverfant 5 or acci- 
dentally 5 in regard of fome circumftarces which happen, and 
doe not alwayes remains the fame. For example v mar- 
ried folks loving one another dearly , are fometimes more 
affe&ed upon the very marriage, then in that cenftantfo- 
ciety of life, which afterward followes. ikit this is by 

I 3 accident, 

the Xbfrd Btdke 

aeckWpt 5 bccafcifc of the novelty of the thing ; But in v4r)r 
deed fhey may afterward rejoycearmuefcor more* 

28. So a!fo thefaithlutl in the firft convcrfion miy finde 
often greater motions of their affe&ions, then afterward ^ 
becaufeofthenoteky of the things though there be after- 
ward an increafe in the true zeale of God.Some i«ch thing h 
affirmed even o f tht' Angcllt»£*» 1 5 .7. 

29. In old age , or in fome fuch like decay offtrength 3 ai- 
though there may be the fame zcale t or more then was before, 
yet it is not put forth in fome,in the fame manner* that it was 
in,in their younger dayes. 

§o. Variety of education may bring a great diverfily to the 
manner of exercHIng ones reale, when yet there may be an *• 
quail eeale inrefpeft of the eOence of it. 
How itale The fixtfc Queflion is whether one and the fa&e thing 
tad laughter fazf belaft&liy a matter of zeale and laughter > 
doca^ree. %udnf. That this may be,appearcth in the example of 

££*&, 1 Kings 1S.27.mth 19* 16.14* But yet not In the fame 
refped. For xeale hath foe its objed fomething either hosefi, 
er filthy, but iaughteris caufed by the apprthfcnfionofan 
unexpe&ed thing that lightly pleafeth, without theeonfide- 
rition of honefty or fxlxmnzfit* 

; — — — £ — ! ~— — ■ — 

CHAP. 7. 

Offeree and tranquillity of Conscience. 

BEcaufc the concomitant bb jeft of obedience is a quiet 
ConfciencfcConcernihg peace of Confciehce. 
Mowp*acc The firft Qgeftion is how peace of Con fcience doth de- 
•J 11 Conf ^ tftc 5 pend upon our obedience? 

*bcdknce« UP ° u ^ n f* h depends not upon Cur obedience as upon the 
principall caufe, but rather upon that juftittcatibn which 
we have by Chrift Jefus, Romans 5,i.fik£. 10.22. 1 feu$.%u 

2 # They which goe about to reft in themfelves 9 or in their 
*wn works 5 am sever finde any folid tranquillity in their 


Of €*hfcknc€> If 

Confckocca, both betatrfe of chc diverfefa!Ir 5 and becaufe 
of the manifold imperfc&ions* which adhere to the endea- 
vours of the bed men, while they lire in this Worl^. : .And 
hence it is that rfi<>f* Uaat a*c popifh ncuft needs, bt vtx<*d with 
perpttui':<ioub:s bathinliff» 5 anii death, becaafc of the opi- 
nion which they h nc of th? ftiglueoufaeffe , .iand JWerits of 
their w^ks, which are yet by their own: catifeffion ur> 

3« Secoadly, iid»i ^oa^our- obedience; j.js 

that Vf^te^y the contrary -is removed, or as upon rtwt which' 
removes tteiolpcdi nent;, !.<£.***♦ 2 5. 3!. 1 fnh ^ iS su 2 As 
upon the proc eane caufe^ or iccoadary rcafon ttarcof, 

3 7' .'. 12. 

s :>w ch.i > oiid?rai<brd f ^aiafhat.the trarabudh'ty 

ib C j»j)fcience i ut^rd ofthofc liSfcranswhixrhaieag riuabia 
tj vhi Li\*oi Gi>4. is to be Conceived to depend upono- 
'bedience in regard of the thing it felfe : But that tranquility 
\jjilih refpcdi our ifer< -before God , is tobc.afdihed £0 o- 
therwife to our obedfenee ; ks to the caiift 5 but only in reft 
pe& of the certainty of dJir perceiving of ir^ and that out 
obedience refpe&eth the thingit (elfe ,. as cfae figneanddFe& 
thereof rhence that pbtafe fooftufedby tohb s Bjjfbis>ws.iffow 9 
and fych l&euM a.?.3 2948c 3.1014.19.& ^13. 

5* Peace of Cootcience alio depends Uf on obedience, as 
upon the confervant caufe. For r igbtcolHfkfle(no$ impu ed 5 
nor inherent ) but of the life and conversation , is the breft- 
plateofa believer, whereby he is guarded, and defefilUfi^ttd 
ia perfeftly fafe 3 and quiet* E/$W. 14.1 lob*$j}%i Cftr.^JHence 
it is that that righteoufnefle wfctch contirtBin obedietk*,^ 
is called the rrghteoufnefle of a good Gonitience , *Afts x 
24. 10, 

- 6. Now obedience doth, pre(erve andtrJaintaincpckcof 
Gonfcience, not only as a figne of our reconciliation with 
God , but alfo as a continuation and an exerctieof that life 
which is acceptable, and ple^fing unto God, £#/.i.io.71fe^ 
4»i. Hf£.i2.*8,Not that there i* any fuch perfeftion in our 
obedience, as can fatiffy the Law of God, but becaufe that 
after ©urperfofl* by iakh in Ghrift , become acceptable to 



What kinde 
of obedience 
isrequifite to 
make the coa- 
fcience peace"* 

God^then by vertuc of the fame faith, for Chrifts fake, our o« 
bedience though weakc,and polluted,is accepted before God, 

The fecond Qyeffionii , what is that obedience, by the 
prefence whereof theConfcience may enjoy peace* 

7# /^*/iFirfr, an abfolute perfection is not rcguired to this 
tranquiIfity,for then it were a vaine thing to teeke for it in this 
Iife 1 /^w.5.2il hhi.io. 

8. Yet fuch a porportion istieceflary, as by Gods own 
teftimony in his holy word is acceptable to him,H*6.i 1*2, 

9. Thirdly,this perfe&ion confifteth properly in this, that 
all our ft u dies, and endeavours be good : and the imperfecti- 
on be only in the manner of performing D R<?;\$.4, 

10. Fourthly, all thofe imperfe&ions which adhere to 
our obedience , are with all humiliation of foule to be 
acknowledged^and pardon for them it to be begged in Faith, 

The third Queftton is^ what kind of tranquility it is 
which doth ari(e from fuch obedience ? 

11. Anf Firft 5 Such as the obedience it felfe is^hat is, 
various 5 and imperfeft. T.CorA.1^. 

12. Secondly, it doth not therefore exclude motion from e- 
vill,unto good 3 butonly that perturbation which arifcthfrom 
the apprehenfion of Gods Anger. 

1 ^.Thirdly', Yet notwithftanding it doth as with a guard 

keepe the foules of the faithfull, PhiL^j. And govern them* 


Difference The fourth Queftion 5 how may the peace of a good con- 

twhet the peace f c i cnC e be diftinguifted from that peace, whichisinwick- 

of the godly, cdfncn > 

& the wicked. 14.Anf.Y1vbj.he peace of the wicked is not founded up- 
on the Word of God, but upon vaine words, and imaginati- 
ons,/^. 2 3a 7,1 8. iT^jf.5.3. 

1 5. Secondly * the peace of the wicked is not wont to be 
conftanr^but is interrupted with many gnpes,and pangs,that 
come between ; andis wont to vanift) D when the judgements 
of God begin to light upon them. 

16. Thirdly, the peace of the wicked continues , whe- 


Of Conference. fa 

thcr duties of piety 5 and righteoufnefle be done or omit- 
ted/o that only thofe crimes be abftained from, which their 


Chap- 8. 

' Of Vertne. 

Qtleftion. i. Whether it be not enouh for a man to doe xknccefli 
that which is good, unlefle we labour alfoforan ha- of vertue, 
bit of vertue , whereby our hearts may be inclined to that 
which is good? 

Anf. Weought to give all diligence to addc to our Faith, 
Vertue, 1 Pet. 1.5. 

1. Becaufe the Word of God , whereby we are in fpecialf 
manner called upon for the performance of our duty , ought 
to be ingrafted within us, lam. 1,25, 

2. We ought to deliver up our felves unto the (ame 
Do&rine,as to a pattern,or mould,the likeneffe of which is to 
be exprefled in our he&vts,Rom.6. 17. Now this inward image 
and Hkencflcjis vertue. 

3. As we ought to put off the old man together with his 
members, which properly are internal! vices, 1 So we 
ought to put on the new man with his members, which pro- 
perly are vermes. 

4. We ought to be framed and fafhoned after the Image 
ofChrift, Col^Ao. In whom did dwell all the follnefle of 
vertucs. Efay u.i.Qol. 1. 19. And that for this end,that of his 
fulnefle we may receive grace for grace, 'Jeh.i.i 6. 

5. If the habit of vertue be abfent D although wcftiould 
doe fome good works , yet we are not rooted and grounded 
in good,but arerafhly carried away with evil!, and that good- 
nefle foone vanifheth. LMat .15.21 .CoLi.i%. 

6* That good which we doe without vertue,we doe it not 
with an honeft and good heart,which yet is required to make 
it plcafing unto God. £#.8.15. 

7. Such kind of works , are not the obedience that is accep- 
table to God. Mat>j.\$.& I5%8. 

K Qi>2 

64 anfie ThirdBooks 

Iwcanes to Qiisftlon, *• Whae ought a believer te doe, that he may 
I jtaine vertue. g COW and increafc 18 any vertue > 

8.v/^.Firft, he ought ferioufly and in a fpeciall manner 
to acknowledge his failings, and weakenefle 3 2 £V. 3. 5« 
I Cor.%. i%. 

9. Secondly , he ought in Chrift to apprehend that grace 
efpeciaily , which he wanteth , that in time be may be ftrongi 
andcomp!eat ) Pfc/.4 13. fil.i>xo. 

10. Thirdly, he ought diligently to take heed of all fuch 
things, as are contrary to that vertue, which he labours for, 
P^.4. 14, 1 $ .Epb.4.2 9,31. 

1 1 . Fourthly ,he oughtto employ himfelfe in thofe thing?, 
wherby that vertue may be promoted, % Pet. 1 . 1 2 . 1 5 . 

1 2»Fifthly,he ought to feek the fame vertue at Gods Hand* 
by daily and earneft prayer, lam. 1.5* ^tf .4.29. 

ix. Sixthly t he ought frequently and diligently to exercife 
himfelfe in thofe things, which are proper to his vertue, 
j 7^.4, 7. 
Signesef Quqftion* 3* What be the fignea whereby a man may 

rtue. ' know that he hath gotten, a ny vertue ? 

l^.Anf. Firft, apropenfion and rcadinefle in a manner 
naturall to the exetcifeot that vertue a 1 Pet^iyi Theft.^.?. 

15. Secondly , firroeaefle and conftancy in that exercife, 
Eph 9 $. 14,1 5. 

1(5. Thirdly, a joy and delight arifing from that exerci (e. 
3V#.ai.i5.2CV.8.2.& 9.7^3. 

17. Fourthly , an abomination of the contrary vice, 

18. Fifthly, an alienation from thofe which are given to 
that vice, Trc.2 9.27. 

1 p. Sixthly .> university, whereby it comes to paflc,ihat,a 
man doth not only in part , and in (bmcrefpeft follow that 
which is good , and oppofe that which is evill( admitting a 
iimitation.and meafure according to camall wifdom ) but 
fimply^and abfolutly* 1 £V, 13.7 .Gd* 1. 1 o. 

C H AP.f. 

.OfCafikucu 6; 

Chap- 9. 

Of 7rHicnce. 

AMong thofe conditions which are ncccflarily required 
to vert ue, after that generall j uftice , which notes out its 
eflenriall re&itude % followcs in the next place, Prudence , or 
fpirkuall wifdom. Concerning it therefore. 

Queftion, i . In what thing doth true prudence confift > The aatwi 
x.Anf. Firft, fpirituall wifdom doth generally confifi in of Prudence* 
fuch a difcerning, circumfpeft looking to, considering, and 
ordering thofe things which belong to Gods Glory, and our 
duty, and falvation, that asmuehasmay be, they may be 
brought unto perfe&ion. <?rvpi4»8ti5.& 1 5.24.& 22.3. But 
in a more fpeciall manner it belongs to wifdom, 1. To pro- 
pound a right end evermore unto our felvis, and to be en- 
deavoring after it: lertmj 4.21. 2 T$m.$,i 5*33t2^, For,that 
mans wifdom is in vaine, who is not wife for hitnfelfe, and 
for his own good. 

2. Secondly >to make choice of fuch meanes as do tend cer- 
tainly to that fcope5?r^.2.p« 

3. To walke accurately 3 and precifely in the ufe of thofe 

4.T0 take hold af^and to redeem every opportunity^ the 
advanceing^and helping forward of this ftudy,^/.4«5»:* 

5 .Carefully to take heed of, and avoid all fuch things , as 
do hinder this ftudy, Z*£.2S.28. 

6. To f orfake all things elfe 5 for the attaining of thh chiefc 
good 5 J/^.i3.44#45 < 

7«Not totruft to a vaine hope,but to lay a fblid foundation 
in all things, Af fr.7,24. 

Queflion, 2* By what meanes may this wifdome be M«sne$t# 
gotten ? g et wifdom- 

8.yfo/;Firft,it comes from none other then God aIone,by 
theHdy Ghoft 5 7^,28»i2,i3,i4,20*2i.23. Ef*j li*i*^£fb* 

1.8.17 7*».$.-i 5. 

K 2 9*Se- 

66 TkeTbirdBtoke 

9. Secondly, that we may obtaine it from God, We muft 
fcrioufiy acknowledge and confeffe our owne foolifhneffc. 

io.Thkdly,we ought to feek it in the Word of God.Py*/. 
19 7»& 11998.99 lo+.ler&.g* 

li.Fourthly,wemuftfeekitofGodinaduemanner. law. 
1*5.2 C0rj.1o.-1 1* 

1 2. Fifthly, we oughtto dlre& all oar obfervation and ex- 
pwiencecothfe gettingof wifdcra 5 P/r90.i 2. 
Motives to Queftion, 3. By what arguments,we may be ftird up,to 
!tke for Pru- labour after this fpintuall wi(*tom > 
Itnce. 1 frisfnf.Virh, becaufe therein lies the perfe&ion of man 

aibovpothw Greature$,P/;32,8.9. 

i4.Sccpndfy, becaufe it is a maihe part of Gods Image, 

15. Thirdly^ becaufe it delivers from all evill , Troverbs 


- 2 6. Fourthly , btcaufe it conduceth Wall good, Proverfo,-. ' 

Nmiecaufe in Scripture there U mention made of an 
human ypifdom 9 orj>rud<nce 9 opp9fed to thisfpiritmll 
reifdom : therefore the Qjueftion is 
Humane Qacftion, i. Whether all humane wjftlome is to be con- 

ffiftom. demned? 

1 j. Anf. Hamane wifdom is confidered 5 2.waye$ jeither 
as it is fituply an humane per te&ion , or (as they call it) an 
intelle&uall vertue, whereby the bufinefles that a man hath 
todor b though*heybemanyand great, areeafily corniced, 
judged , and dire&ed $ or as. it is a corruption and abaft of 
that faculty, and hathfome finne adhering to it, or mingled 
with-it. In the former fenfe it is a thing good in regard of 
nature : and fo to be commended and laboured for : although 
in refpeft of any morall goodnefle , his ^ thing -of an indif- 
ferent nature , neither good nor evill, as all other naturall 
perfe&ionsalfo are. Givill wifdom therefore confidcred in 
it felfe, is not oppofed to fpiritiiall wifdom, but only as a 
difparate. But in the latter fencse,it isa thing. e<rillin regard 
of the morality of it, and to be condemned, swjuiravoyded. 


Of Conscience. 6y 

For it is oppofed to fpirituall wifdom as a thing adverfc : 
For which caufealfo it is called flefhly wifdomt/arthty, (enfw 
a/t.dhe/ifi,]am.%. 1 5. 

Qijeftion, 2, When Is humane wifdom carnall,and in Carnall wif- 
thatrefpeftto be condemned ? Aom. 

i?./f/7/;Firft 5 when it oppofeth it (elfe dire&ly to the 
teifdom of God 3 in deviling any evill^m/.!. 10. Pr0.21.3o. 
P^ f tf.i3« That is, when it becomes an inftrument of any 
impiety, or injtiftice. For wifdom when itisjoyned with 
ungodlincflTe, is nothing but wickednefie armed. And to be 
wife to do cviliji^ not to be wife 3 but to be unwift. 

19. Secondly, when It contemneth the wifdom of God 3 and 
accouateth it foolifhnes, 1 Cor.r. 23. 

20. Thirdly, when it wilfby no meanesbe (ubjeft to the 
wifdom of God. #0.8.7. 

21. Fourthly,whcnin(bme fort ityieldeth to the wifdom 
of God, in regard of the thing it felfe,which it (eeketh;but in 
regard of the meanes and manner of feeking, trufts to it fclfe, 
2^.5.11. 1 Cor. 2.14. 

22. Fifthly,whenitmakesamanmoreuncapableofthofe 
things.which are of the fpirit of God, 1 CV.2.14. 

23. Sixthly, when it is made a matter of boafting 5 7<?r.p.23. 

24* Seventhly, - when truft and confidence is placed in it, 
Pr*.y,6. & 26.12. 

2 5»Eighthly5whenitisfeparated from innocency 3 aad fin- 
ctxuy>Rom.i6.ig.M<tt.io*\6 t 2 Cor.1.12. 

Queftion £ 3. By what means may a man be brought to 
contemne thiscarnall wifdom 1 

26'c^*/j.Becaufeitfets men further offfrom the King- 
dom of Godxhen fimple fooliftineffe. 1 Cor. 1,26 ,27. Mat. 
1 U2i* 2 Becaufe God doth ufe to infatuate , and bring to 
nought fuch wifdom. 1 Ora.19.2Q. 3 Becaufe it is ferpen- 
t?ne 5 and diabolically^. 1./4W.3.1 5. 4 Becaufe it deftroy- 
eth tbofe rn whom it is. Pr^n.3. 5-It overthroweth all 
humane fociery , and takes away the comfort of life, 2 Sapt. 

K 3 CHAP. 10. 

£g The third Book§ 

CH A P. io. 

Of Watchfulnefie. 

BEcaufe the exercifed forehand (a$ I may fay)a&ivity cf 
patience is ufually in Scripture fet forth by the name of 
watchfulncflTe.Concerning it therefore. 

Qt}eftion,wherein doth it properly confift ? 
i ./**/. WatchfulneflTe is nothing elfe but an heedful! atten- 
tion, whereby a thing is gone about with diligence, Luke 
2.8* Heb.i$.\6. But this fpirituall a& of vigilancy : which is 
required of all men, is in Scripture referred to three objeft*. 
I, To the watches thcmfelves, that they keepe a watch over 
thcmfelves , Pro. 4,2 3. & 2 To their duty, that they watch 
unto that, Eph.6.i$. 3 To the future, for which they by 
this duty prepare thcmfelves, Mat. 24. 43.44,45. Thefirft 
may be called the objeft over which, the fecond the ob jedtfor 
which t The third the objeft to which. But although for teach* 
ing fake we doe difiinguifh thefe three, in practice they cnght 
always to be conjoyncd, fo that we alwayesobferveour 
felvcs, watch to thofe duties which ly upon us , and prepare 
our feives for the future. Eccles. 5. 1.2,34,5. 

2. Watchfulnefle over our (elves in generall is nothing 
elfe, but a vigilant obfervation of the Will of God, Pfidw. 

3. Particularly , there is required in it,as in the watching 
of a City that is befieged , or any other way in danger , that 
we obferve,and inquire, 1. Intoallcommers in, whence they 
come, and whither they tend ; and to all thofe things which 
come in by our fenfia, as by the City Gates , that if they be 
hurtfull, they may be excluded, Tfa/y ii£. 37. hb*$\. 1. 
2 Into all that goe out, as intoall our thoughts, words, and 
anions, which proceed from u$.Pre.^2^ } 2^.Pf.^2. Eccles 

4* Vigilancy as it refpe&cth our duty, is nothing but a 
carchilnefle about thefe things, which God hath com- 


Of Conference 6y 

;;nanded,how we may pleafe him in them, i Cowj^i. 

5. Vigilancy is particularly required, i. Before the duty is 
perfourmed, that the tmtter be duely weighed, Pr^.14. 15. 
That all impediments, (whether they be thingsin themfelves 
lawfull,or unlaw full) may be removed, iPer.2. n» zTim* 
2.4. That we may be fit and prepared for the doing of our 
du:y.Z>.2t.}4.36.And that we may lay hold on the occafions 
of doing it, that are offered , Gal. 6. 20. And the contrary be 
avoided.Pr0.4.i5.& 5. 8. 2 In the very duty,that it be done 
in an ex ift ; and accurate manner. Luke 8. 18. 3 After the du- 
ty, that it be not marred by any following corruption, 2. 
M.S. Becaufe it is ca(iiy wont, either to be corrupted by 
pride, 1 ev.4.7. Or by inconftancy, and levity to be over- 
thrown, frr.34. 11. 

6. Watchtulnefle as it rcfpe&s the future , which we are 
to have before our eyes, is a due preparation , fuchasthat, 

, which we expe&,do:h require % whether it be good , that it 
may be received,or evill,chat it may be avoyded. Maui^ 4 1. 
44,Particulary here is required, I. That this preparation be 
made in time,Mar.2 5.3. with 1 1.2. That it beufed conftantly, 
and without ceafing, Lu.*i.$6* 

Queftion 2. What is principally required for the obfer- 
ving of this watch * 

7.^«/.Firft,fobriety in the ufe of worldly things, 1 Tkeff. 
5 .& 1 Pet.+j.Sc 5.8. For the heart is overcharged,not only 
with farfettingand drunkenefTe^bat alfo with the cares of this 
Iife3itf.21.34. 3d. 

8. Secondly , a frequent confideratlon of Gods owne 
prefence, and beholding of our wayes , Pr*.i.2o.n* VfaL 

, ^.Thirdly, a frequent examination of our wayes,with a juft 
cenfure,and judgement pafled upon themjP/u|.4» P/ili 9.59. 
1 CV.11.31. 

io.Fourthty,the fcilow{hip,and fociety of them,which wil 
be to us in this care, PA/7.2, 4, Hcb* 10. 2 4. 5. frequent prayer* 

Qyeftion, 3. By what arguments any we be ftircdup to 
this watchfulnes ? 

70 TheThirdBook? 

Motives to i U Anf. There is oneeflentiall reafon^wkkbis tafcen from 

watchfulncffc that dangerjn which both we our (elves are, and the Name of 
God by reafon of us,i Tim.6.\. 

12. Now wc are fubjcft to that danger. I. Through the 
infirmity of our fle(h , Mat.26.4u 2 Through the deceits of 
the divell, and the world. tPrt.5.3* 3 Through theuncer« 
tainty of the time of Ghrifts comming tojudgement^either 
generator particular. Mat.24.42* 8c 2*5.15. .^r.13. 33.35. 
Lu.ti. 35.36. 

Chap. n. 

Of Fortitude. 

BEcaufe next after prudence 5 fortitude is requifite to the 
perfeftion of vertue : concerning it therefore. 
Queftion, 1 .Wherein doth Ghriftian fortitude confift* 
1 .Anf.lt is not to be confounded with animofity 3 or ftout- 
nefle, which is to be found not only in men voyd of all ver- 
tue,but alfo in the bruit Creatures, the Lion, theHorfe,the 
Bull, the Dog, Tre.j 1.29. 30.31. 

2. Secondlyjet courage or greatnefle of mind,hath the na* 
ture of a </m#,orGenerall>in refpeft of true fortitude: which 
therefore confiftgsnot €0 much in the moderation of bold- 
nefie»or hope,as in the moderation of feare, and defperation, 

3. Thirdly, it doth not only confift in adventuring upon 
dangers, or undertaking hard things , but alfo in fuffering, 
and bearing cvills, and adverfity , Hebrewes ii«34i35«3tf.» 
2Tm.2.i.%. * 

4. Fourthly, but true fortitude adventures upon dangers, 
and fuffers adverfity,for vertues fake, and for the performing 
of his duty, 1 Pet^l^Sc 4. 14,15. 

5. Fifthly, fortitude therefore is that courage, where- 
by wc are xeady to perforate our duty, even becaufeitis 
our duty, what drfficultie's loever happen. 1 CWM5.58. 
& 16. jj # 


CfGonfhknCi!* 71 

d.Sixthly,he cannot be faid to be truely contagious, which 
offers himfclfe to dangers, not onc§ conlidering what they 
are, or why to be attempted D or intangled in them by chance, 
or compeUM by neceflity , and not led thti^tcby vertucv 
It was not from fortitude, and courage,that the Demoniask^ 
tMatk*?. Oitcn leap t into the wacer 5 often into the firc^but 
through the violence of the evillfpiritjfoitisrotiromtbe 
vertue of fortitude, that ir.ary ?re fiiong topouredowne 
dtinke, J?/*.5.22.Yea,many attecrpts, by which men are 
judged valiant 2nd couragicus^by foolifh A&s,are nothing but 
made furies. 

7. Seventhly, neither hath he this vertue who is fcarred, 
or doth defift from doing his duty, through any fcare,or dan- 
gcr 3 Pr*. 24. 10. 

8. Eightly.yet it is heretobcremerrbred 5 thatthcccurage 
of the faith full in this life , is joyneduith infirmity , and fo 
fome momentany (baking, wherewith the godly fomctimes 
arc made to ftagger, may confift with the fortitude of vcttue. 
Jfr.20.9, 2^V. 4. 8. 

9. Ninthly, and although in regard of purpofe of mind, 
and preparation of heart , the faithfull doe arme and fortify 
themfelves againft all fuch things, as may hinder them in 
their duties. 2 Qor.6%^ Yet notwithstanding they arc not 
alwayes equally prepared to the fuffcring and undergoing of 
all kinds of moleftations,as Satan obftrvcd 3 Iob*u&2, And 
the event in Job in fbmc fort proved. For that whfch ex- 
perience teacheth in corporall fortitude in a due proportion, 
holds alfo in fpirituall 5 Some areftrong to fuffer labours j 0- 
theirs to exercife warfare 5 others to carry burthens • others t$ 
reptll things that are hnrtfull ; and many which are jlrong 
in one or other of thofe things^are found infirme , and weake in 
the reft. ■ ** 

Qa.2.By what mtanes may this fchriflian fortitude be fUr- Meancs to 
red up in a man ? ftir up forti- 

io./^Firft D if he acknowledge his owne weakenefle 3 #<w. tud * 
5.6.2 C#r, 3, 5, 

n.Secoridly 3 if hecpnfider that he is choftn and called of 
God to perform that duty 3 which he goes about. 1 Chron.iS: 
io, L 13/rhird* 

72 The thirdBooks 

1 2. Thirdly,if he perfwade himfclfc that God will be pre- 
{ent with him in that which he bath commanded hiro 5 Deut* 
20.3.4.P/27.12.2 Reg, 6. 16. 

15. Fourthly , if he expeft and looke for al! fufficiency of 
ftrength from Goi.Eph>6.io. ^A/7.4. 14. ^73.26. 

14. Fifthly, ifhe call to raind,how the victory hath bcene 
long fince gotten for him by Ghrift ; and that nothing is 
required of him, faveonely, that he adhering unco Chntt, 
become a conquerour with him , and ia him, Ufa 16. 33. 

1 5. Sixthly ,if he flick clofe to 1 bat promife.which teftiiie?, 
that all things (hill work toge her for good to them that love 

i6.Seventhly>if he tave the recompence of reward, which' 
is laid up for him,alwayes b:fore his eyes. 1 CarJ% 5.58. 

C H A P. 12. 

OfBoldnejfe which is contained under fori it fide 

BEcaufe under fortitude is contained boldne/Ie, or con- 
i5dence 5 pcrfcverancc, and patience j of thefe therefore 

Qu. I . What U thu boldnejfe of fortitude f 
I. Anf. Firft, by it we undei ftand not here properly that 
confidence of Faith , whereby we reft upon God by Ghrift, 
unto falvation ; Norfimply that confidence of hope, wt)f5f|* 
by w* exped the things , which God hath promifed : but 
that confidence, whereby we being full of Faith, and hope, 
doechcerefully and boldly fet upon the duty laid upon ui by 
God. hu i % 7.8.19. A£l.m$.2$& ^i^.Epbef.6. 19 20. Thil. 

Qu.2. What are thofc adverfe evitls which are properly over- 
come bj this confidence ? 

2.4^/iTwoefpeciaHy^i. The difficulties which hinder 
us in the performing of our imiea Pro. 22* 13.& *6. J 3. Secies. 
11. 4. Cor. \JS. p. ( 2 ) The uncertainty of the fuccefle or 


Of Confcicnce- 75 

event, which will follow upon the performance of the duty, 
Daniel. J 17.18. 

Qu. 3, 2?/ what meancs is the mind confirmed againft thofe 
vexations ? 

3.ex//f/.Firft,by the fervour,and heat of the fpirit,or seal 
*AR. 18.25 2 *- i*ff.4«8.\vith i^.tAmos 5. 24. 

4.SecondIy. by a true truft placed in God 3 Pr0. i^«3^37*5« 
& 55.22 1 Pet.^ig.U 5.7.^. 58.11. 

5. I hirdly,by faithfull prayers, commending our (elves to 
God.Phit.+.6> Efth^.\6. 

6. Fourthly, by a right judgement concerning the ter- 
rours,whcreby wcareaftontfhed. For fometimes the things 
which terrify us, are utterly to be contemned, as the fpeeches 
of vain men, &c. Sometimes they are mcere figments,which 
if we pafie an cxaft judgement of them, vanifti presently, 
and they are fuch alwayes , that if they be compared wirti 
the dignity 5 fruit, and neceffity of our duty t they are of no 
force at all* 

Chap. 13. 

Of firfancj* 

QUeftxonrf.Wherei* doth perf entrance, or constancy of 'vert ne 

1. Ldnf. Firft, In a perpetuall continuation of the (ame 
purpofe,and difpofition of welI-doing.GW.4.i8.P/*/.io6.3# 

2. Secondly, in a frequent iteration of the (ame kind of 
aftions, with fervour, and seale.i Thcjf.f.ij. 

3. Thirdly, in a care ro procecde and goe on in a way of 
vertue.P£//t 3.135*4* 

Qy. 5. Which ate the evills which are oppofed to thU 
Confiancj \ 

4. Afif. Firft , declining out of the right way. M. 

23.II. 12. 

5«Secondly, wearifomncfle, and faintingtGW.d.p. 

L 2 4| Thirds 

74 * The Third Book$ 

^Thirdly* a defukor y lightnfle whereby men are chaflged 
every houre,and become unlike themfclvefJtfc called childi(h" 
toeffsjf ^,4-14. And madneffe 3 and bewitching, GaU^u 
Q11. 6* How are menftirredw to constancy ? 
7. if^Becaufc the reward is not promifed, fave only to 
themchacperfevcrc, Apoc m 2. 10,26. And therefore it is vaine 
foreman to begin D unieffe be tiold on 5 and gos through with 

Chap- i4- 

Of Patience. 

/^\Uueftion 3 7. What id the nature of patience? 
V^J 1 A«{+ Chriftian patience hath reference to a three- 
fold ob je&. f . To God ^ according to whofc pleafure all 
adverfe things 5 are ordered. Iob.iao. & 2.9 10. In which 
refpe&, murmuring againft God is oppofed to patience, 
l^ir.iaia sTom^n, or thofc means which doe dreftly 
affliftus. iTbef.i 4^wuh 6 1 °et 2.20.& 3.9. In which ref- 
pe&defire of revenge isoppofed to, patience. R0m.12.lj.19. 
3 Tothat office, orduty, which fc>7 the oij legations of adU 
adve(ity,we are tempted to forfafce.fJ^.ro }6.£<*.i2.ip. 

In which refpe&faintneflfc of mind is oppofed to patience, 
H?£*.I2>5« And drawing back, and departing out of the 
right way , which followes there 5 H^.io.36.with 38.39. & 
12.7-.wlth 13. 

& In the firft confideration.p.atiencepertaines to Religion 
towards God 5 In the fecond to charity toward our Neigh- 
bour, In the third, it is a part of fortitude, and a general! 
affeftion of vertue. Yet to the third confi deration, may the 
other two be referred, fo far as our duty, either towards 
God,orman,isconfideredinthem : Althoughbefidesthis 
gcnerall nature, they have fpeciall difference, by which they 
may be profitably diftinguifljed from this , and betweene 

. Qu.$.H$yp kthisfAtiencey Andfufferancejobediftfagwfb- 

Of Canfcicfict* 75 

fi/ed fro$*th*t , fortitude , which coxftfts in configure , and 
fonfttney ? 

%.Anf> Thofe three are alwayea joyned together in true 
fortitude ; but confidence or buldneffe doth properly relpeft 
the fettiag upon a duty, conftancy the continuation of it,pa- 
tience a the.defe»ce of it. 

QiitfVbat be the fignes tf this patience ? 

ArftAxf. Firftjif we neither utterly contemne the difficul- 
ties ,thal: we meete with^nor faint under them* HcL 1 3. f. But 
doe overcome all oppofitions dueiy weighed in a right 

5. Secondly, if we be prepared inmindforrigbteoufoefle 
fake,notonely tofuffef thofe tirjubles^which are leffe,bu: even 
thofe which aremoft fearfulL^S* 2 1.13, 

6. Thirdly 3 if we do not only, not qtiite forfake our du- 
ty, becaufe of difficulties, wee meet with \ but not Co 
much as remu, orleflfeaany thing of otfrzeale, Hebrews^io, 
35«& 12.15. 

7. Fourthly, if we undergoe thefe trouble! not as by con- 
ftraint an^ unwillingly, but with fpirituall joy and cxultati- 
o^Mi' 5.1 i.^o/.un.Heb.io.^. 

Qu. *Om By what motives mzy we be confirmed in this Motives to 
patience ? ' patience* 

8. y^CFir {^becaufe without this patience no good thing 
canbepcrteftlyaccomplifhed fawj 4. 

9. Seco idiy, bee uiie without p 1 eice we want the poflcC 
fionofourownfoules,//*^ %t. 19 N-itherean weattainetb 
have our heart* eltablilh^d in any thing that is good, Jam.\. 
5. 1 Ot Pro* 24* 10. 

10. Thirdly, becaufe by thefe troubles we are brought into 
1 triallby Oxi who takes a proofeof us by the Devills tern* 

tationr, Hub 10.32. Wherein unlefle by patience we gee the 
bettet we muft needs to the diflionorof God, and our own 
hurt be overcome by the Devil!, Rem. 12.21. 

u.Fourthly, becaufe in thit triall God hhnfelfe will give 
bothafupplyofftrengchafldahappy ifluc, 1 Cor. io.ij. 

L 3 Cha P.15* 

?6 the third Baoke 

CHAP. 15. 

Of Temperance 

BEcaufe to the conftitution of vertue there is required 
( befidei the uprightneffc of juftice the dire&ion of pru- 
dence and the firmeneflfe of fortitude ) the cuftody alfo or the 
guard of Temperance , therefore fome thing muft be (aid of 

Qu.I Wbtreinlieth the nature eft emperance m 

1 . Anf Fir ft , As fortitude doth arme vertue againft thofc 
things , whereby men are wont to be deterred and made af- 
fraid of doing their duty : fb Temperance doth defend it a- 
gainft thofe things which are wont to allure , and entice men 
away from the fame. 

a* Second Iy,akhough in that viftory which Temperance 
obtaines over flattering Temptations ( in the refinance of 
which there is oft times much molcftation) and in that con- 
ftaney alfb which is properly a fruk of Temperance, there 
be to be found a magnanimity and heigh th of mind neereof 
kinne to fortitude ryet there is a difference betwixt it and for- 
titude becaufe of the difference of theob|c&$. 

3.thirdly 3 becau(e every obje&,that doth allure and intice, 
hath fome ihew of godd;and the appearace of an honeft good, 
as fiich, doth not allure to finne , but to honefty : therefore 
the objeft of Temperance are things that have a (hew of profit 
and delight ; or profits and pleaftires. 

4; Fourthly, alfo love, defire, and delight are converfant 
about fuch kind of good things; therefore temperance pro- 
perly is occupied about tbe moderating of thefe affc&ions, l 
about fuch ob jeft*. 

5* Fifthly, TerDperanCe doth not utterly take away thefe 
aflfeftions, as being naturall , but doth govern them, that is, 
takesaway their inordinatneflc,in regard of their degre, ^ex- 
tent, and manner. 

6. Sixthly, thisinordinatnefie, becaufe in beleevers, it is 


Of Confchnct 77 

taken away oncly in part, therefore thefe affc&ions arc in 
fome fort,but not perfectly mortified Hence ic is, that Tem- 
perance is faid to reftraine 3 and keepeundcr the remainders of 
thcm.and to abftain from therm 

Qu. 2. What are thefl?n?t ofTemptrance ? ^ 

7. A nf< Firft, if a man be not led with car nail and worldly Temperance. 
affe&ions, but keepe them taracd under theyokeofrcafon 

and Religion,and do,as it wercdeny them* Tj7. 2,1 2. 

8. Secondly, if hcabftaineefpccially from thofe lufts, to 
which (either by reafon of the condition of bisoife 5 orby 
evill cuftome, or by the example of thofe amongft whom 
he lives ) he is moft inclintd, 2 Timothy 2. 22. iTeter 

9.Thirdly,if he ab(hine,not only from the outward works 3 

whereby fuch lufts arc wont to be fulfilled , but alfo ftudy tr> 

rooteoucand mortify the very inward inordinate affe&ions, 

ia Fourthly § if he be neither lifted up inordinately 5n 
the fruition of the commodities and pleafures of this World, 
nor troubled in the want of them, but when he hath them, 
beasifhe had them not** Corrf.19 3a.31.And when he hath 
them not,be as if he had them. 2 Cor. 6% io» 

Qu%$JVhat is to be done by pufhat we may AttaineChrifiUn Meanes t© 
Temperance. Maine T«n- 

li, Anf ,Fir& 9 we ought to endeavour by all meanei to di- P crancc * 
minifh and refill the love , defire , and delight of the World 
and of worldly things, 1 hk 2. 1 5 . 1 6. 

12. Secondly, to this purpofe it will be profitable to turne 
away our thoughts, and fcnles from things pervcifly belo- 
ved: left the appearance of good which feemes to be in them 
> prove to be an incentive, and nounChcr of pcrverfc love , Uh 
31. it For it is remarkable that the two firft perverfe loves 
w ck we read of in the Scripture, arc faid to come by the fight, 
(Jen. 3. The Woman faw that the Tree was good and plea- 
(ant to the Eyes, and Gen.6.8c 2. f heSonnesof God few the 
daughters of men that they were faire* 

1 9. Thirdly , itis profitable alfo (crioufly to ponder of 
the fading vanity of all worldly things^i M.2« 17. Eccl.i. 


7% Tht$kirdBo&kp 

14. Fourthly, to the end that we be not taken and carried 
away with the (hew of pleafures , it is good to behold them 
not as they come flatteringly, but as they goe away^that is foil 
of fhame and forrow, R?. 0.2U 

1 5.FifthIy 5 we muft be watchfull that the motions of con- 
cupifcencegetnot ftrength by long delay, but we muft doe 
oar endeavour that they be prefently and in the beginning re- 
prcflTed,ii>. 7. 

16. Sixthly, we muft often and ferioufly revolve in our 
minds how ail thofe that ever were wife and godly here, not 
without juftcaufedcfpifcdthefe pleafures, and judged them 
fit to be dc(pifed andefchewed by others. 

1 7. Seventby, the minde is to be occupied in other 
thingsjand our love, defire, and delight, are to be turned to 
thofe things which are Spiritually and Divine, thatfoevill 
love may be driven out of the mind by good love, as one 
naile is driven out by an other* 

Ch a p. 1 16. 

Of ^Drnnhenne^e. 

i. \ Mong the finnes which areoppofite to Temperance, 
xVthofe are mod remarkeable which are converfanta- 
bout the delightes of torching, as Gluttony, Drunkeneffe, 
and fuch like , becaufc fiich kinde of abufes have moft mani- 
feftly in themfelves 5 and of themfelves a morall badnefle 
asappcaresby the Law of nature, ofGod D andofraan> all 
which do condemne them. 

2. In all thofe kinds of excefle, the inordinatenefle is i 
commonly found to be eitherin regard of the (ubftance when 
more pfefious things are defired 3 then doe. agree toa mans 
ftate ; For in regard of the quantity when more is cpnTurned 
then reafon requires , or in regard of the quality when too 
• muchcuriofity is ufed for the fatisfying of ones luft 5 or in 
regard of the manner when a jttft decorum is omitted* or 
Jartly hi regard of the time when men give themfelves unto 


Of Confcimct. 83 

fuch thing! oftncr then they (hould or when they ought 

3. Now of drunfcennefle there is fomething in fpcciall to be 
confidered before other finnes of the like nature , becaufe of 
that lingular oppofition which is betwixt ic and the offices 
and works of vertuc. 

Qyii \*Wh*t is drHnhgrtnefic ? 
j^A^/.Fir^dtunkenncQk is oftentimes taken for the privati- 
on of reafon which followes upon immoderate Drinking* 
And fo it is not properly a finne by it felfe, but rather an 
effeft and puniftiment of fin. 

5. Secondly, as it doth note either a defire of immoderate 
drinking,or the voluntary drinking it felfc fo far immoderate, 
that a man by it is violently deprived of the ufe of reafon,fo 
itisagreivousfin«Pr^ t 23,3o.3?.£/^,5 % ii.H^44i« Luki 2l * 
34.1 Cor. 6. 10. Ephcf.^iZ. 

6* The deformity and filthinefle of tbi* fin doth appeare 
from thefe grounds, 1. Becaufe the Diunkard doth for a con- 
temptible pleafure fell that which is the excelknteft thing in 
the nature of man whilft he deprives himfclfe of the ufe of 
reafon, 2. Bccaufe by thU meancs he makes himfelfe unfit 
not onely for the duties of piety. Luke 21 ,34. Bat alfo for all 
honeft actions, Hef.+.n. 3 Bccau(e he cxpofeth himfelfe 
to the danger of almoft all kinds of finnes , w hileft he deprives 
himfelfe of the power to avoid thofe things which other- 
wife he knowes to be groffc fins. For which reafon.and that 
which went before it is apparentthatDrunftennefleisnotfb 
much a fpeciall fin,againft any one Commandement of God, 
as a generall breach of the wfeole Law , 4 Becaufe he doth 
fo deforme the Image of God in himfclfe , that he doth in 
1 a (bit caft himfclfe below the Beaftf. 5 Becaufe he doth 
, 1 bring hereby many mifchiefes to his body , name, and cut- 
l ward condition, & Becaufe he which is accuftomed to this 
finproveth in a fort incurable. For a Drunkard is fcldome 
or never reclaimed either from Drunken nefle, or any other fin 
becaufe his heart is taken away* Hof.^iu 

7. DrufikenncfTc is voluntary not only when it follow** 
from a direft intention, but alfo when it com met h of a nota- 
ble negligence in pieveming it* M The 

tJdE^ The Third Booke 

The outrages which a man committeth in Drunkerm*ffe 
arefofar to be imputed to him forfaultSi astheD<unken- 
nefle was voluntary ;Now then efpecially, they are both 
voluntary, and accornpted faulty , when ( all circuaiftances 
beingconlidercd ) a man might, and ib ought co have fore- 
feenc, that he would commit fuch things in his Drunken* 
nefle, either becaufe he had tryed ic by experience before, 
or becaufe in the like cafe ot Dru»kennefle , or upon the like 
opportunity, drunken men are wont to commit ftich things, 
or at lead doe expofe them feives to the danger ot commit- 
ing them. 

9. Now, although compleat DrunkennefledoeconGft in 
the lofle of the uft of reafdn by Drinking , whereby a man is 
made altogether unfit for the duties he hath to doe,- Yet 
all perturbation of the phantafte by Drinke whereby a man 
is notably made leffefit, for the ordinary exerciie of piety 
( as prayer and reading ) is a degree of the fame finne, 

10. Thofe alfo which are ftrong to dri nke,(b that though 
they drinke above meafure, they find no perturbation of 
then- forces , yet if they like to fit at their cups,to ftay at the 
Wine, and to extend and prolong their drinkings, they are 
not free from this &n.£fa* <>• 1 1 . 

11. He is a partaker in this finne, who doth wittingly 
and willingly give wine or drinke to another , to make him 
drunk. For he doth cooperate to his fin* 

12. But much more are they guilty , who induce others 
to make th^mfelves drunke, whether they intend it direftly, 
or indire&ly, by inviting them to drink, by calling for grea- 
ter pots, by ftriving, by urging them without all reafon, to 
drink as much, and take their turne, as they call it* ♦ 

1 3. We ought to abftaine, not only from the imitation,but 
alfo from the fellowfhip of fuch kind of finnes, according to 
that of the Apoftle : if any that is called a brother.be a Drunk* 
ardjWith fuch an one no not to eate, 1 £V.5«iu 

14. We are to abftain therefore ( even from this ground, 
if there were nb other) from thofe rue?, whereby drunken- 
ncfle is artificially wont to be brought about 1- of which 


Of Cmfcitnet. 
iott are the adjuring of others to drinke by t/he names ef 
fome that are great , or deare to them j the (ending of Cups 
about 5 that all and every one in his order may drinke thern off* 
that abuft of lots ( as it is in feme places »(ed ) to impeft a 
fained and (unwritten) Law andneceffity of drinking ripon 
the guefts,and fuch like rayftenes of Bacchus^ and lntroduftl 
ons to the exceflc of drinking. 

— , 

Chap. 17. 

Of Goad Works* 

BEcaufe from vertue proceed good Workes; concerning 
them therefore, 
Qu. I. What is here to be underftoedbja Works - ? 

Uy4nf. A worke in this place ought not to be diftinguifli* 
ed from an a&ion 5 as it is diftinguifhed by thetiv, who doe 
account thofe only for good works, which produce foftic- 
thing, that is good and profitable unto men, iuch as are 
alraes,the building and endowing of Temples. CoRcdges, Hofi* 
pulls, &c. For althoi%h among men, which are zffe&ed 
With their owne commodities , fucir worses are in a lingular 
manner above others extolled. Yet fudi works may be fo 
done ) t hat that aftion from whence they come,may be in many 
refpefts evill 5 although the things done may beufefulland 
good unto other men. 

2. Againe, even when in fueb works 5 not the works on- 
ly, but the a&ions be truly good ; yet they cannot be equal- 
led to (bmc other aftiori3, which carry not fo great a pompe 
1 Tim.%. I. lam. 5.20. 

3» This thing ought fo much the more diligently to be 
obferved, becaufc it pertains much to the comfort of the 
poorer fort of believers 3 who have hardly any power to doe 
anything, that may tend to the externall good of others. It 
firves alfo to abate the infoleacy of certaine rich Men, 
who thinke that they onely doe good worses \ and none 
but they, 

A & Q&2* 

.ttfa The Third Boofy 

Qg . Concerning the efficient caufc of good works ft may he 
demandei % whether the works of men unregenerate % (whereby thej 
doe in fome fort the fame thing which the regenerate doe in their 
good works) be good work*% or no : 

4. A»f* Infuch&indofwoiks, we arc todiftinguifhbet* 
wcene the fubftance (as I may fay ) of the workc, and the 
fault of cbe perfon , wherewith it is defiled : the fubftance 
of fuch w.orks is good t becaufc they are the things of the 
Law» Rom.2*i+. Now, every workefo far as it agteeth with 
Gods Law, is good. But for all that 9 there be fome vices 
cleaving td them, which come, partly /rom the perfon that 
doth them,partly, from the manner of doing, whereby fuch 
works are fo defiled , that though in their owne nature, and 
in refpeft of others they be good , yet in rcfpeft of any fpi- 
rituali obedience yielded by them unto God , they are not 

Qy*3» How then can the wor^s of the regenerate he good \ 
feeing they are many way es defied ? 

5. Anf. Although evill doth alwayes cleave botk to the per- 
fbnsandthea&ions of the godly,iR^w.7#2 1 • Yet this evill in 
their holy duties takes not away the eflence of a fpirituall du* 
ty , but hinders and diminifheth the degree and perfeftion 
thereof j becaufe all the caufes of fuch works are good,and 
only the adjun As evill: and fo theimperfeftion being covered 
in Chrift 5 the works are for Ghrifts fake acceptable^ and plea- 
fing unto God \PeU2.5* 

Qu. 4. Concerning the matter of good worrit may he de+ 
tnanded t whether it is not lawfullfor $ts at ourownefhafureto 
make choice of fomething^ in which to field honour and obedience 
ttntoGid ? 

6. This is exprcfly forbiden, Deptt.i2*%.^t.Num.^^. 
Mat. 1 5.9. Mark.7*y. 

7. Secondly.^ aoth imply a contradi&ion that we fliould 
yield obedience to God in thofe things, whereof he hath 
given us no Commanderaent : Neither without obedience 
can we give any honour to God, that may be pleafing to 
hftm All works therefore of our owne chufiog are only good 
before men through a fained and vainc perfuafion , but no* 
before God. 8; Third- 

Of Confcicmt. 83 

8/Thirdly > yet there it fome difference to be cbferved in 
good works, in regard of the matter 5 for fome are ex- 
prefly and immediatly enjoyned to all, as the duties of the 
inorall Law \ others are not commanded to all , but to fome 
only , and that is not exprcfly and immediatly , but confe- 
quently , and upon the fuppofition of ccrtaine circumftances, 
by which it comes to pafTc that(£/V & wwc)in fome particu- 
lar cafejthey partake of the nature of precept* . 

9. In fuch things, the will of God is to be gathered and 
coUe&ed by a fillogifme , whofe generall proportion is con- 
tained in the Scripture $ the affumpt ion dependeth upon gift, 
call, or fuch like fpeciall circumftances ; and the conclufion 
isoutofthepropofition fo derived by the aflumption, that 
in refpeft of this or that man, fuch or fuch a time, it hath the 
lame force of binding , with a generall Gommandement. 
For example, all ought to cut off occafion of calumny and 

• fcandall, and to take that courfe which makes moft for the 
furtherance of the Go(pelljand the edification of the Church* 
This is the propofition. 1 CV.ro. 3 1.3 2.3 3, Now P*/*/, con- 
fidcring all circumftances, did thus afliime, I P*#/, if I (hall 
freely preach the Gofpcll , (hall-cut off occafion of calumny. 
2 Ccr.ii.i2. I (hall further theGofpell, xCor^i^* And 
edify the Church, 1 Cor.p.if. Hence this conclufion fol- 
lowes, therefore I TahI ought to preach the Gofpell freely . 
*C er *9* x %* Againe, all ought according to the gifts which 
they have,and their vocation, to promote the Gofpell, I Cor. 
7.17. Ihavethegiftofcontinency, andthepreftntneceflity 
makes the fingle life more fit to further the Gofpell, then 
marriage, 1 Cor .2 6. Therefore I ought to continue in that 
fingle eftate. 

• 10. If this explication be ducly obferved n it will eafily 
■ without any longer difpute, overthrow the Doftrineofthe 

s Papifts, who makediftinftionbetweene Evangelical! coun- 
fclls, and the Lawes of God. 

Qa. $. Concerning the end of [good work* Jt isdemanded 9 
what force intention hath to make an aflion either good , or 
bad t 
1 1. tAnfh good intention by it felfc cannot make a good 

M 3 a$ion, 

84 The Third Book? 

aftiorXjbccanfc goodncfle is a perfe&ion, and doth arife from 
the perfe&ion and integrity of all the caufes. Neither is 
there any aftion fo wicked,but may be committed out of fome 
good end : the inceft of Lots Daughter was upon a good end, 
Gen. i p. 3 2. And many doe kill ChriftianSjthinking thereby to 
doe God fervice.i^»i6. i* 

1 2. Yet an evil! intention doth make an aftion evill , be- 
cause cvill,is a defeft, and doth arife out of any defeft,-^/* n6. 
I. Take heed rte doe not your almes before men to be feeneof 

Qu. 6 .What hind of intention is necejfari/y required to makf 
an aU'ioh good ? 

13. Anf* Firft, it is abfolutely neceffary that it be done 
witharefpefttohonefty , and in reference to the pleaiing of 
God, and obeying his WiV.Atts 14.16. For anaftioncao- 
notbegood, unleffe it be don under the notion of good- 
neflfejNowto doe a good thing under the notion of good- ■ 
neffe, h to have a refpe<5l to honefty and goodnefie in the 
doingof it. For hee chat doth a thing that is honelt, be- 
caufe icis delightfull, or profitable, may be faid to do& 
liither a thing profitable 3 or deiightfull, then honeft? 

1 4. Secondly , a fecondary intention of profit r or pleafure 
doth in no fort take away the honefty o*f an a&ion, but adorn 
itrather,/to#*i.i2.& 15. 

15. Thirdly, it is alfo abfolutely neceffary 5 that there be a 
reference of the aftion to the glory of God, 1 fir. io»37» 
This is done vertually in the intention of our doing our 
duty : but the more dittinft and dircft refpeft is unto God 
in aftion 5 the more perfeftitis,P/;i6.8. 

i6,Fourthly,it is meet alfo there be a fecondary intention of* 
fettingourowa falvation. 1 Cor ^9.24. 

ij.Fifchly, in fuch works as come to the notice of others, 
kisrequifite alfo that we thinkeofftoppingthemoutb6of 
thewicked 5 i Pet.$.t6. Aadof farthering others in the way of 

"*8. Sixthly* the caufe is otherwife in eviH aftions -for 
tomakeana&ioacviU> itisnotreqtiired, that there be any 


Of Ctnfchnct $5 

refpeft to evili, or expreffe intentidhofdifconouiingGod* 
Name,or of bringing death t or giving oflencc^unto others: 
becaufe as cbc nature of fin confilb in privation , fo tbe 
want of good intention is an cvill intention a and (as it is 
chofen by the will) ioterpr-eutively is reckoned for the in- 
tention of all ihofeevills, which arc oppofed to good inten- 
tions : aad hence it is due the tinner is laid to love death. 

Q. 7. Of the forme of a good aBion wherein it doth 
conftfl ? 

19. I tconfifts properly in the manner of doing 5 when the 
agent is not onely well difpofed , and that thing which he 
doth is approved of God 5 but alfo the a&ion is fo ordered 
inrefpe&ofalithecircumftances D asGod prefcribeth 3 what 
and of what nature this is,appeareth by the defedh 1 Cor* ti% 
27.? 8,29 -Comande^ 

QikS.Btcaufe the information and force of Confcience doth 
neerely pertaine to the forme of doings onceming it may be deman- 
ded , whether the Confcience ofm,inbeafufficientand ab folate 
rule to iv&rke by ? 

20. sAnf. The Confcience of a man fince the fall is defiled* 
77/*wi$* And (b by it felfe cannot be a perfeft, and pure 
rule, yea : if we {imply follow it as a leader, we (hall be 
brought oftentimes into vile wicked neffe. Iohf.i6. i.ABt 26. 
*t.Phi/.$*6* It is therefore only a fubordinatc rule, fo far of 
force,as it is dire&ed by the Word of God. Hence an erring 
Confcience hath not that power to bind, that We are fimpiy 
bound to follow the judgement of fuch a Confcience. For 
we ought never to content our felves 3 till our Confcience 
be certainly informed in thofe things which concerneour 
duty j although in this ft nee it maybe faijdto bind, be- 
caufe againft ftich a Gonlcience , while fuch , we are to doe 

Qu .$. What is to be dene when the Confcience is in 
xiwbt f } 

21. Anj. \ f the Confcience doe doubt whether the a&ioti 
belatf full we ought to abftaine from thai aft ion a till we be 
certain concerning iu i?o. 14,2 3. 

86 TheThirdBeoke 

Qtle 10. What if the Confcience be in a perplexity^ fb 
th*t it thinks it a Jin a/well to *b# tine from theaftion as f 
doe it t 

22. Anf. Out of the nature of the thing it felfc , and of the 
Confcience confidered by it felfc 5 fucn a cafe cannot fall 
out : for it caanot bs that the judgement of the Confcicnce 
ftio'jld at the faiiie time aflfent to b jth partt of the contra- 

Qu. 1 1. Whtt is to be done when the Confeienee is trouble! 
with fcruples t 

23/rhe confcience is then faidto be troubled with {cru* 
pies when it doth give affent to one part ofthequcftion, 
being hereunto induced by diffident argument? 3 but yet irt 
fome fort troubled with the obje&ions of the other fide, 
which it cannot eafily anfwer. Such kind of doubts" (if it 
may be ) ought by a certaine judgement to be laid downe $ 
but if this cannot be fuch an imperfettion of judgement (in 
afmuch as it doth not hinder aflent by a doubtefull wavering, 
but only make that aflenttobemore weake) is no jatt caule 
to make us forbearethar, which (Lch an affent leads us unto. 
Dettt. 13. 1.2. 3. 1 Kings. 13. 21. 

Q^.I2. How onght a mw to carry himfclfe between con- 
trary opinions^ when he is uncertaine of the truth t 

24. Anf. Firft 5 it is not enough for a good conscience to 
adhere to the authority of men, though they be learned and 
godly • becaufe the confidence is not by it felfc to be fubjec- 
ted to the judgement of man: Neither hath any humane te£ 
timony, fufficient ftrength to argue Gods approbation of a 
thing, or to excufe in Gods pretence • Rom. 14 12. 1 Cor. 
8. 10. 

25. Secondly^ every one ought to follow that opinion, ' 
which (after due diligence to ftarch the truth) he judgeth 
to be improbable out of the nature of the thing and the Law , 
of God compared together , whether that probability ap- 
jpcare to him by his owne fearcb, or by the hclpc of others. I 
Cor. 8. 4. with 7. 

26. Thirdly, if after due inqtiifition made the minde be 
Wholly infulpence, whether the a&ion be lawfiiU^r unlaw- 

Of Confcience. %j 

full, then that doubtfuIIn^fTe remaining, the fafer part is to 
be chofen. Now that is the fafer pai tin which there is ao 
danger of (inning, and in this caie he finneth net, who (im- 
ply abftaines from fiich an aftion 3 fb that he condemnes not 
another which doth it, Rom. 14. 5. wich 4. 23. We are there- 
fore to abftaine from all fuch tilings, about which (after 
due diligence ufed) theconicienceisindoubc, whether they 
be lawfull or no. They which doe othcrwife, doe not only 
expofe themfelves to the danger of finning in the very adion 
it felfe, but without doubt doe fin in the very manner of 

Qu« I $• W&« ^ »w» doth apprehend that^ eftvtofins he mujt 
needs commit one 7 which is he to choofel 

2j.Attf. The precepts of God doe never fb jarre of their 
own nature , that it is neccflary to break one of them by (in : 
ForwhcnaletTeCommandementis negle&ed, that agrea- 
ter may be ^obferved , that leflfe Commandament ^oth ceaft 
for the while to bind ; (b that they who upon fuch an occa- 
fion negleft it 5 are altogether blamelefTe a that is, fin not. 
Jtfath. 12.5.7. 

28.For that ufuall faying, that of two evills we muft chufe 
the leaft, it is meant of evills of puni(hment 3 not of fin. 

2?. A man ought therefore alwayes to have a fixe<i refelts- 
tion to efchew and avoid all fin. 

30. There is no neceffity of feare, danger 3 or outward con- 
ftraifit whereby a man can be excufed 5 if he doe upon that pre- 
tence commit the leaft fin* 

3 1. Neither indeed is there properly any conftrain^when 
any thing is done with certain counfell, and the will (which 
cannot be compelled J induced by feare, confentcth to the 

32. Thirdly ,if any through weaknefle be brought to thofe 
ftraits, chat bethinks he muft needs of two fins commit one, 
the confcience cannot give judgement in fuch a cafe , becaufi 
that deliberation is made againft the confcience* Yet it can- 
not be doubted*b»c he fins lefie,which commits the leflcr fin. 

N thap.18. 


CHAP. 18. 

Of things indifferent, 

QVeftion, I. IP f herein conjifis the nature of a thing ivMf~ 
ferent ? 
I . Anf. Firft, adiaphorum ( for fo it i s Galled) according to 
the interpretation of the word, is that which hath fucha 
re(peft to two extrearhs , that it is inclined no more to the 
opt, then the other , and in the fame fenfe is called an indiffe- 
rent thing 3 or a thingof a middle nature. 

2* SeconJiy,now although according to this large accep- 
tation of the word , any middle thing may be called indiffe- 
rent or adhphorttrn, yec the word doth commonly fignify on- 
ly fuch a thing as is in the middle betweene moull good and* 

3.Thirdly, the middle betweene good and evill is either, i. 
of meere deniail ( as they terme it ) in which thcreis neither 
goodnor evill to be found ; and fo all fubflances, whether 
they be things natural! or artificial!, are middle things or in« 
different : or it is 5 2. a middle of participation which doth 
fo far agree with both extreams , as the extreams agree bet- 
weene themfelves ; and thus no fubftanccs are properly things 
middle and indifferent by themfelves, becaufe none of them 
are either good or evill, but only a&ions , and di(pofitions 
to a&ionr. 

4. Fourthly , fuch aftions therefore as are neither com- 
manded nor forbidden, and that be in their owne nature 
neither points of obedience, or difobedience, are indifferent 
or middle. 

Qg.2t Whether there be any aft ions indifferent in regard of 
their kind ? 

5. An f*F it &>th\$ may be qnderftood two way es: either that 
Indiiferency be ofthefpecificall nature of anv aftion , which 
is£*lfe:orthatthe common nature of an action fhoiild have 
an indifferent rgfped to gyo'd or evjll,which is true, 


Of Confcience. 89 

^.Secondly, there is therefore no a&ion of its own nature 
fo indifferent 5 but by circumftances ic may be n)ade good, or 
evil! ; but there be divers a&ions which in their common and 
bare nature , before they be as ic were clothed with circum- 
ftances, doe include in themfelvesnogoodneffeer badneffe^ 
as,to eat,to drink 3 to take a journey 3 to walkcScc. 

Qu. 3. Whether indifferent alliens differ nothing among 
themjelves^but are all equally dijf ant from good and ezili ? 

7. jinf.ln their owne intiinfecall nature they differ no- 
thing at all ; but yet there are feme which for the mofl part 
have evill circumftances annexed to them,and fo bend more 
toward evill >and have an evill name., as to doe the worke of an 
accufer, the office oi an hangman a Sec. Some there bealfo 
which for the raofl part have good circumftances,and fo bend 
toward good, and kave a good name, as, to till the ground.to 
/ollow our ftudy diligently Jkc. 

Qu. 4» Whether d$e things indifferent make any thing for 
vrder and comlineffe f 

8. sAnf. Whatfoever it is that of its owne nature (erves for 
order or comlincfle, or edification 3 is not indifferent : for 
when they doe participate the nature of goodpefle, they are 
not in the middle betwixt good and bad. And when they pro- 
duce good,they muft needs have fome good force and t fficacy 
in them : every thing brings forth its like. 

Qu. 5 Whether do indifferent things ceafe to be indifferent 
when any certain thing isfet down concerning} hem, bjfuch as arc 
in authority ? 

9. !x4^Nothing ought to be commanded , but that which 
isgood,nortobe forbidden , but what is evill; That which 
is indifferent cannot (imply . absolutely \ and forever be ei- 
ther in joyned or forbidden ; but commanded , as it drawes 
neerrogood, forbidden, as it approacheth to evill. 

Qu. 6 t Whether anj lingular and individuall aftion be 
indifferent ? 

1 o. *A*f* Firft , there be fome a&ions which t hough they 
be a&ions of a man , yet they aie not humane aftioiis ; fuch 
arethofe which proceed from imagination only, and not 
from deliberate reafon , as the rubbings of mens hands, 

N 2 ' . id 

0O The Third Book? 

to (cratch the head or beard, to takeup a ftraw, &c. while we 
ate thinking of fomethingelfe;thefe aftions are not morally 
good or evill,they want that which is required to make them 
fo , namely counfell and deliberation For although a man 
may fin by thofe^ftions , as if in time of Prayer he fuffer hh 
imagination to wander $ and do give way to fuch toyings as 
thofe. Yet thefe aftions confidercd in themfelves are neither 
good nor evill. It is true thefe motions are fubjeft to the 
command of mans will 3 but yet they are fo fubjeft, that they 
may be exercifed without any precedent aft of reafon : Nei- 
ther are we bound any further by reafon to prevent them j 
but only fo far chat they hinder not the duties we are about. 
So for moving of the eye lids, reafon and" the will have 
power to moderate them 5 but ic is not worth the while to 
take notice how- often we winke , if fo be we take heed that 
in fuch things nothing be done which isundecent,or againft 
our duty. 

1 1. Secondly, every aftion which proceeds from deliberate 
rcafon,and is properly called humane, confidered Angularly 
and in the individual! , as it is an exercifed aftion, is either 
good or evill. For fuch a kind of aftion is either ordered 
to a good end, or it is not $ If it be,then it hath the nature of 
a good aftion , if other circumftaflcefc be correfpondent ; 
if it be not ordered to a good end, it is an evill aftion becaufe 
it wants the perfeftion,wbich ought to be in it,and is not ac- 
cording to its rule. 

12. Yet is not required to the goodnefle of naturall aftion, 
thatitbe alwayes aftually and explicitly referred to the due 
end, fo that this be done implicity and vertually ; becaufe 
reafon in that exercife of fuch kinde of aftions , may often 
with more profit be converfant about thofe objefts. 

1 3. Thirdly 3 fome one or two circumftances of an human 
aftion may be indifferent , as if one fcholler be (peaking 
with another , it is fometimes indifferent whether they ufe 
the Latine tongue , or any other. But their talke taken 
with all thee circumftances is neceffarily either good or 
bad : the reafon is , becaufe the determination of an aftion 
doth not depend upon one circuraftance apart , but upon all 
jointly together. 1 4, Fourth 

Of Conference. 91 

1 4.Fourthly, there may be forae lingular adion in which 
there is ho good nefle fpeciall to be found, which may not 
be found in another, andfo, that at this time we doe this 
or that 3 rather then another thing, therein is oftetiraes nei* 
thergoodnor evill. Opportunity, or the fuggeftion of our 
minds without any relpeft of morall goodnefle,maybeof 
weight fufficient to make the determination; 

1 5* Fifthly, although therefore there be no lingular ani- 
ons humane , that is neither good , nor evill ; yec there arc 
divers , which Angularly and in coraparifon of others are 
neither neceflary nor unlawfull. For as the Carver hath 
oftentimes no certain reafon,why he rather makes this image, 
then that : yet if he make any, it is necefliry that, he either 
follow the rules of his Art, and make a good one, br.faile 
andfomakeabad one* So it is in many Angular anions of 
men, which in refpeft oi the cxercife, have no proper reafon 
befidetheinciinatonofthemind, but in the doing they are 
either good or bad. 

Chap. 19. 

Of a voluntary AB. 

QUeft. I. Whether in a good or evill a& there be neceffarilj 
required an inclination of the will ? 
i. e^/.Firft, the will is the principle and thefirftcauft 
of all humane operation in regard of the exercife of the aft. 
For we therefore doe this or that rather then another thing! 
becaufe we will % As God himfelfe is faid to do all things 
3 of hisowne Will. Ij/p/u.ii. So alfo doth man who is made 
, after the Image of God. The firft cauie therefore of the 
goodnefle or finfulneffe of any Aft of man , is in the 
[ Will. 

2,Secondiy,libertyalfoofcleftiori is formally in the will: 
that therefore any one doth y ieid obedience to God, or ref u- 
fcth to do fo, proceeds from the will. 
3* Laftly, our obedience ftands in ourconformitft<*the 

N 3 will 

9 2 



Will of God : and the difobedience 5 in our unconformity 
thereunto. Now our conformity with the Will of God is 
firft and principally in our mW^Afoc.7.6. 

Qy. 2. Wh.it are thofs things which make an attion to be* 
come not voluntary. 

4. e^/tf/.Nothing at all but cither abfolute violence of con- 
ftraint, or chance which could not be forefeet or prevented. 
And for fuch things as are done through abfolute violence 
ormeere chince,they have neither the nature of Obedience 
or fin. As if one (hould be forced to offer incenfe or bow 
the knee before an Idol! , or (hould meerely by chance kill a- 
nother 5 Dr#r. 19.56,10. 
Of aftions Q # 5, what are we to thinke ofthofe aftions which are done 

^J^ ugh through ignorance ? 

<y.%Xnf. Firft, that ignorance Which is in fome fort a caufe 
of the aft ion ( fo that if a man knew what he did he would 
not Doe it ) if it be unvoluntary both in it felfe and in its * 
caufe, that is, not affe&ed 5 nor procured , nor tolerated, 
doth make the aftion meerly cafuall and unvoluntary and fo 
excufeth from fin. 

6. Secondly, ignorance of the Law doth nevev wholly 
excufe jbecaufe all men are bound to know the Will of God * 
but yet it doth fome what leflen the fault if it be not affe&ed, 
1 77^.1.13. 706*4.41.' ABs 3. 17. But if it be affe&cd 
it is of it felfe a fin and fo doth not diminifh but rather far 
creafe the guilt of other fins, 2 P^.3.5. 

7* Thirdly, an Ignorance of the faft if amanhathufed 
fuch diligence as heought 3 dothexcufehim,becaufeby fuch 
an ignorance the faft is made caluall. So Jacob being de- 
ceived lay with Leah whom hetooke co be Rachel! 9 Gen.2$. 
But if due diligence have not beene ufed 3 ignorance of the ' 
fa& 5 doth not altogether excufe although it do fomewhat 
leflen the fault. And this feemes to have beene the cafe of 
Abimilech Gex.20. 5. 

Qj. 4, What m c ige ofthofe alliens which' are clone 

■h fe arc. 
8. Anf Ftrft, feare doth not fimply make an action tin- 
voluntary : but doth confideringthecircumftancesof time 


J one through 
tea re. 

Of Confcience. 93 

andpIace D &c.impclIamantowiIIthi«orthat. As appeares 
inthatknowne inliance of the merchant , who is induced 
through feare of death to throw away his merchandi ze into 
the Sea.Feare therefore doth never wholly excufe from fin;yea 
more,feare it felf is oft a fin forbiddea>and a caufe too of moft 
grievous fins- cJK*mo.2<5. Phil. i. 28. 1 T^.3.14, tsfpoc. 
2i.8. Alchough therefore a great feare or terrour fuchas is 
wont fometimeito trouble even a man of good courage be- 
fore men, be accounted fora good excufe, and is of force to 
make contrafts done through feare void, yet before God fuch 
an excufe will not betaken, 

. p. Secondly, yet that fin which is committed through 
(bme ftrong terrour , is not fo grievous(if other things be a» 
likej as that which is committed of the voluntary inclina*- 
tion of the will without any {uch feare of danger, becaufe in 
feare the temptation is ftronger randfuch a fail, if repen- 
tance follow, doth proceed not fo much from malice, as 
from infirmity amd perturbation* And this was Peters cafe 
when he denied Cfhrift. 

Qu. 5» What are we to judge ofthofe aftions which are done q( a &ions 
through concvpifcenfe* dene through 

10. Anf. Concupifcenfedoth not make an a& ceafe to be concupifcenfe. 
I voluntary, neither doth it indeed diminifh the VQluntari* 
^nefleofitinrefpeftofthe aft, but increafeth it rather. For 
he that dot^ a thing out of concupifcenfe, hath a will ftrong- 
ly inclined to that which it do:h->as * s appeares either de? 
lighrfuil or profitable to him , if therefore the concupif- 
cenfe be fixt the fin's the greater . as it was in Indas^ who be- 
trayed Ghrift out of cov toufne/f e of monie3. 

Qu, 6. What are we to judge of thofe attions which are Of anions 
4pne through inadvertency 3 or hrough not minding of what ^^ l ^^ Ci% 
we dve ? t . 

} ii. ^///.Inadvertency or mindlefneflTe is of rbe fame na- 
lure with ignorance: becaufe it diftc * not from it, but on- 
ly as the privation of an aft doth d-ffer-from the privation 
of a difpoil ion. Imdvertency- therefore is it felk often a 
fjoandisoppofed ro wacchfalnefte« At (uch a time there r V>r$ 
as wee are bound to wa ch and attend, if we watch 



a a TheTbirdBook$ 

and attend, not we may be rightly faid to will this watchful- 
nelTcjnot to will it ? yeato will our inadvertency, Efa.x^. 

12* Againe this inadvertency is fometimes voluntarily 
choien in it felfe. Amos 6. 10. Sometimes it is voluntary 
chofen in icscau(e.^%M3«22. 
H , . Qu. 7. How are we faid to will a thing in its caufe ? 

is willed iniw *3-Anf. When we doe wil fomcthing upon which an other 
<a U fc # thing followes. He which will be prefent at immoderat- 

drinkings may be faid to will drunkennefle. He which wil- 
lingly gives himfclfe to flcepe, and idlenefle,may be accoum 
ted guilty of a willing negleft of the duties of hit calling- 
He which will pleafemtn, may be faid with his will to difa 
plealeGod.GW.i. 10. 


CHAP. 20. 

Of the fins of the Heart* 

^Ueftion,I. What are the fins of the Heart ? 

i./tnfTht (ins of the heart are partly thoughts, part- 
ly delights,and partly defires. 

Qu. !• What thoughts are U be accounted as fins ? 
a. Anf Ther's a threefold thought of the heart about that 
Of thoughis w hich is evill.i.In the bare and fimple apprehending ofevill. 
3. When with that apprchenfion ther'sjoynedfome moti- 
on of the heart to confent to the evill. 5, When there is a 
full approbation of and confent unto the evill. In the fir ft 
of theft there is of it felfe no fin# Forit was in Chrift. Mat. 
4. f • Hence it is rightly faid to know evill is not evill. But the 
other two kinds of thoughts are not without .fin* Forth^ 
third ttone makes qneftion , and for the fecond the Scripture 
is plaine. lames 1.14. Where we are alfo taught how to; 
diftinguifti t bofe thoughts which are evill from others, name** 
ly when fome thought about an evill thing begins in the 
leaft manner to draw us towards it, when we begin to nibble 
upon it and are tickled with it. The reafon is becauft then 
it bgins in fome fort to be received by us, and ftick in all, fo 


Of Confcienct. g$ 

that the cvill of which we thmke becomes in a fort ourf 
whilft wc begin to be moved towards it as towards an eb- 
jeftbctNvixc which and us ther's fome agreement. For al- 
though we ftop hecrc and proceed not, to a full confent: 
yet eventhis faften's fome blot and defilement upon us (now 
we ought to have fuch a care of our foules which were made 
alter Gods Image, that we fceepe them pure from all even 
from the leaft pollution and defilement. For it is well ob- 
ferved by a great author that every man is appointed by God 
tokcepe, and defend his owne heart as Souldiersarefome- 
times appointed to defend a Caftle , or Townc againft 
the enemies. If therefore without feeking of any aid, and 
without expecting iuccour from GOD hee (hould upon 
the firft attempt of the enemy yield up this Caftle, hee 
commits mamfeft trcafon. What then (hall we fay , if he 
fliould give up the Kcycs of this Caftle before there be any 
aflault made ? now the Keycs of the Caftle are the thoughts. 
For thefe open the heart, and let in thedevill. Ccrtjiniy,he 
which voluntarily gives this Kty to the Devill (hall never be 
able to cleare himfelte from guilt of trcafon. Now a man 
delivers this Key to the Devill, as oft as he gives up his 
thoughts into the Devills hands 5 or frames his thoughts to 
the DetfiUs will. The roling of the thoughts in the minde is 
like the turning of the Key in the Lock-to open it. 

Qj. 3. What delight abcut evitt is to be accounted as How the 
ftnfull ? heart ftis by 

3.*^/^ Not that onely which comes from cvill in the^hgh*. 
commHfion ot it, or after the Commiffion or while we have 
apurpofetocomrtiitit, Pr*.a. 14.10. 23. But even the firaple, 
bare, and incffcftuall complacency in an unlattfull tlrng, 
although there be no purpofe ever to commit it. This delight 
is ufually called dcletiatio moroja not from the length ot time, 
butfrom the ftay of the underftanding which ftayes y and 
prolongs the tioie in the contemplation of an unlawfull thing 
with fome pleafare. Now the reafon why this delight isa 
finne, is becaufethat dtlightijaconformiyoftheaffeftion 
with the thing thought upon,and doth containe fome appro- 
bation of kjRtf.7.22. 

O Qui* 

94 Tke Third B^ke 

Qji+ls all delight in an unlaw fell thing finfy,. 
Whether fome 4- vf*fi V^s, it' i.Ic beinanunUwfuUthii\goraaevili 
Helight in an action as its unlawful! and^vili 3 ?. If it projCeed from an a& 
jkiihwfull" fcftibn tending and inclining towards fuch things, or from 
f^S^y not any unlaw full provocation, 3. If ic be fuch a delight as in 
its-owne nature may have the torce ot a caufe f or an ocean* 
on to fttr up evill aflfe&ions. In thefc three cafes ic cannot 
be doubted but fuch a delight is a (in. But if onq be delight* 
ed in the thought of an evill thing not as ic is evilly b*tas 
there is fome naturall perfection excercifed , and put forth ia 
it : without any danger ofconfenting to the evill, fuch a de- 
light is not fimply,and of its felfe a finne. As when one takes 
delight in that cunning dexterity, conftancy^andcourage^ 
which appeared in anothcr,in an unjuft duell : the rcafon is be* 
caufe this detight'is not properly , and formally convcrfant 
about an evill thing but about a good thing* 
> What defies Concerning abfolute defires ther*6 no doubt but if they be 
be finfull. carried to things that are evill they arc finfull $ but concer- 
ning fuch defires, as are only with a condition there may be 
fome queftibn made. 

Qu» u Whether is it law full for a man to rrifa any evill of 
funifbrncnt^or miferf to himfdfe upon any condition ? 

<y.A*f. That this is in fome fort lawfallappcareSjUBy the 
example of *Paul Rom. 9* 3. Who wiflied bimfelfe accurfed 
for the lewes fake', 2. Bythething it felfe, becaufea&ually 
to undergoe and fufFer fifch a kindc of evill is not onely law- 
full , but expedient often upon fome condition, 6^.44^3. 
3#y reafon,bccau(e to fuflfer evill is not of it fcjfe an evjll, or 
a fin : if therefore the condition under which iusdefired be 
good* the defireisgood alfo. 

Qu. 2, Whether can the defire of an mhutfntt thing upon a 
condition become UvtfutU 

6. ^/Firft,in thofe things which are only unlawful] by 
mans Law fuchkinde of defires may be lawfull , becaufe ftich 
things have no intrinftcal evHlnefle in them^As if I would go 
out of the City over the Walls when the Gates are (hut , un- 
leffeittoere forbidden.. 
7, Secondly,™ fome things alfo that arc forbidden, even 


Of CoHJcicttcc. ; .95 

by Gods' law which have no fuch intrinfecall evill annexed 
to Ch that it may in thought be abftrafted &feparated; 

fuch dtCrcs may be lawfull by thejiifcjvcs, if there be no dan- 
A?m abfoliitecorifent.Asifamanfbculdfayl would take 
a Woman to be my Wife,if (he were not too^ncere of kin 
to me. 

8. Thirdly, The defire to dc*thatwhichisplainly, and 
imrin*ecally evill upon condition,if it were lawfulland not 
forbidden, cannot be excufed from fin. As if a man ftould 
fay I would commit fornication if it were not forbidden. 
For our defires ought to ftand at as far a diftance from fin as 
from any thing in the World, and to abhor it utterly :butr 
in fuch kinde of defires there doth appeare fome inclination, 
and propenfion to (in. 

p* Fourthly, the defire to doe any thing which is in it 
felfe evill , unlefle the fiogplar condition and ftate of ones 
lifehindred it, is afinne. Asifamanfiiouldthinke I would 
be revenged upon fuch a one if I were notaminifier. Or I 
would keepe company with fuch and fuch boon fellowes, 
if I were not towards the Miniftcryv For fuch men doe not 
abftainc from evill (imply becaufe it is evill,but becaufe it be- 
comes not men of their callings or may tend more to their 
prejudice then to the prejudice of others* 

10. Fifthly, when the condition is fuch an one as doth 
not except the evill in the aftion , but the danger of punifh- 
ment onely 3 then the defire is a grievous finne, anda figneof 
much inward wickedneffe. As if a man (hould fay I would 
kill fuch an one if I might doe it, and it never beknowne. 
I would play the Fornicator, or adulterer if there were no 
Hell ; for although fuch a condition , or wifh pHts nothing 
in *jff,(as they fay)that is, in being/inrefpc&ofthe thing it 
felfe, yet in the will it doth fuppofe anaffeftion towards fuch 
a lin,and ftiewes alio that he which is fo affefted would com- 
mie tho(e(ins,if he might efcapepunifhment. 

1 *, Sixthly > all fuch conditionalldcfires in a manner are 
ttjnptations of thed^ili; which tfccaoaat admit without a 
grcatdeale of danger* ,/ . 

O a CHAP.21. 

2$ The Third Hook$ 


Chap. 21. 

Of the fins of the Ulfoutb. 

.ILftion. U Whether if a man have conceived 4 fin in 
his Heart , is there no evill added to it by the uttering 
+»fh t 

1. Arf.li onedoe refraine from uttering with his mouth 
that evill which he hath in his heart f that he may the eafili* 
ereemmit it without being hindred 3 then the filence ic felfe 
is a fin, and tends to the aggravation of thecvill which he 
hath conceived in his thoughts : and a much greater fin is it 
if he fhould in his words make a (hew of the cleant contrary, 
9V0.26. 24. 25. &1018. But if one doe therefore abflaine 
from uttering the evifl which he hath thought, becaufeitis 
eviil and (liametull «, fuch anoneftops thecourfeoffinand 
doth well. Proverbs 30. p. And if he fhould when he hath 
thought evil) ^proceed to utter ic witb histongue^e increa- 
fcth hisfin by making it more compleat then it was before the 
)f idle words, Qu#2. Whether is an idle word a Jin 9 

2. Anf. j. An idle word properly and ftricktly is an 
unf ruitfull word , or a word of no uft , fruit, or profit . Now 
fach a word can hardly ever proceed from deliberate reafon • 
becaufc rcafon and the will of man doth alwayes propound 
unto it fel e fome end , and fome good cither morall or 
naurall : fo that of neceflity every word proceeding from 
deliberation muft be cither good or evil! , and fo no word 
I / properly and rigidly can be laid to be idle. 

3. A*f. 2 Tbis notwithftanding, thofe fpeeches in 
Scripture are called idle Mat.i2. 3$. Which are little or 
nothing regarded by the moft 5 and of which they thinke they 
(hall never give account. Now of th«fe words our Savkur 
faith the A fuch an account to be given before God, as that 
even in them there will bee found matter enough , and 


Of Confcience* $j 

defer t enough for the inffii&lng of eternall Condeoa* 

Qa,$<TVhether are M words ntteredinjeji orfport } or by way Of words 
ofm^rrim^nt^dle and finfnlt? fpokeninfport, 

3. Anf.T\\ey are not alwayrt idle becaufe they have fome* and ****• 
times their ufc , at lead for recreation and to make mirth. 
Neither arc they alwayes finfull : becaufe they may have a 
lawfullandhoneftufeiPn?.*^?. 1 Kings 18*27. Such kinds 
of jeft* therefore maybe both good and evill as they may 
be ufed. 

Qj.4. Whether are thofe words Jin f nil wherein men doe 
makeproJtJJimoffomegood t without any intention of performing 

5. Anf. They arc finfull , and that not onely in regard of 
thed*fe&, becaufe a due intention is wanting, butalfoinrc* 
gard of the deceit and fraud which doth accompany fuch 
worc?$ and hath in fome fort the nature of a lie, 
Qjeft. 5. Whether is multiplicity of words aft* « 

6. A* fill is not of it fclfe a fin for a man to ufe many words: 
but it is often ano€cafionoffin 5 P<?^r^/ 10.19. 

Chap. 22. 

Of fins of Works. 

Qtleft. It Whether the extemall 'Work^of fin jojned with the 
intern *ll doe increafe the evill cfit 1 
I. Anf. I. If one have an effe&uall will of finning , viz. 
• be fo affefted in regard of his will towards finne^that no- 
thing hinder? him from the eternall Worke , but onely that 
' the occa ion is wanting y fuch a man before God is accoun- 
ted as great a finner, as if bee had performed the outward 
aftion;this appears by the com. ary *fts of obedience. 1 Cor. 
S.i 2* Hff.i1.j7. 

2. Anf. *. Andyetfcchafinneiarcgardof thecxtenfion 
tofitxsmadegreal by the |ex;ernall workc. Foras fanfti- 

O 3 fication 

cfc The Thmk$ty& 

gaeat when it- ru; j \ the fphit , (pule and 

body 5 then if it I any mifi pa<t n T 

>.23. I C- $•$$., iCorwtbiansf.Jify alio 

■ane in ; u ui it bath v aS 

invaded the body", then if : it (bcuiu iicepe pofkffion Q\ 
the fcule. 

3. Anfa. In regard of that hurt, and mifehiefe which 15 
done to other*, either by reafon of fcanuall, orbyxe 

of fome reall difcoa modicy, (in is made greater by chc < 
nail work. iiW.25 .34.33. 

4. J*fc+ Hence it is that ifome punifhments a\e Juttfy 
inflJiStdfor the external! a& of fome finnestf 
kffii&ed for the internall. As a divorce js nude (jr {b 

of adultery but not for the intention* 

Qy.2. Whether doc thofe difcommodities which fall tut In the 
eventofanevilli&ork^incrctfe the fin* 

5. Anf. Thcfe kh;ds of events may have a foqrefold 
refpe& unto the. will of the (inner. 1 Sometimes ?h>ey are 
dire&iy intended , and then they doe increafe fh'e.finnc^ 
in the internall nature of it whether they tollow or follow 
not, 2. Sometimes they are forefeene, although not direft* 
ly intended 3 as, when one feeth an innocent perloaJike 
to be much indamraaged by the theft which heintendeth 3 
and then interpreutively , and indireftly they are (aid to 
be increafed D and likewife aggravate the finne, 3» Some- 
times they are neither intended nor forefeene, but yet they 
ought by fome meanes to be forefeene and prevented : and 
then alio they aggravate the fin v .bec^ufe tfafy ar C in foeje 
fort prefiimed to be forefeene ,4. Sometimes the ignore nee 
of them is void of finne 3 and then they are not imputed 

Qiu$ 9 H<nv it the 4B of Jin .bral^enpffi 

.6, A. 1. Not by every phyilcali interruption of the aS : ' s 
for if it be in a morall. (ence continued,, the (in it (elf e re- t 

7. 2. Not by a fimple ceffation of thea&or;heiranentioa 
or .will: : for that may come to pafTe thr tu^h ir^d< 
and diikacliOn^bpucother things " ^ 


9. The morality therefore of it is onely broken off by 

a contrary will and reiblution : and yet that breaking 

off is inaperfeft j unlefle there be withall fuch a change 

of the will 3 as is required to true 



f f» r&* «£• < J» «rf» «tf>* *t5» «•£» «\S» «&» 







< \ 



of coK sclE: KCE' 

Concerning the dutie of man to- 
wards God, 



R I. 


ef Religion. 

Uether relighm hontur be due to Qod tnefyl 
i. A i. All that honour which Re- 
ligion doth en/oyne, or is yedded unto any, 
becauft religion commands it is foroetimes 
called religious. And in this fence that ho- 
nour which is required in the fifth Comman- 
t dement may be called religious honour, which yet is due to 
M dircrs creatures. 

a.exf.z.Thereisalfoa civill honour, which hath a cer- 

tainc fingular likeneffc to that honour which is given to God. 

and becaufe of that Analage is fometimes called religious ho- 

nour,fuchas is pictie towards parents. 

3.-^,3. But that honour which is the proper aft of Re-: 

A lieion 

% Of Religion. 

ligion as refped unto God oncly as the objed which is to be 
honoured. For I. the greateft honour is due to God oneiy : 
but religious honour is the greateft, a. That honour which is 
due unto the Authour and Lord of life, and etcrnall bleffed- 
neflecan be given to none but God : but fuch is religious ho- 
nour 3 ♦ The foule and confeience of man is diredly fubjed 
toGod oncly .-butthisisdonc in religious honour, 4. God 
onelyis our abfolute Lord, and barhan unlimited power to 
exad Obedience at our hands : but this is fuppofed in religi- 
ous honour* 5. Every where in Scripture fuch are condem* 
ned as give religious worflhip to any but the true God. 

Queft 2. How maj religion* war/hip be knowne ? 

4. A. 1 ♦ If confidence and truft be properly placed in any. 

5.*/^ a. If the Confeience be fubjeded unto any. 

6. A 3, If thofe things which are proper to God be attri- 
buted to any. 

7. A 4. If there be a going beyond the ufuall bounds of« 
civill honour. 

Queft. 3. Inrvhatextewali aEls doth religions honour y or 
the worfiip ofCjodconfift * 

Z<A 1. All lawfull ads which men do excrcife diredly tcv \ 
Wards God, areadsot honour and religious worfhip. For^ 
Wecandcc nothing out of dune towards God,bcfide$ the gi- , 
ving of honour to him with (ubrniffion and reverence. 

p. A. 2 Yet there are fome ads in which thisaffedion is 1 
morcexprcfly fignified then in others, namely thofe in which ] 
Wee havealmoft refped to nothing but the honour of God,.; 
as falling proftrate, bending of the knees, or fubmiffive 
bowing of the body before God, by which ads the extcruaU 
Worfhip and adoration h fet out unto us in the Scriptures* 
©f the he- yQueft.4 What honour is due to men^ and to the holy o^»< 
sow due to / gels ? 

holymcnand ie. A.i.lt they be prcfent with us, civill honour is to be< 
Jingels. given to them, according to that exccllencie wh ch is is 

1 1. A.2 But if they be abfent, or appcare not unto us : 

there is no ad at all of adoration to bee exercifed towards 


\2.A^ Whether they be abfent, or whether they be 

% Of Faith. 

present, there is no religious honcur due unto thcm # becaufc 
although they lave a Angular refpect to the excellence of 
God yet chit excellencie is to them extrinfccall, and (o the 
honour w\ ich is due unto that excellencies not to bee given 
unto them. Alls iq<Aj>oc. i p % and 22. 

Chap* II. 
Of Faith. r: 

Queft. >T| Ot* Is divine Faith diftinguifhed from opinion^ 
jLX and from humane faith. 
i. A. 1. Divine Faith is grounded upon Gods Teftimonic, 
i/*£* S.9,10. 

s. A .2. It hath al wayes /oyned with it a pious affetfion to- 
Wards God, Heb. It, Rom^io. 

3. ^.3. It overcomes the world, i.Jehn $,4,2?*f»4»i8. 
Queft.2. IV hat things are of neceffitie to bee believed of Things of 
falvation, L e ki yt ° 

;/ 4. A 1 . We mud impliciteiy at lead beleeve all the things ** Wccfi * 
^ Which God hath propounded to bcbelecved, ^#J 24 1 4. 
^ y. ^.2. Wee muft beleeve with an explicate Faith, thofe 
things the knowledge and apprehenfion of which is nccefla- 
ric to it as a meane to falvation, lohn 6. 5 3 & 1 7. j, 

6, A. 3 . The things which arc neceffary to be knowne and 
belceved, for the conceiving and apprehending of thofe, 

<*$dk*l.WhatmeafKre and degree of knowledge is^neeefm 
far j in thofe things -which are explicite ly to be beleevcd, 
p 7. A. Thofe things may be knowne three wayes j Firft, 
According to thcfubltancc of the fence or ftntencc in which 
khey are contained. 1 .According to that declaration where- 
[by they are dilti ictt v explicated in the Scriptures to the edifi- 
cation of Faith. % ..According to the difficultie which ufually 
I arc, or may be railed about them- Now it is fuffident to fal* v 
vation to know the fore mentioned things, according to the 
fubftanceo^ the matter, and the neceffary declaration of it. 
For example, it is fuffici'ent to falvation, if one underfed 

Aa 2 that 

Of Faith. 

that die Father, Sonne, and holy Ghoftjs one God in eflfcnc<v 
diftingufftied into three Perfons : that Chrift is the true Sonne 
of God, and true man alfo, in one Perfon, although he undcr- 
ftand little ornothing of the fabtic difputations about thefe 


Qpefafy Whether can that man be fave<J 9 which beleeves 
Any thing oppojtte unto the things -which areneccjfary to be be* 
leevcdto falvation* 

S.iA. If he doe underftand that they are repugnant, hee 
cannofcbeleevc both. But if through errour, and want of in- 
ftruftion, he thinke that they may both ftand together, fuch 
an errour, doth not exclude a man from falvation . For there 
is no mortall man, which is not fubiecft unto errour : neither 
fcthere any errour in Religion, which is not in fome fort re- 
pugnant to the foundations of Religion, 

Qucft. 5 . Whether fuch men can be faved y M make no m*t~ 
tor At all of thofc things which are not abfolmely necejfary to 

9.*A. It cannot pofliblybe, thatthofe (houid have true 
faith about things neceflary to falvation, which doe flight and 
ncgledall the reft. For hee which is carcfull about his faiv \ 
vation, will fceke the moft certaine, and the mod diftindt 
knowledge thereof, a. Thofe which by true faith adheard- 
untoGod, doe make high account of Gods will and com- c 
mandements. 3 .Hee which hath true faith, will feeke not 
onely his owne falvation, but Gods glory. 4. True Faith as 
all other things, will feeke the prefervationand increafc of it 
f elfe. 5 . It takes delight in all things like unto it, and agree - 

QvLtft*6 .Whether a man may, by divine Faith beleeve a, 

!€>♦ A % t. Divine Faith neither by it felfe,norby accident, 
neither directly, nor indirectly , is the caufc of a falfe affent, | 
asitisfalfe,for{oGod,and the truth of God (hould be the * 
caufc of faflhood. 

1 1. A .2. Yet it may concurre as a caufe in regard of the 
fabftarjee of the aftbfaffentingto thatwhkhis falfe,by rcafon 
of an ill accommodation, A Sis 2 1 . 1 1 ,1 7. So the cale (lands 
m &ch a Syliogifme, whole propofition is true by Divine 


Of Frith. 

Faith, andtheaflumption is admitted by an humane faith or 
falfe opinion. "For example, whatfoever is revealed in the 
Scriptures is true ; but in the Scriptures it is revealed that the 
holy Marty rsfhali rife from the dead athoufand years before 
other men, therefore it is truei 

Qucft.J. Whether may a man makg an ill ufe ofDivine 
Faith $namely,by referring it to jome evill end % as vaine- 
glory ) or finch like ? 

12. A, Divine Faith it felf e ^cannot by it felf e be referred 
to an evill end : but fome kind of knowledge that is gotten 
by it, may be thus perverted, i CV % 8.i,2. 2 OM.2,7. 

Queft.8. What kjndof eer taint ie is there in Divine Faith? 

\l.A.\ In refpedt of theobie#, there is a greater ccr- 
taintie of Faith then of any naturali knowledge, 

14. A .2. In refpect of. the fubicft alfo^it workesof its 
ownenatureaftrongeraffentinus then naturali knowledge 
doth,becaufe it is grounded on a more certainecaufe.- 

15. /^.£.Yet becaufe the underftanding of man hath a 
greater proportion to naturali things, and doth comprehend 
them more fully, there fore it doth notalwayes ufe the Light 
of Faith with that certainty with which it ufeth naturali 

1 6. A .4, Hence it is that fuch waverings and doublings, as 
be unvoiuntary and indeliberate, may ftand with true Faith, 
becauieof the imperfeftion of Faith, and the infirmity of 
the underftanding.* 

Queft.p. Whether abeleever may be infallibly certain* that 
he hath Faith ? 

17. A % 1 .According to the nature of the thing, and in com- 
mon courfe, he which doth belceve, knowes thathe doth be- 
lieve : For the underftanding re fle<9teth upon its owne acti- 
on, and as it were by an evident experience perceive th what: 
it doth, as alfo what to will, willeth. And as by naturali 
knowledge wee uotonely know a thing fur ely, but are furc 
alio that we know it. And we know alfo whether the will 
be carried after fuch an obicdl or.no, fo alfo it is in Faith, 
©thcrwite no man qpuld fay as that blind man did, John 9, 3 8«, 
Lord Jbeleeve % 

i&.*4»*AU the faitbfull are commanded not onely td 
A z belceve*., 

6 Oftkexttm<tflprtfefiMofFmb. 

belecve, butalfb to make this lure unco th-mfclv-s that they 
docbclcevc, 2 Or.i j # y. 

19. ^•3*Njmancandoifttof the cerainty of his oWnc 
alien: which doth not doubt alio of the trurh of the obicctt 
He which doubts whether he do certainly belceve chat drill 
is God,hedoth doubt in fomc fort whether Cmill beGodi 

ao.^^ThiscxperimentaUcertaintie may bee had not 
onely of thcfubQanceofchead^but alio of the for mall na- 
ture of it, that the Faith which a man hattt, is truly Divine 
Faith. Becaufe rheunderftandingby its owne reflex we aft 
doth not onely perceive the act it f elfe, bur alio the kind and 
nature of it, which it hath from the obieehas alfo it perceives 
the affj&bn from whence it doth proceed. 

2i. A. j .Bcfides, this experimental! certainty, there is al- 
fo anorher certainty of Faith from the teftimony of die 
holy Ghoft, &om$.6. For when the holy Ghbft teftifies 
that we are the children of God, it teft'fics likewifc chat we 
have that Faith which is proper to the children of God. 

22.^.6. There is alio a certainty of Faith which arifeth 
from the proper afts of it dtfUnftly perceived, as when one 
kno wes hi* owne readineffe out of a pious affcftioti wholly 
to deny himfclfe, and all carnall rcafon, that fo hee may ad* 
here unto God,according to his will revealed in his Word. 

*1. A.j. Yctforallthis,theremaybcfuchadcfeft in the 
refle&ion of the undemanding upon its owne a&ion •• fucha 
difcertion of the Holy Ghoft, fuch an intermiffion of the 
aftsof Faith, that a bclecver for a time may not be able to 
> know that he doth belecve that which he doth bclccve -, yea, 
he may fal ely j udge himfclfe to be an unbeiecver . 

Chap. III. 

Of the extern all frofejfionoj Faith. 

Queft. I *T J\JHether is external frofeffion ntcefitrj. 

V V I. A % Itisneceffar^formanyreafons. 
I .Becaufe Goi hath commanded it, 1 Pet.^.i^. a.Becaufeic 
hacb promifeof falvacbn madeuntoitj/^Mo.sa.ifraMo. 

Of the txttrwtlyrofeflion of Faith. 

10. 3 . Becaufe there is a grievous threading made againft 
thenegleft of this duty, Mtrk^S.s 8. Luke 9.26. and 18.8, 
aT/w,2.i2. 4. Becaufe this profefli on makes for the edifi- 
cation of other men, and the neglfft of it is a fcandall to 
them, /£//.i.i2,and 2. 15, 16. 5 .Becaufe this profefllon of 
Faith makes for the glory of God, Phil.iJio. and the de- 
niallof it is a great reproach to the name of God, as )f it 
wercathingtobeafbamedof, Luke 9 26. 

Queft 2, Whether is this profefllon alwayes^ and every 
where neceffarj. 

1 . A % 1 . It is alwayes and every Wtiere required that wee 
deny not the Faith, ormakeany profefllon, or fhew contra- 
ry to the true Faith. 2.Yetirisnoteitherneceffary or con* 
venient every where, without difference to prpofes what 
we belecve, CMath.*j.6. As if fomc furious fellow fliould 
rife up,aad puil out his fword, and fay he would kill whofor 
cver he was that fhould conf efle himfelfe to be a Chriiiian* it 
were no wifedome at fuch a time, and before him to make 
profefllon of ones Faith. But then onely this profefllon is to 
. be made when there is ionaehope at leaft,that it would tend 
; ' to the glory of God, and the edification of our neighbour. 
Fprthenecefliticof the meancs is judged by that relation" 
which they ft and in unto the end. 

Qqefhj. whe\ her is a man bound to wake ctnfejfion when 
heu iukid publukjj concerning his faith^y one that is fet in 

3. *A. In common courfe he is bound fo to doe, 1 P^.3, 
15, Becaufe it pertaines to the glory ofGod 3 andthe falva- 
tion of others, M*t ,io.i2. 

Qactt^Wbethera manmaj not king complied by ne- 
ceffity be prefent at a for bidden r*orJhip,tf he keepe hts mind 
inadijl kj of it* 

4. . AM he be prefent without any difference carrying 
himfelfe there after the fame manner that thofe doe who 
profefie that worftup^ he 1 nncs grievoufly. l.Agamu his 
neighbour, 1 Cw%>, 10. 2.AgainflGod, 1 £*r. 10. 20,21522* 

Q^i^ Whether is it law full fo&the avotding of danger, 
to uje the Ceremonies wh$ch b<long to (nch a worjbip. . 

5 . ji.lt ft not la wiull : for the proper end of Ceremonies 



Of flying in 
time of pet. 

Ofthc external fro ft fion of Faith. 

isprofHTion,hec therefore which doth ufe an idolatrous 
Cereraonie dothinfome fort make a profeffion of idolatry. 

6 Although therefor e it be lawfull, to ufe any civiil gar- * 
mentof idololatours,yct no man without fin under that pre- 
tence can ufc f uch a garment as is the proper badge of religi- 
on, and is of its own inftkution religious. 

Queft.6. JVhether is it lawfull to fly tn time ofperfecutim f 
efptcially for aPafior? 

7. A.u That iris lawfull in fome cafe to fly appeareth ; 
1. By Chrifts direction, Mat.x 0,16.2 3. a.ByChriftsownc 
example, i?<f*f. 12. 14. andi4.i3* Iobmo.39. j.Fromthe 
exampleof the Saints, as of Mofes 9 Jieb.ii/ij. Of Elias, 
1 Kings 19.3. Of divers Prophets, iKtngs\% K \i And of 
the ApoftleTW,^/ 9.25. 4-By reafon, becaulc by the 
Law of nature men are bound to prefervc their owne lives, 
till it doe manifefHy appearc that the God and Lord of Life 
doc require them, to lay them downe, that is till fome nc- 
ccflltie or advantage for the glory of God> for the good of 
the Church, doe perfwade the contrary, 

8. A. 2. It is not lawfull for them to fly, whofe prefence is \ 
neccflary for the edification of the Church. For this would 
be, not fo much a declining from pcrfecution as a (haming of 
the dutie* 

9-<^3otnfuchaperfecutionasis common, and not per- 
-fofflflljit-is a (hame for a Paftor to (lie w himfelfe more affraid 
then others be, who flhould be an example of Chriftian cou- 
rage, and conftancy to the wholeChurch. 

Queft.7 Whether m*J one that u caught, and put into pri- 
fen for the confeffion oftbetruih^ lawfully breaks theprifo^ 
or deceive hts Keepers ? 

10. A. He may not ; 1 Bccaufchee is now called to make ' 
confeffion. 2.Bccaufe this were to offer violence to publike 
authority. j.Becaufe the Apoftles, and other holy men, 1 
whofe examples are commended unto us, never praftiled any 
fuch thing. « 

Queft.8. Whether is it far? full for a hie ever in fuch 4 
-CAje to redeemt his liberty with a price. 

11* e^.i. That this is not aiwayes lawfull appcares by 
ftnts example, ssfth- 24. 2 6. 

of Here fie. 

n. A. i. Yet it feeftieth fonactitnes to be la wfutl by the na- 
ture of the thing j For if hee which hath power to fee one 
free being covetous and 4^irou$ of gainc,(houId fecke a re- 
ward for fo doing, and the circumftancc bee fuch, that a matt 
might lawfully accept of liberty gratis, then it is as lawfiill 
to procure ones liberty by the loflc of fome money, as to re- 
decme ones life at the hands of atheefe* 

1 3 . <>A. 3 In this and the like cafes the honour of God, the 
edification of the Church,and the difpofition of a mansownc 
conference, this way > or that way, is chiefly to be heeded. 

Queft.y . Whether ought Infidels to be compelled to the pro- 
fejjion of the true Faith bj fuch as ha their governours ? 

14 A.i. rheyoughtnottobecompclledtoit.i.Bccaufc 
Faith it felf cannot be wrought by constraint. The ad: of true 
Faith proceeds alwayes from a free will, not from fcarc or 
force, PM47 lo.Attsi^u i.Bccaufcexternallprofefli- 
on without intcrnall Faith, is nothing but hypocrilie. 3. Bc- 
caufcthc Church by this meancs is corrupted, whiift thofe 
are thruft upon itas members whichare not fit* 

1 $ . A. 2 . Yet they are to bee allured with favours, and if 
, that will not doe, to be moved by loffc of favour,ferioufly to 
consider with thcmfelvcs of Faith, and of the imbracing 

16. A.%. They may alfo be compelled to come and hcare 
the Word preached. For this preaching takes not away their 

17. A. 4. They may alfo be compelled that they blaf- 
pheame not the true faith, nor hinder the propagation of it. 

Chap. IV. 


Qucft.l. X 7\ 7 **° is *° * e * CC0HHte( *** * n heretiqne f 

V V i.uf. To make a man an Herctiquc 
in that fence in which the word is taken, in the Church it is 
required ; i«That he be fuch an one as makes fomc profeffi- 
onof €hriftiamty,w«» that he either be baptizcd,or at leaft- 

B b wife 

Xft OfBtrtfie. 

wife aCbatechiff, for Htrcjis is a Greekc Word fignify ing i E. 
le&ian, fa that an H ereiiqac is fuch an one as leaves in Ionic 
part thfc ttjulth which he did profeffg,and afterwards choofeth 
to himfclfe a contrary opinion, to which he adhercth. But he 
which never profeffed the truth, although he may be of the 
fame judgement anheretique is of, yet fuch an one is not 
called an heretique 3 but an Infidell. 

2. Itis required fecondly,that. the errour which he holds 
be not oncly contrary to the dodrinc which is contained in 
the Scriptures, but that it becontrary to that dodrinc which 
belongs to the fumme and fubfiance of faith and manners. 
Such a diftinftion as this is betweene doftrines principal!, 
and leffe principall, is delivered to us by the Apoftic, i0r 
$ iqj 1 r. N6w although herefie be properly oppoiiteunto 
Faith, yet it ought alfo to bee extended unto manners •. for 
fticie crrcur in Faith isalwayes the foundation of errour in 
manners, 1 Tim.^. 1,2 ,'3,4. And moreover, herefie is alwayes 
(b agair*& Faith, thas kdah neceflfarily overthrow it; For o* 
therwife it is ratherto be called an errour in Faith, or aboui 
Faith, and not an hcreneagainft Faith. 

3 . It is required thiidly^that the errour which he holds b 
joyned with ftubfc orroielfe and ob ft inadc, Ttt dp* 10. 

4. Such an one is to be accounted (lubborne, as when the*. 
truth is not ondymamfcfllyrevdalediiiScripture^butisalfo % 
fefficiently propounded, and lEanifcfied, unto him, yet doth 
fo adhere to his errour, that he either oppofeth hirnf elfcto the 
plaincScriptore, aud will not through the naughtkiefle of his 
infold perceive the fence of it, for he is obftsnate which is 
not ready to captivate all his undemanding and rcafon unto 
the Scripture. 

5-. Therefore a man maybe .an heretiquc materially whiUt , 
he gives aflent to fome pernicious errour through fimple fa- 
cility, likeneflfe, and railmeffe in belecving beretiques who ^ 
were wont to deceive under a colour of piety, or through * 
igftoraiKe,whoisnotyetto be accounted formally an here- 
tiqucbctaufe heisnotfiubbofne nor obftinate in bis mind, 
anefrfb cannetgoc fimply for anheretique. 

Queft. 2. Whether nreP apJfis Htwtt'quto ? 

tf r ^.i t Pa|>iftryasitwas confirmed by the Councell of 


oftierefie. u 

Trc*t is a pernicious hcrefie. i. Becaufe it doth dire£ly 
overthrow true and faving faith, whilft it tetchcth to place 
faichand confidence in the creatures, and thrufts upon men 
works and humane Traditions in the roome of Faith, and the 
Bifhopof Rome and his creatures,~in the roome of Chrift. 
2. Becaufe it doth divers waics by faife worftup and idola- 
try overthrow the principal part of piety. 3 . Becaufe it 
u(eth fuch ftubbornaeffe in the defence and propagation of 
thefe errors, that it doth even accufe the Scripture it fclfe ma* 
ny waies, takes it away from the people of God, and makes 
it fubied: to their authorise and pleafure. 

7. A. 2. Yet it is not wont to be reckoned amongft the 
Heretics. 1. Becaufe it is not any onefingular herefie by it 
feifc, but as it were a certaine body made up and produced of 
many herefies. ForasMahumetifrocisa mixture of former 
herefies which had been in the Eaftand South, fo Papiftrie 
though under another colour is the very finck of diver* here- 
fies, that peftercd the Weft and Nor*. 2. Becaufe it did 
not arife altogether and at once, but grew to its ftrength lea- 
furely and by little. 3. Becaufe for many pernicious errors 
it doth not fo much openly profefle them in words, as really 
nourifti them in a mifterie. 4. Becaufe it hath not publikely 
impugned the Church, but hath invaded andpoflfefledthe 
Church it felfe, and hath challenged the title of the Church 

8. A % 3 . And yet becaufe there are many aftiongft thd Pa- 
pifts who underftahd not themiftery of poperie, but do ad- 
hearc to it partly through feare of danger, ami partly through 
cuftome.and (imply : therefore ill the Paptfb Without excep- 
tion are not to he accounted fuch heretikes as of whofe GAvz- 
rion ther is no hope,although wecannot affirm,if we judgfty 
their profefiton, that they are in a way of falvation* 

I J Qgeft . 3 . Whether are Anabaptifts to be accounted a* He* 

p. A. They arc not properly heretikes as they (imply doe 

deny the baptifme-of children^althoughthacbe an ttror net td 

, bcftiforcd in the Church , btcaufe by thfc etror they over* 

throw not the foundation of F aitfe . But is they &tnj Origi* 

nail iinnc and the humane natdte of Cilr?ftt6'bc6onie^fthe 

t* Of Herefie. 

blcflfed Virgin, in thcfe andfuch like they are Heretiqne* 

Qucft. 4. Wither be the Arminians Here tikes ? 

xo. A. The opinion of the Arminians, as it is received of 
the rooft that doe favour them, is not properly an herefie, but 
a dangerous error in the Faith, and tending to herefie: but as 
it is defendedby foracof them, it is a Pelagian herefie ; be- 
caufe they deny the effcftuali operation of mtcrnaH grace to 
beneceffary for the working of converfion and Faith. 

Queft. 5 ♦ Whether are Lutherans Heretiks* * 

1 1. A. Thofe amongfl them which do pertinacioufly de- 
fend the ubiquity of Chnfts human nature, cannot be excufed 
from heretic, becaufe that opinion doth direftly overthrow 
the humanitieof Chrift.Butbec^ife many amongft them arc 
free from that opinion,anjd others amongft them do defend 
it rather through contention, then becaufe they beleevc it fin- 
ccrcly-j- therefore they are to be accufed rather of ftupidity 
and fury, or of Schifme,then of Herefie* 

Qucft. 6 whether are Heretikgs to be punifhed by the civil 
Mtgifirate ? 

12* A. 1. That Heretikes arc to be refitted by everyone 
thatis godly, according to the calling and power which hc\ 
fcath received from God, it appeares efficiently from the 
nature of the thing : becaufe all the godly are called to a chri-* ^ 
flian warfare, and are in their Rations every one to oppofc 
themfclres to the kingdome of darkneffe* 

!£.«•£ a. The place and office of a Magiftrate requires, 
that he repreffe wicked men that trouble the Church, even 
With the fworcf,or with publike and cxternall power if there 
be nced,Rem. 1 3 .4. 1 Tmfi 2. 

14, A. 3. If therefore Heretikcs be man ifeftly knowne 
andpublikely hurtfull, they are to be retrained of the Magi% < 
ftrate by publike power. 

1 5. iA. 4. And if they be manifcftly blafphemous, and - i, 
pertenacious,and ftubborne in thofe blafpheraies, may fufifer ' 
<apitattpnnilhnient. For that Law Z^. 24.1 5,16. although 
fcbind not Chriftians as it is-a Law* yet aslc is a dodriacom- 
ming from God* itdahbelongtothedireftien of Chrtftians 
|r\ cafes of the like nature; When therefore the glory of God, 
%*4 ttyekfesie of the Church requireth fuch a punifhmcntfc 

Of Afefiafie. rj 

it may, and if other remedies have been ufedin vain,it ougkt 
to be infixed by theChriftian Magiftrace. 

Chap. V. . 

Of isfpojlacie* 

Qlicft. 7.\ 7\ J&° * t0 be ^counted a* an dpofiatc ? 

V V i • A. He is properly an Apoftate which 
having formerly profeffed the true faith, is wholly departed 
from it. For an Apoftate fignifieth a Forfaf^erfii a Runaway. 
fuchaone was /«/'**, whofhercfore was firnaaacd the Apo- 
fhrta : and filch are tho(e,as of Chriftians doe become Icwes 
or Mahumetans. 

2. Butbyan Analagcthofealfo arefocailed, whodoein 
the moft things fall off from the true faith: as thole that/all 
from the truth of the Gofpel to Popery. Apoftacie therefore 
containes all in it that hcrcfic doth in refpeft of the Eflence : 
'but it adds alfofomc what to in 
J ' Qucft. 8. JVbtt difference of degrees is there betwixt In* 
j}dels % HeretiqueS) andApoftates, viz. which of them finne the 

3. A.i. Defection is a greater finne then the dcniall of 
fubjecHon -, fcr in dcfe&ion God is more rcjc&ed, more 
bonds of conjunction are broken : and God himielfe is filent- 
lyaccufedasunjuft, CMich. 6.3,2. Other things therefore 
being like the finne of Apoftates is mofl grievous, %Pet*%. 2 1 
cfpecially ifbefidesthcdeniallofthe known truth, there be 
an oppofing ar.d refifting of ir, Atts 26.1 1 . 1 Tim* 1.20. 

4. A. Next unto Apcftates come Herctiks, becaufe they 
doe with them fall from the known truth ,and from the faith 
which they wereryedto hold by many bonds. But Apoftati 
fall away from more things. 

5 • The Ie wes and Pagans in regard of the cxtcntiooof in- 
fidelity doe finne more thenHeretikes, becaufe they do live 
in more error : but intenfively the finne of the Hetctikc it 
greater, becaufe he was more bound by the lawoEFaitb, then 
fuch an one as never received ir. 

BbA. & There* 

14 .of Hope, 

6* There 1 * the like reafon between the infidelitie of the 
Icwesand Pagans. For the Pagans doeerrc in more things 
then the Icwes, but yet the Iewes doe finne more grievoufly, 
becaufe they received the truth from the Prophets, and do in 
fomefortprofeflfeit, andfo are more fob/eft to the Law of 
Faith then the Pagans be. 

7- There's the like proportion to be obferved betwixt 
Chriftians themfelves. who doe either in word or in deed de- 
ny the truth of Chrift,for the more perfe&ly any one hath 
been inftru&ed in the truth, the more grievoufly doth he finne 
when he fais from it. 

Q, p. How k that to be wderfioodz . Eptjile John io. doe 
not fay unto them God peed? 

8. *A % It is fpoken principally of Apoftatcs and Here* 
tiques,for of fuch as were without,the Apoftlcs iudged other* 
Wife, i Cor. $ .it. 

p. Yet even towards Heretikes and Apoftates themfclves* 
vyeare not forbidden to doe the neceffary offices of humani- 
ze, but are commanded conftantly to manifeft our deteftati- 
on, and are forbidden fuch a commerce with them as cannot * 
ftand with a due detcftation. ^ J 

: — r |^ 

Chap. VI. 
Of Hope. 

Quefl> t. T 7T 7 Hat are the fign >es of true Hope ? 

V V 1 4 A. i . If it begrounded oncly upon 
she grace of God, and his free promife, i Pet. i . i % . 

2.A.2. If it work in us a care of pieafing God in all throgs, < 

I. A, 3. If it put usontoufethofe meanes which arc or- i 
dainedof God, and to abftaine from others, Hebr. 10.23* 

4 ^.4. If it depend not: upon the meanes but upon God* 
Who worketh either with them or without thcm,H*/?.4. 14. 

Queft. 2. Whether doth not Hope ledne in fome fort upon 
*ur own inde avows ? 

1- Ji r T 


Of Htfre. f j 

$ . A. i Jt doth not lean upon our own indeavours,ascau- 
fes of, or as deferving the thing hoped for,but as upon figncs 
and arguments whereby it isflrergthned and confirmed in 
tfiecertaincexpe&ationofthe grace of God, #'£.10,22.23. 

Queft. 3. Whether Hope beccrtaine? 

6. ssf. 1. Divine hope in regaid of the certaintie of the ob- 
k& is mod fure, becauie it leanes upon tlie power and faith- 
fulnefleof God > by which he hath revealed that he mcftan* 
doubtedly both can and will alvvaies performe his promifes, 
Rom. 4. 21. lTim.2.1^. 

7. sxf. 2. In regard of the certaintie of the fubie& it ought 
to be rnoftcertainea nd firme,H^,d,i 8. 19. 

.8.^.3. Ab oiutcly and in it felfeconfidcred,it is atfo in » 
feliible and certain, PfaL 25 ♦ a, 3 .becauie it leanes upon the 
fame ccrtaine and infallible foundation that Faith doth,/^. 
4. \%,i9.Heb H,i. 

p. A. 4* Yetbecaufe of curimperfe&ion and the divers 
temptations with which we are aflaulted, it is oftentimes ac- 
companied with fome doubtfuineffe, which makes it fecm 
to our fenfe not alwaies to be ceitaine, Ffalm. 73 ♦ Lament. 

,3- 18. 

QUeft. 4 Whether is Hopeconverfant with the fame cer- 
rtainety about all things it expeEleth. 

10. A % i # The principall objeft of divine Hope is eter- 
iiallbleffedneflejabout which there cugU to be the fame cer- 
tainly of Hope, as there is of Faith, t'/*, : the greateft. Hence 
it is that bleflednes it felf e is called Hope, Ephe^ 1 .1 8 , Calofo 
1. 5. Titus 2. 13* And belec vers are faid tobefavedbyhope 
whilft they live heere. Rom. 8 24. 

1 i*A. 2. Thefecondary objc&sof Hope, are all thofe 
things which are effentially neceflary to bleflednes, as the af- 
fording of grace, and perfeverancc in grace : which are to be 
p apprehended with the fame certaintie we apprehend blcf- 
ffa fednes it felfe with, %om* 8. 38, 

1 1* A, 3 1 Exfernall and corporall good things alfo, have 
the nature of fecondary objefts of divine Hope^as they fervc 
to promote the glory of God, and our happines : But be- 
caufethis oftentimes is not apparenttmto us in the particular, 
therefore we neither can, nor ought abiolutely to hope fat 


l& Cfffopt. 

particular good tilings of this nature, but with that limitati- 
on with wiuchthcy^rcpromiledby God, » Tim.4.1 %<PbiL 

J^ueihj. Whether may jp irtttaU grace in parttcntarhs 
certainly hoped for, for the performance of this or that duty, or 
for the overcomtng of this or that temptation ? 
- x 5 . ssf. 1 . It may and ought for the thing it felf : bectufe 
God hath promifedthat he will make a (apply of thefc fpiri- 
tuali things which have a certain and eflentiall conextion with 
lifecternall,/^/. 4.13. 

14. A. 2 Buc in regard of the degree or manner which 
is not eflentiall, it cannot, 1 Cor. 12*8,9- becaufc divine 
hope of its own nature is not carried to fuch circumltances as 
to its ob| ed, but is applied to them by humane cle&ion w hich 
is jfuh/ect to error. 

Qucft, 6. what certaintle of hope may any one have con* 
cermng other men } 

15 Jil* Asthc figncsoftrue Faith do appeare in them, 
fo it is meet that we do hope of them, ThiL 1 .6.7 

\6. A. 2. Butbecaufe thefe extcmall figncs which appear 
in others, cannot worke fo ccrtaine a faith in us concerning^ \ 
them,as that inward experience which we have in our fclvcs 
of the grace of God : and becaufe the holy Ghoft doth feala 
to belecvcrs their own adoption, not the adoption of others ; ; 
therefore this hope conceived of others in particular, is not m 
the fame manner and degree infallible, as is the hope which 
we have concerning our fel ves, for it leancs in part upon hu- 
mane credulity, if^r.j. 1 2. 

1 7. A. 3 . Yet becaufe this certainty wWch we often have 
of the inward affedtions of others is morally certain, as chil- 
dren may becenainly perfwaded that they arc fincercly and < 
truly beloved of their parents , and friends may certainly 
judge the fame of their friends ; therefore we ought to nou- ^ 
rifh a good hope without any aftuall doubting, concerning ^ 
fuch as fhew foorth the figncs of finccre Faith,H^6p,ii. 

1 8, A4, I f (ucha hope conceived of others do fometimes 
deceive, we muft not therefore thinkcthat divinchope is un- 
certain, becaule this hope is only fo farre fruftrate, a^ it doth 

•in the application or dcterminationleaneuponLumaBe con- 
jectural Tim. z.ip. Chap. 

bfPdtit#ceU»ayds Cod. Jp 

Of patience towards God* 

Qlieft. I . C J\J Hat are tkefignes of this patience F 

V V i.A.i. If we neither contcmne the 
chaftifement of the Lord, nor murmure againft God ho vvfo- 
everhedcalewithus^butblcffehiminali, Heb.iz.6. lob r, 

21, 2U 

2.A.2. If we doe conftancly continue in the doing of our 
duty, what ever the fucceffc be, lames 5 ♦ 8. Heb, 12 12, 

3 >c ^r. 3. If we doe expeft from God hhnfclfe the end 
wh^h ^e hope for, lames 5 ♦ 1 i<j Heb. 1 0.3 6. 

4. A 4 If we make not too much haftc. either flying to 
unlawhillmeanes,orbeingoutof heart, Heb. 10 38. .£/*/ 

^ 28,16. 

$.A,$* Iflaflly we feekc counfcil and direction from 
God in all our (freights, /*/»<?/ 1 ♦ 4,5, 

Queft. 2* -ffjr w«** arguments may the minde beftrengttn 
ned to this patience? 

6. A. u Becaufeourfinnes doe deferve greater miferics 
X**0'3-39. CMickj.p. 

j. A. 2. Becaufe God in his chaftifements offers himfelf 
to us, as a father to his children, Heb. 1 2,7. 

S.A. 3. Becaufehedotbnotforfakehis, but will give a 
goodiffue,£4« t 3.25,26, 27, 

9^4. Becaufethe time of our expectation (hall be but 
little, fft*. 10*37. 

go. A 5 BecaufebythiswayChrifthimfelfe,and all the 
Saints ha^e gone to glory, Heb. 10.1,2, 

1 1 ; ji. 6. Bccaufe 6od himfcifc is patient towards us, * 

12. A.j. Becaufe this patience is ncceffary to faiyation, 

Cc CUAtl 

jtT Of Fern. 

Chap. VIII. 

Of Ft are. 

Queft. I. T 7T JHcther ought men to feare et email dam- 
\ V nation^ and other punifbments of Cod> 

I. *A. i. Impenitent ftnncrs ought whiles they arc in 
*hat eftate, to fcarc thefe things and to expedi them* Rom, 

**A.%. The faithful! ought not cither toe xpc& eternal 
damnation, or (imply to doubt whether fiich an eftate doe re- 
maine for them or no I Rom. 8, i. Heb, 2. iy 4 

3* A. 3 . Yet the faithful! ought to feare, to tremble at, to 
take heed of, and to fly from the wrath of God and damnati- 
ons due unto them for their finncs,H<r£.i 2. i$ % 2 Cor.<$< 
il.Ephef.< i .6.Col.'$.6. 

4*csf. 4. When they do offend God hainoufly, they ought 
alfotofearefomeheavicaiidiharpecorrcaion from God, 1 

f* ssfj While they doelic in any enormous finne,with- s I 
outrencwing of their repentance, they ought alfo in a fingu- 
lar manner to feare the wrath of God, and eternall damnati- 1 ^ 
onitfelfe,becaufe they are now in the very way which leads 
to condemnation, and if they fliouid goe on, they would un- 
doubtedly come uato it, Gal. 5.21 *and6*%. 

6. A % 6. But this feare is fufpeoded upon and mitigated 
with a condition, because condemnation is feared uftleflc it 
be prevented by repentance : it is not therefore a feare of 
metre incrcdufeic, but of languifhing Faith : it is uot the 
feare of a flavc, but the feaffc of an undutifoll fonne* 

7, A. 7. The faithfutf, as fuch, are called to confidence, , 
notto thefeare of punifhment, Epb.i.i 8.But they are things < 
ione as it wfeteto the feare of purafhment, as finncdothpre- * 



of Defter At fon And Preftmptm* * $ 

Chap. IX. 

Of Defter at ion and Prefumptt9H 4 

Qucft.i.T IXjHether it wholly fakes a&ay the nature 
V V °f hope, if one defpaire in fbme of theft 
things which we ought to hope for t 

i. A. Defperation hath almoft the fame rcfpe£ in regard 
of Hope, which Herefie hath in refped of Faith, For as eve* 
rie error about thole things which are to be betceved, doth 
not take away Faith, nor is to be accounted herefie : fo nei- 
ther doth all diffidence about things to be hoped for take a- 
way hope, and bring into a ftatc of Defparation : But as a 
pertinacious error about the foundations of Faith doth make 
an herctike, fo a pertinacious diffidence about the principal! 
objc&s of hope, w eternall blcffedncs, and thofc things 
which are necetfarie unto it doth make a man defperate. 

Quefl\2. Whether are all thofc to be accounted defperate % 
which doe fay they doe defpatre ? 

2. A. In no wife : For as cither through fome ftrong per- 
turbation, or through ignorance , or through infirrakic of 
Judgement, a bcleevcr may for a time fcera to himfelfe to be 
voide of faith ; foalfo. upon the fame ground, he which hath 
true hope may thinkc that he is altogether deftitute of it* 
There arc certaine fwoonings, as it were, of hope and faith, 
in which the afts of them doe not appeare, when yet the in- 
ternall vcrtucs of them arc not extinguished. It may there- 
fbre come to paffc, that a man in regard of his owne feeling 
and conceiving, may feem to himfelfe to be in the flats of 
damnation, who yet in truth is in the ftateof falvation. 

Qucft. 3 » In what thing doth preemption eonjtft ? 

3. *si. He properly doth prefumcthat doth pcrfwade 
himfelfe that he (hall obtaine eternall happineffe, although 
hee ufe not the meanes which God hath ordained for that 
end. And fuch men are faid to prefurae, becaufc they take up 
that unto thcmfelves which God no where in his word hath 
either given them, or promifed them. 

Qucft. 4% Whether there u as much danger in prefump- 

C c 2 ti*n % 

a0 of Love towards God. 

tion 9 dt there is in defferation ? 

4 # A. The danger of him that prefumes is oft- time^greater 
then of him that defpaires. i. Bccaufe he that prefumes 
doth not fee or perceive himfelfe to prefume : but he that 
defpaires fees and perceives his owne fault. 2. He that pre- 
fumes pleafeth bimfelf in his condition, not doubting but that 
already he is in the beft way ,& fo he fecks not a better : but he 
which defpaires is weary of his miferie,and wifheth he were 
in an other condition. 3 . He that prefumes defires not to 
follow any better counfell, hee that defpaires defires if hee 
could. 4. More men doe pcri& by preemption then by dc- 
fperation. Better hope therefore is to be conceived of thofe 
which feemc to themfel ves to defpaire, then of thofe which 
doe prefume. The lefle prefuming men doe defpaire, the 
morcdefperate is their condition. 

_ ! _ 

GhAp. X* 
Of love towards <yod. , , 

Queft.I«T It'jHetherfc Godtohe lovedforhis goodnkff* 
V V dndperfeEtion tn ttfelfeconfidered, or for ' 
his goodneffe towards us y and benefits conferred uyonus ? 

1. A.l. The moft perfect kind of love (lands in this, that 
we love God for himfelfe, that is 3 that the formaiireaion of 
our love, being (as the Schooiemen fpeake ) the lovely nature 
of God ; and that our love be carried towards him, as to- 
wards the laft end. 1. Becaufe that love is moft perfecfl 
Which is wont to be called the Love of friendfhip. 2. Be* 
caufe if we loveGod onely for his goodneffe towards us,thcn < 
we love him for our felves, and fo we love our felves more . 
then God- 3. Becaufe fuch is the divine love thatis.be- i 
*wixt the "Father, Sonne, and holy Ghoft/p™. 8.30. 4, Be- 
Mufcfuch is the Love of God towards us, forafmuch as there 

is no good can acruc properly to him from us. 

2. tA % n t Yet becaufe we are fo impcrfeft that we $:atinot 
Immediately raifcup our minds to the contemplation of Gods 
pcrfe&iQfy botbyUiofeoieanesby which the goodnes and 


Of Love towards God. 21 

perfe&tan of God is made known unto us ; and becaufeitis 
principally made knowne by the communicating of good 
things, and we are moft affected with thefe good things 
which are communicated to our felves • therefore the bene- 
fits of God to our felves, are alfo a reafon, and as they call 
them, motives of our love towards God, and in regard of the 
order arc the firft, though in regard of dignitie they are not 
the principall 5 the laft and higheft, but fuch as from which, 
and by which, we ought taafcend to the divine nature of God 
itfelfc, which is in itfelfe, and for it felfc to be laved/and 
where we muft laftly x^Iohn 4.8,9,10,1 1,16, ip. 
Queft.2. What are the jigxes of love towards God? 
3,^.1 . As it is a love of union, it appeares, 1. In the affc^i- 
on of defire towards all thole meanesby which God doth of- 
fer himfelfe unto us, TJa/m 4. 8* a. In an averfncflTe f rom> 
and ihunning of all thofe things which feparate us from God, 
that is, of finncs, and that for this caufebecaufe they doe fo. 

3. In a defire of true and fpirituall union and conjunction 
with the Chirch and people of GocL 1 lobn 3.14. 4. In 
our grief e conceived for the failing, or the dimini filing of the 
fencibleefficacie of the. Spirit of God in us in any fort 5. In 
our defire of a perfect fruitiaoa<>f the pretence of God m the 
life to come. 

4. A % 2. As it is a love of complaccncie , it appeared, 
1 . In that delight which we feelc uponour union and com- 
munion with God, when it is perceived by the inward grace 
and operation of the Spirit, a In the fweetneffe and the 
ioy which we feele in the excrcifes of godlineffe, *?/*/. i 22; 
1. Thereafonis given, Prey. i?.ip 3. In the great ac- 
count we make of the focietie of the Saints, Pfalm. id. 3. 

4. In an hatred and abomination of all thole things which 
areoppofitetothewiliofGod,P/W» 1^.128 136. 

5. A. g. As it is a love of benevolence it fhewes it felfe, 
I, In zeale for Gods glory, t. In obedience, Iohn 15.1 o. 

Queft. 3., Jn whtit manner is God to bee loved above all 
things ? 

6i t<4. t. We ought fotolove God, that wepreferre him 
before all other things, both in * ffeftionand will , and in ef- 
ft^otdecd, Dttit.&f, Mow God is preferred before all 
~ ~ ' C cj "' " 

%z oflovtUwardsGod. 

things in affection, i. When no affe&ion to any creature 
can entice or draw us to be willing to oftendGod, M*tt.\Q. 
3 7. 2. W hen we do more erteeme of the love of God then 
of any other, fo that out of chat affection which we bear c un- 
to God, wc are ready for his fake to leave ail the things which 
arc moftdeare unto us amongft things created, Luk- 14 %6. 
God is preferred before all things in eftccfl, when that aflefti- 
on doth powerfully (hew it feifcin our life, and externail 
convention, t John 5.5. 2 Cor. 5.14. John 2 1 . , y . 

7. iyf.2. Wc ought To talove God, that this love bee 
flronger, firmcr,and more rooted in our heart then any other 
■aflc&ion whatfoever that weebeare towards the creature. 
Now this is done when it doth proceed from the inmoft parts 
of our hearts, and is immoovcabic, fo that it cannot be laid a- 
iide,/7*/. 103.1* 2 Cor.j.$. 

8. A. 3. We ought fo tenderly to love God, that the leafl 
hurt or violation either of God himfelfc, or of our love to- 
wards him (hould moreaffc&us, then if in other things wee 
fliould fuffer fomegrcatloffe, or harme, Pfalm, 1 ip.ij 6. 

9* A 4 4 Our love to God ought to be fo fervent, and fcf 
vehement, that in comparifon wc love other things as though 
we loved them not, 1 Cor.y. 29. 

Queft.4. How are the confidences of the godlj to be pacifi- 
ed, when they feem to themfelves fometimes to bee carried 
Kith a greater love towards cert ame creatures % then towards 

10. A x. TheeQimation 3 andflrcngthof loveistobe di- 
ftinguiflied from that (lining of that affeftion , which may 
be greater, when the love is leiTc. For ifany one be fo difpo- 
fed that he would not offend God, or forfake bias, although 
all things befides were to be forfaken for him ; if fiich an one * 
bee more moved fometimes in other things , yet it doth ■ 
not follow that he loves them more. It was therefore no fo- \ 
lidandLogicalhbutonely a military argument which Jo*b 

2 Sam.i97 drew from the (lining of Davids aflfcclion to- 
wards Abfolom. 

11, *A. 2. Thcfolidityofloveistobediftinguifhe^ from 
the light titling of it, as much as common and vulgar mirth is 
diftingufhed from fcrious joy, where the fpirit is more in- 

Of love tewards God. 

wardly affe&cd, and the affc&ion is founded and rooted, there 
is the greater love, Ephef.%. 3.1 8. 

12.^.3 We muftdiltinguifli betwixt fpitituall and fen- 
. {ball love- For fpirituali love may in its kind be more tender 
and vchcmcnt,then fenfuall in its kind,althcugh the corporeal 
{enfes may be lefTe affefted with this, then with that ; ss the 
fenfuall affc&ion may be fo vehement in its kind, that the (pi- 
nt in the mcane feafon may bee little or nothing aflfe&ccL 
While we live here fuch is our infirmity which we have con- 
traded by finne, that ordinarily cur fenfes, and our vitall, end 
animallfpirjts, are more affected with things lenfible, then 
with things fpiriruall : yet this hinders not, but our fpirits may 
be affected more with the fpiriruall good, if they doe adhere 
to it in that manner which was fpoken of before* 

13. A % 4, We muft alfo diflinguifh betwixt the habit of 
love, and the ads of it. For one affeftion may fometimesbc 
more moved in aft, then another which doth yet exceed it by 
many degrees, in the internall difpofition. 

Queft . 5 • How and how farre k feare ofpofed to love. 

1 4. A. 1 . Not as finne, or the offence of God is feared and 
{hunned thereby : for fo farre it is an effeft, and fruit of love* 
1 % Becaufc love feeketb union, and communion with God,and 
the feare of finne avoicicth that which doth fepcrate from 
God. 2. Becaufe love both defireth and caufeth all honour 
to be given to God, and this feare ihunneth that which is op- 
polite to Gods honour. $1 Becaufe love rcfteth in the good- 
neffe of God*and this feare fhunneth thofc motions whereby 
any thing is preferred betore God. 

15* tsfi sfc Nor as feare is taken for the reverence of Gods 
infinite ma jeftie : for fo farre it is due unto God froa> every 
'* creature, and is found in the Angels aud blefted Spirits which 
1 have pcrfeA love, E/ay 6. 2 . 

? 16. esf. 5. Nor as the wrath of God Is ftared in this /fete 
ofimperfcdionandfra;Ity,whichwearc in for the prcfent. . 
?or although this feare be oppofed to perfeft love, 1 fohn 4. 
18. Yetfimply to love it is not becaufe love while it is im- 
pfctfet^andisina combatc againft imperfe&ions is holpen 
by this feare. 

17, J. 4^ Thdtfeare whfch makes us fly from God^is op- 

24 .Of love ttoirds God, 

pofed unto love, whereby we doe adhere unto G od. 

1 8. A. 5. Thatfeare which apprehends God fo terrible 
unto us, that we cannot reft in hisgoodnefle, is oppofite unto 
love, which hath a complacency in God. 
■ 19. ^4.6. That feare which doth affeft a man with an- 
guilh, and vexation is oppofite to love, which brings with it 
joy and peace. 

Queft. 6. How may Godbejaidto be bated ? 

in tA> I . When it is conceived as a pieafing and delight- 
full thing, that there were no God. 

2u A. 2. When a man wifaeth and defireth that God 
iverc not fuch an one as he is, that is } a puniiLcr and revenger 
of linne. 

22. A.%. When a man oppofeth himfelfe to the will of 
God, and willcththe contrary to thofe things which God 

Qjieftc 7. Who are they that in this third refpett are to he , 
accounted as haters of God ? 

23, A. 1. All thofe who wittingly, and willingly breakc 
the commandements of God, Exod. 20.5 . with 6. becaufc 
it is a point of lovetoobferve Gods commandements. 

24. ±A. 2. Thofe which arc ftrangers to the knowledge 
and worflhip of God, lob 2 1 . 1 4, 1 5 . 

35* *sf. 3. Thofe which doe hate difcipline, and true 
reformation of life, Ffal. 50. 17. 

2 6. <iA. 4. They which doe not ftudioufly fecke after 
Wifdome, Prov .8 . 3 6. 

zj. A. 5. They which doc hate fuch as doe love God, 
2y*?/#.39.7 # 1 70^4.12. and 5 1.^/^.25.40. 
^ 28. A, 6. They wnich doe love other things more then 
God, 2 Tim. 3*4, * 

29. A. 7, They which doe ncglcdt God, and cleave unto 
thtviadd>LHkfi6l2> «, 


Of the hearing eftht WtrdofGtl. 3f 

Chap. XI. 

Of the bearing of the Word of God, 

Qucft,*.\ 7\ l.H*t kind of attention is required to the 

V V hearing of the Word of god aright ? 

I. A. i« Religious attention which doth arife from the 

confederation of the majeftie of God, and from thatrevcrcncc 

which is due unto him : fo that it differs not onely in degree, 

but in the whole nature of it, from that attention which is 

S • due to the words of men, although they be fuch as excell in 

authoritie, Aftsio.$$* Iudg.^.io* iThef.z.i^ 

2. A 2 . Attention therefore to the words onely, or to the 
fenfeof the words is not fufficient ; but there is required an 
attending to that divine obligation, which in many refpeft* 
lies upon us, whereby we are tyed to a religious obfervancc 
of the will of God, when it is propounded unto us, D cuter* 

/ 3 . A. 3 . The foundation of this attention confifteth in the 

cxerciled a& of the reverence and feare of God, Efay 5 o. 1 o m 

4. A. 4. Hence it is that fuch an attention is required, 

which mult have fomc preparation going before it, Exed.\$ % 

10,11. Ecclef.^.i. 

Qucft. 2. what kind of inqniry^ or confutation u requi- 
site in this attention ? 

% . A. We arc not to confuit whether the will of God h 

to be obeyed or no/or fuch a conf ultatton cannot be free from 

I ■ impictic : but wee are to enquire onely to this end, that wee 

may underftand what is the will of God, x Iohn^ % u For 

I 'the words of any men whofoever, fuch a judgement ought 

m • tobepaffedon them, whereby it may be decerned whether 

w^ they be good, and to be obferved yea or no, 1 Tbef. 5.2 1. but 

the Word of God admits no other judgement but onely for 

thedifcerning of it to bee the Word of God. For by the 

Word of God we mufl paffe judgement of all things elic s 

but as for it, we are not to judge it, but to fubmit our (elves 

toit to be judged* 

D d -6. In 

2 £ Of *be bear tog tftfo Word of G*d % 

€. In hearing of men, menarefaid to carry themfclves 
^ ihcfefoure waies For cither they arclike fponges which do 
fuck up both good and bad,er clfe thf y arc like Houre-glaffes 
which let that out at one eare which they take in at theo- 
ther : or they are like the Wine facks,which keeps the dregs 
onely, and let the good wine out : or clfe like Saves which 
let goe that which is worth nothing, and reraine that onely 
which is good. And amongthefe fourc kind of hearers, the 
kft onely which arc lifee Scives are to bee approved: but in 
hearing the pure Word of God, the firft kind onely are to be 
commended -> namely, they which fuck up ail like a Sponge, 
or like the earth which drinkes up the raine that falls npoa 
it, Heb.e.j. 

Queft. J. What intention of the will, is required in hear- 
ing of th& Word of God ? 

7* *A.\* Our intention ought not principally and laflly, 
Sobe carried to knowledge,but to praftife, fames 1 .22,Such 
doe fall into a foule and dangerous deceit, which doe reft hi 

8. ft/f*ar, Our intention to doe thofc things which God 
Would have us to doe, ought to bee abfolute and untveriall,' 
without any limitation or diftin&ion, & ent. 5 . 3 3, 3 j . Ur % 
42. lfi<fi. James 2. 10. 

p. A. 3. This intention ought to be fofirong, that it may 
have the force of a vow, or of an oarh,/*/*/, up. \q6, 

10. A. 4. It ought not to be delayed with any flay, or 
lingering, 1 i£. 6o. 

11. A* 5. In this intention weemuft reft not upon our 
^wneftrengtb, but upon the grace and power of God, 1 


12. ssf. 6: This intention nuift be actually : refitted every 
riftKWehear«thcwordofGod,P/^/w.27: 8. And by this 
raeanesjWkile we are hearing wee may faften c?ery com* 
raandement of God in our hearts. 

1 j. A. 7. This intention muft be continued by a <hyly 
zm diligent meditationof the Word heard, Pfylm. 1. 2.and 


Of Pride Mgtifift G&dc 

Chap. XII. 
Of Trite again ft Qod 9 

Qacft. I. X J^JHtther van any creature fbeiv hie prick 
V V again fi God his Qreator> 
i.uf. i. Pride is an inordinate afte&ion of a mans own 

i. A* 2. This aflfeftation of excellency is put forth two 
waies : i. When one doth lift hirafelfe up above ano- 
ther. 2. When he arrogates fomething to hitnfelfe that is 
above him. 

3 . A. 3 ♦ In thefirft rcfpc# a man foewes his pride, ci- 
ther dire&ly, when he doth (imply preferre himfelf c before 
another : or indircftly, and by interpretation, when he refc- 
feth to fubmithimfelfe unto another, to whom he ought to 
v be fub/eft. 

' 4 . A. 4. After this laft manner all thefe (hew their pride 
againfl: God, which will not be fubjed: unto his will , nor 
hcare his word, £*W. %A. Icr. ij.i$. and 43, j. 

Queft. ?. How can t his f ride he in all thofe which wiU not 
heare the Word of God^fince many other lufis may be caufes of 
this dif obedience ? 

$. <t//. i. Asfinne,foaKbthe caufe of finne, may ad- 
mit a twofold confideration : For we may confider him, ci- 
ther as it is a turning away from God, or as it is a turniflg to 
fomething that is oppofitc to God. Now many other mfts 
may be the caufes of dilobedience, in rcfpe&of the turning 
to fomething in ftead of God ; but pride is the beginning of 
all finne, as it is a turning away from God, and a denial! of 
that fubie&ion that is due unto him. 

6. A. 2. Other concupifcenfes and lufts, While they doe 
drawamantonegleftthe will of God, they draw alfo to 
a ccrtaine pride, and contempt of God, 2 Sam. 1 2,p* 

y. 9 A 3. All other lufts, at leaft, the moft of thwin do in- 
duce us tofinne,as they carry in them the appearance of fome 
cxcelicncie (jet /haft be hk$ gods ) in the defire of which 

P d 2 there 

a $ OfOnfultlng with the Dewff. 

there is to be found fomething of the nature of prick. 

Qucft. 3. What are the proper metrics whereby this Pride 
majTe beaten down* andkept under ? 

%. A*\. The confideration of the greatneffe and power 
ofGod,^* 39.35* ^w.p.ro^i; 
j> ^.x.Thc confideration of ourownbafcne$Te,£<w P*37« 

10. Jfo 3. The confideration of thofe bonds, whereby 
Wearetiedtofubmitourfclves wholly to God, as to our 
Creator, Prefer vcr> and Lord. 

It*. A, 4 The confideration of the wrath of God againft 
the proud,and of his grace towards the humble, 1 Pet. 5 . j . 6. 

Chap. XI II. 

Of fconjulttng with the Devi/?* 

Qoeft. !• ■ V 71 ■ J**'" 4r4 men f^ t0 Con f*h ***th the 
\\ Devill? 

I. A. Not onely when they doe, either by a direft petU, 
tion, or by an expreffe compaft, defire the aid of the Devill, 
cither that they may come to the knowledge of things hid-'! 
den, or for the doing of things difficult : but alfj when the 
facre is attempted by a fiknt and implicite compaft. For as 
inconfulting withGod, we are not onely faidro enquire at 
hiro, when we doe immediately goe unto him, but alfo when 
wee ufe thofe mcanes, for the knowing, and doing of 
his will, which are ordained byhimfelfe ; So alfo the de- 
vcl isconfulted with,when we doe ufe thofe meanes, for the 
finding ont, or effecting of any thing, which have beene firfi: 
brought in by the Dsvill/Ehefe two doe differ onely, as divers 
degrees of the fame a#. 

Qlieft. «• When is the Devill Jilently and implicit elj con- 
fnltcA with, and bis voice heard in the place of God ? 

1. A. 1. In a general! way this is done, wbenfoever wee 
forfakcthat way which Godhaihprefcribed ut?, and follpw 
thefuggeftion of the Devill walking, in another way , and 
ufing other mcanes for the attaining of happineffe, as it is to 
kefcencin the temptation, and fail of ourfirft Parents. 

3 • Specially, and properly, this is done,when eithcrthbfc 
^n ate coflf«ite4 With, which have communion with the 


Of Confulting with the bewU. l$ 

Dcvill : or thofe mcafies are ufed, cither for the knowing or 
effecting of things which have no fuch ufe by their ownc na- 
ture, nor by the ordinance of God ; and no extr aordinarie o- 
yeration of God with them can bee expetted by Faith. The 
reafonis,becaufefuch mcanes have not that vcrtuc which 
iecmesto be i§ them from God, neither in a way of nature, 
nor in a way of grace, nor extraordinarily by the working of 
his omnipotcnq r ,nor can they receive fuch a vertue from men, 
becaufe men cannot communicate that vertue unto others, 
which thcmfclves have not, neither doe they receive fuch a 
vertue from the holy Angels, becaufe they doe nothing but 
only as Gods miniftcrs. I tfollowes therefore that the Dcvill 
is the author both of ihe operations, and fignifications which 
doc depend on fuch meanes, and that the Devill is confiilted 
With by them that doe cxped any thing in fech waies. 

Qlieft. 3 1 What is the evill of fuch an aQian ? 

4. A. 1 . Thefirft evill which is found in this finne is infi- 
delity. For Fakh and Hope are not placed in God, when 
the way which he hath prefcribed is f orfaken, and a new way 
m (ought. 

5 ♦ sA* 2 . But the cbiefe evill in it is this, that hec Which 
thus in this manner confults with the Devil,doth in lome fort 
fobmit himfelfe unto the Dcvill, and doth yecld unto him an 
cxcellencie which belongs to God, and fo by interpretation 
doth give honour and worfhip unto hun. 

6. <tA % 3. Tl ere is alfj hereby a way diredly laid for the 
Devils morcefft&uall deceiving of us,, and our fuller forfak- 
ingof God, 

'Queft.4. Whether are theprediSliws of iudtcidl ts€firo~> 
logy of this nature ? 

7. A. Predidions from the Starres concerning voluntary 
a&ions,and conccrningcbntingent alfoin particular,althougb 
fometimesthey may beafcribcd-corafhoefTe and impudence, 
yet if they be ferioufly ufed,they cannot be excufed from all 
participation of rhisfinne: for the Stars although they may 
infufe a ccrtaine generail difpoficion, and inclination into in- 
ferior bodies, as common caufes,yet can they not be -certain? 
caufesior naturall fignes of this or that e#e& in particular : no 
more then an Hen that {Its upon divers fort* of Egges is 9 

1} d 3 caufe 

$o ofcMJUlting with tfo DeviU., 

caufc or certaine figne that one kind of chkkcn {hall tome out 
of one Egge* and another out of another. 

8* The fame i>to be faid of fuch prcdi&ions, ai are taken 
from the elements, from the frame of the members of mans 
body, from dre*mcs, from progedies, &c 

9 For in thefe things, and in the like, ther* is wont to be 
fomething that is naturail, from which in a gcnerall fort other 
things may be concluded,but yet nothing certain in particular ; 
concerning contingent events, efpeciaily thole which do de- 
pend upon the ele&ion of the Will* 

Queft, j; In which things is this finne ufually committed^ 
and participated by the jimple^ ignorant ^ and credtlom com- 
mon people^ in thefe vaine obfervations ? 

I o. *s€. u W hen common and ordinary things are highly 
accounted off, as if they were lucky orunlucky,thatis,when 
they doe con jc&urc fome joy full, or fad events, upon fome 
accidental! words or deeds aforegoing . As if fuch a creature, 
asfuppoleaHarc,or Cat ftiould meet them, or croffe the 
way before them, if the Salt- feiiar upon the table (hould be 
ovcrthrowne', or Wine fpilt, if at their firft going out in the*- 
morning they £kouldfneeze,or da(h their foot againft a thre- 

n. A, i. W hen certaine daies accounted luckie, or un- 
luckietobeginncany workein,for thiscaufe onely, becaufe 
they arc fuch dayes of the week, yeareSa or moneths, dedica- 
ted to fuch a Saint. 

ii. *s4. 3. Whenefficacie is attributed to certaine 
formes of prayer, and to conditions annexed to them, for 
the procuring of this, or that fingular thing : Of this fort a- 
mong the Papifts arc briefe fentenccs hung about their necks, 
Ave Maryesy and Pater nofters mumbled upon Beades, till 
they come to a certaine number. 

1 5 • A. 4 When fome advantage is cxpe&ed, by the ca- 
rying about of things unprofitable : As when the Papills ca- 
rie certaine rcliques about their necks, that by the ftrength 
of c hem they may be defended againft dangers, difeafes, and 

14. ttA. y* WHenvcrtucto drive away difeafes, 4 or to 
produce other re^U effects is attributed to Figures, Images, 


Of Prayer. jl 

Chara#er«, Charmed or Writings* 

i$. A. 6. When the like vcrtucis afaibedto Herbcs,and 
other Medicines, not as they areappiyed in a natural! way P 
but as they be charmed, orasthey beeufed interne ccrtaine 
fonnc and no other. 

id. A 7. When Faith is given to the predictions of 
braine-fake-men, as if they were the Oracles of God. 

Chap. XIIlL 

Of Prayer* 

Queft. *. %N what thing doth the effenc* it felfe of holy 
YPray>erc$nfi\t I 
I . A % Prayer in regard of the inward cflcntiall and com* 
mon nature of it is nothing elfe, but a religious motion of our 
will towards God, tending to moove, as it wcre,himalfo. 

a In this it doth differ from hearing of thewordof God, 

\becaufe there our will is mooved towards God, that we may 

be moved by him againc : but here the immediate end of our 

motion is God himfelfe, that he may bee afieded with our 


3 . Hence it is, that by a lingular appropr iatiqn, Prayer 
iscaWcd, The lifting uf> of the heart to God y the ajcending of 
the minde towards God,tbe drawing neere untQ God, and is 
6id effeftually to avasle with God, as a facrificc out of which 
Godfmelsafweet favour > wherewith hce is affefted, or 

4, Now becaufe it is not for us to apply the will or pow- 
orof God to this or that, either by comir anting, as hce 

1 deales with us in his word, which is the pare of SupeuQurs 
to their infenours : or by a famihar rcqueft, which is the 

\ part of equals amongft thcmfclves, or by any other way, 
whereby wc n;ay by any reall indeavour lay an obligation 
upon him, or work an inclination in him to this or that : this 
way onely retnaines^ that we doe by w$y of a fubnjifilve and 

* religions reprclentAtion of our affe&ions before him, minifter 
unto himanoccafioaand matter of fuch^or iuch an operatic*?, 

And 4 

3* ofPrqer. 

And this is to be done not oneiy with that fubje&ion, which 
is neceflary in all the actions of obedience, but fpeciaJly, with 
that fubmiffion which doth become an ad of Religion. 

Queft. 2» What intention of the Will is required in 
Prayer ? 

y. A< There is required, I. A fpeciall intention of 
honouring God, and not a general! one onely , as in all other 

6. *A* z* There is required an intention of reprefenting 
fome good, honeft, and decent defire unto God, that is, luch 
3 defire as is conformable to his goodnefle, and will. 

7« A* 5. There is required an intention oflHrring up fuch 
affefHons in our felves, as doe agree to the pre{ence of God, 
and to the naturcofthe thing that We propound unto him. 

8. A. 4* All thofe intentions are required which do im- 
mediacy, and effcntially follow Faith, Hope. andCharitie. 

9. A. s. Inallthefe intentions wee ought to leanenot 
upon our felves, and our prayers,but upon Chrift. 

Queft.-j. What attention of the mind* is required in 

10. tA. l> There is required an attention to God f to" * 
whom wc pray. 

ii. A . %. An attention to the thing for which we pray. 

1 2. A. 3 ♦ An attention to our felves, and the difpofition of 
our affeftions, out of which we pray. F or wc ought with at- 
tention to watch to the intention which we have. 

1 3 . Hence it is that he which defires to pray aright,ought 
neceflarily to recoiled himfelfe, and to take heed that his 
thoughts be not diftracted,and that his fenfes doc not rove, 
nor wander. 

Qgeft. 4. Whether is fuch a kind of attention fo necefitry p 
that the want of it makes our prayers fruflrate} \ 

14. A. 1. This attention is two fold: 1. A&ually, * 
whereby vve doe diftinftly, and conftantly attend to every £S 
thing that wcftiould. a, Vcrtuall, whereby wc continue 
in the fame difpofition of attending, wherein we began.The 
fir(t attention is mo t laudable, but if this latter kind of atten- 
tion beufei, th >ugh it fade in fome pare , our prayer doth 
rccainc its vertucs* 


Of Prayer.' 33 

15 # A. u Diftraftions and rovings are of two fcr« p 

For cither they come through our negligence, or want of 
care, or elfc they rufh into our mindes, fo that We doe un- 
willingly, and with gnefe fuffcrthera. The former kind of 
diftraftions tame Prayer into finne, the latter are to be num- 
bred amongft the infirmities of the faithfull, which doc not 
(hut them out from<omfort. 

Queft. 5 . Jn whatpnfe are we bound to pray continually ,or 
at all tim?s wit horn inter mi ffion EpheC6 18. I Thef.f.l/. 

16. A.i. In regard of the difpofition and preparation of 
the heart to pray,wc oughtto keep it continually -.Becaufeivc 
can never without iinne leave off, or turoe afide from direci* 
ing our hearts, and defires towards God. 

ij. A. 2. Jn regard of th« aft of Prayer, wee ought to* 
feke, yea, to catch at every occafion, and opportunity of ex- 
crcifing it. &£i*Aumod$ c* tfctvtt xoufSi, Without ceaiing up- 
on every occafion. There is the likephrafeufed, 2 Sam* 
9. 1. CMephihopjetb did eat meat continually at the Kings 
v table. And Lukf 2.37 ♦ 

' Queft. 6. Whether k ther* any Commandcinent for fit 
times of Prayer every day ? 

18. *A* i. There c sagencrallprecept,thatweferveGod 
all the daics of our lives, Luke 1.75^ That worfliip of God 
therefore which fitly may be performed every day, ought no 
day to be omitted: But fuchis Prayer, therefore it ought 
no day to be omitted. 

1 p. &•/. 2. We are taught in the Lords Prayer, to pray 
every day for our dayly bread. Give ut rhU day % And yet 
moreinftantly is thekingdomc of God,andthcrighteoufheffa 
thereof to be fought, CMatt. tf . 3 3 . 

20. A. 3. In the old Teftamenc there was a Law cook 
manding a dayly Sacnficc to be offered publikcly , Num. %+% 
And there waslikewife an houre of Prayer, tsitts 3«i.N©w 
the Sacrifice it ielfe,and the Incenfe offered with it was a 
tipe of Prayer, Pfam. $1.17 ***d 141.2. #*£, 1 3. \ jjL 

21 c^4 Godly men have been wont to pray dayly t 
€ &p*lm.w.i7. Dan. 6. io> 

22. A. ?♦ ThisistherommoninftinftofaU thofc, whe* 
fcave any (hew of Religion amongft them,as may be ftscn by 

£ e the 

j^ Of Ctnfefshnl 

the Papifts, and the very Mahumetanes themfclves. 

a 3 A. 6. We are dayly invited to this duty by »any 
benefits from God : urged by fundry dangers from the e- 
ncmics of our foules : excited by our owne wants , and 
iheneceflltiesof others : anddrawne on, and as it were,by 
a iweet force moved to this cxercife dayly ,.by the nature of 
Prayer it felfe, wherein we have a fingular and fweet com- 
munion with God, an exercifc of every grace, and refrefli- 
ment, and reparation of our foules. 

24. This duty therefore is dayly to be performed by eve- 
ry one, in regard of the precept j and though by reafon of the 
divers conditions o£ mens lives, all men cannot per forme it 
in the feme mcafurc, and manner, yet the thing it felfe ought 
not any day wholly to be omitted. 

ChAf. XV. 
Of Confejjiotj. 

Queft. l*\ It jHethcr is Confejfion nectary in every 
I . A. Exprcffe, and Explicite Confefllon is not al- 
waics necc{Tary,a$appeares by feverali formes of Prayers, 
which we have approved to us in the Scripture, in which yet 
there is no dircft Confeffion exprefifed ; yet an implicite,and 
filent Confeffion, at ieaft, ought aiwaies to be joyncd with 
Prayer, 1. Becaufe Prayer is an ad of Religion , and fo 
Wcoughtinittoconfcffcourfub/cftionto, and dependancc 
upon God, at Ieaft, by a filent acknowledgement, z. Be* 
c*ufe humiliation before God, and poverty of fpirit , is nc- 
cefiary in Prayer, L*k?i*Sh lames /^ io, iTet. 5. 6. 
3; Becaufe we can defire nothing of God properly with 
true Faith, but we muft firft acknowledge it to be above our 
detertandfufficiency. 4, Becaufe both our felves and our 
prayers, being defiled with divers finnes, ought not to bee 
prefentcd before God 5 Without a confefllon of our unwor- 

<&eft* ** 


OfCtnftfsknl j ? 

Quell:, 2. VTben u itrequijite that weconfeffe ourjinne* di~> 
ftinftlj % andexprtjl) } 

2. A* Wbcnfocvcrourconfcicnccf arc burdened with 
the guilt of finnes , and we fceke the remiflion of them, that 
our confidences may be unburnned, ler. 3 . 8. Prov* 2 8. 1 $. 
Pfalm. 31. j« The rcafonis, 1. Becaufe we cannot feri- 
oufly, and as we ought, defire the rcroiflionof our finne, un- 
lefle we be firft affected with the fence of them. Now a pi- 
ous conkfllon doth demonftrate this fenfc, by our laying of 
our finnes open, and doth fatten it deeper, by our ripping 
them up. z # Becaufc God in his Word hath parted judge- 
ment concerning finnc and finners, and will not remit that 
judgementby condemnation lunlcffe it be firft acknowledged 
as juft, by finners thcmfclvcs, and be in a fort paflcd in their 
owne conferences, 1 Cor. 11.3 1. God will therefore have 
us to accufe, convince, and condemne our feives of finne , in 
our confeflions, that fo we may not be inforced to undcrgoe 
accufation of the Dcvill, and the fentence of Gods wrath* 
If thou thy (fife bs thy aecufer^ and God doe fet thee free, 
yvhat mil the Devill be but a (lander cr> Auguft. 3 ♦ Becaufc 
the confcfllon of finnc gives unto God, both the glory of his 
/ufticc in iudging, and of his mercy in pardoning, Nehim* 
1.33. ^Pfalm. 51. 6. Dan. 9. and fo of its owne nature 
makes way for our reconciliation with the Lord, whom we 
have offended, as it is to bee fcene alfo amongft men, Gen. 


Queft* 3. What conditions are requijtte in this C m f e h 

Jion ? 

3. A. 1. It ought to bee naked without any manner of 
hiding, or covering, Prov. 28. 1 3* For though in the com* 
mitting of finnc, it is better to hide it then to declare it, Efay 
3<io. Yet in confeflion, all is to be opened unto God, and 
nothing to be concealed* 

q.A.z. It oughtto be humble, with the fubmiflion of our 
foulcstotheiudgcmentof God, which is due unto our fins, 
and fo with gr iefe and dctcftation of finne, as it were in daft 
andafties,/^42.6.Andwith fliameof face, Ez>ek*9.6.i$. 
Dan.^j^Sg. If this condition be wanting, the declaring of 
our finnes is not a confeflion, but rather a profcflRcn, 

Eel Qggft. j 

2$ i of Confififanl 

Queft. 4^ Whether it be neceffary that we confeffe our fins 
m particular, and by name ? 

5 . A. Such finncs as are grievous and knowne, are parti- 
cularly tobe confeflfed : But it is enough to confeffe others 
generally, Pfalm: \ p< i g , i Sam % 1 2 . 19, 2 u 

Queft. y. Whether y and how farre, is Confejfion offinms 
Alfo to be before men neceffary,that our prayers may be accep- 
table to Cfid? 

6: A. *♦ Whofoevcr ferioufly doth confeffe his finnes 
before God, he alfo will be without doubt alwaies ready, in 
fomc fort, to confeffe the fame before men to the glory of 
Gods mercy, PJal. 3 2 .<6 Yet, this is not alwaies required 
in particular. For thole finncs which are knowne to God 
onelyi are ordinarily to be confeffed onely unto him. For 
feeing Confeflion of its owne nature tendcth to the taking a- 
way of the guilt of finne, and to the removing of the punifh- 
roent which wasinflid'ed upon the commiffion of finne; Ic 
hath of it felfe no ufc but onely to ward him that is offended 
by thefinnes and that knowes them* 

7. A. 2. Yet by accident it may fall out, that thofe finr 
which are knowneto God onely, ought to belaid open be- 
foremen, 1. When the glory of Godinanyfingularway 
fecmeth to require this , John y.rp. 2 . When our owne 
ncceflitieperlwadethto it, that is, when wee do iudge the 
particular counftll and comfort of this , or that man about 
our finnes, to bee profitable for us, zAtts 10 j 8. lames 

8 t A. 3. But thofe finncs which are publikely knowne, 
jwightaifd publlkely tobe confeffed. Becaufe to allthofe to 
whom any hurt doth come by the contagion of an evill exam- 
ple,notice ffjould be given of the repentance and amendment 
of the finner that hath done the hum The deiire of the glory 
ef God, and of the falvation of men, muft needs conftraine 
thcfaithfulltothisdutie, Atis ipjp. 1 Tim. 5.20 

p. A. 4, Thofe finnes wherein we have done any lingu- 
lar and notable iniurie, to fuch and fiich a man,muft be confe£ 
fed Angularly vntohim,if it be pofliblfe, for the renu'mg of 
that bondof charitie which wasbroken through our default, 
Matt. 5, *3»M, 


1 Of promt ft wade U God in Prdycr. 3 7 

Y* isf. 5. Publike confcffionalfo before the Church 
is neceffary <after the commiffion of a finne publikely icanda- 
lous, a Cor % *>6>y. This is grounded upon the lame reafons 
with the former, and moreover is due unto that Minifteriall 
iudgement, which Chrift doth exercife in the Church* and by 
the Church, Matt. 1 8. 1 7.1 8. 

Chap. XVI. 
Ofpromife made to god in Prayer. 

Queft« 1. liV what thing doth fuch a kjnde of yromife 
lcenfift ? 
i. A. 1. Eflenciallyitconfiftethin an holy purpofe, re- 
prelentcd before God, <P/a/m. up. 30. 57. 

2, zsf. 2. In that reprefentation there ought to bee con* 
taincd a will to bind our felves, fuch as isin an oath, Pfalml 
up. 106 . 

} 5. <*xf. 3. There ought alfo to be added an expreffion of 
this will, Gen, 28.20,21,23. 

4. <t/4". 4, The folemne expreflion of this will, doth 
chiefly agree to greater occasions and affe&ions : when wee 
are either in great troubles, eut of which wedoe defire to be 
freed, PfaL 66. 14. Or when foinc great caufe of ioy falls 
out through the fingular favour of God, Pjal. 1 1 8. 2 7* 

Queft. 2. Whether U it necefiary that fitch a fromife bet 
alwaies made to Godvrprajer ? 

y . A. It is required at leaft implicitly ,in refpc& of the pur- 
pof oftheWill.Becaufe to defire any thing from God, with* 
out a purpofe toindeavour with our utmoft power for the 
obtaining of it, or without a purpofe to glorifie his name for 
the granting of our petition •• and to praife God in words, for 
the benefits we have received from him,without a purpofe to 
yceld honor unto him in our a&ions* or laftly ,for us to repre- 
sent our wii before God,tobe regarded by him,without pur- 
pofe of obfervmg his will, and of living anfwerably to fiich 
an aftion, all thia would in fome fort be nothing but to mock 

Ec v j Queft. si 

3 B Offfomife made H GodfaPnyer. 

<3yefh 3. JpA*/ ^/o/ things Art to be promifed to Godf 
6. A. I. NotanevilU&ion, nor any thing that is v,iic 
and abominable, Deut.t^ i8 f 

7. -4. 2. Not things impofliblc, inevitable • nor thofc 
which through the calling or ftrength beftowed upon us by 
God, we cannot, or are not fit to performc it, Numb. 3©. 

8.- A. 3. All thofc things are to be promifed which arc 
commanded us by God, which yet ought to be underftood 
io farrc, as they may be performed by the grace of God, 
Without fpcciall priviledgc. For it is not lawful! for us (im- 
ply to promife that we will abftainc from all finne. Although 
we ought to promife all care and diligence, to the utmoft of 
our power, by the grace of God, for the avoiding of all finnc, 
and the following after every thing that is good, Pfalm<%i§. 

9. *A. 4. All thofc things like wife arc to bee vowed, 
which although they be not enjoined unto all , yet all circum- 
fiances being confidcred, maybe mcanes unto us either of 
honouring God, or of a better obferving of his comniandc- 

Queft. 4, Jn things that are good and commandedjbow 
can there be by our promife and vow a new obligation added 
unto that obligation which lyes upon ns^ by vertue of the Law 
cf Godf 

Io A. There is not properly heereby anew obligation 
addcd,neither is the former in it felf augmented, but it is more 
acknowledged and received by us: palfiveiy we were bound 
as much before, but by an aftive renewing of this bond, it is 
more ftri&iy applied unto us by our felvcs. 

Queft. 5 • Whether may things not commanded be the ob- 
jett and matter of a vow? 

x i. A. 1. If they be (imply confidcred, as indifferent, 
they ought not to be vowed unto God : Becaufe fo they 
have nothing in them «onvcnient,profitable,or fit to promote 
the honour of God. 

!*• *A. a. Yet as they are meanes to fome good end, 
whereby God is glorified, they may, being rightly ordered, 
bca fit ob/cct of a vow. 

Queft. tf 

Of mtntdUand vwall Prayer. ^ 

Queft. 6. fVhat kind of ebligation is brought upn us by 
ffich k*nd of vewes ? 

1^ *sf. If the vow bclawfnll, the obligation is moft 
ftrickt. Becanfc the bond of Religion is contained in the 
vow • and fo that which before was free, is now, becaufc of 
the vow nude, in fome fort , the due worftiip ot God, 
For although the fubjeft matter of the thing which is vow- 
ed be of it felfe indifferent, and bee dircfted by the vow to 
fome other vertue, yetthe obfervation of that vow, pertaincs 
direftly to that religious honour which we owe to GodThc 
breach therefore of fucba vow , is a prophane pcrfidiouf- 
ncflc againft God. It is perfidioufheffc, becaufc the pro- 
mifc is not performed ; and prophane , becaufc the pro~ 
mife was made unto God , and doth pertaine to his ho- 

Chap. XVlI. 
Ofmentall and vocal Prayer* 

Qucft* I. \TXTHethtr is it fiifficient t* prfywhh th$ 
V V heart and mindei 
i.Ati. It doth fufficcto the effence of prayer : bc- 
caufe the vertue of Religion which is cxercifed m prayer may 
be put foorth in an internall aft, although no ex tcr nail aft bec 
added to it, i Sam* 1**3 Neh.i,^. Godalfo lees the in- 
ternal! aft, though it be expreffed with no external! fignc, 

2 t A. 2. Butitisnotalwaies fuffkicntforthedifcharge* 
f rng of bis duty, that pray eth : 1 , Becaufc God is to be gto- 
rityed,and to be reiigjoufly worftiippcd by us, not only with 
our foules, but alfo with our bodies, and fo with our voice* 
* 1 C or > &• 2 °* *■ Bccaufe although the internall aft may 
fuffice to the briefc ejaculation of our deftre* yet it is 
difficult to hold on in a continued representation of our de- 
fires before God,unleffc the outward man alio be withdrawn 
from other things, that it together with the inward may at- 
tend onto this jduty , 3 . Becaufc the voice comroing from 


40 of mcntall and vccail Prayer . 

t&e heart, is heard againe, and recoy leth upon it, fa that it is 
a meanc of exciting, continuing, and increaling that holy af- 
fc&ion from whence it fpringech. 4, Becaufe vvc muft of- 
ten pray with others, which are edified by benefit of our 
voice, and are admitted to the participation of the fame pray- 
.er with us» 

C^ueft. 2. What fort of attention is required in vocaU 

3 f \A. 1 The principall attention ought not to be about 
the words and voice, f • Becaufe they are oneiy the ad/un&s 
of prayer, and may in the fame manner be ufed of him that 
doth not pray ; as by a fooie, one afieop. a chiide , one that 
dothbutpiay. 2. Becaufcinfuchanattentioathereisagreai 
ter regard had to our ownevaine glory, then to the glory o£ 
God. 3, Becaufcbythismeanes, that internall affection in 
which the effence of Prayer confifteth is not promoted, but 
hindred, lefTened or quite taken away # 

4. «^f 2 . Yet fome attention is required, even to the 
Words, i. That they be decent, leatt fome thing fhould be 
intermingled % that isunbefeeming God, or his woifliip. 2; 
That the fpeech,as much as may be, may befuchas the Holy 
Ghoftteachcth,i Corals 3 .That they be not uttered after 
the manner of men, but be cloa:hed,as4t were, with a fpiri- 
all habit, agreeable to the nature of the thing. 4,That if wc 
pray with others, a care be had to their edification. 

Quclh 3. What nfing of many words is that which is for- 
bidden* Matt.6.J. 

5. A. 1. All long Prayers are not forbidden, for Chrift 
himfclfc was wont fometimes to fpend all night in prayer, 
nor all doubling of the fame Petition ; for Chrift alio hath ap- 
proved that by his example. Mat 26.44. 

6. A. 2f But there is forbidden, 1. An affe&ation of 
prolixitie, and much repetition. 2. An eftimation of fuch 
things,as if chey were offeree to procure audience. 3 . ThaD 
prolixitieand repetition which comes not from the abun« 
dance of inward affe&ioir but from the want of it, 

Queft. 4. Whether a certaine and pre fcript forme ofcwords 
is to be ufed tn Prayer f 

7. A. i. That this is fometime UvyfuUa is evident from 


Of mtntdl andvocdl prayer. 41 

the approved praftife of the Saints ; which the Scripture com- 
menis uatous in their prefcript Pfalaies, and formes of blef- 

8. A, 2. It is at fo profitable and neceffaryf or fome to fol- 
low fiicli a £orme,though out of a B ;>oke* 1. Becaufe there arc 
fo.ne Brleeversfo ignorant, that they are not able to exprcflfe 
their defines in any fort in (it words. 

9. A. 3, 0:hers there be, who though they can doe it, fo 
as may futti'ee for themlelvcs in private, yet if they be to pray 
with others, they are either dei'htute of ability, or of a free- 
rseffeof pufccuig it foorth. 3* There are {bme alio to whom 
it may be profitable in their meditations and prayers, to bee 
ruled, as it were, by fuch a meanc as this. 

10. A. 4. Yctno man ought to reft contented in fuch a 
kind of pra v ing^ut rather toindevour that he may be able to 
cxprefle his minde before God, without fuch an heipe. i .Be- 
caufe a prefcript forme, whiles it doth not diredly follow 
our inward -affections, but lead them, doth leffe perfedly 
pcrforme that which is in the nature of prayer. 2. Becaute 
ail thofe particular things which we have need togoe to God 
for,cannot be contained in a prefcript form. 3. Becaufe even 
as we arc praying, God is wont to ftir up fpeciall affe&ions 
in our hearts, which are often hind-red,, and extinguished, i£ 
we always kecpe to a prefcript forme. 4* Becaufe by this 
rcafon, (loath and lukc warmeneffe creepesupon us, and dead- 
nefla in prayer? fo that our forme is nfed out of cuftomc one- 

Qneft. ?. Whether the Lord* Prayer be a forme preferred 
for M) andt* be obfervedby us ? 

11. A. 1. Chriftin teaching us that prayer, would not 
f prefcribe us a forme of words conftantly to be obferved : but 
, an example or pattcrne, according to which we are to dire& 

our Prayers. This is evident enough from this, that wee nc« 
* ver read thatthe Apoftles ufed that Prayer. 

1-2. A. 2. It is not expedient to flickc to this forme. ii 
Becaufe we ought often to pray, more particularly, as occafi- 
onis offered. ». Becaufe by this nocanes,it is become among 
thePapifts likcadwme. 3. Becaufe fo wefhaUraake no pro- 
ficiencie in the fpirit and gift of praying* 

F f Chaf^ 

4 l ofthtgcJtufeofPrtyer. 

Chap- XV III. 
Of thegefinre of Trajer* 

Qucft. 2. X7\l Hether in every Prayer there be feme 
V V care to he had of the gefture of the 

i. A* I. In fhort ejaculations of our defires before God, 
the outward gefture, neither can be attended, nor hath any 
ufe, further then it doth really , and without a direct intenti- 
on of its owne accord, follow the inward motion of the 

2. t. In fecret Prayer which is known to God onely;yee 
in the prelence of others, geftures and outward fignes-oughc 
as much as may be, to be hid, Nehem. 2. 4 Leait wee give 
caufetofufpedof hypoaifie, or affectation of vaine glory, 
With the Pharifes, CMatt. 6.5. 

jy 3. In private folitary Prayer, fome care of the geftur b 
is profitable for our felves > becauicas by the voyce, fo by the 
gefture and habit of the body, affedions are excited, fuppor- 
ted, and continued, D*n.6. 1 1. 

4. 4, In Prayer with others, whether private or puhlick, 
there muft be a ftriftcr obfet vation uled of geftures and figns, 
becaufc of others: partly, lead wee give them occafion to 
fufped us guilty of carelefne fie, or did ur be them any way, 
or offend them; and partly, that we may helps their Devo- 
tion by our example, P/a/. $y 6. 

Queft. 2. Wh&t gefture ^required? 

5. *sf. 1. Geftures in generall ought tobcfuch,as may m\ 
m holy manner expreffe the inward motions of the minde. 

6. 2. Becaufe in every Prayer there is required fingular v 
humility, therefore tbe common gefture of folemne Prayer, # 
oughtto be agreeable to this demenfion, as the uncovering 
the head,and for the mod part, bending the knee, bowing of 
rile body, or (landing upright. Sitting by k fel fe is not ge- 
flore of praying, becaufe it exprefleth no reverence, nor is ap- 
prouedin Scripture* 

7. 3« Be- 

Of Singh*. 4 j 

7. 5 * Becaufe alfo in every Ptayer, our defire is direfted 
to our heavenly Father, with confidence and hope ; there- 
fore the lifting up of the hands and eics is decent in every fo- 
lemne Prayer* 

8. 4. OcHcr particular fingutargefttires in Prayer with 
others, are not to be ufed, for the caufes before fpoken off, In 
private Prayer they are not fo much to be affected, as to bee 
admitted according to the motion of the minde, 

Queftt 3. What ufe u there of covering the face in 
^prayer f 

A. No other but to prevent occafions which may be infi- 
nuated by the eyes, or to conceale thofe Angular gefturcs 
which fometimes are unneceffary for us, but would fcerae 
fond, or hypocriticail toothers. Except onthefeoccafions* the 
covering of the face doth rather belong to women , then 

ChAp. XIX. 
Of Singing. 

Qucft. *• \ 7t J Hat ufe hath Singing Above the erdina* 

V V r J pronunciation f 
I. J. i. It brings a kind offwect delight to godly minds, 
Pfal. 104.34. 

a. 2. It hath a more diftinft and fixed meditation, /£*/. 

3. 3. 1 1 hath a more copious and ample profeflion of Pi- 
«ie, 0/^3.16. 

4. 4. It hath more command of mutuall edification, if 
it be with others, Ephe 5.19. 

Queft. 2 , Whether Singing doe equally agree to the mind 
in trouble and in joy ? 

5. A. It doth tnorcproperly agree to joy, lames^w^l 
becaufe of the fwect dilation of the heart, which it mates a 
fhe w of* yet it well agrcerhto the profitable recording of 
paft forrow, as appearcs by thefe Piaitacs which arfccailcd 
Penitential!; and fometimc to the rcmovmg of iorroW, 
frov. 2<j.lQ. 

F f a Qaeft.«l 

4 4 OfPelitwt. 

Quell, g; Howslrkwe to Jing thoft Hijioricall T/almff 
ythich belong to ether per fons, and times. 

6. A. i. If we (o meditate of them, that vve reape con^ 
folation, and hope from them, %^m, 1 5.4. 

7. 2. To this end, we ought in cur thoughts to put on, 
as it vvercjtheperfon, either of them,of whomthofc Pfalmes 
vverecornpofed,orofthem whocorapofed them, that what 
ever isipoken there, we nnay, in feme fort, takeit-as fpeken 

Queft. 4. Htwmay we Jing thofe Pfalmes aright, which 
zwtawe dtre imprecations in them i 

8. A. 1 . We may uponoccafion of thofe imprecations 
meditate with feare and trembling, on the terrible judge- 
ments of God againft the ftnnes of impenitent perfons. 

: 9. 2. We may thereupon profit in patience,ar.d confola- 
tion,againft the temptations which sra wont tosrifc from the 
prosperity of the wicked, and affliction of the godly. 

10. j. We may alfo pray to God that he would haften 
} is revenge (not againft our private enemies,butj againft 
the wicked and incureable enemies oi his Church* 

Ch a p. XX, 
Of Petition, 

Quefh I »TTO^ Are fiirituatl things to be askrdofGjd ? 
JLjL 1. A. i. All things are to bee asked iu 
that manner, in which they are promifed. Therefore fpiri- 
tuall good things, as they are neceflary to falvation, are abfo* ^ 
lutely tobedefited ; becaufethey are abfolutcly promifed to t 
bciccvers and penitents, £*$ 11.13- 

2. 2. Thofe fpirimallgoodthmgs which admit degrees, # 
cannot abfolutely in every degree bee defircd: becaufe the 
things thcmfelvcs , -not the degrees of them are abfolutely 
neceflary, and abfolutely promifed by God, 3 for. 1 2.8,#. 

5. 3* Yet wc oughr abloluteiy to delirc thatmcafurc 
of grace which is neceflary for us, to the ayoyding of crimes, 


Of Pet him. 45 

or fca«da1s, andto the keeping a good Conscience, lames j. 
5,<5. i Cor. I o.i 3, P/a/.ig. 14. 

Quell. 1. H0J* 7 /ir* temporary things to he asked of God? 
4. y/. 1. Temporal good things are only fccciu-ar yob - 
je& of cur hope ; namely, as they tend to fpirtuaii biclTed- 
neiTe : which bccau(e it is not certainely known to us, there- 
fore we cannot defire them with that Grength of hope irl 
particular, with which we defire things fpirituall; ceither 
ought they to be defircd with fo ardent r.ixl fervent an ?ffe* 
(Trion, but with a (econdary and more reitfiflion, M*t, 6 % ^\. 

5.. 2. As we may hope that teitfporali good things will 
profit us to ialvation, and turne to the glory of God, (o farre 
we may beg them > ?***£* 

6: 5* Such 3 petition is not formally conditionally neither 
in words nor fenfe : Bccaufe as 3 conditional! aflerticn, af- 
firmes nothing certainely of the antecedent^ Co a conditional! 
petition defires nothing, 

7. 4. Neither is it a general! Petition onely, that God 
would deale with us as he fees fit, and expedient to his glo- 
ry, and. cur ialvation. Porfoa fickc man (hould no more 
defire ireedoaiefrom ficknefic* then lbs con^inuatign and in- 
crsafe of ft. 

8 5 . It is therefore an abfoiute Petition, but yet with a 
fubimfilon to the wife ordering of God, either expreffc!y,or 

Que ft 5 . whether may all our Ldwfxll defires be rspre* 
ftntedto God in a petition , tfrhave them fulfilled ? 

p. A. 1. In no fort; for fome defires are lawful!, the 
contrary of which is to be chofen<P£/7. 1. 23.24/25. Some 
lawful! defires alfoare (o light,that they ought not tote com- 
h f tnended to Gcd : (uch as is the defire to win in play* 

Qlicft* 4 For whom are we to pray ? 

10. A.x. For ail, and every perfon alive wee may pray 
Ir^{oriaefort ? becaufefomegc6incfleof God extends to all* 
1 r*w fc 4 f< io». 

n- 2. We cannotpray for all men colledive^ that they 
may be faved ; becaufc it is manifeft to us out of the Scrip- 
cure, that all are not to be faved. 

1 ^; : 3 ♦ Ye t w e may pray for every one in partkular,thac 
F i 3 they 

4$ Of Facing* 

they any bee faved (unlefle extraordinarily there happen 
fomeching to hinder,) becaufe we are bound by the law of 
Charity to hope well of every man. 

13. 4 We may and ought to pray for fpiritual! good 
things for them, from whom we juftlydefire that temporal] 
things may betaken, while they hurt themfelves , or others 
with them, Andlowe arc to pray for the potent enemies of 
the Church. 

Queft. 5. Whether are we bonni to pray altogether in 
the fame manner for others \ as for our felves ? 

14, A. We may, and ought to doe it with the fame cha- 
rity; but with the fame faith and hope we cannot: becaufe 
we doe not fo properly by Faith apprehend and apply the 
promifes of God to others, as our felves. 

Chap. XXI, 

Queft. I. T 7t JtJat kind of Abftinence u required in 4 
V V religions Faft ? 
i. A. i. Greater abftinence is required, then the com- 
mon Jaw of temperance prefcribeth. For Temperance ought 
to be perpetuall j but Fafting is extraordinary, and upon fpe- 
ciall occafion. 

z. *♦ This abftinence muftnot onclybcc in meateand 
drinke, but alfo in all other things that tend to the pampering 
of the body, Dan. lo # 3. 

3.3, This Abftinence is to be fuch and fo greattbat there- 
by we may be made fitter for extraordinary humilation, Ez. 
8- ir. 

4. 4. Now becaufe all and every one arenot of the fame 
temperance and conftitution ; therefore this fitnefle for 
religious humiliation bringeth home variety of abftinence : 
fo that that degree of abftinence which is profitable and nc- 
ceffary for one, would be an impediment to another,, nei- 
ther can any particular rule be given for all and every man 
to obfervc in that degree and rasafure of abftinence. 

_ QuefL* 

OfFaftivg. 47 

Qucft. Z. Ixwhat doth the religion of a F aft confifi* 

5. A. 3. A religious Faft differs from a r at urali and ex- 
vill Faft in this, that it is commanded by Religion, that is, it 
doth direfUy and immediatly tend to ihe wci&ip and ho- 
nour of Gcd* 

6. 2. Yet it isnotfo referred to the wcrfhip of Ged,that 
itisapartof worfliip, but onely as a meanes whereby true 
worfhip is promoted. 

7. 3. IntheNewTefiamentitisnct properly ameanc 
of worfliip,eithcr becaufe it doth any thing, orfignificth any 
thing by inliitution, either before God>or men, but as it doth 
fit for the extraordinary excrcife of worfliip. 

8. 4. It ficteth principally by removing thofe impede 
meets, which are repugnant to the extraordinary calling up* 
on God. 

Queft. 3. Whether it be U^fullpuhlikel] to appoint fuch 
Faftj ? 

9. A. Not at mans plea{ure,becaufe there is nothing re- 
ligious which depends altogether upon mans wit 3 but upon 
an extraordinary caufe, tocall men to the extraordinary invo- 
cation of God, is both lawfully and pious 

Qucft 4.. For rthat caujes principally are the Fafts of the 
Fapijisto bedifa/lowedf : 

10. tst> I. Becaufe certaine kt times, returning in 
courfc. are appointed for Fafting, which is repugnant to the 
nature of an extra, rdinary exercife, that depends upon afpe- 
ciail occaiion : to that it brings in the forme of a Fafl>with- 
out the force and power of ic. 

n. 2. Becaufe they doe fometimes prolong thofe times 
beyond the fpace fitting, either for an extraorcinary duty ,or 
the-abitinencieof I a{hngs,asm Lent; whence alfo that forme ■ 
of Falting is made more vame * 

12 .3. Becaufe at thoic times they make a certaine choifc 
of meats, which is both ridiculous while they abftainc from 
ftefh , and ufe wine and junkets: O impious ] becaule they 
abliaine from flefh,as if it were for that time undeane, whkh 
is the dodrine of Devils. 

13.4 Becaufcthey obtrude thofe times, and this choice 
of mcates upon the whole Church by humane Law^s t ^at 

bindc .:, 

48 .i of an Oath. 

bindetbeConfcence ; and eftabUfh them with more rigid 
and fcvcrcpuniflnmears, thenthcT-awofGod. 

14, 5. B^caufe they place worlliip in the abftmencc 
which they prefcribe i 

is. 6* B:caufe they attribute latbfafHon and merit to 
their Fa ft*. 

C h a p . X X 1 1. 
Of -an Ontb. 

Queft. I. \ T\ THether an Otehb 3 lawfull for Cbri - 
V \ ftim? 

u A. 1. It is evidently lawfull of its owne nature* r.Be« 
caufeit is not of its owne nature- intrinfecally evill • for it 
container nothingbutthc confirmation of our teftimony, by 
defiring the teftimony of God. Againe,ifiuvereintrtn£> 
callyevill, it fliould never have beene lawfull : whereas yet 
no Chriflian will deny,but it was law full under the Old Te- 

2.2. In the old Tcftamcnt it was bo part either of the 
Iudiciall or Ceremonial! Law, becaufe it hath nothing pro- 
per to the Iewes: therefore it was of raorall right, which 
pertaines t6 Christians afwellas to the Iewes. 

3.3. Becaufe there can be no realbn given, why it was 
lawfull of old to IwearC) which takes-not place afwell among 

4. 4, Becaufe there arclaudablc examples of theufe of 
an OathintheNewTeftament, * Cor. i.2$.Apoc 9 > jo.tf. 

y. j # When drift forbids to iweare at all, M*tt.%*%±l 
he fimply forbids thofe formes of fwearing, which he there 
na.ntthjand fuch like:asalfo to ufe anyOath in familiar taike, 
or but u;*>n necefliris ; becaufe the Iewes thought the third 
Conmandementwas not broken in that manner, but: oncly 
by forfwearing, lames 5 . 1% 

Q^eft. 2.* Whether it be lawfull to fweare by the crea* 

tHrts I 

6. A m \, The Popiili fort teach tliat a man may fweare by 


Of dn oatfc 4$ 

the creatures, in a double refpeft , by unreafonable creatures* 
specially if they be confecrated and dedicated to God, in or- 
der and relation to God: and by fome reafonable creatures, 
as the Angels and Saints in heaven, abfolutely. 

•7. 2. Somealfo of our Divines, although they condemn 
thatabfoluce way of fwearing by the ere tures, yet they ad- 
jm ir a relative way, out of C#/"<w 5.34. and 23. 16, 

8. 3. But neither of thefe opinions is to bee admitted • 
For although creatures may be named in f wearing , 2 Cor. |J 
2 3 . Yet they may not absolutely be refpe&ed,. without Sa- 
<cniedgeand Idolatry, as appeareth from the nature of the 
thing. Neither can they bee relatively ufed in the place 
of God himfelfe without (inne. 

^f 1. Becaufe we have no approbation of fueh kind of 
formes of f wearing in Scripture, for ChriQ f Math.2 3 . 1 6* 
doth not approve thofe former, as if -they were to bee utcde 
but oaely (he wes that being ufed, they doe binde. The Apo- 
ftle, 1 C er * t$*Z*' ^ ott) not properly fweare, but proves 
that he was obnoxious unto death ; and 1 Tim, 5.21. he cals 
the Angels to be witneffes, as men that ate prelent may bee 
called by a bare obceftation. 

10. z. Bccaufeto fweare by the creature with relation 
unto God, is religioufly to invoke the creature, in reference 
unto God. But this is condemned in Scripture, by the confent; 
of all our Divines, 

11. 3. Such formes are fcandalous, both to fuch as doc 
fweare, and the like fort, after the example of others, with- 
out diftinguiflhing a relative Oathe fromanabfolute; and to 
the fwcarers, who cannot difcorne wh^n one fweares law- 
fully, and when not. 

12. 4 # Suchoaths diminish the reverence which is to bee 
Ufed m fvv earing, and to caufc them to be too familiarly and 
rafkly ufed, even by thofe which are not prophane, as wee 
may fee m the Icwes. 

13.5. Hcretiks were the firft authors of thefe formes in 
the Church of God, who alfo were uponthatground, con- 
demned. 8 lixat (af oliower of the Herefic of the 0§enes % 
in thetimeot7'r^;^») taught, that is was lawfull to^ftveare 
by Salt, Water, Bread, Earth, Heaven* Sky^Muddq ; whom 

j Ofd#@Atb. 

Epiphanlm confuting, Lib. i , proves, that We rauft fweare by 
God alone, according to the Law ; Tbwfft*h have no ether 
Cods but me. And ot the Mamckcs ,among other their novel 
Doftrincs, it is reported by Auguft. lib. 19 , contrA tjmft. 
cap.22. That they /ware often % and without any fcrupiejbj the 

14, 6. InthcCiviilLaw fuchkind of formes are co»- 
demned by the beft Interpreters, JVefembec. Lib \ 2. tit, 2, 
The Emperours Arcad.znd Honor, in the Bookc,^/ quis ma- 
jor, Cap. de TranfaEkionibHt, thus fpake. 

oy\e&< What is to be thought then of thofe formes of 
Oathes, in which mention is made of the Sonle, Life, Salva- 
tion, Death, Damnation, &ci 

1 5 . A*fo>. In thefe formes of execration, men fwearc 
<Ure<31y by God himfclfc • and by thefe additions, they effe- 
ctually (hew, that they offer thcmfelves to the fevcre judge- 
ment of God,to deprive them of thofe beft things they have, 
ortoaffli&thcmwith the greateft evils, if they make not 
good what they f *y . But when the atteftation it felfc is made 
by a creature, it can by no mcanesbe excufed. 

Qaeft. 3. What are we tothinke of thofe ufnall formes ,\x\ 
Faith, in Troth, on my Confcience ? 

1 6. H&f. They are not Oathes, becaufe they addc not a 
new atteftation to the con firming of a Tctlimony, but only 
declare it to be fei ions, deliberate, fincere and ccrtainc. Yet 
from fuch formes as have the Particle, By , in them, with re- 
ference to the creature, we are to abftainc, as from that which 
hath an appearance of evill^nd is fcandalous. 
• Qucft # 4. What u to be thought of that forme, in which 
the Sacrament, #r fome fueh thing u named, in way of an 
Oath ? 

Ij. Anfw. Befide the common finne, which is alwaica 
committed in f wearing by creatures, there is alfoa Superftiti- 
*us opinion concerning fuch things, or at leaft, a kind of par- 
taking in that Soperftition* 

Que& «• Whtthtrisi% lawfuUin fwt*r****>uf' dm* 



fhibology\ or Equivocation ? 

18.A.1 .Equivocation is ufed in an Oath two waies,Firftf 
when the words themfdves which are ufed arc of a doubt- 
ful I fence, and fo arc meant one way by him that fwearcth, 
and taken other wife by others : As if a French-man, called 
in Latin G+ltus, being queftioncd with about his Countrey, 
{"houid fwearc he were no Gtlltts , meaning »<? DungfatU- 
Cocl^e 9 as rhe word alfo fignifies. 

Secondly, when the words thcmlelves which are ufed, 
have a plainc meaning, but by a tacit restriction, or interpre- 
tation, which one keepes to himfelfe in his mindc, they arc 
changed into another fence : as they fay, that Framfca* 
Uttonkc did, who being a&ked which way a Murderer had 
fleddthatpafTedbyhim, putting his hands into his (leevcf* 
anfwered, he parted not that way ; meaning, that hee went 
not through his flee ves. 

So alfo, many of the Iefuits doe xnaintaine, that a Pricft 
being^sked, whetherhebeaPriethif he be not asked by a 
ludgc, or have a caufe to diifemble the truth, may lawfully 
anfwer^thathcisnoPneft, fothat he understand tfiat he is 
noPriettof Baa/ or Ifis, or that he is no Prieft to tell ano- 
ther fo. The former may bee called Vcrb*U ' Eqmvicauon^ 
the latter Mentail. 

19. A. 2. Mentail Equivocation cannot be ufed in an 
Othe without a grievous finne. 

F irft, becaufe in an Oath we teftifie fomething unto others^ 
inthemoftfolcmne manner that may be; but when we fig* 
nifie no ccrtaine thing in our words, but fomething faincd> 
or diflemblcd ; then wee doe in intention teftifie nothing 
unto others.- and fo the nature of an Oath is by this dtlfimu- 
^ation violated, and quueoverthrowne in the mainc founda- 
tion of it. 

Secondly, becaufe this mentail Equivocation isadire& 
rand manifeft lye, becaufe there isinwordsateftimonygiven 
both againft the minde and conlcienceof the witnelk, and 
againft the thing it felfe, 

Thirdly, bccaule he goeth about by his teftimony to Work 
abeliefeof that wbichis f alfc in tbe bearers ; which is not 
onely to iuffcrthemtobe mifled and deceived, bat directly 

G g z to 


tomifleade and deceive them. ^ 

Fourth1y,becaufeitisagreatinjuric to, and provocation 
of God, to bring his teftimony, though f ainedly , to prove a 
fatftioodj and therefore that cutward Oath is caken upon a 
grievous lye, with a great mockery of Gods teftimony 
.which is called upon. 

Fiftly,becaufcbythisrneanes,adoore is opened for the 
cheerifihing of all manner of lyes. For there is nothing ( a$ 
*Ak,qy. ^obferveth) fofalfe, but may be cleared firombe^ 
ing in any fort a lye, if wee doe but referve fomething in 
mindc, according to our pleafure. For we might, whatso- 
ever any body deBres of u s , though we have it by us> deny 
that we have it, undcrftand ing, to give it them : whatfoever 
we have done, fpoken, or tliought, cr purpofed ; wee might 
fay , when we are asked about it^ we have not done, fpoken* 
thought, or purpofed it, namely,in this fenfe, to. telUtjou^ 

Objett. Of the fpcech uttered by the mouths and the 
*efervation we keepc in minde is made but one compound^ 
and totall propofition,in which there is no falfity ; As when' 
a MafFe-Prieft a&rmes in words, that he is no Prieft, and un* 
•derftands,** tell it to another «Now itisfree for a man to com- 
f>ofe fuch a propofition of Forallznd /Menta/ltermes. 

20. A'nfw. Although fuch mixt proportions may be ad- 
mitted, when a man is meditating of any thing by himfeife,or 
When we have to doe with God alone ; becaufc God andou? 
fpiritunderftandthat which is in our mmdc, afwell as if it 
lyere uttered by words t yet they have no place in giving 
teftimony before men ; becaufe the mental! reiervation te- 
ftifies nothing to the hearers - y let that refervation therefore* 
i>e whatitwili,fuch a teftimony is a lye ; and if it be confir- 
med with an oath, it is perjury : feeing that which is Ggpfci 
■fed by words , is repugnant to the confeience of the ' 

2k* 2. Verbal! equivocation is alfounlawfull in an oath.* * 
Firft, becaufc it teftifies nP certaine thing, and without a ccr- 
taine teftimony, that oath at leatt is vaine. 

• Secondly, becaufe it tendethnot to the erd of atn oath 
Which is to end Controverts^ and confirme the trutb, Hebr^ 
4. 16. bw contrary* 


OfanOxth* 53 

Thirdly, becaufe it deceives and mifleades the hearers^ 
which is contrary to the nature of an Oath, if wittingly l de- 

Fourthly , becaufe the affirmation, or deny all of the que* 
ftion propounded, ii- from the Confciencc of the refpondent, 
k bee not conformable to the fenfe of him that askes the 
queftion,isalye. Forthequeftion itfelfe, in that meaning 
in which it is propounded,is the fentence to be teftified : and 
the affirming or deny all of that which cannot (land with that 
fenfe, is a falfity , wbkh if it be againft the confciencc of him 
that gives the teftimony , it cannot but be a compkat lye, 

F iftly, becaufe iuch an oath that confirmeth a lye, is in re- 
fpeft of the nature of the thing, manifeft perjury ; and in re* 
fpeftof the intention of the (wearer, a prophanation of Gods 

O bjeft. I f we be not asked in a la wfull mancr, or if iir- 
jury be done to us,k is law foil for us to provideior our owne 
gocd,fothatwefpeake ambiguoufly? - 

22. sstfvfw. No injurie offered unto us by man, can bee 
anyjuftcaufeto us of offering injury to the hame of God, 
Now a great injury is- done to God in that •finne of lying,and 
much more in that finneof perjurie. 

Queft. 6. Jn-Kphat fenfe art the words of an Oath to bee 
takfri ? 

. 23. sAnfw. In that fenfe which we judge the hearers to 
conceive :thatis, regularly in that fenfe which they have in 
the common ufe of men. Becaufe the fignification of words 
depends upon the ufe of men. 

Queft. 7, whet ht r is it I aw full fometbne to anfvfer ace 'or* 
ding to the principal! and remote intention of the askfr ? for 
example, when one city refufeth to admit the inhabitants of 
another cityjvhich u thought ^though faljelyjobe infettedwith 
the Piagne^if any one commtng thence fhouldbe ask*d 9 whe- 
ther he came from that City, whet her may he upon Oath deny 
it ^either becaufe that City is nottnfeBed ^ or becaufe y if the 
(fity be infeBed y he knowes himfelfe to be clear e : and fo hee 
true/yfatisfesthe principal intention of him that -demands 
the quefifan ? 

94 Anfw* Itsnotlawfoll. Becaufe the queftion is pro- 

G g 5 pwnffcd 

5# ofdMOtfh, 

pounded, the Oath required , not about the End, which is 
principally intended, but about that particular meanc which 
fecoies to belong to chat End. Now the qaeftion, and the af- 
firmation, or dcniall of it doe together make up one and the 
fixne propofirion, or axiome, 

Qucft. 8. Whether are the words of an Oath alwaies to 
betak^nfirkkflj % m they import ? 

15. c^". 1. An Oath, fbccaufe of the danger of perju- 
ry j is of afirickly right, and interpretation, iothat it admits 
not thofe larger explications, which take place oftentimes in 
deeds and words of another nature. 

26. a. Yet in an Oath there arc to be underftood thofc 
conditions, which through the received ufe and cuftomc, are 
prefumed to be conceived of thofe whom the Oath con- 
cernes. For example, Firft, in all promiffory Oathes this 
condition is underftood, tfitfhallpleafe God. 

Secondly, in thofe things which arc fub je£ to the power 
of a Superior, it is to be underftood, if m (ball pleafe him 

Thirdly, in things fo mutable, that they may make their 
promifc unlaw full, it is fo tobcundcriiood, #/ things continue 
in the fame ft ate. 

Fourthly,He which fwcarcs he will kcepe the Statutes of 
any Socictie, is to be judged to undcrftand, as thofe Statutes 
arc obferved inthe approved cuftome and ufc of others. 

Fiftly, He which fwcareth that he will (land to the Pre. 
ceptsor Statutsof any man,or Society ,ought to be underftood 
tnthatfenfe, that the Oath be notftrctchedbutto thofe that 
he mtght in probability thinkeof, not to thofe whidr if the 
Iuror had thought of, it is probable he would not have pro- 

Queft p. Whether every Oath, cbligeth him that 
fwearethy to the fulfilling of it ? 

27, A 1. Every Oathbindesasfarreasitis a teftimony 
ofalawfullandpoflible thing, but no further. Hence, firft, 
■filch an Oath bindes, although it be wrefted by force,or f eare, 
though itbe/oyned with fomeimurie. For there is a double 
obligation in every promiltory Oath • one to God, another to 
man. Now although the injury done, takes away the wrong 


Of iH Oath. ff 

in refpcft of man doing the injury , becaufe no right is fonn- 
dcd upon an injury ; yet the obligation made to Gcd remain 
neth, which without irreverence and injury to God, cannot 
be both admitted, and then contemned. This is the cafe of a 
manconftrainedbytheevestofweareto pay a price for his 
redemption. Such a one either ought not to fweare,or fwea- 
ring a lawfull thing, ought religioufly to keepe his Oath, 

28. A. 2< Although an error about the fubftance of the 
thing which is refpefted in their Oatb, or about the proper 
caufe,may take away the obligation of ones promife, which is 
the cafe of one that contracts Matrimony with one particular 
perfon, fuppofing her to be another : yet an error about a cir- 
cumftance, or an intrinfecall,andaccidentall caufe doth not 
diflblve the obligation. This was the cafe of the Jfraelttes 
with the Gibconitts, fojin. 9. and is the cafe of him that con- 
trads Matrimony with a meanc, or a poore woman, fuppo* 
finghertobeNoble,orrich. Inthefirft error there was no 
teftimony at all, but in the ftcond there was a lawfull tefti- 

29. A. 3. A latter Oath againft a former honeft Oath, or 
pro mifc, doth not binde : bccaufcfuchanOath is plainelyof 
' its owne intrinfecall nature, upon fuppofition of the former 
pomifes unlawfully 

30. t^. 4. An Oath to commit any finne, or to neglcrt 
any duty, doth not onely net binde, becaufe an cvill thing can 
receive no force from an Oath -, but if it be kept, it increafeth 
the guilt,becaufe then two (inncs are committed • <pne,of that 
kinde whichthefa&confideredinitfelfeisof ; and the other 
againft religion, out of irreverence, and abufeof the name of 
God, as an cvill purpofc is confirmed by the authority of 

31. A. 5. That an Oath lawfully taken, though the 
keeping of it may binder a greater good, ought to bee ob~ 
fcrved, unleffe that good be fuch that it brings a gcncrall obli- 
gation, and be generally underftood as an exception infuch a 

Queft. io* Whet her the Oath of a dead man doth bind hk 
Heire's *ndS*ccef[oHYJ ? 

3 2 . vf* i . It doth not property bindc under that noti- 

j£ t)f an Oath. 

on of an Oath : becaufean Oath is a perfonall bond. Citi- 
zens therefore are not properly perjured, if they keepc not 
the Statutes, which were fworoc to by their Predcccflbrs, if 
themfelves fwcare not. 

33- ^4 ** Yetitdothfometimebinde,inrefpe&ofthe 
thing which was the proper caufe of the Oath ; to ,wit, if it 
were after the nature of a contract : which is the cafe of 
Mm, that fwearcth he will pay, or doe this cr that ; fo that by 
that meaneshe may enjoy this or that commodity. Fjr his 
heires if they will enjoy the fame benefit, are ty ed to keepc 
the fame oath. 

Queft. i,1 4 Whether and how may the obligation of an oa'h 
be loofed ? 

34. A. 1. No abfohition from an oath, properly fo cal- 
led, either by i>ifyenJation{ which is a plaine releafing of the 
bond ) or by Commutation ( which is the changing of the 
bond, from one fubied matter to another ) can bee expe&ed 
from any humane Authority. Bccaufe the religion of an oath 
pertainesto a Divine Court, and therefore is not fubied to 
Mans Court. In thofe doubts which fall out about Oathes, 
the counfell of fuch as are skiifoll, is of good ufe , but for 
Authority to loofe the bond of an Orth, either wholly, by 
Dijpenfation^ov in part, by Commutation, it is not committed 
to any kind or order of men. 

35,2. Yet there may bee a making void of an Oath 
iometimesby Superiours, if in that fubiect tnarter they be 
Superiours, about which the Oath is converfant. So Pa- 
rents, Husbands, Matters, Princes , may pronounce as well 
either the Oathes, or the vowes of their Children* Wives, 
Servants, Subieds,made without their confent in fuch things 
as are fubieft to their power. 

35. 3. Whentheformallreafonof an Oath is taken a- 
way , the Oath it feife ceafeth in regard of the event ; which 
is the cafe of fuch as have fworne that they will obey any 
Lord, or Prince, who afterward ceafeth to be iuch an one.* 

37 # 4. When the Oath taken, refpefts one ly the obfer- 
vancc or commoditie of man, to whom fomething is prpmi- 
fed, then the obligation ceafeth upon the releasing, or con- 
fent pf that imntowhowthepromifevvaa i?ade. The rca- 


OfanBdtb. j 7 

fon is.becaufe thk foundation of fuch a promifc ccafeth : and 
by the nature of the thing, there is alwaies included in fuch 
a promifc a condition, unieffe the other £hail pardon or tc^ 
roit. This is the cafe of a creditor to his debtor, and fuch 
like. But this cannot be extended to the contract of Eipou- 
fals, becaufe there not onely the profit of man is iook'dat, 
but the inftitution of God. 

Qucft. 12. Whether is it /aw full for a main to bring htm 
to fweare, whom he kp<*weth y or vehement 'i f j /ufpe&ah, w$H 
fweare againft his caufe f 

38. A. It is never Iawfull determinate^ to defire that 
he would fweare that which is falfe. Neither is it Iawfull in- 
differently todefire that (uch a one iliould fweare, whether 
this or that thingbe or no, unlelfe upon a neceffary caufe : be- 
caufc wcfhould both do iniury to God, and be a murtherer of 
his brother. Now there may be a neceffary caufe for a Iudge 

> to require this, at the inftance of a Plaintiffe, where no other 
remedy can be ufed: becaufe then we exad: it not in his own 
perfoni but in the pcrfoiiof the Plaintiffe. And there may be 
fomctimea necctfary caufe to the Plaintiffe of defiringthis, 

Srhen other wife fome great difectnmodity cannot bee avoy- 
ed. Butfor a private man, that knowes it, privately to re- 
quire it, there can be nofufficient caufe j becaufe no private 
benefit can come of it* 

Qucft. 13. Whether it may belawfnU for a private mri 
to draw him to fweare, who, hefeares, will fweare falfe , but 
is in fimplicitic deceived: For example. Titius knowetthat 
Sempronius was not this jetre at Franeqner ; he knowes aljo 
that Cains doth verely thinke that, bee Jaw him this yeare at 
Trancqucr ; the queftion is, whether Titius may defire C aius , - 

> tofiveare that Sempronius wot not at Franequer this year e f 

3p. A> This is not Iawfull : Becaufe though this Oath 
jn C* lHS would be without fault; yet in Trim the pcrlwa- 
> 'der and advifcr to it, it would partake of the nature of 
periury* He doth not indeed fo much iniury to fains y as if 
he ftould induce him to fweare that which hee knew to bee 
falie, bpt he doth the fame iniury to God ; whofe Name he 
doth wittingly and willingly abufe, to the confirmation of a 

H h i Qnrt. 

*g Of An B Mb % 

Quefh 14, JshlawftiUfora Chrifiian to tctept, or re- 
quire an Oath of him y &ho he knowes will fweare by Idols ? 

40. A. It is law fall to doc this for a weighty caufc, as 
Jacob did, Gen. 3 \ . \ 3* Tirft, becaufc the perverfeneffe of 
the Oath is not refpeftcd by him> for whofe fake it is taken, 
butonely the confirmation of a teftimony 5 and faith given. 
Secondly, becaufe it is not (imply evill, to wfe cvill to a good 
end. Thirdly, becaufehe that (imply defircs an Oath, not 
fach an Oarh, doth nor fo roach make uf e of the perverfneffe 
of the Oith, as the common nature of it- 

Queft. 15. whether it be lawfull for the Indge to exaU 
#/ the Defendant an Oath touching the crime cb'jeUed to 
hirn^ which is calledan Inquifitory Oath, or Oath ex Of- 
t do > 

41. A. i. It is not lawfull at all, in a crime that is alto- 
gether fecrer. For God onely j'udgeth of fecret things. 

42.2 It is not lawfull to give a man an Oath, whereby 
he (hould be compelled to accufe himfelfe. Firft,becaufeit is 
agamft nature, that a man fhould bring a punifhment upon 
himfelfe. Secondly, becaufc by this meanes many would be 
brought to forfwearethemfelves. 

43 # 3. Though there be an accufation going before, yet 
it is not lawfull to require fuch an Oath of any one, as a pro - 
bation, becaufc all iudgement ought to bee founded in Wit- 
nefTes, and fuch arguments as have the force of a teilimony, 
Dentr. 1%'lg. 2 Cor ij.?„ 

44* 4. In cafe of an infamy going before, or a probation 
notfufticicnt,andthe want of a full one ; a man may be ad- 
mitted to an Oath of purgation, if he (hall offer himfelfe to 
it, Exod. 22, 11. but he cannot becompelled. 

45, 5 . I f the fault be notorious, any man^enerally may 3 
even with the religion of an Oath, be asked' concerning the 
author, Bent. **. 7. 

Obtett. i, it was lawful to adiurc a wife fefpeded.iV^w. 

S-. ip. 

46 A. This was a fingular law, of an extraordinary 
difpofition, granted becaufe of the hardneffe of the hearts 
of the Jcvves , as alfo the divorce of a \yoman that was not 
an Adultrefie, 


Of a Lot. yp 

Obie&. « # Jo (but required of Achan^ that he fliould ac- 
knowledge his fault, Jofh. 7. ip. 

47. A. After accufation and iudgement, heconcly per- 
fwades to confeflion. 

Obiett, 3. Our Saviour anfwered to the High Priefts ad- 
iuration, Mat. i6.6^ % 6^. 

48* Anfw. Firft, not because he was lawfully adiured, 
Ieh. 18.^0, 21. SecondtyjNo otherwifethen hec did to 
PiUte without adiuration. Thirdly ,Not to conf effe his fault, 
buttobeare witneflfe to the truth, John 1 8. 37. 

Chap. XXIII. 
Of a Lot, 

Qucft. 1. TJjOwmaji a LttbtUi* fully ujid? 

JLjL i. *s4 m 1. Such a Lot as is caft to fitidc 

out what is lawftill or not, is in no fort to be permitted. Be* 

caufe the law of God is a roeane appointed by God to fh£w 

* men the rule of life; neither did he everreveate his will to 

any by Lot. 

2. A. 2. AConfulting.oraDiviningLot, ufedto findfc 
, out an hidden truth that is paft,or fome event that is to come, 
cannot be lawfull, unleffe it be.by Divine iafpiration* Becaufe 
this is an extraordinary mcanc, and fo hath not an ordinary 
rule, nor may it foe ufed without extraordinary' direSiofr, 
without raftuempting of God. 

. 3. A. 3. A Divifory Lot, which is ufed to determine any 
s tiling de falie, may be lawful!, or unlawfully according to 
tfre circumfUnces Wherewith it iscloathed.' It i# unlawful!, 
' Firft, if it be done out of art ill intent, expc&ing the deci- 
ding of the Queftion, either from Fortune, or from any other 
*caufe, but the providence of God. Becaufethenit is either 
jairjeere-vanityiorhathSupet^kionmix^^wkh if. Second- 
ly, If it be done without iuft neceflitiej •£* if other otditfaiy 
mcanes of Gods. providence be omitted. For then-it bat-h 
rafhnclTemixeflwith it, and bclongeth to the tempting of 
God. Thirdly, if it be done man under ; -meants, either with 

H h 2 fraud 

6e Of a Lot. 

fraud, or without due reverence to Gods providence] It is 
few full : Firft, if it be done out of a right intention, feeking 
dircdion from G od* Secondly, if in a cafe of neceffitie,whcn 
abetter mcanes cannot be ufed to take away the doubt ordif> 
ficultie. Thirdly^ if in a due matter, where there is no dan* 
gcr of miuftice ; becaufe we have the decifion of fuch que- 
ll ions in the worid of God. Fourthly 5 if with due reverence, 
fo that that be yeelded to which the let determines, as com- 
ming from Divine providence. 

Queft. 2. What is a tuft eattfe of calling a divtfory Lot f 
4. *sl\ When there is no other mtanes to avoid iome 
great difcoonmodity. Now the grcatneffe of the difcom- 
n:odity fometimes depend npon the weight of the thing it 
felfe; as when it is put to Lot, which among fit minifters, 
ought to ftay in the C ty in the time of the Plague. And often 
it depends upon the affeftion of men : as when among com- 
panions that are every way equall* the Lot is caft for the ta- ' 
king away debate and difcord. 

Queftv 3, When Lufory Lots % or thofe playes nhicb con* 
Jift of Tortnne> or meere chance^ be larvjull i 

5. A % Such kind of Playcs, whether they meerely do , 
pend on Fortune,as Dice playcs, or doe principally depend 
on it, as Cards and Tables are in their owne nature unlawfnll. 
Firft, becaufe that ought not to be turned into a play, which 
in its owne nature hath a Angular refpeft to Gods fpcciall 
Providence* But a Lot of its owne nature, doth refpeft tbs 
determination of the Queftioti, from the fpeciall providence 
of God. For mcere contingency of it fclfe, hath no aptitude, 
for the determining of anyqueftion. Neither can any thing 
bpfidt rncere contingency, be refpefted in a Lot, wichout the 
fpeciall providence of God, or the helpc of the rfevill, or of 
fomefaigncd Deity in the directing of that Contingencie. • 
Secondly, becaufe ia fuch kind ofjplaies, the nature of the. 
Lot, gives occafron to many finnes, as to a blafphemous re- 
creation, and curfijogof Famine* when the Lot is croffe : nj a 
praifing of ones good Fortune, when the Lot favoureth : and 
a pertinacion contention becaufe of the expe&atien of better 

■•^ucft*4t What u to bee thought of publicly Lotteries 


Of tne Qburcb. £j 

wherein many Trizts, or rewards, are fropofedto bee gotten 
h Let f 

6> A. x, They might haply bec fo ordered, that they 
mightbelawfull. Namely, if there were any need of a con- 
tribution to fomc pious ufe : and to avoide discommodities, 
thcbufineflc/hould be permitted to Lot who fhould diftri- 
bute: andthcfcalfo which caftthe Lots, fhould encly ven- 
ture that wl ich they would not unwillingly givcand i o come 
to the Lottery, not out of an hope of gayning, but out of 
an intention of bed owing fomething. 

7. 2. As they are now ufed, they feeme to be unlaw*- 
itikh fcccaufe they onely aime at gaine, by fraude and flatten 
ty, and give an occasion to many evils. 

Chap. XXIV. 

Hitherto concerning the fir ft Commandement j Jn the 

fecond 7 firftofthe Church* 

Quell. I .T yC jHether is a Beleever bound to ]oyne him- 

V \ Jclfc to [ome certaine yarticnUr Church* 

!♦ A* 1. Yes,byailmeanes. Firft, in refpeft of Gods 

Inftitutbn*/l/<*r/. 18; 17. in which there is not onely the 

neceffityof a Precept, but alio of a Mcane. 

3. z. Inrefpe&of thepfefenccof God and Chrift,^/?>. 
1*13* For if we would approach to God,we muft pyne our 
fclves to that^ociety, where God is in a Angular manner pre- 
fent, (o that he may be found of thofe that feekc him. 

3* 3« la refpeft of the glory of God , which by this 
meanes is publikcly promoted, and propagated. For as the 
Name of, God in the Old Teftament, was placed at Jerufa- 
lem % fo alio is it now in the Ecclefiafticali Affemblies though 
not in this or that place. 

4. 4. In refpeft of the-Covenant and protmfe of God : 
For jhofe which are in the Church, are as it were dircdiy 
under the bleffings of God,to have diem pow*ed upon thenv 
7M65.5. and 13 33. 

H h 3 5/ 5, la 

-£* Of thtCWCb* 

$. 5 . Inrefpe& of our profcflion, becaufeotherwifc it 
cannot be avoyded, but thofe fignes will hardly be difcerned, 
whereby Beleevcts are diftinguifhed from Vnbslecvers, 
I Cor. j 4 i2. 

6. 6. Inrefpeft of mutuall edification, which follow- 
cthofitCelfe, upon the combination of Belce vers, Heb. I o. 
24.25. 1 C0r.11.17.and1v25.27. ^om.i.n. 

Queft. 2. To what a kind of Church ought we to jojne our 
[elves ? 

7 < A. i • To none but a true one, that is, Profcfllng the 
true Faith. 

8. 2. Of true ones, we ought to chufe the pureft « hm 
as we are able, 

9. 3. Although we may /oyne our felves to one, in whtcfe, 
many defects are neceflarily to be tollcrated, yet not to one ia 
which we muft of neceflity partake in any finne, Eph. % ; 1U 
neither is it lawfull to adjoyne our felves to any Church, 
with a raindc, by our filence, to cherifti any of its defeds, 
but that fas farraswemay with edification^ we may doe 
our endeavour to take them away, 

Qgeft. 3. whether wee may communicate with fuch a < 
Church, as doth toller Ate the wick*d y and oppofe the good f - 

10. ssf. 1. The tollerations of any notorious crimet is 
a grievous finnein a Church, Apoc. i+io. and of it pwne na» 
turc tends to the corruption of the Church, 1 Cor.f<6. 

it. 2, It doth pollute the Communion in it felfc^to thefe 
Wicked ones who are tollcrated, and to thofe alfo which are 
thecaufes of that tolleration*?/^. 2.3. 

12-3. All thofe participate of this pollution, which doc 
not endevour, as much as in them lyesj to remove fcandals, 

13. 4. Th t mixture which doth arifc from this tollcra- 
tion, doth diminifli the confolation and edification of the 

14. 5 % All men ought therefore by alllawfull meanes to 
endeavour that they may live in thofe Churches, where the 
Preciom isfeparatedfrom the vile % fcr.I5.19. 

15. 6. Yet from fuch a Church, in which fome wicked 
m:narcto!lerated,we muft not prelently ieparate, 3 John 

OJ the Church. gj 

£. lo.n. Firft,becaufeit may be the error or infirmity of 
the Church. Secondly, becaufe patience and long-fufkringis 
tobcexercifedtowardaprivatcbrotfiercffrnding, GV. 6. f . 
much more towards a whole Society of Brethren ; or a 
Church. Thirdly, becaufe by the rafhdepartureof the godly 
the correction of the evill ones is not promoted 3 but hindered. 
Fourthly ,Becaufe oft- times there cannot be a departure made 
from fuch a Church, to one more pure, without grievous dif- 
cogunodities, which mud be avoided as much as wee can, 
wichoutfinne : yea foretime they makcan affirmative Fie- 
cept to ceafe to binde, which otherwise could not be left un- 
done wichoutfinne. 

1 6 4 7. If any one either wearied out with un/uft vexa- 
tions, or providing for his owne edification, or for a teftimo- 
nyagainftw T ickednefle 3 {hall depart from fuch a Society to 
one more pure, without a condemnation of that Church 
p which he leaves , he is not thcrfore to be accufed of Scbiiiue 
or of any finne. 

Queft. 4. Whether it bee law full to continue in that 
^ Church y where the power of 'removing Scandal/, and purging 
• out the wicked> u wanting ? 

1 V 17. A. 1. The power it fclfc, for the right of it, or in 
regard of the firftad of it, cannot be feparated from a true 
Church , becaufe it doth immediatly and neceffarily flow 
from the very eflfe nee. Forit isis contained in that covenant 
whereby Beleevers are itjjped into a Church. 

1 8. 2. The ufe of the pdwer cannot bee taken away, 
without the grievous fault of them who take it a way, and the 
great iniury of them from whofii it is taken. 

1 p. 3. Neither ought the Church to reft m this, that it 
> feeth it ielfe uniuftly opprefled by others : for it belongs to 
the duty of the Church to maintaine the Liberties which are 
• } granted to her by Chrift. 

20. 4, Yet if Beleevers contending for their liberty can- 
not procure this right in that parr, nor without mod grie- 
vous difcommodities depart to a mere pure Church, and doe 
kcepe themfel ves from the approbation of finne, and ftudy 
likewife to make up that defcS, as much as they can, they fin 
not if they ioine themlelvcs to fuch aChurch,orcontinueinit; 


6^ Of ewtng to the Mtmft rj . 

Queft. 5 ~ % Whether it belavfutl to fiaj in fuch a Church ; 
where fome of the Ordinances of Chrift are wanting, and in 
the room* of them forne of mens conftitutions brought in? 

*U ts4. i. The defeft of fome Ordinances, though ic 
ought not to be approved, yet it may be tollerated ; becaufe 
an impcrfeftion, whether in private perfons, or in a publickc 
State doth not take away the nature of that Office* which is 
found more pcrfeft in fomc perfons* or State. 

a 2 . 2 . Humane Inftitutions if they be extrinfecall to the 
Church and Worfliip > and make to the promotion of the 
Ordinances of Chrift, and edification of the Chuich, then 
they ought to be admitted and approved, as Civill meanes 
ufed and apply cd to fpirituall ends. But if they have areligi- 
ous State, and pertaincintrinfecally to worfhip, or have that 
fame nature with the inftkutions of Chrift, poffeffing this 
place, for they ought in no fort to be approved. 

Chap. XXV. 
Of calling to the ^Miniflerj, ( 

C^ucft. I. XTXTHethera Calling benecejfarj ? 

V V !♦ A. I. A lingular calling, not re- 
quired to teach and preach the Gofpell upon occafion, Atts 
8.4. and if. ip 2 1. and 18. 24.3^* 

s . The reafon is, Firft, becaufe this is the duty of all Chri- 
tlians to promote, as much as they can,the kingdome of God, 
and {q to teach others Divinity. 

Secondly, becaufe it is neceflary i omctimes that men be 
convi&ed of errours, and inftruded in the trucb,bef ore there ' " 
can bee any \i wfuil vocation. 

Thirdly ,bccaufe a people fometime deftitutc of a Minifter, % 
cannot, without detriment to their edification, be cthcrwaies 
helped, unlcfTc they admit the teaching of fuchasarenot 
yet rightly called to the Miniffery* 

3.2. Not onely private preaching, but publikc , n*ay bee 
exercifed with a lingular calling. Firft, in a Church to bee 


{ Of Cdllifig to the Mini'flerjl $* 

Secondly, in aChurchconftituted alfb> with her approba- 
tion, if conftifion be avoyded , and order obferved, i CV- 1 4. 
2 3> 4 &c. A%*+ 1 3, 1 5 . for it pertames to the edification of 
the Church, that they who excel! others in gifts, doe excer- 
cife them before others to helpe them, ahd excite them. 

4. 3, Yet for one to invade the propeTdury of a Mini- 
iter, without a fpcciall calling, is altogether unlawfull, He\ 
5.4. T&. I* 5. fer. 14.14. 

Firft, becaufe there is required a Angular fcperation of 
God x A3s- 13.1. and 20. 58. Ttom.'i, I. 

Secondly, there is requiring an undertaking of a lingular-, 
and weighty function, the author and difpenfer of wnich is 
God himfelfc. Ephef. 4. 1 1, 1 Corinth. 12.5,6. kS'tatr. 

Thirdly, there is required a fingular afiurance of the afli- 

Fourthly ,there is required a Angular expe&ation of a blef- 
fing from God, M*t.\ 8. 20* 

Fiftly t there is required lingular fidelity, and alacrity 
x77V». 4. 14* 
, ' Sixtly, it is requifite that that Church to which he is to mi- 
niftcr be allured of the will of God whereby hee hath ap- 
pointed (uch a one for their'Minifter, that they may bee f&b- 
jed to him out of v. onfciei ce, Htb 1 3 . 1 7. 

Seventhly, it is requifite that order be obferved, 1 £V. 
\ Queft, 3. What things are necejfari/j required in him 
* that is to he called to the M imjiery ? 

5 . A 1 Such an integrity of life, that he be not oncly 

without Seandail, but alfoiave a good teftimony, 1 Tim 3.7 

^ by at<ftimony tiere is underftood the good opinion that we 

* have concerning his ufwigknefle, made manifeft by his ho- 

/ neft ?nd pidus conversation/ • 

6. 2. KnowledgcandskillintheDoftrineofGhrift^ove 
the common fort of Peleevcrs, 2 Tim. 3 . 1 6.nJo which al- 
foofaft be added, the uadertlanding of thofe things which 
pcrtaiaetohis Office in governing the Church, 1 Tmothit 
J. 16. 
* 7* 3. Somffde3cteriticiateaching > or iiKo»municaring 

I i UHiO 

£g Of Cdling tt ike Mtnijkry, 

unto others, that knowledge which he hath hirafelfc. % Tin* 

8. 4 A willinfome fort ready to undertake the Mi- 
mftery,andtodifcharge it : which will of his ought^o a- 
rife fromfeare of foverty* or fuch like difcommc^y ; w 
out of a defire of fuperiorky , fame,Qr gainc,or fych like>&c. 
i Pet. $.2. forthiswiliis in fome fort conftrained, and is 
not properly and dirc&ly carried to the worked the Mini- 
ftery, but out of pure love and z-cale, lohn 1 1.15,1 6, 17. 

9. ?♦ Thetfiflfercnce in thefe qualifications is loch, that 
Firft, a knowledge of the truth wkh fome dexterity of 
teaching is neccffarily required to the eflence of aMiniftcr- 
becaufc they are the proper foundations of that vocation : but 
integrity is oncly neceffary, as a mcane to the Well being, 
though it be neceffary by the precept of God, even to the ve« 
ry being of a Miniftcr* 

Secondly, concerning the Do&rine, and dexterity, judge- 
ment may be given by others ; but concerning the inclina ti. 
on of the will, no man befide the party to be called can cer- 
taihely and alwaies judge . 

Thirdly, DoSrinc and dexterity cannot fuddenly be pro-V 
curedby others : but the will drawing backe through feare, 
ormodefty, may and ought to be r excited, and ftirred ap by 
exhortations. As for thofe that can,and arc not willing, paines 
is well fpent in the calling them ; not fo for tho(e that cannot, 
but would. 

Queft. g« Whether arc thofe which can reade, or recite a 
Sermon by heart , out of the writings of otbtrs y furnifiedwith 
the neceffary gift 1 of Min'tfiers ? m 

10 A. 1. In no fort. For firft, the gift of reading and 
sehearfing by heart, is not a gift of the Miniftery* but a gift of 
wifdome and knowledge, t C or - I2 8 - 

11. 2. A Minifter mt$ neceffarily have a faculty of ap- 
plying the Word, according to the diversity of hearers^imes^ 
places, and other circumftances, with that variety which <fe 
vers occasions doe require, 2 77**. 2. *# but this cannot bec 
done, by reading, or reciting out of the prefcript of another * 

I % 3 1 . He.ought alfo to be ready to give an account pf 

^tfsah^swhwkhc tcachcife, to any ons that *«k#h, and 


OfCdUngtithe teih\jk&f % $j 

to convince thegaine-fayers, Tim i, 9, which cartnotbte 
done by reading and reciting. 

1 3. 4. He ought togoe before the Church in thofe gifts, 
which are to be effected and fought by al Bcleevers, 1 Ttmq. 
i3*I4*#T. but all Belecvers ought to endeavour, thatthc 
Word of God might dwell plenteoufly in them, C cl -Z* y > *• 

14. 5* No man can diichargc the office, either of an 
Advocate, or a Phifician, by reciting prefer ipt formes. Now 
aMinifteris a fpirituallAdvocatcandPhifician. 

Queft. 4. Whether it bee Uwfull to deftre the dfinU 
fierie ? 

15* A % 1. Tofeckc a place in the Miniftery, either for 
lucre, or the profit that it may bring along wit! i it, 1 is plainely 
to be condemned. For this is to account gaine godlineffe* 
I Tim. 6. 5 

i& 2. Todefirctheworke of the Miniftcrjvout ofde- 
(ircandicale w'edific the Cburch,and to glorifie God, this is 
pfous and landable, 1 Cor, 16.15, ^Ttm K 3.1. 

17. 3, To offer himfclfeto the judgement of others to 
be tryedand approved for thcMiniftcry, is no way rcpug- 
> 'nant to the honour of the V'iniflcry, 

i8. 4. He which hathji good teftimony of his fitne{fe 3 
for the worke of the M inifl ery, may without offence of con* 
fcience, modeftiy oflfcrhispaines to any Church, Efa.6.$, 
for God offers fuch to the Churches. 

ip, J . Yet 1'mporttfnatly to urge his ownc cdling, and by 
| cunning toprdcure it, is utterly unfit for one that 'is rightly 
/ difpofedtothe Miniftery, 2 Ccr. 2, 16. 

io. 6. By fraud and violence to thruft himfelfe upon a 
^ Church againfttheir will, is plainely a dcvillifh part, 

21. 7. So to come to the office Gf the Miniftery \ as to a 

* thing fubjeft to buying and felling, this is Syteony. Becatfe 

'- theo'ficeof theCureofSoules,isthegiftof God, which is 

Communicated properly by God alone; and thcrfoi e to buy 

that office is all one in kind, and in the nature of the :hing ; 

With that which Simon did, AQs 8* 

2*. 8. Simony is committed not onely by a gift from 
the hand, when money is given to procure {uch an office^ut 
alfo by a gift from obfervance, which is given and yeelded id 

I i a "". any 

£$ Of Calling tfi the Mtmjlery. 

any for that end 5 andalfo by a gift from the tongue, when 
it is procured by lntciceffion and prayers, fo that the worthy- 
neffe ijsinot principally regarded. 

Queft. 5 . Who are they which have the right and -power of 
calling Mr/iifters ? 

23. tA. x. The chiefe right of calling is in Chriftalone* 
who is the Head of the Church, the Author of the Miqiftrie, 
and the Lord of the Minifters. 

24, 2. The delegated right cannot properly be in Dioce- 
fan, Bifhops, or Patrons, or Magistrates; as fuch, becaufe 
Chrift who ordained the M iniftcry , hath prefcribed nothing 
lingular concerning thofe Orders, hath communicated no 
new right unto them, and hath left his Church Well ordered 
without them. 

2 5 . 3 The delegated right belongs to that whole Church, 
Which the Minifter that is to be called mull fcrve. 

F or, firft , Minifters are give n by Chrift to the Churcltfhat 4 
by the fame ordinary and ccrtaine way, they may bee procu- 
red by every Church, But if the vocation (hould depend 
upon others, the Church (hould often be deftitutc, of a ccr- 
taine, of procuring Minifters to it felfe, and fo fuch a Church, 
(houldbeinftitutedof Chrift,vvh.ch (hould nor be fufficient 
initfelfe. * 

Secondly, If the right of calling were in the power 
of others , then the Church (hould not immediatly re- 
ceive ber Minifters from Chrift, but from thofe whofe this 
right was. 

Thirdly , otherwife it could not bc.that the Church fkould 
3I waies freely iubmit her felfe to her Minifters, which yet in 
the Miniitery is no lcflTe neceffary then in Marriage. 

2 6. 4, This right of Calling doth (o in regard of the * 
proprietie remaine in the Church, that it cannot either by thq . 
authority of any other be taken a way, or by a voluntary grant . 
be loft, or bee wholly committed to the fidelity of another* * 
For the aft of the Church is a caufq neceflarily required to 
Ecclcfiafticall calling. 

27. j. Yet divers a&ions pertaining to calling mqy bee 
commanded to others, and ordinarily ought to be performed 
hy the principall members of the Church, or the Presbyters* 


Of Calltngto the Mm(tery* 6$. 

And the care that all things be done rightly , belongs to the 

Queft. 6. what is the aft in which Vacation properly con* 

28. A. Vocation properly and effentially confifts in ele* 
ftion. For fir ft, that voluntary relation which is betweene 
the Minifter and people, cannot have any other foundation 
then voluntary eiedion. 

Secondly, a free Church, retaining her liberty, cannot be 
fubjeded to any,bnt by free cledion. 

Thirdly r all thofea&s which pertaine to vocation, either 
tend to eledion, as nomination, prefentation, examination, 
or depend upon election, or ordination, inflitution, or indu- 
ction, which is nothing elfe but the complement of election* 
and a folemne declaration ^ as the Coronation of a King, or 
the Inauguration of aVlagiftratejand fo is wont Metony-. 
mkally ,to be ufed, for cle&ion, or vocation. 

Que ft. 7. Where the freedomctf election is diminifhed lj. 
Ti/heps y tJMagifirates, Patrons * what kind of Calling is 
there ?■ 

2p A. Although eleftion be not in that manner and de- 
gree free as it ought to. bee; yet a voluntary confent, as in 
Marriage, fo in the Miniftery, though procured by unjuft 
meanes haththceflenceof an eledion and vocation. 

Qiieft. 8. When many art fit, who. s.mong them is tobet- 

30. A. v He which is mod fit in the confeience of 
him that doth eleft, well ln&rrocd, becaufe to doe other- 
wife were an accepting of perfons, which being difpleafing 
to God, ought to have no place at all in Divine matters. But 
this is foto be urjderftood: Tirii that companion be uiadc a-- 
V*- mongthofe which may commodioufly be had. 

3ft- *. That he be judged raoft fct, whothough hec bee 
fimply and absolutely inferiour, yet in relation to that Church 
for which a Minifler is deiircd, confidering all circumftancefr 
is found fittcft, 

Qucft. p. whether Atnan may bee called.! \a the M.ixiftery y 
for fome certawe terme of yeares ? 

3.*. A. 1. Thatthisftpuldbecxprcffed,ordircftlyin-- 

I i 3 c toded 

ye Of cMng te the Mini fiery . 

duded in the Calling, is utterly repugnant to the nature of the 
Miniftcrie. F or firft, A Minifter doe h not properly devote his 
paines to the Church, but to Chrift. Now Chrift hath no 
^ where revealed his Will concerning a definite law of Mi- 

Secondly , Such a vocation doth diminiftuhe affection and 
care of a Minifter to his people, and of the people againC 
to him. 

Thirdly, It leffens alfo the dignity of the MinWery, while 
in ftiew, at leaft, it makes it mercenary. 

Fourthly, It brings alohg with it divers dangers, both to 
Minifter and People- For fothe Minifter may without a /utt * 
caafe be difmifled, and the people may unfeaionabiy be for- 

33. 2. Yet that they fliould be underftood implidtely, a 
power of obtaining an honeft diftmffion upoh forae condi- 
tion, theneceffity of which, the condition cither of the 
party called, or parties calhng,or thcChurch in gencrall may 
caufe, there is nothing that ablolutcly forbid?. ' 

Queft. IO, Whether may one that is rightly called to the 
Minifterj^ afterward leave off the Minifter j ? < . 

34 A. 1 Itis not law fall for any one to attempt this 

Firtt,becaufeheisboundtoGodin that vocation, neither 
can he without his Commandment forfake his ftatioh« 

Secondly,be is alfo bound to the Church.not by an humane, 
but by a Divine covenant. And he can no more forfake the 
Church, then be forfaken of it, 

35* 2. Yetiffuch a csufe fallout, that makes him unfit 
for the Miniftcry, or makes the excrcifc of ir impofTible to 
him, Or bring a ntccflity of finning upon him in the exercife 
of it, then by Gods allowance hefecmes to be loofed from ' 
t&c Miniftery* li 

Queft. li. Whether it iee latfttfl for a Minifter to goe 
from otoe Chnrcb to another r 

36. A. It is one thing to goefrom one to another, ano- 
ther thing to be tranflatcd or removed. Goe he may flot Co 
long as the foundation of his former calling remauics • 
but remove he «aay bef upoh the Mdgcment of other Chur- 

Of making Semens. y T 

ches, andbytheconfentof that Church to which he is b6uw^ 
for a further fruit of common edification. 

Chap. XXVI. 
Of making Sermons. 

Qucft . I . X 7 \ 7 Hat ought to be the Text, or zArgu* 

V V went if tfo Sermon ? 
\< A. i . Seeing nothing ought to be Preached by a Mi- 
nrfter of the Church of Chrift, befides the Word of God; 
and the Word is not tobe found any were but in the Scrip- 
turcs, it neceffarily followcth that his Preaching muft becal- 
rogetherof the Scriptures. 

2. t. Although the Catecbifme in which is contrafted 
the famme of the Scripture which is mod neceflary for all ; 
be neceffarily with all diligence to be inculcated, yet a diffe- 
rence alwaies ought to be obferved bctweene fuch humane 
'formcs,and the Holy Scripture, Therefore it is not meet that 
the Catechif me (hoidd be in the fame manner propounded for 
a Text in the Church, as the holy Scripture is wont to be* 

^. 3. For the honour therefore of the Scripture, for 
the efficacie of the truth preached, and the danger of the fcan- 
dalL which may arife from that cuflome, it is mod fafc that 
I fomefeleft places of Scripture be propounded for a fouiida- 
* lion of the Catechifticall inftru&ion, and that the Doftrineof 
the Catechifme be drawne aright of them, as the Doftrme of 
the Scripture. 

Queft. 2. Whether is that cpiftome to bee approved which 
' hath held in the B opacity and is ftiil ufed in feme Ti&fermed- 
9 Churches y in the Sermon onely ordinarily to explatne certaine 
parcels and SeUions^hich are called ky thenfimeofGojpels 

4* iA. 1 . Thejmblike reading of thofe Seftions 3 omit- 
ting the other Seriptar^s, is repugnant to the exprefTe Com- 
naandement of God, who hath commanded the whole bookc 
of thcLawto be often r«ad> Dent. 31, 10, n, xa. and to 


y % of making Sermms. 

the praftifc of the Ancient Church, N.ck. 8. at. ifitron.n 
30. Afts 17.21. CW.416. 

$ . 2, The expoficion of thofe Se&ions is not fufficient for 
the due edification of the Church* For many things arc ne- 
cclfary to be kno wne, which are not contained in thofe Sefti- 
oris,* Tim. 3.16. 

6. 3 . The Sections are perverfe, fo that many of them 
arc, as parts cutoff from intirc boaies, and arc propounded 
by themfelues, maimed without head or taile. 

7 4» They which adhere to thefe Se&ions, neglc&the 
Divine order and manner of the Scripture, and conccalc it 
from the people, to the great detriment of Religion. < 

8. 5 . This cuftome of Preaching oneiy out *bf thefe Do- 
minical! readings, was brought in, in the depraved and darkc 
times of the Church, not without a Superfluous retpeft to 
fome Solemnities devifed by men, againft the rule of Scnp- 
ture,and praehfe of the Primitive Church. 

9 6. Experience hath tawght, and doth teach dill, that the 
knowledge of God doth more abound in thofe Churches, 
where, this cuftome being left, the Scriptures are freely hand- 
led; partly, in a continued order through fome whole Books;* < 
partly, as any lingular andneceffaryoccafionreqinretb. 

Cjueft. 3. Whether u it Uvrfutl to procure Sermon out of 
Poftils ? 

10. A. 1. To beg, or to reherfc verbatim a Sermon 
out of the prefcript of another, is altogether unworthy for a 
Minifter of the GofpelL 

lrirtl, becaufe by thefe meanes thofe gifts which God hath 
given men for the Mmiftery arenotcxercifed, but onely me* 
mory and pronunciation. 

Secondly, becaufe they that doe fo, ctnnoc aright cut the 
Word of Godby a fit accommodation of it to the conditio * 
on of the hearers , according to the variety of occafions. U 

Thirdly, becaufe the force and cf ticacie of that Sermon is 
loft, which is not fetcht from the certaine judgement, and in- 
ward affedion of the fpeakcr : which cannot bee e^pafted 
from them, that fpcake all out of a prefcript forme. * 

Fourthly, becaufe this manner of doing, makes Mini- 
(Icrsnot incrcafc in knowledge, bnt in memory oncly* 

Of making sermons. 73 

Fiftly, it makes them alfo to be defpifed among many.; 
11. 2. Yet Commentaries, end godly Sermons made by 
others, may be of great uf e to a Mbifler ieffc exercifed. 

Firft, becaufe imperfed beginners are excited and dire- 
cted in the right way, by the example of fuch as are more 
perfect, and of greater ycares. 

Secondly, becaufc divers things are to bee found in fuch 
kind of writings, which thofe that are leffe exercifed may 
transferee into their ownc ufe. 

Thirdly, becaufe fomc things are propounded with more 
confidence by beginners, when they fee the fame things ufed 
by the graved Divines. 

ia. 3* For thofe Sermons which are commonly called 
Poftili, {o much is not to be attributed unto them \ as that they 
(hould be numbrcd among the Angular helps of Sermons. 
F if ft, becaufe the mojt of thoic Tofii/s were written by 
, Popifli men, who were ignorant of the force and efficacie 
of the Gofpell ; or by other Heterodox perfons, whofe O. 
rations are read with more danger then fruit, by the unskil- 
full, or laftly,by fome lighter Do6fcors,who without any great 
judgement, have in this way accommodated themfelues to 
trie time. 

Secondly, becaufe thefe Tofiils are cncly accommodated 
to theDominkallScdions, to which a Mir Her of the Gof- 
pell ought not to adhere. 

Thirdly, becaufe they containc ncithe toe Divinity that is 
to be taught,butin a very little meafurc,nor any ccrtainc and 
codifying manner of teaching, but fuch as is fitted for the plea- 
ling of vaine men. 

Fourthly, becaufe in thofe Churches where they are moft 
^ufed, Religion is not to be found in its vigour, but either ig- 
^ norance, or the forme of goodlineffe takes place, the power 
/ of it being denyed, 

Queft* 4t Whether Are the Writings and Sayings of 
Heathens to be aliedgedin Sermons ; 

13. A m In the ordinary courfe of Preaching , amoig 
Auditors thatarcunskilfallin fuch matters, and which ac- 
knowledge the Divine Authority of the Scripture, fuch alle; 
gations arc altogether to be abftained from* 

*k •' firft, 

mjL y of making Sermm. 

Firit, becaufe they are not fit meanes to beget, nburifli ; and 
preferue Faith and fpirituall life* 

Secondly, becanie neither CMofes,yjho was learned in 
all the wifdoroc of Bgjft, nor Chrift in whom were all the 
ireafbresof wiidome and knowledge, ever alleadged any 
fuch thing. 

Thirdly, becaufe injury is offered to Chrift, as if he oncly 
were not to be heard* 

Fourthly, injury is done to the Scripture, as if it alone 
Were not fofficient for the edification of the Church. 

Fiftly ,becaufe a fcandall by this meancs is brought into the 
Church, whileft it heares the teft imonies of Heathens promit 
cuoufly mingled with the Oradcs of God> as if they Were of 
like Authority. 

Sixtly, becaufe humane wifdome is to be concealed in the 
Preaching of the Gofpell, I Cor.i.i. 2 Cor. a. 4 becaufe 
it hinders the demonftration of the Spirit, and the efficacy of - 

Queft. 5. Whether it is law full ' fromifcHOuJlj to allege- 
thejentences of Fathers in Sermons ? 

14. A. Firft, they cannot be brought in place of proofe ^ 
becaufe they were men fubjeft to errour*,andfo their autho- f 
rity caufeth not a certaine and Divine Faith. 

Secondly * they cannot ferve for any illuftration among 
common Hearers,to whom even the Names of the Fathers 

Thirdly, they cannot be brought for ornaircni fake, be- 
caufe humane mixtures doe not adorncj but pollute* 

Fourthly, yet fometimesto convince the pertinacioufneffe 
of fomc, to refute the flanders of the enemies, and to helpc 
the wcakenefleof others, it may be ncceflary to ufe fuch kindT 
. of teftimonies. But then they ought fo tobc produced, that 
it may plainely appearc,that the Mimfter is compelled to gcK 
out of the bounds of the Scriptur e,^pd that he doth this one - 
ly for the caufesbefore named ; the Word of God, and the 
edification of Bcleevets requiring no fuch thing. 

Queft* 6. Whether it is law full to mingle tn* the Sxrmon^ 
*#ordsof Art* Lattne words, Greek* y Hebrew, &ci 

15 ♦ A. Among the ignorant it is not lawfolL Firft, be- 

Of making Sermons^ m^ 

caufc fttangc Words doc hinder the understanding^ and inter* 
rapt the attention of the Auditors. 

'Secondly, becaufe if they be not explicated, they make 
not for the edification of the fimple, and if they be explicated* 
it is an unprofitable wafting of time. 

Thirdly, becaufe they favour of oftentation in the Mini- 
fter, and miniftcr occafion and argument to the ignorant to 
cheiifli and excufc their ignorance. 

Queft. 7. whether may Allegories invented by mans ftu* 
dy be propounded in Sermons t 

16, Id. v Continued Metaphors ("which moft proper* 
ly are called Allegories J if they be apt, cannot with any rea- 
fon be diffailowed \ for if it be la vvf ull to ufe a Metaphor^ 
it is lawfull to continue the fame. 

Secondly, Allegorical! interpretations of things which 
have no certaine foundation in Scripture, ought not to be pro* 
pounded as ccrtaine. 

Firft, becaufe they arc inventions of men, not the 
Word of God. 

Secondly, becaufe they w* eft the Word of God from its 

Thirdly, becaufe they fubjeft the Oracles of God to the 
plcafure of vaine men, to be drawne hither or thither as they 
thinkegood. fc 

Fourthly, becaufe {ccing they arc not produced out ofthc 
Word of God, but by men brought unto it, they have m 
fpirituall efficacy in working upon the confcienccs of men. 
1 Fiftly , becaufe they can have no found D6&rinc in them* 
but that which hath a certaine foundation in other places of 
Scripture, and fo they tend to the prejudice of that doftrine, 
which is handled fondly ,and out of place, without founda- 
tion , as if it hid none any where* 

Sixtly,becaufe they can breed no Faith,but that which con-; 
fifts in the wifdome of men. 

Seventhly, becaufe they make the follidand faving (In> 
plicity of the Preaching of the Gofpell unfavory and un- 
grateful! to unskilful! men, who are taken with thefe toyes. 

Queft. 8. Whether any care be to be btd of Exordiums in 
the making offyrmm ? 

Kk a 17. 4+ i\ 

m$ Of making Sermm. 

Ij] A. u An Exordium or preamble is hot accounted, 
by Oratours themfelues , for any ncceffary and internal! 
part, though but of an humane Oration : it is a great dc- 
feft of judgement therefore in them, who will have it necef- 
fary in an holy Sermon. 

1 8. a« Thefeckingthe good-will, docility and attenti- 
on (in which confifts the end of preambles ) among Belee- 
vers well inftruded, acknowledging their Paftor, prepared 
and excited by prayers, both publikc and private, to the hea- 
ring of the word of God j hath no neceffary ufc. 

ip, 3. A Preamble, if it be nothing to the bufinefle m 
band, is condemned by all; if it handle any matter which is 
contained in the Text, thenit brings eicher a perverfediilur- 
bance of order, or elfe Tautologic- 

so, 4. Tofeekefor Proverbs, Apothcgrae9, Senten- 
ces, or felcd: Hiftories to make Exodiums of> by the accom- 
modating of them, doth not onely favour of fame thing hu- - 
mane, unworthy the Word of God, but hath a cbildifL kind 
of affe&ation, which is not approved in the more grave fpee- 

2*. Jf The explication of the Coherence cr dependance 
of the Text, which is part of the AnalySs, may profitably be * 
propounded inftead of vulgar Exordiums. 6. And a briefe 
infinuation may iometime be ufed,wherein fome thing ripen 
occafion Angularly pertaining to the purpofe is declared; but 
not ordinarily* 

Queft. 9. WhatTcxtu-to bt chofen ? 
ir.. e^i u For thcquallity of the Ttxr, the eledion mufl 
bediredlcd according to the condition of the hearers, times, 
and places. For the moft neceflary and profitable things muft 
alwaiesbemoltinfiftedon. s~ 

33. 2. In regard of the quammc,fe\yncfl€,.orfliortneflff 
of words ought in no fort to be aflfe&ed. 

Firft, becaufe the more of the word is profitably explicated]* 
the more the hearers are edified. 

Secondly, becaufe divers Dodrines propofed may more 
plainely and eff edualiy be demonftrated out of a Text of di- 
vers propofitions, then of one* 

Thirdly, becaule unprofitable and ungrateful! Tautologies, 


Of waking Sermons. 77 

or digrcffions, follow upon this affectation of a fhort Text* 

Fourthly, becaufe it favours of a kind of ollentation, for 
a manto feemcto defire to £ tch many things out of few. 

Quefh lo # tvhet her are aH things which may be produ- 
ced out of Scripture > or reafons to thepstrpofe r to be propound 
ded in the Sermon i 

24. A. i # Teftimoniesof Scripture, and confirmations 
fromreafons,arenottobeheapcdup without prudent dis- 
cretion* For 1. to prove that carefully among Christians, of 
which no Chriftian almoft doubteth, were to waft the time* 
and weary the auditors without any fruit. 

35. 2. In the confirming of that which needes proofe, 
choice and meafure is to be ufed, left the memory of the au- 
ditors be overwhelmed, or firme and apt proofes bee any 
wayes weakned,by thamixture of fuch as are weake,and no- 
thing to purpofe. 

26. 3. The heaping up of proofes, or illuftrations mine- 
cefiar'Hy, doe feeme to argne, either defe&of judgement, or 
forne oftentation of wit, and memory. 

27, 4, Other things more edifying are omitted, becaufe^ 
of thefe things, which oraifijon when it cannot be defended, 
is wont ridiculoufly to be excufcd with fliortnefle of timethat 
was voluntary fought and procured. 

Queft. II. JV-htck part is mo[i to be infifted on y the expli- 
cation of the Textythe handling of the Do Brines, or the Vfc. 
and Explication of them ? 

28, as4. Some fpccialloccafion may maks the large ex* 
% plication of the text, or handling of the Do&rine to be ne- 

ceflary ; but regularly, and ordinarily the principali worke of 
the Sermon, if it be not Catechetical!, is in the uie and appli- 

Fir ft, becaufcihe ufe is the principali end, both of the.ex- 
» plications and do&rines. Now the one is principally to bee 
* regarded, and th&fe things which doe neerely belong to the 
end .- an<i alLo^tci thipggare to be dire&ed to it. 

%■$. 2 f Becaufei«hatb more difficulty and neceflltie in 
the moft part of hearers. For fuch is the blindneffe and per- 
v^rfenefle of men, that their mindes doc more difficultly ad* 
mitnothingiRor doth their condition require any thing more, 

K k 1 then 

7$ of making Semens] 

then the eflfefluall accommodation of the Word, to the fub- 
jefting of the Confcience in all things to the will of God. 
The word of God is much more eafily into the earesand un- 
demanding of men, then intotheir hearts and hands. 

Thirdly, bccaufcfo Chrift, and the Prophets, andApo- 
ftles preached : for they did direft all things to the ufe and 
praftifeof life, and in perlwadmg to that praftife, they fpent 
their greateft paines. 

Queft. 12. Whether Tthetoricall ornaments have any place 
in Sermons ? 

30. A. That Rhetorickc which we finde in Scripture to 
be ufed by the Prophets and Apoftles, hath great ufe in Prea- 
ching, if it beufed with the like prudence* Now in Scripture 
there is great ufe of Tropes and Figures of fentenccs; buc 

*for Figures of words, which confifts in likcnefle of founds, 
meafures, andrcpetions, very few examples of them arc to 
be found. 

The rcafon is, Firft, becaufe the harmony of elocution is 
the lighter part of Rhetoricke, which more agrceth to light 
perfons ana things, then to grave, facred and divine. 

Secondly, becaufe they fervc onely for naturall dcligh^ f f 
not for fphituall edification. 

Thirdly, becaufe they are repugnant to the powerfull de-' 

monftration of rhc Spirit. They doe fooliflily therefore 

which in their Sermons, affeft founds ending alike, but fpc- 

cially they which propound fuch rimes in unknQwne Latinc 

> or Greeke words. 

Queft. 13, *Byv>hatmeanes ejpeeially may a Sermon bee 
made effeBmll for the working apon mens Confcience s i 

31. A. 1. Ne« to the evidence of truth, and the will 
of God drawne put of Scripture, nothing makes the Ser- A 
mon niore to pierce, then when it is apparent that it comes , 
btjt of the inward aflfc&ion of the hearc without any affe-^ 
ffation. To this purpofe it is very profitable, if befides the 
dayly pra&ife of pietie we ufe ferious meditation, of fervent 
prayer to worke thofe things upon our owne hearts, which 
we would perfwade others bf/ 

Centrover* Queft. 14. How ought Controverts to 6ee handled U 
fics. Sermonii 

%\ A $ No 

Of making Semws. yp 

jj. tA. % No Controverfies arc to bee moved, which 
We finde not juft occafiqft tor in the Text, or in the Dotixme 
deduced out of the Text* 

3 % . 2. Then there is a neceffary occafion, when for the 
edification of the hearers, wee are to meet with the fecrec 
thoughts and objections of the Auditors; or the calumnies 
commonly fpread up and downe in oppofiton to the Do- 
ctrine propounded. 

34 3. Obfcure,fubtle, and high queftions are not to bee 
handled in Sermons* 

35 # 4* Old Herefies, and fach as are already buried, arc 
not ordinarily to be named in Sermons, much lefle laborioufiy 
to be confuted, and raifed from hell : for neither hatha 
faithfull Preacher fo much lcafure, becaufe of errors and finncs 
now taking place, as to feeke matter of oppofition from any 
thing elfe ; neither makes it any whit to the edification of 
the people, that they flbould be held in hearing and learning 
blafphemies and herefies* 

36. 5. InfuchControverfies as are neceffary , the peo- 
ple are notto be loded with many arguments, and anfweres 
of objection.?. 

37* 6, The mofl: convenient manner of handling Con- 
troverfics among the common people, is fimply and briefly 
to (hew haw errours difagree from the principles of the do- 
ctrine of Chrift, 

38. 7* In the handling of many Controverfies, that pru^ 
denceistobeufed»thatthe confirmation of the truth mayap- 
peare to all, and that they which know the contrary errours, 
may know how they may by confuted ; and that they which 
know them net, may remaine in their fimplicitie, and may 
have ready at hand, wherewith to defend themfcives, if they 
be fet upon imhat part. 

3P . 8. If it be neceffary to defend to a more full confu • 
tationof fomcerrour, then the true ftate of the Controverfic 
ought firft to be laid open, that allmay undcrQand both what 
it is, and of what confequencc in Religion. And thof e argu* 
men ts principally are to be produced, which may effectually 
per fwadc the Confcience. 

40. $> In the manner of handling, scale and truth muft 

go of making Sermm* 

bz tempered with fuch mildnefle and moderation aS becomes 
thecaafe, andasmaydiftinguifofuchascrre out of* (implicit 

Qiieft. i ?. Whether be fide the foLemne preaching of the 

Word by th: Mmfter out of the Pulpit > there be any ether 

handling of tbs Scripture to bse u fed in the audience of the 

Church ? 

jjThe exetpfc ^ I# j n lm i iu h c Primitive Church, there was a certain 

:cfProphccie.p ro p het j caW excrc i( e diftinguiflied from preaching, i fain. 

41. a. To this excrcife were admitted, not onely the 
Minitters, but alio of the brethren, fuch as were of chiefe note 
and moft approved, for the gifts which they had received, 

4j. 3. It was lawful! for others alfo in the Church for 
learning falie , modeftly , and in order, to propound their 
doubts, that they might be inftructed by thofe that had more < 

c 44. 4; This exercife where conveniendy it may bee 
brought into Churches, ought not to be contemned, 1 Thejf. 
5. 20. 
> Firft, becaufe it is moft agreeing to the order of thePri- f 

mitive Church approved by the Apoftle, 

Secondly,becau{eittendsfinguJarlytothc exciting, che* 
riftiing, andincreafingthe fpirituail gifts of every beleever. 
Thirdly, becaufe it takes away negligence and envy, and 
nourifheth charity. 

Qucft. 1 6. Whether <t faithfttil LMinifter may reft in the [ 
common and pubtikf preaching of the Word, as having ffifficl* 
ently done his duty i 
Private In- ^ a. He ought al£o to ufc private care to inftruct eve- s* 
feuftioa. r y onc i n private, according as occafion fliall ftrve, and their « f 
neceffities require. 

Firft, becaufe in this duty the Apoftles have gone before 
us, and left us an example to follow, Afts 20. 20. 1 Tbejf. ' 

Secondly, becaufe they have exhorted us, that we fliould 
have a care of the fame duty, 1 Tim. 5 . 1, 2, 2 Tim^z. 
Thirdly, becaufe by private admonition, the Word of 


Of Bap t i] me. g f 

God is more applied to the condition andneceffitic of every 
particular, then in publike it can. 

Fourthly, becauie private inftm&ion makes way for pub* 
like, and alio makes it much more effeftuall , then otherwifc 
it wouid be. 

Chap. XXVII. 

To whom it doth belong to Baptize hathbeene 
difcourfed fufficiently in another place againft 
Bellarmine : as alfo concerning the neceflity 
and forme of Baptifm* There remaines there- 
fore onely one or two queftions in this Chap- 
ter, briefly to be difcufled. 

VV i. A. i. Concerning thofe of age, 
there can be no queftion : for in them is required knowledge 
of the true Faith, and a defire to be Baptized diftin&Iy de- 
clared, an 

a. a; As for Infants ffuppofing in this place that they are 
not to be excluded from Baptifme, the grounds of which 
Doftrinc arc fafficiently declared in the CMtrrow of Divi- 
nitie) it ischicfly required that they be in the Covenant of 
grace by cxtcrnall pr ofeffion, and cftimation , in reipeft of the 
Parents j and that there be hope that they (kail be inftru&ed 
i and educated afterward in the fame Covenant, For Bap- 
i tifme is a Signe and Scale of the Covenant of grace. 

5. 3 Baptifme therefore mofl: properly belongs to thofe 
Infants, or one of them^tlcjtit, is within the Church, not 

4. 4. That carclefnes therefore is in no fort to be excufed, 
whereby promifcuoufly, and without difference, all are ad- 
mitted to Baptilmc whatfoevcrtheybc,ftnd by whomfoever 

LI 5. J. Such 

g 2 of Bdftifme. 

f. 5. Such Children whofe Parents arc nnknowne", if 
they be borne among Chrittians, are in charity to be accounted 
as the children of Chriftians, if there be not a juft-caufc of 
prefuming the contrary. " ; f 

6. 6. They which doe in fome fort belong to the Church 
in profeffion, but yet doe openly violate the covenant of 
,God,the infants of fuch ought to be baptized wkh fome diffe- 
rence- namely, fo that that which the Covenant rcquireth, 
andiswantinginthem,may bcfupplicdby others as farre as 
ispoflible. "For firft,a definition betweenc the pure and un- 
pureoughttobeobfervedinallthe holy things of God, for 
the confolation of the good, the reformation of the e? ill, and 
the edification of all. .-V* - 

Secondly, the Ordinances of God cannot bthcrwue bee 
kept from alL pollution. 

7. 7. Children borne unlawfully ought to be baptized, (o 
that their parents (hew their repentance, or their education 
be undertakenby fome other that are godly. 

8. 8. The children of Excommunicate perfons that bee 
contumations, ought not to bee baptised, unleffe there be 
furetics that undertake for them. 

p. 9. The infants of Papifts, and fuch like,who arc halfc * 
Chriftians, if there be a fit Surety to undertake for their edu- 
cation, may bee baptized : becaufe they are not altogether 
flrangers to the profeffion of the Covenant ; and by this 
mcanesthcy arc brought to a more pure obfervation of the 


- Quefh 2. Whether may the btftifm of Children he de» 
ferredat the mil of Parents ? 

10. A. The baptifme of Infants is not to bee deferred 
without fome great, and in fome fort, compelling caufe. 4 
Firft, becaufe the equity of the commandement for Cir- , ( 
curacifion upon the eight day , forbids this procraftination. } 
Secondly, becaufe fuch procraftination can hardly be dl- 1 
ftinguiflxed,froma dif-cftceme and contempt of this Ordi- 

Thirdly, becaufe it is repugnant both to the forwardncfle 
of profefliofythe zsalc of glorify ing God,and the confolation 
ofthcpar^ntsjRthefdcmnecpnfecrationof the children to 

Of the Suffer of the Lord* $j 

Chap. XXVIII. 

Of the Supper of the Lord, 

Paffing by here alfothofe things which are dif- 
courfed in another place • 

Queft. I. XJXJHether the frequent ufe of the Lords 
V V Supper be nece^ary ? 
i. A. i. All godly pcrfons ought to endeavour that as 
often as they can conveniently, they make a religious ufe of 
the Sacrament* 

F irft, becaufe that Precept of an indeterminate time, Dee 
readmits no other litnitation^uta want of an opportunity, 
or fome /uft impediment. 

Secondly, becaufe we have continuall need to feed upon 
Chrift,and the good things purchafed by him. 

Thirdly, becaufe the folemne prof effion of our Faith, ac- 
cording to Gods Ordinance, is a duty which We ought, moft 
readily upon every juft occafion,to performe. 

Fourthly , becaufe our infirrnitie requireth a frequent re- 
newing of our Covenant, and excitation of our heart and 

Fiftly, becaufe it is apparent, that in tl : Primitive Church 

♦ the Sacrament of the Supper was adminiflred every Lords 

v Day, neither can there be any other rcafon given for the more 

rare ufe of it 3 but the luke-warmenefTc of Belccverf, and 

the multitude of people in fome Congregations. 

Queft, 2. When a Controverjie with one y either private or t 
- pub like >or enmiticjte any juji caufe of abftaining from the S*+ 
r, crament ? 

2. A, 1. Therecanbenojuftcaufe why any fliould of 
r " his owne accord kecpe away from the Sacrament, befide the 
confcicnce of his owne unworthyncflc , arifing from his 
o wnefinne. For that unworthincfle alone which is culpable, 
and comes from an evill confeience, exciudcth from the com- 

L 1 % $. 2. Xitfc 

$4 Of the Suffer of the Lord. 

3. 2. Litigious Controvcrfies, and Law-fuits, doc no 
more ofthemlelves hinder the ufc of the Supper, then they 
hinder Prayer. For Charity toward our Neighbour is necef- 
farily required in both. 

4. 3. If therefore any man be in Law, or ftrifc, not be- 
caufe he hath done injury to any, or becaufe hec Will 
not fatisfe for an in jurie done,or is far re from peace or recon- 
ciliation, but through the wickedneffe of others ; this cannot 
be a juft impediment of communion. For the fault of one 
cannot deprive another of the benefit of Chnft , and the pri- 
viledges of Chriftians. 

5. 4. If any one therefore be overtaken with anger, or 
defire of revenge upon occafion of fomeftrife, hee ought not 
therefore to abftaine from the Communion , but rather to 
lay it downe fpcedily , that he may communicate : othcrwifc 
he (hall by a double fin augment his fault ; and he /hall fcem 
to make more accountof his inordinate affeftion, then of ho- 
ly communion with Chrift. 

Quefh 3 . What kind of P reparation h required to the ho- 
ly life of the Supper ? 

6. A. i # The preparation to be ufed, is placed in three 
w!Efsu 10n er a<as b y thc A P oftlc > * c ' r - **♦ 2 7i* 8 -*P» For hee requires, 
•f the Lord! Firft ,a difcerning of the Lords Body. Secondly, triall of our 

fdues. Thirdly,a worthy difpofition. 

7 2, This difcerning (lands in a right undemanding and 
judgement, concerning the nature, ufe, and neceffttie of the 
Sacrament. Now becaufe thefc things cannot be underftood^ 
but out of the Foundations of Chriftian Religion, concerning 
finne, and thcroifery that followes it ; concerning Ghrift , and 
hisbenefits.asallo concerning oar duty in tbankfulnefle and 
obedience to God : therefore the knowledge of the princi- * 
pall grounds of Religion* neceflary tofairation, is necefla- -< 
rie alfo to this difcerning of the Sacrament. fL 

8* 3. The examination of our felvesconfifts ia a ferious 
triall, whether we be fo difpofed that we may with fruit ufc 
this Sacrament, which now we difecrne to be divine.Therule 
of this examination is the word of God, as it refpeds the 
inftitution of this Sacrament. The difpofitions in this triall, 
principally to be refpeftcd, are Faith, Repentance, Charity, 


Of Eifcifline. Sy 

and that ftudy of new obedience. 

p. 4. A worthy difpofition doth not confift in perfecti- 
on i which if wc had it, there were leflc need of this Sacra- 
ment: but in a futablencfle of our afteftions to foholy an 
a&ion; which futablcnefle may confift with great imperfe- 

Now it is required, Firft, that we renew cur repentance, 
both generally for all our finnes.and fpccially, for finnes late- 
ly committed, andftill cleaving to us, or to which wee arc 
nioft fubjc&. 

Secondly, that wee flirre up in our felves an hunger dnd 
tbirft after the grace of God in C hrift, both for the pardoning 
and mortifying of thofe (nines, and for the amendment and 
reforming of our life. 

Thirdly, that wc doe likewife flirre up our faith to lay hold 
upon the promifes of the Gofpell. 

Fourthly, that with all humility, reverence, and devotion, 
we receive this Sacrarrcnt,as the fcale of grace, and of Gods 

Chap. XXIX. 

* Queft. I • \7\7 Hetker is a Jingular ttfe of the Key 

ty V V of binding and corre&wg neceffaryto 

fomeperfons in particular^ when the anger of Cjod y and the ex^ 

clufion cut of heaven is denounced in th Minifiery of the 

> ' Word to all impenitent per Cons ? • 

1. A* \. It is not neceffary for thofe that have tender 

J~ confciences,and that are provoked to mature repentance by 

*/ the ordinary preaching of the Word. For feeing nothing but 

(*| due repentance, ought directly to be intended in difciplinc, it 

would be in vaine to (eekc that by many waics, which maybe 

obtained by fewer; fo the particular of the Key to loofe or 

abfolveis notneceflary, where there appcares to be a gene- 


LI 3 2. 2. Be- 

te of Difcipline * 

-V. % : B^ufcofthehardneffeanddcccitfulnesonicart; 
which is to be found in many finners, a pcrfonall applycati- 
on of thofc things which tend to the correction of finne, in the 
excercifeof Difciplincisncceflary fortheftiaking of fecuri- 
tie, and for the working a ferious care of falsification. 

3. 3. Becaufc the ordinance of Chrift concerning the 
pcrfonall exercifc of Difcipline, although primarily and di- 
reftly it tend to the recovering of one fallen, and yet feconda- 
rily, and indire&ly it tend to the edification of others, by re- 
moving the hinderances, and by promoting the helps ; there- 
fore the exercife of this Difcipline is neceffary alfo in refpeft 
of them. 

Qucft. 3. whatkindeof finneisit % which requires the nfc 
of this Difc ip line ? 

4. A* i # Not thofe infirmities which are common,almoft 
toallBeleevcrs ; for the Angular carc,or reforming of thofe, 
neither can be expeded, nor exafted of them who are fubjeft 
to the fame, or like imperfections* 

5. a. Not onely thofe hainous offences, which are wont 
to be retrained by humane Laws : becaufe Ecdefiafticall di- 
fcipline is part of the adminiftration of the kingdome of 
Chrift, and therefore is of a fpirituail nature, andxequircth 
more perfe&ion then what is contained in civill honefty. 

6. 3. Not onely pcrfonall injuries which make diflcnti- 
ons among the members of the Church, and turne away 0- 
thers from the communion of it, becaufe there be other fins 
which doe as much or more require corrcftion. 

7. 4 The proper and adequate objc& of this cenfure, is 
a fcandall given by a brother, Mztt. 18.15. Lev. 1 p. 1 7* 
GaUt % 6.i. fortbeende of Difcipline is, by the correction 
of the Sinner to take away fcandals, that Bcieevers may goc 
on 3 without offence, in a courfe of holinefTe, that others may 
be drawne on to the fame way, offences that doc hindcr,be- 
ing removed. 

Queft. j* Whether the correction of 4 fcandall ought tobe-i 
gin with a private admonition ? 

8. A. 1. It ought to beginnc alwaies with admonition, 
becaule the declaration of the fault is the firft meaneofa- 
mendmentj and the genuine caufe of repentance. 

p, 2 t In 

Of Vrfcipine. %j 

$\ ; a. In private fcandals, their ought alwaics private ad- 
monition to goe before, Mat. 18.15* For the fame of our 
brother is not without ncccflitie to bee wronged, nor his 
raindctobeprouoked,northefcandallto be amplified, nor, 
in a word, the fu/pition of calumny and defamation ralLly to 
be runne upon. 

io, 3. In publike and notorious fcandals it is not neccfla- 
rie to begin with private admonition, 1 Tim. % 20. For the 
medicine ought to have a proportion to the difeafe for the cu« 
ring of which it isapplycd. 

Queft. 4. Whether ought every one that gives a Scandall 
to be admonijhed by every Tieleever ? 

il. A. I. In Churches well inftituted and ordered,this 
duty may and ought tobeperformed by every one to his bro- 
ther upon Occafion. For all are enjoyncd to doe it by Chrift* 

12. 2^ In fuch Churches which labour of the want of 
difcipiine, and confufion, it is not alwaies neceflary, that bee 
againft whom the fault is committed, doeadmonifo the of- 
fendor, becaufe he £hould often begin that which hee bath 
no power to per forme. 

13. 3. The precept therefore of folemnly admonifliing; 
air brother , doth then oncly binde, where there is fome 
hope that the admonition, cither mediately, or immediately, 
will be of force to takeaway the Scandall, For the meane 
is fo farre good, as it makes for the attainement of its end, 

14. 4. Yet all men are bound in fome manner to fignifie, 
that the Scandall given, dothferioufly out of Confcience to- 
Avard God, difpleafcthem, Ephef, 5,11* For charitie, and 

'zealcof Gods glory doth thus farre binde all the godly* 
Queft. 5. Whether after a private admonition rejecied^the 
matter ought firwght way to be brought to the Church t 
i 1 5. A. In no fort: For the fecond degree ofcorre&i- 
n, according to Chrifts Ordinance, is to take one or two 
/itb us, and to urge the admonition in their prefence. fcftU** . 
8. 1 6. 

Firft,bccaufebythisteftimony, the admonition is confir- 
med, anji made ftronger, either with the brother to be cor^ 
re&ed, or the Church that is afterward to correft. 

Seqondly,becaufcby this igeanes charity is better kcpt 5 

when * 

8g ofTHftifUnt. 

when wc endeavour the amendment of our brother, with is 
little infamy as may be. 

Qjieft. 6 . Is it enough to admonijh ** offending Brother, 
once privately ^ and once bsfore mtnejfes ? 

1 6. *A. He ought in this nanner fo long to be ad moni- 
(hed, till he doe either manifeft his repentance, or impeni- 
tencie, M*tt.l%.i<i>i6,lJ If he {hall bearc thee ; I/hec 
/hall not heare thee y ifhe {ball not heOre them. 

Qaeft. 7. Hon U he to Bee brought before the £hurch, 
that caries himfelfe ftubbwtl f J ? 

17. A. In thisordcr, that firft the matter bee brought to 
thofc that reprcfent the whole company, and who ordinari- 
ly have the dirc&ion and adminift ration of publike b uilncfle* 
committed to them. Tell the Church. 

Qucft. 8. Whether ought he to be prefentlj excommuni- 
cated, who carries himfelfe fiubbernly to the Church ? 

18. *A. 1. In notorious crimes, publikcly knowne, the 4 
Apoftle feemes fo to judge, 1 Cor. 5 . $. 

19 1 2. In other fmnes wc mtift proceed with much pa- 
tience to this lad remedie* 

20. 3. Therefore a fufpenfion from the ufe of the Supper* % 
and like priviledgcs of the Church, which is nothing but a de- 
gree of excommunication, and therefore is called by many, 
Thelefjer Excommunication ; ought, though not from any 
Angular Precept of Chriit , yet from the nature and cquitic 
of the thing it felfe, to goc before, and to bee continued for 
fomc time, where the Scandall is fuch that it may bearc/ 
delay. 1 

Qneft. 9 . W^o have the power of Excommunication ? ^ 

21. A. !♦ The right and power is properly in that Church 
whofe Member the per ion to be excommunicated is 9 Mar. 18' 
1 C or - 5. f 1 

Forfirftjit belongs to them tocaftout of communion, to 
whom it belongs to receive into communion, but the Church 
properly doth admit all the Members into fociety and eomj 

Secondly, they arc to purge out the leaven, whofgdutyit 
is to keept the iumpe pure ; but fb is the whole Society* 
Thirdly ,thcy arc to judge ofthe caufe of denying commu ■- 


OfDifcipline. %g 

nion, who arc to deny communion ; but this belongs to the 
whole Churcb. 

Fourthly, without the confent of the Church no excom- 
munication can effcdtually attainc its end ; becaufe the dcniall 
of communion, is a free ad of thecommunitic. 

22. 2. Yet ordinarily the adminiftration of the cenfurc 
pcrtaineth to the Governours of the Church, of whofe office 
the exercife of Difcipline is not the leaft part. 
. 2 j. 3. 1 1 belongs to Affemblierand Synods,when any dif- 
ficultie dotharifeby common confent to declare anddilcerno 
who are to be excommunicated, 

Queft. I o. What is the P aft or to doe, when as a jit Tref. 
byterj is wanting^ or the people will not confent to ajtift Ex- 
communication ? 

24. A . The folemne manner of proceeding may tc o- 
roittcd: yet a good Paftour, with the reft of the faithful! 
Members, ought by all meanes to endeavour, that the effence 
of the thing be fo farrc obferved, as that holy things bee noc 
given to dogs, and fwine, Mat.*]. 6. And that all publickc 
Scandals be publickly reproved* 

Queft # II. Whether may whole Churches 1 or the Mtm* 
hers of another Church be Excommunicated f 
25. *s4* i« They cannot properly be excommunicated. 

Pirft,bccaufe£very Church hath a communion in it felfe, 
out of which it can no more be caft, then out of it felfe* 

Secondly, becaufe the power of excommunicating flows 
1 from fome Superiority* but all Churches are ordained by 
I JChrift, with the fame equali right. 

Thirdly, becaufe the Members of one Church, are neither 
f ubj eft to the regiment of another, nor doe immediatly per- 
taine to the communion of othcrs,but by meanes of the coin- 
union of their owne Church. 

26. 2. Yet they may for manifeft Herefies or crimes be 
ondemned, forlaken, rejected, which hath an analogy with 

Queft. 12. Hotv farre doth Excommunication feper ate 
him that is E xcommunicated from communion of Saints ? 

27. A. 1. By the nature of the Sentence it Teparats from 
all communion which is proper to the Saints, and to be cxcr«- 

M m eifed 

$p of the manner tf Worjhi^ 

cifed among thcmfclves mutually as they arc fuch. For it de* 
clarcth a man to be ftubbornly impenitent, and fo to bee ac- 
counted of as an Heathen or a Publican. Mat. 18, 

2p $ *s4< 2> In regard therefore of externall and brother- 
ly commnnion, it feparares abfolutely, but not in regard of 
intcrnall, except in cafe of fall and plenary impenitency. 

30. 3. Therefore Ecclciiafticall communion ought to be 
denyedto a man lawfully Excommunicated: andallfuch vo- 
luntary and free conversation, whereby lingular propenfion^ 
of minde to another, and approbation of his ftate is wont to 
fee declared, oughttobeavoyded, 1 Cor. j.n. 2Theff^ 
14. but not that Political!, or Oeconomxcall communion, 
which hath a bond of obligation from the Law of Nature;, 
fuch as is between Husband and Wife, Parents and Children^ , 
Matters and Servants. Magiftrates and Sub/efts. 

Qucft. 1 3. Whether are all that profeffe repentance, to be 
received into the favour- and communion of the Qhnrch a* 

3 1 . *sf* A verball profefllon of repencance doth not fuf- 
fice : becaufe the holy Ordinances of God might be expofed- 
to the fcorne of the wicked ; and the whole vertue of an Ec-* < 
defiafticalla&ion (hould be placed in an externall forme.Such 
fignes therefore are required, which in the judgement of 
Ghariticfliew true and ferious repentance, and doc make it 
wry probable. 

Ghai, XXX, 

Of the manner of JVjrJhip. Andfrft, of preparation 
to Worfhip 

Quefh I. XJ[jHethrTreparatioHisneceffarjbefoA 
VV Worfhip ? 1 

ii sA* To folemn Worfhip ■> Preparation is neccfiary, 
^rov.i^lj. Exod. ip.io,II* & 30. 20. Eccl.ya,** 
Firft, becaufe an apt difpofition is required in the 1 ub/ec? 
of tu .that it may be capeabic.of the good that is to be cooj. 

Of the manner $f Worfitf. $% 

municated to it* For what ever is received, is received ate* 
to the meaf tire of the receiver. 

Secondly, becaufe we, through the infirmity and corrupti- 
on of nature are untoward to every good, Jer.^. 

Thirdly , becaufe the excellent dignity of thofe thing* 
which belong to God, requireth more then ordinary care, E~ : 

Fourthly, becaufe the Devil! ufeth all his endeavour, to 
turne our mindes,either from the worfhip of God,or the due, 
and fruitfuli manner of performance, Luke 8. 12, 

Queft. 2. In what things doth this Preparation conjift ? 

2. A. I. There is fir(t of all required a confideration of 
the nature of the duty we are going about,and of thofe things 
which belong to it, Eccief$*2* Bee not r a (hi Let not thj 
heart be hajly^ that is, doe nothing inconfideratly, Atts 10, i c 
I Thcff.i. 13. 

3. 2. There is required a right intention of feeking that, 
to which that fpcciall worfhip in which we arc to be excrci- 
fed, doth of its owne nature tend* For example, Hee that 
conies to the Sermon, not to iearne what is the will of 
God, and tofubmit himfelfc to it, and to put on thofe affeeffe 
ons, and to follow that way, to which hee is called by the 
Word of God; it is no marvell,if fuch a one goe from the 
Sermon,fucb a one as he came, or worfe 1 For he may ob~ 
taincthat for which he came, as the approbation of men ; it 
may bealfo fome kind of delight, and light {peculation, Ef* 
3. 31,32. but not that the Wordfliould become to him a fa- 
vour of life to life, but rather a favour of death to death, % 
£"\ 2.16. A profeflion of this fort very good, buthypocri- 
ticall, example we have, fer.4z, 3 . 5 .p.20. 

4. 3. It is required that repugnant thoughts and affe&i- 
ons,not onely thofe which are unlawfull , but fucb as are at 
other times lawfull, and may be an impediment, be laid afidc, 
and put away, asmuchascanbe,£#.3.5 % 1 Tet.z.i. Mat* 
Jfa22. lPeui.1%. 

. 4. Laftly it is required that we bring an honeft, and 
pod heart, Luke % .15. 

M m 2 C k a p ■• 

& % of Reverence ^ of Worfiif. 

Chap. XXXI. 
f reverence % ofWorjhip. 

Queft. I. \ 7\ Jhether and howfarre u religions re* 

\ V verence to be given to thefe things yphkb 

Belong to Worjhip, at to the words of the Scripture^ the holy 

3ible y the Water of Bapttfme, the Bread and Wine in the 

Lords S tipper J 

i. A. i. Reverence or honor is in a three fold fenfe cal- 
led Religiousjeither, Firft, becaufe it flowes from Religion, 
as the proper aft of it, containing in it that vertue and direft 
relation which is in religious Wor(hip^or,Secondly 5 only be- 
caufe it is commanded by Religion, as fometbing agreeable 
with the nature of it.' or, Thirdly, becaufe it is both com- * 
manded by Religion, and hath a foundation in the relacion of 
fomething, or pcrf on, to Religion or holy Worflbip. In the 
firft fenfe, Religious worfhip is due to God alone. In the fc- 
cond way, that civill honour which is commanded in the fifth < 
Precept, and is efpecially due to Superiours, is rightly cal- 
led religious. In the third fenfe, jt is due to all thofe things 
Which properly belong to wo-ftiip. 

2. 2. In holy ule, although diviae honour is not to be gi- 
ven to holy things; nor are t ho fe things to bee accounted as 
the next obje&s of that VVorfhip, by which the honour is / 
carryedtoGod; Norlaftly, is there any worfhipofaninfe- \ 
ourdegree to be given to them : all which are thecrrcurs of 
Popifh Doftors, whilethcyworfliiptheEuchariftas God, 
Images as the next termes, though not &z laft of religious r 
worfhip ; and the holy Vtenfels with a religious obiervance: t 
yet that honour which is due to God, cannot in a due manner » 
be given to him, unlcffe thofe instruments of his wor&ip bee V- 
ufed with lingular reverence, becaufe of that neere conqp- * 
ftion andrelation ,that is bciwceae an adion,and the iqSm- 
mentofthea&ion, c 

?. j. Out of holy ufc , becaufe wee have no extcrnall 
ikiag confecratcd by Divine Infiitution ; and placed in a re- 


ef Devotion. p* 

ligious (late, in that manner, that the Arke, Altar, Temple, 
and fuch like were under the Old Teftament, therefore no 
pofitive honour that is religious, is due to any externall thing. 
Yet there is a privative kind of reverence, which necefiarily 
foiloweth of the religious honour cf God : whereby heed 
\% to be taken, that nothing be done to fuch things as belong to 
Worfliip out of holy nfe,by meanes whereof that reverence 
which ought to be obferved in holy ufe, or worfhip , may be 
diminished. Such is the care whereby heed is taken, that the 
words orphrafes of Scripture be not mingled with jells : that 
the Bible be not trampled upon, or applied to any ufe which 
hathaftewof bafenefTe,or unfeemlineffe, that the Bread 
or Wine left after the Communion, bee not expofed to any 
contumelious ufe, &c. 

Ghap. XXXII. 
Of Devotion 

Qtieft. I i T N what things doth Devotion conjifr? 

JL J. A. i, To Devotion it is required, that 

a man have a firrne and abfolute intention of dedicating hin> 

1 felfe to God, and his worfhip ; fo that he can be altered from 

rfiispurpofebynointicements, nor dangers. In this refpeft, 

n Devotion is the Fortitude of Religion : and from it cones 

Ijthat patience and conflancie, which is proper to Religion,and 

•the duties of it. It holds proportion with the wicked dev*> 

txon mentioned, Atts 23. 1 2, 

2. a. It is required that men reft not them felves con- 
sented in any degree of godlincfle, through lukewarmenefle, . 

"oth, and dulnefle, but that they afpire to the higheft pcrfefti- 
on. In this refped: Devotion is the zeale of Religion. Apoc* 

3. 3. It is requifite that a man have a complacencie, de- 
light, and joy in the exercife of Religion, E/k. 5 8.1 3, *?/*/* 
122.2? Efk. 11.3., lChro.zp.?. This is the fpirituall pica** 
&re of Religion. 

4. 4. 1 1 is required that he be often and much in the lame 

Mm z exercw 


ggr of Devttfan, 

c&mfay ABs 10. $. Lnktin* Pfal. i ip„ 1^4. This is 
thediligence of Religion* 

5. 5* It is required that in thole cxcrcifcs he have his 
thoughts and affections prefent and intent as much as he can, 
without wandring and dift raft ions of minde, iAQs 1 6. 1 4. 
Ephef.6. 18. I 7*0?.4«iJ, 

6.6. It is required that he have a tender Confcience, 
whereby he is holy affe&ed according to the fpeciail occafion 
that happens in any exercife. 2 Reg. 22. 9 

7 7 . It is required laftly, that with all his endeavour, he 
order his life, as becomes thofe which Worfhip God, 2 Tun. 
2.19. < 

Queft, 2. By what meanes may this Devotion through the 
grace of God, be attained by us ? 

8. A. 1. It is neceflary firft of all, that wee keepe our 
hearts perpetually, as much as may bee, free from thofe 
thoughts and aff c^ions, which are repugnant to Religion,and # 
the heat of it, 

9. 2, It is alfo neceflary, not onely to convcrfc fre- 
quently with God in the exercife of holincffe ; but alio in the 
interim, while we are doing other things, to keepe in fom«^ 
fort that heat, which we get in holy duties ; and by renewing 
to continue thole holy thoughts, which wee found in our 
felves* He which doth other wife, his life is fpent in weaving t 
and unweaving the fame web, without progreffe to any per* 

10. 5. Itis neceflfary alfo, that now and then wee lift up 
our hearts to God, upon all occafions, ufing thofe flhort Pray* 
ers which are called Emulations % and may be put up to God 
in all places and times . Nor is is unprofitable, efpecially for 
them that are more weakc, to have Verles chofen out of ch 
Pfalmes, which they findemoft effeduall upon their hearti 
that by them they may occafionally lift up their mindes t 

11. 4, It is very profitable for us to exercife our fej$g§ 
to take an occafion from common things , by the thought ax ' 
difcaiirfe of the minde, to arife up to lpirituall mediiatio» 
Whereof Ciriii hath left us divers examples in the H# 

Of the Lor Js Bay. 

12. $* It is profitable to have certaine titles appointed for 
private execrcifes of Piety, and to obfervc them not out of 
cu(tome,butferioufly tofpendthemforthcincreafeof god- 
lincffe. And concerning thofe although noccrtaine rulecanbe 
given, yet by the common inftind: of all Chriftians, the mor- 
ning and evening facrifice is commended to all. 
j 3 ♦ 6. It much availcs to make a choife of thole with whom 
we converfe familiarly, that they befuch, from whom wee 
may come away not cooled, but ftirrqd up in the care of 

1 4. 7. It helpes alfo not a Iittle,to call our felves now and 
then to account before God, of our progreffc and defc&s in 
theftudyof holinefife. v 


Chap. XXXIII. 
Of the Lords Day. 

- Suppofing thofe things which are fpoken of this 
point in the Marrow. 

V V J Ovation of the Lords Day, and of 
thofe times which upon other day es are deflinated to "Divine 
mrfbif f 

£ 1 . A. 1 . Other times arc appointed by man, but this day 
%y the Lord. 

Secondly, other times are not fo much inflituted, as cho- 
fen by prudent Counfcll, according to the commodioufnetfe 
of particular Churches : but the Lords day hath an accurate 

Thirdly, other times are onely of a perfonall obligation, 
cording to every ones opportunity : but the Lords day is of 
nerall obligation, fo that other bufineffes muft give place to 

Qugft. 2. What things otherwife UypfnU , are unlaw- 
\l on the Lords Day ? 

t:\-AL.u. All thofe imployments which doe notably hin— 

if 1 

gS of the Lords Day. 

dcr a man from attending upon God and his worflup, ekhet 
publickc, or private,arc regularly, and ordinarily unlawfull, 
from the cad of this inftitution. 

3. a. Here is.no difference betweene a mcchanicall or 
corporal! worke, which is properly called fcr vile, and that 
which is called Uberall. For chough fcrvilc workes be by 
Nameforbidden, yet Synccdochically all works arc meant, 
which are repugnant to that end which is aimed at, in the 
fan&ifying of the fevench day* 

4.3. Thofe which belong to pleafurc and recreation , if 
they be fuch as hinder from attending on God , are 410 leflc 
forbidden then ordinary labours, 

7 . 4* To make journeis which tend not tothe better per- 
forming of Gods worfhip, but either to the difpatchmg of 
common bufinefles, or to pleafurcs, are no letfe difegreeing 
to the obfervation of this day, then to fpend the foine time in 
fervile bufinefle, or following our delights. 

6. 5. F aires, Markets , and laborions afts of traffiquc, 
by the fame reafon with dayly labours and occupations , are 
repugnant to the fan&ification of this day. 

7. 6. Thofe things which pcrtaine to courts and j udica- 
tories, are of the fame nature. 

v8. 7. Not oncly externalLemploiments about thofe 
things, but folicitous cares about them are forbidden. 

Queft- 3 1 What caufes are there which may excufc Jucb 
occupation* i that they may lawfully be done, upon the Sabbath 

p. J. I. Prefect, or imminent neceffitie, which is nei- 
ther fained, nor fought of purpofc, but is put upon us by the^ 
providence of God, Luke 14. 5. 

xo, 2. Thisnecefficieis, Firft,of themeanetothe end,< 
not re(pedlinggaine,or pieafure,as the end; but moft proper^ 
ly the avoyding of force difcommodity failing out unedf 
pG&ly. This doth not therefore juftifie them who accounting 
theleefing of game as a lofle, follow their ordinary implo) 
ments, that they may not fuffer an occafion of gaine to pafjf 

Secondly, It is evident nccefiGtie, not fuchas is conccii 
.oi an uncertaine cfofljc&ure. It makes not"" therefore £r 
Jr&i£bandfnen>&c who m the time of Ha*veft, fpend A 


Of the Lords Day. ^ 

day in labour, bccaufc they fearc danger by delay. 

1 1. 3, Thisnecefliticistobeunderftood, notonelyasic 
rcfpe&sjBur fclves, but alfo as it refpc&s cur neighbour : (a 
Phyficians,Chyrurgeons, Apothecaries, are lawfully imploy- 
cd in helping the fick;and as it refpe&s the Common- weabh: 
fo in warre many fervile vvorkes become neceflary. 

12. 4 Bccaufethenc:ceiTitieoffomeineane,in whkhthc 
labour ot Servants or Subjedsis required by their Superi- 
ours,cannot be judged by them $ therefore it laborious works 
be enjoyned them befide what is ufuall , which may ^harc. 
their neceflitie, they are to be accounted by them asnecflary. 

13. J. Workes of mercy are to bee accounted both a& 
worthy of necefficy,andpietie. 

14. 6 Servile works which are neceffary to the wor- 
fliip of God, arc not onely lawfull, becaufe of their neceflt- 
t*e,but by reafonofthe worfliip it Iclfe, of which they arc 

15. 7. The offices of common honefty, whereby the 
ordinary andmodeft delight of life is cheeriflied, and excr- 
eifes of piety are not hindered,are neceffary in relpeft of the 
end, and free in their owne nature : becaufe die Ordinances 
of God which tend to the furthering of fpirituall life doe not 
oppofethetcmporall. .But fumptuous preparations for ban- 
quets, cannot confift with the due reft of this day. 

16. 8. Some little and fliort occupation about tcmporall 
things upon occafion may be fo directed , and tempered with 
pious meditations, that it may be no hinderance, but rather a 
furtherance of the duties of Religion. And indeede fuch a 
oufineffcin fuch a manner, doth not withdraw the mindefrom 

jjGods worfliip, 

% Queft. 4/ What things are required to the falsification 

[ iqA.i. Theexercifes of worfliip which are dayly, 
nui-notbe omitted, yet they are not lufficient, but fpeciall 
duticsrauft be added to them, Nttmb m *% 6,7,8,9,10. 

i8. a. Excrcifes of publike worfliip in a Church wel 
cotiftituted,and enjoying her libertie, ought to beheld both 
re and after noone, ibid. Pfal. pa. 1. zsfSis 20.7. And 
:e folcmne meetings are wanting, there every occafion 
N n t<* 



go OfBevcticm 

to be laid bold one) to make up that defeft as much as may be* 

\% 3, Thefe things which are neceffaric to the rcceio 
*ing of due benefit by thofc cxercifes, both in the preparati- 
on &f ore, and in the repemion^ becaufe of the 
connexion which they have with the exercifcsthcmfelve^anc 
to be reputed as parts of them* 

ao, 4. A lingular meditation of the workesof God in 
areligious way, doth Angularly belong tothe fanftification of 

21* 5. Wearefotobcimployed in thofcexercifeSj that 
we may get fpirituali refreshment thereby , by vertue ofV 
which we may be made the fitter to paffethe reft of the week. 

Tbeendofthe Bourth^Booh^. 






Towards his Neighbour. 


Chap. I. 

He Word //*', fignifying Right* ii derived from 
the Latinc Word I#tfw,bccmk itimplics a Pow- 
er of fome Authority, commanding this or that to 
be done. 
It it therefore taken: 
Firft, For the Law commanding. 
f Secondly ,F or the Ob je& and efteft of Iufiice* or for the 
LAftionitfelfe,prefcribedand required by Law ; and in this 
'fenle, we are faid to give every man his Right, 

Thirdly, For skill in the Law*according to that vulgar Say- 
ing, fus eft Ars \dtqui & Boni. 
Fourthly, For the Power which any man hath, to doe this 

Nn a or 

teo Of Right. 

or tliac acceding to Law, in which fcnfc, wee ufually fay a , 

Such a manfiands Hfonhis Right* And not unlike to this Ac- 
ception, is the applying of the fame Word, to denote fome 
particular Priviicdgc granted to any man, either by Law or 
juft Authoritie. Qi which kind was that Jus trium tifaro- 
rum> among the Ancient Romanes. 

2. The firft and fccond Acception arc onely %*iiMajlj> 
andnot^^Z/rdillinguiflit : Forthe fame Re&itndc is inti- 
mated in Both, but with a divers exiftence. It is firft itrthe 
Law, as in the Efficient Caufe and Rnle : and fecondly in the 
jiftion, as in the Efett* conformed to the Rule. In the third 
and founh Reception, there is a OWetonymia, of the Subjeft 
forthe t/fdjunft, and of the Caufe for tbc'EffeSi.' 

This Word Right in its largeft acception is divided into 
Divine^ of which God is the Author. 
Hnmrnce, of wbich-Man is the Contriver. 

3. ^Divine Right is divided into Right Naturally and 
Right Po fit ive^ 

4. Right Natural! is that which is apprehended to be fit 
to be done or avoided, ourcf the natural! inftinft ofNaturall 
Light; or that which is at leaft deduced from that NaturalL- 
Light by evident Confcquence- So that this T^^partly con- 

w lifts of l>Kattikt Principles knowne by Nature, snd partly o£ - 
Comlufions dedue'd fromthofe Principles. 

5. ThzDivwePofitivc %ight^\s a Right added to the 
Natttrall, by fomcfpeciall Revelation of God. 

6 The Right Natural!, or Natural! Law, is the fame, 
whichufaliy is called the EterraH Law : but it is called £- 
terml^'m relation to God, as it is from .Eternity m Him ; it ^ 
is called Naturally as it is ingrafted and imprinted in the Na- 
ture of man, by the God of Nature, 

7. That Pofnive Right was in the mlnde of God fror _ 
Eternitie, as well as the Natural! But in refpr ft it is not fo^ 
eafily apprehended by Humane Rcafoh^tliexc fore it is not 1 
fualiy termed^the Law Eternal I. 

g. The 'Nhiuralland Pefitive Divine Right differ in thisJ 
that the Pofitive is mutable and various, according to Gods 
good pleafure ; for that which was heretofore in tbe ^fndai^ 
c^ll Church, ^different frog that which is in the CbriftiaJ 


Of Right. IOI 

Church: buttherightnawraliis alwayesthcfame,at:dlikeit 
felfe, and for this reaion alfo, it is called the Law eter- 

Qucft. i. Whether the Naturall law were not cbanqeJ^ 
'when Abraham was commanded to k}ll his Sonne, tA^ndwhen 
the Ifradites were permitted t a take away the -/Egyptians 

9. A* i. There was not in thofe cafes a change of the 
law, nay not any difpenfation properly fo termed, but the 
mutation and change was in the matter, about which the 
law was converfant* For in the firft inftance, the life of the 
innocent, which was not fubjed to the power of Abraham^ 
as the Principal c*ufe y was fubje&ed to him as the inftru- 
ment of the command and good plcafure of God. 

10. 2. In the latter inftance, the goodsofthe Egyp- 
tians fat Gods pleafure, who is the abfolute Lord of all 
things;left off to bee longer the goods of the Egyptians, 
and became proper to the Ifraelites: infomuch,that the 
Ifraelites taking them away, did not fteale other mens 
^oods,but a(Tumcd their owne. 

n» Queft. 2, Whether the Law natnrall is not changed^ 
Whzn afwordUft with another filing demandedbj the Owner 
to commit <t murder with it^us not reftoredjior ought by Right 
to bcerefiorecL 

11. A. i. The Right of returning any thing commit- 
ted to a mans trut by the Owner, is not in this; cafe quite 

] changed, but it is ftopt for a while and delaid by another 
more obfervablelaw, viz,, of not committing murder* 

1.2. Anfw. 1 . And fomewhat like is the.reafon of prt- 
fenptiov, or attaining any thing thereby t for by this law of/ 
^/>^<c/?r//>ri^»ic comes to paffe, that after fame cettaine time 
taccomplilht, the a&ion of recovering his owne goods from 
Jpn unjuit Poflfcflfor is denide to the true Owner* For the 
J Jcourfe of particular Right U ftopt, for the fake of pubhkc 
alright and good, thatio an infinite number of fuites might bee 
T prevented Nevertheles,t!;erightand tiilc toany thing is not: 
fotranfferr d u\ c Court of confidence for aicerp the forfci-. 
ture by prafcriptton; far hee who wittingly and willingly, 
dctaines any thing of another mans againft the will of the 

101 Of Right. 

true Owner offends againft the law of nature. Nor h tht* 
commanded by the law, but permitted ondy. 

Queft. 3 ♦ Whether it bee rightly /aid b) Lawyers ^that the 
%ight nAturall, or the Law of Nature ts that % Trhtch Nature 
hath taught alt living creatures.' 

I }» A. i. In brute creamres,thetruc nature of right,orIaw, 
hath no more place then it hath in plants, or things' inani- 
mate. For neither is there a reifon diltingufhwg betwecne 
good and evil], neither a will orchoyceof one thing before 
another; nor laftly,any Mice at all in Brutes more thenia 
things without all life. 

14. 2. Nevertheless in all things, thereis an inclination, < 
a power and operation, which is guided by certaine reafon; 
for as much as concernes their nature and end. And in this 
refpeft, all things created arc faidto havcalawprefcribed 
unto them, which law or right remaines paffively onely in 
them, fo that inrefpedto themfelves, it is onely by firm- 
litude and fome proportion termed a law or right; <Tfalme 
142.6. lob 38. io,ir,ia. icr.^i. ao. ay* 

15. 3. But in regard, there are fome inclinations and 
operatioes, which arc common bothtomanandbeaft, and 
not to plants; and other inanimate things, of which fort are 
the fafegard and defence of life and liberty, the coition of 
male and female, &c. The apprehenfion of which things < 
brute beafts have by inftind of nature, as man by the Iudge- 

- mentofhis reafon, therefore in a certaine fpcciall propor- 
tion, wee acknowledge the law of nature in brutes, rather 
then in plants and things inanimate. 

id. 4. And hence isit, thatthefinneof anymanoffen- \ 
ding againft thefe naturall inclinations , which arc common 
cohimielfeand beafts, even oat of thif very comparifon is ^ 
exceedingly aggravated, and rightly too, &c. Iud. 10. Ef£& 
I.}, ler. 8.7. ^Rom. 1.16. iTim.%^ 

Queft. 4, IVhetherthe Law of Nations bee the [ame^with 
the Law of nature? 

1 7. zA. i. The law of nations, as it is taken for the 
hw which all nations ufe, comprehends uuder it, not onclyl 
rhe law of nature, but alfo^hc pofitive law* So fervitudeisl 
by I^a-vyers laid to bee by the law of nations, and yet is evi- 
± denfid 

Of Right. ! j 

dent, that fervitude was brought in by cuftofnc and the po~ 
fitive law. And the fame is the reafon in diviSon of poffef- 
fio»$ 3 ar)d the like. 

I 8. 2. If the law of nature bee taken, for that law which 
is introduced by the common confent and cuftome of all ra- 
tions, it then participates a certaine middle nature betweene 
the law naturally and that pofitivclaw which is peculiar to 
this or that nation. It hath thus much common with the*- 
naturall law; that it is every where received without any 
certaine authority or promulgation , and wherefocver any 
thing is done contrary, it is cenfurd of all men to bee ill 
done. And it hath thus much common with the pofitivc 
law, that it may bee changed or abrogated by the common 
confent of them, whom it may concerne. A divifioa of 
things is by the law of nations: Neverthcleffc by the com- 
mon confent it may upon /uft grounds bee fomewhere 
cnatfed, that almoft ail pofTcflions fhould bee in common, . 
It is like wife the law of Nations, that in time ofwarrethc 
Embafladours of each fide fhould bee peacefully enter- 
tained, becaufe it is fuppofed they treat of peace, which is 
jhe end of warre : of at leaft to fpeake in their ownebehalfe, 
which to any guilty party is not denied: & yet upon j u& caufe, 
and by the common confent of both parties waging warre>tbis 
law may bee abrogated. 
- Queft. 5. Whether the Pf&cefts of the law of nat are 
fce lightly (late d. To live honeftly^ Net to rhurt av&ther y 
) To give every man hti due. 

19. nA, i. This enumeration is fomewhat confused 

andimperfeft. Forfirft, here is nothing mentioned of die: 

worshipping of God, which neverthclcfle is a principle of 

I the law of nature. 2. To live honeftly fas this phrafe is 

lufualJy taken by Philofcphcrs and Divines ) is the fame 

Jthing.as tofoUow vertue. For venue is honefty,or thehoneft 

* *g<>od, as it lYdiftinguifht from the good profitable or plea- 

fant, and in the fame fcnle it is called the abfolute good, or 

the Iuft good. Therefore to live honeftly ( if it bee takenin 

thisfenfe,) is nothing elfethcn to live juftly •• Infomuch, that 

when to live honeftly, is called appecept of the law, nothing 

clfeis meant, but that th« law ptferibes, v^ee flaould live 


104 Of Right. 

according to the law, and {o it is as much as to fay nothing 
at all, becaufe in that faying they exprefle the fame thing by it 
felfe. But if this phrafe bee fo underftood (as ufually among 
the vulgar it is) for the eftccme and credite which may bee 
gotten among men , then it containes no certaine precept, 
but that every man fhould diiig~ndv endeavour bis ovvnc 
credite and eftcerncin thevainrmd mconftanc opinion of 
the multitude. §• What is meaiu by the injunction not to 
hurt another, muft bee expounded by the particular pre- 
cepts of thelawj for in that wee doe our duty towards any 
man, wee hurt him not: Bat if wee doe not that which is 
our duty, wee doc hurt him> becaufe wee give him not his 
due, though perhaps, /^ feme remans to our f elves k^owne^ 
weethinke wee have thereby deferved well at his hands. 
This thcreforeis too confus'd a precept. 4. Togivc every 
manhisowue, is nothing elfe then to give every man right* 
(that is J to doc what is right and juft : Therefore to live 
juftitiabiy, and according to law, is rather an injunction of 
the law in pmicnlar^ then a precept of the law in <^»*. 

Qucft. 6. Whether that precept bee of the law of nature 
Whatjouwonld have dw*e toy ourj elj r e, dee that to another: 
What you would have not done to your Jelfe 9 doe not that to 

20. A . 1 • This precept is naturall, and indeed Divine 
Mat. 7, \%. Lnc\6. 31 . Yet in this it is to bee obfervMr 
Firft, that this law doth not include the whole compaffe of 
the naturall law in generall; but that part onely, frrwhkh our 
duty betweene man and man is comprehended, 3. That 
ourwillwhatfoeveritbee, may not bee the fquare and rule 
of the performance of our duty to others, (tor under tha$(|| 
pretence, hec which would have any bafe, thing done to 
himfclfe, fliould doe in like manner toothers : Hec whichf" 
would himfelfe bee made drunkcfhould make others drunkc; j 
bee which would himfelfe bee inticed to Lcwdncfle, fhould 
entice another to Lewdnefle: ) but our Natural! will being 
Well difpofed,and nottaintcd with any paifion or perturba- 
tion, by which wee truly and confederate ly wifhgood unto 
.our (elves. 3* That kbcc-iio: enjoyncd, that wee doc all 
1 thofe, 

Of Right. I*J 

ttiofc things to others which wcc in particular defirctobee 
done to our fclves, (Tor fo Matters (hould obey their ownc 
fecvants, and ceafe to bee Matters,) but the fame things by 
way of proportion,or fuppofitionjas if indeed wee our fclvcs 
were in the cafe of them, from whom wee expett thofe duties. 
The %oote of Iufiice and the -whole foundation of Equity 
(Taith Lattanttus in his Epit. cap. 3. is comprehended in 
this: Have a careen doe not that to another ,whichy oh would 
not willingly have done to your f elf e : If is bee irksome % 
tofujferan injury, whofiever he bee^thatdoth one 9 i* unjxfi. 
Doe but transfer what thou thinkfi tn thy felfe to the per/on 
of another, and whAt thou judgefi of another perfon to thy 
felfcy and you will focne perceive that fou your [c/fe are un- 
jujl if you hurt another , a* another if hee hurt you. If wee ru- 
minate on thefe things^ wee (hall bee fure to retain* our inno. 
tenet ^ in which, ^njiice, as \n its firft Jlep % u contained^ for 
tbefirftftepofjujiiceis, Not to hurt your Neighbour, but 
readily to doehim all the goo). you maj m Alexander Sevcrus (04 
LampidriuSr?/rf/^*V,) did 4ff sen times proclaime this, which 
bee had obferv'd from feme Jewes or fc'hriftians, and htn y felfe 
^Lid approve, nay and commanded it pptbUkely to bee proclaim 
1 ^fnedby a fcommoncrytr when hee corrected any effcndor,T)o* 
not that to another % whtch you would not have done toyourfelf; 
Which fentence bee fo much affetted , that hee commanded 
\ > it to bee writ ten in his Pall ace, and other pub li que Worses. 
}L Queft. 7. What proportion the Civih Law, holds with 

|f fhe Law of Nature* 

21, «•< 1. The Civill Law is, that which every City or 
I .Society of men enads currant for it felfe. And fucb a kind 
-f ofLawisnotonely peculiar to the Romanes, but alfotothe 
Athenians, Engli[h t ot any elfe> who have norefpc&to the 
oman Law m 

2 1. 2. This Civill Law in as much as it is Right is deri- 

d from the Law of Nature; for that is not Law which is 

lot / uft and right, and that in morality is called Right, which 

;ccords with right pra&icall reafon, and Right pra&icailis 

he Law of Nature* 

23. 5. This Civill Law therefore* is derivd from the 
law of Nature, cither as a fpeci all conclufion inferred from 

O a gene- 

30$ Of Right. 

a gcncrall propofition , or as a fpcciall determination and 
application of a general! Axiom. 

24. 4. That Law which is derived from the Naturall 
Law, onely by way of conclufion, if the confcqricncebee 
good j hath it's whole ftrength from the Law of Nature 
as the Conclufion hath it's force from the premifed propofi- 
tionsi but that which is derived from the Law of Nature, 
by way of determination and application, is in part a new 
conftitution : Even as every /pedes hath it's owne proper 
forme and eflence, befidcs that which is atfually comprehen- 
ded in the Gentts. 

25. 5. Seeing then, that as well in conduffons as de- 
terminations, the Reafon of man, can onely imperfeftly 
judge, nay, and is often therein cozened; hence it nnutt needs 
follow, that all humane Conftitutions are of neceflity liable 
toimperfe6Hon,errGUr, and injuftice : This the Authoursof 
the Romano Law confefle of their owne Lawes. It is im* 
fojfible, that a reafon fhonld bee given of all things that arc 
enattednot to all men^ nor of all the Lewes, and it is proved 
in-innumerable cafes, that there are many things received 
in the Civil I Law for the pub like good i which are fotnewha^ 
contrary to a difputative rtafon* Ad leg. Aquil. f f 5 1. 

16, 6> The imperfe&ion of the belt Civill Law con- 
fifteth in this. 

Firft, In regard it containesnot in its compafle the whole* 
Law of Nature, but fo much of it, oncly as fuch or fuch men 
have, approved and thought appliable to their owne man- 1 

Secondly, in refpeft it hath no eye at all upon theinward 
afFe&ions, but onely upon the outward Anions; for it doth 
notiupprcfle abfolutely all vices, but thofe onely, which mayd. 
feeme likely to difturbe the peace and quiet of the Com-£ J 
won-weaitb, neither doth it enjoync all achofallvertucslT 
but thofe onely , which arc oppofite to the inconvenient^ 

Thirdly, In that it doth not principally make good me n s 
feutotiely good Sub/eds or Citizens. 

Fourthly, Iri that upon occafion it may admit in many I 
*fewf|$ of additionjdetraaion^or corrcftion. 

Of tight. ro? 

Qucft. 8. What frtpmion the Morall L*r* fares t$ 
the Law of2(ature. 

27* A. 1. All the Precepts of the Morall Law, arc out 
of the Law of Nature, exeept.the determination of the Sab- 
bath-day in the fourth Commandcment, which is from the 
polltivc Law* 

\ Forfirft, wee meet with nothing in them , which con- 
cerned not all Nations at all times, fo chat thtfe Precepts 
doe not refpod any particular fort of men , but even Nature 

Secondly, Nothing is contained in them, which is not 
very neceffary to humane Nature, for the attaining of it's 

Thirdly, there is nothing in them, which is not fo groun- 
ded upon right rcafon, but it may beciolidly defended and 
maintained by humane difcourfe, nothing but what may 
bee wdi en joy ncd from cleerc reafon. 

Fourthly, All things contained in them, arc for the fub- 
ftance approved, even oftheraoreundcrflanding fort ofthfr 

\ Fiftiy, They all much conduce to the benefit of Man* 
kind in this prefent life, infomuch, that if ail thefc Precepts 
were duly obferved, there would bee no need of any other 
humane Lawes and Conftitutions. Memorable is that fen- 
tence in Hiereme ad Celant. de infiH. MatrUfam. Whe- 
ther it bee Hieromes or paulinushis, upon the Precepts of 
'the fecond Table: *All things faith hee y whichyou would have 
men doe untoyou y evenfo doe jee unto them, Hee would have 
charity knit and maintained among us by mutuaH good of- 
fices, fb that the whole Law of God is nothing elfe 9 but the 
\ gene rail benefit of mankind, O the wonder full mercy of the 
\jLord! O the unfyeakeable goodnts of our Cjod^ Hee fromifeth 
ja reward unto us on the condition that wee love one ano- 
\ther y that &> if wee mutually per forme thefe things among 
cttrfelvesywhichweour fclvcs ftandinnecdofi jet we with a 
^ proud and ingratefnll heart refifi hiswill^ whofe yery com* 
mand is our owne benefit. 

obUtt. But it may becobic&ed, that if the Morall were 
the fame with the Law ofNature, ithad no need to bee pro- 

O o 2 mulgated 

toS of Right. 

mulgatcd cither by voy ce or writing for it would have beenc 
writ in the hearts of all men by Narure. 

a8. A, i< That to Nature upright, (i-e.)<uit *><tf 
intbe StdttifinHoeencj^ there was no need of fach a Pro* 
mulgation. But ever finccthe corrupt on of our Mature, 
fiich is the bimdneffc of cur undemanding and perverfneflc 
of our will aod diforder of our affections > that there arc 
on-ly fome Reliques of that Law remaining in our hearts 
like tofojac dimme aged pidlure, and therefore by the voyce 
and power of God it oug- tto bee renewed as with a frcfti 
pcncill. Therefore is there nowhere foupd any true right 
prafticali realon, pure and complete in all part*, but in the 
written Law of God, P Jaime up. 66. 

Queft. 9. JVhdt yroprtion the Judbiatt Law hares t* 
the natural. 

*9 A. x ♦ Thar is properly termed the Judicial!, which 
is about Iudgements or any politick matters thereto be- 
longing as that was called the Ceremoniall L-w, which was 
about ceremonies, and that the Moral! Law which was a* 
bou; manners and civill duties. 

30. 1. That Iudiciall Law which was given by Mofes^ 
to the Ifraeittes as proper onely to them, wasamoftexaft 
determination and accommodation of the Law of Nature 
unto them> according to the particular condition of that peo- 

31. 3* To the Jfrae litts therefore in refpeft of the 
ufe,itwas of like nature, with other good Civill lawes a- 
mong other Nations : but in refpeft of the Authority, which 
from God the immediate giver, it received, it was of much 
more perfection then any. 

3a. 4. This Law belongeth not to Chriftians under the/ 
title of a Law, efpeciaily obliging them, but onely by way of 
Dodrine, in as much as in it's gencrall Natnre, or in it's due 
proportion to it, it doth alwayes cxhibite unto us thebeftjj 
determination of the Law of Nature. 

33. 5. This Iudiciall Law w not accurately dHUnguiflit' 
from the Morall and NaturallLaw, in this, that the Moral! 
law waspubli&t by God with his owne voyce, and twice 
wrktc&in Tables of (tone and exprefffed in the Dialogue, 


Ofluflicf. 1Q9 

But the Iudiciall Law without all this folcmnky, was after- 
wards delivered toLMo f es 7 a»)d by hi ^ toche people. For 
the Lawes of re frying things Lent *r Tr*fted % of in ft 
Weights and Meafures, of paying the Labourer his hire % 
and many fucha*thefe, not expreHyfetdowne mthe *Dcca- 
l°$> He i its n<* more litdicia/t orleffc CMo all, and naturall 
then che Commandcmcnt, Thou Jbalt notftette. 

34. 6 Thole Lawes were properly tenned IndiciaU^ 
w^ich being no: Crr<mo»i<i/J, had iomc fingular refped to 
the people of the Iewes 9 fothar the whole realonand ground 
of them, was constituted in tome particular condition of that 

35. 7 , But it is no certain e Rule ( which is given by 
fomejtha wliercfbeverthe reaion of the law is Morall, 
there the Law it feUc is Morall, as is feenc in Levitic. 1 1 44. 
For any {peciaU determination of a Law may be confirmed 
by a Generail Reaion ■; aud the nature oF the Lawgiver 
being mutable hath lomc place too, and power in conftkuting 
Lawes which may be mutable . But where the ipeciall in- 
trinfeeal) and proper reafon o{- the Law is aiorrall, there it 
„alwaies follow es, that the Law it ieite mult needes bee 

36. 8. Thofc Lawes therefore which arc ufually reckoned 
among the Iudiciall, and yet in their Nature beare no Angu- 
lar refped to the condition of the Icves more then of any 
other people. 1 h ofc are all of the Morail and Naturall Law, 
k which are common to all Nations. 

Chap. I I. 
Of Iujiice. 

Queft. !• \l\JH e t»* r fait ice be rightly defined tr 
\ \ be a Perpecuall and conftant intent 
•f gtvijig to every man his due. 

i> 4. 1* Tti* it not a Dcfinion of the Generail Iu- 
iice^which denotes the rectitude of Vcrtoc^ and fq intima- 

Oo: tctb 

tl© Qfluftlct. 

tcrfi one and the fame thing with Vcrtuc in general!* For k 
is noteflTentiailtoall Vcrtue,to refpeft onely what is precife- 
lj due to another : as appear es in the Vertuc of Liberality. 
2 • Secondly , It is not any cxa& definition of any particu- 
lar Iuftice, becaufe it doth not fet downc the "Troxlmum ge- 
nu*^ next common nature of any fpcciali Vercue. For fee- 
ing that a perpetual! and conftant Intent or Will , implies as 
muchasa Habit, and being that bctweene a Habit and any 
fpeciall Vertue, Vertuc in generall is inwpofed as the Genus, 
the perpctuall and conftant Will,. or Intent, cannot be the 
immediate Genu* of any fpeciall Vertue. 

3* Thirdly, The La wyers which maintainc that definiti- 
on of Iuftice, doc in it miferabiy contradid them (elves : be- 
caufe, Iuftice being every way of as large extent as Right, 
which is the Ob j led of it, and they thcrafeives allow three 
Afts of Right, viz,. To live heneftly, To hurt none, and to 
give every man his due ; they doc ncvcrthelcfle here define 
Iuftice by one of thofe a&s onely, ^«^To give every man 
his Right or due* 

4. Fourthly, Ifthisdcfcription ofluftice were thus cor- 
refted, that by a Peryetuall and conftant wil (liquid be mean£ 
Vertue, and by every man^ our Neighbour fhould be defig- 
ned,andby His %ight $ thc duties we ought to perforrae to- 
wards him, then it layeth downe the Iuttice of the fecond 
Table, and is the fame with our definition: vif* lufitceis a 
Vertue whereby we are inclinde to performe all dne Offices 
to our neighbour. 

Queft. 2# Whether Iuftice hath alvpaies fome rejpetl to 

5. <>A. i # All Vertue is after its manner ordaind to the 
uprightnetfe and perfection of him that hath fuch a Vertuc. £i 
Iuftice therefore doth not fo wholly refpeft another,but that -^ 
it hath fome eye upon him that exercifeth it. 

6. 2. Beiides, in that very relpeft, that aluft ma;i givesl 
auother hisduc,it needes muftfollow,that he make bimfelfe 
fit for the performance of that duty, an4 fo alfo confer vc his 
ownc due to himlelfe with moderation. 

7. 3* Ho wfoever in refpeel there i? fome peculiar difticul- 
tie in the defigningand procuring what is Right, and due to * 


ofitftia. nt 

another, which cannot arife in the fcarch of our ewne Good 
or Right j and becaufe that Iuftice doth not confift in the 
proper commodity of him that exercifeth it ; but is necefla- 
rily extended to other : in thefc refpc&s,I fay,it is mod pro- 
perly defined by Anotktrs Right. 

Queft. 3. Whether iJEquitie, or that which the Civilli- 
ans r*//Epieikcia, ( i.e. ) a Moderation of the ftricki £*™ v 
doe tmely participate of the nature ofjnfticc f 

8. A. 1. All Law which is the Rule of lattice, hath 
al waies a double end. The one Intrinfecall and Immediate, 
which the Lawgiver doth iromediatly looke upon : the other 
Bxtritifecall and mediate* So the Law of not opening fomc 
City gates in time of Warre, doth immediatly confidcr thc- 
not letting in ofthe Enemies, which is the immediate End: 
but it hath another remote End, to wit,the fafegaurd and pre- 
fervationof theCitie. Legall Jufiice as- it is ftri&ly taken^ 
confidereth onely the ^*r immediate End : but this Efiei- 
ksia refpe&s the more remote End. 

9. 2. Inrefped he which makes the Law doth al waies 
firft and more principally looke at the remote End, therefore 

^tofpeakeabfolutelyandclearely, Epieiks**hzth more in it 
of Legall Mice, though taken in the ftrickt fenfe. Por if it: 
be certaine that upon admifllon of fome part of the hofiile 
Forces into the Gitie, the fafeguard of the Citic, and Victory 
would follow, it is more juft to open the Gates fo farre, then 
to keepe them ftili (hut. 

1 10. 3* Legall Iuftice taken ftri&ly ,confidcreth the words 
juft as they are written, but Equity confidereth the End, 
fcope and intent of the Law, and fo hath more Law in it, 
then Legall Iufticc, when taken ftriftly, 

1 1 • 4. Legall Iuftice ftridly taken, as it is oppofed to M I 
quity ,is iniquity. For being iBquitie is a vertue,it is necefla- 
ry that what ever hath a contrary nature to it , (hould be rec- 
kon^ among vices, 

i2. 5. In that Proverb, where Extreamc Right is ter- 
med ExtrcameWrong,ExtreameRightisnotto be undir- 
ftood,as if it fignified an exaft obfervance of the Law, but ra- 
ther as it expreflfeth the Outfide, Superficies, and as it wer* 
the barke of the Law t (u e* ) that which the Words* and 

Letter t 

glt of lufttie. 

Letter of the Law fpeake* in which founcUnd outfide often- 
times lurketh extreamc wrong. 
1 3 # 6 9 Therfore it is the beft Iifticc/o to flick to the words 
of the Law, that we be ftill ready to receive -Tome further di- 
rection from the intent of the Lawgiver according to the c- 
<quity of Iuftice. 

44. y. Bat howfdever in manv things which appertaine 
to the publike good, it is not ufuatly in the power of any Sub- 
jeds to depart from the words of the Law : In which fence 
it is rightly (aid, The Law carries no meaning in it but the 

Qucft. 4. Whttu the difference between 'Difiributiveand 
Commutative lufice ? 

15 A !♦ Diftributive luftice is, as it were, from the 
Whole to the PattSjbut Commutative is as from Part to Part* 
Tor the diftribution of Honours and Rewards proceeds from 
the whole, as the greater; but all Commutation confiders 
the JEqiity of Right between the parts Con muting. 

16. z. In diftributivclufiice^batwhich is due is given 
not as if before it had been in the pofleffion and command of 
him that receivetb,or as it had formerly bin conferr'd s but thatf 
now in equity it fhouldbc conferr d : But in the Commuta-" 
tivc luftice, that which is due is retorted to a man, as being 
now properly Hsowne Poflcfficn 

1 7# 1+ In Diftributive i uftice, the proportion which one 
party bearestothc other, in refpe^ of the thing to be delive- 
red, is direftly obferved* But in the Commutative nothing 
isdireffly obferved, but the proportion betweene the thing 
received,and the thing returned. 

Qfcicft. ?. To wfjxhofthefe two /pairs do Bfyrarding and 
TumJhingbetoHg ? 

1 8. A* 1. rheconferringof thofe Rewards which are 
freely given according to due proportion, doth belong to di- 
firibu?ive Inftice: But the Collation of thofe Rewards which 
may of right be cxafted, for fome fervke performed, as out 
of condignc merits doth properly belong to Commutative 
Iufticc : Becaufe in th s cafe the proportion aud equality be- 
tweene that which is befto wed, and that which is received, 
fsftillconfidered, Butpunifhing, in regard it alwaies deales 




OfiuJiUe. ii j 

about foflie injury offered, that it may be puruflied wftfc dud 
andanfwerablc punifhment, it therefore bclongeth rather to 
the Commutative then the distributive Iuftice. But becatlrfe 
this Commutation is compelled for the moftpart, and h 
brought about by a Countcr-pafEon (as they call it) not any 
anfwerable or equaltatfion ; it istherefore mo ft properly re* 
ferr'd ta the fingular fpecies of corre&ive Iu f Uce,whichis rea-^ 
ally diftinguifrit from commutative Iuftice, properly fo cal- 

Queft; 6. What is the difference between ChM andCri~ 
minati [ttfticc - ? 

ip. A* i . Civill laQice in its puniftiing doth principal- 
ly aime at the injufticc of the thing, but Criminall Iuftice in 
its puniftiing doth principally aiuae at the Irijuftke of the 

20. 2. In/uftice fometimes is comprehended onely in the 
thing done, theadtion,or the worke it felfc; but fometimes 
not onely in the thing done, or action, but in the intent of the 
Doer, I fthe A&ion onely, or Thing done be unjuft, with- 
out any appearance of injuftice in the intention of the Doer, 
^lenthat Iuftice whereby this injuftice is puniflied, is to bee 
termed Civill . But if not onely the Action, but the Intention 
be found to be uniuft, then in regard there is a crime comes m 
to beepunifticd, the Iuftice whereby fuch inkifticeis*puni- 
Aicd,inasmuchasithatha Crime for ics Qbieft, is rightiy 
filled Criminall* 

] 21. 3. Hence it is, that Civill futcs in Law,are appointed 
for the profecution of the thing, and fo are called Real!/ but 
criminall fuits were intended for Puniftimcnt, proceeding 
from the demerit and obligation of the crime* and thence arc 

\ 22. 4. Hence it is, that when any private commodity of 
xhe Party wronged is aimed at, it may be called a Civill fute, 
/But when the fute is, that punifbment may be given to the 
party offending y and that if any Fine or Mold doe thence 
'follow, it &U to the puplike Trafurie.and not to the party of- 
fended,, it is then called *<£rimi**M (me. 

23. $• Moreover henceit is, thatin a Civill caufea man 
uiay "be caft, as guilty of iniuftice, without ail Icandall to ban-' 

felfe, in refpeft there appeared not any ill intent; But inju- 
ftice in a criminall caufe bearcs alwaies with it aa ill intent, in 
which is evidently fcene the nature of an offence. 

24 6. Neverthelefle , although thefe two differ in the 
whole genta, yet they may meet in one and the fame caulc, 
as in cafe of fomc dammage offered by open violence , 
where the Cute airaes at both the thing, and the punifhment. 

Chap. Ill* 

Of %tvtnge> $r yengeance^ 

Qucft; x. *1T*0 -who.* Species- *f Ixftice bHongtth Rt~ 
X venge t 

1. <^ i c Revenge or Vengeance f whereby faults are 
punifhed according to their delertsj is fometimes taken foe 
the Aft of the Iudge.who by publike authority may lawfully 
execute it :. fometimes for the Ad: of a private man, Where* 
by he fcekesof the Iudgc that vengeance may be executed^ 
according to Law.: Sometimes -for the Aft of a privatcmar^ 
vyhereby hehimfetfe puniflacth his enemy. 

2. a. Vengeance in the Iudge is not an Aft of diflribu- 
tivelufticc,becaufe.tbcrcia not any diftribution of Goods, 
and evill things arc not properly difpofed by the Judge, as if 
they were things to bee distributed. It hath nsverthcleffe 
fpmclikenefewithdiftributivelufticc, in regard mote grie- 
vous offences are more.grievpufly punifhed, and lighter more 
lightly. * 

3* 3- Vengeance sn the. Iudge, if you take the thing in 
it f dfe, is in feme fort an aft of Commutative Iuftice. ( 

Firft, Becaufc of the equalHty which.is confidered be weeijl 
the offence and the puniftimcnt, \ 

Secondly, Becaufe that which is dueoat of precedent me- n 
rit, is by that conferred, \jj 

Thirdly, Becaufc the Common, wealth recovered its owe 
credit as much as may be out of the parity of Rcftieutran. 

Fourthly, Becaufe Vengeance as much asmay be, maketfT i 
she partie injur'd who fuffcre4 the wong,e<juaIl to the other 

of Revenge. jij 

Citizens, in refpe& of the immunity from that wrong^ 

4, 4. The feeking revenge from a ludge , in a private 
peribn,isfomtiraes an act of commutative lattice : As for 
example. He who is much wronged fay any in his credited 
is to itand npon his credit with other men, infomuch thathee 
may not exercife his fun&icn as long as his credit is tainted, i& 
bound bv that commutative Iuftice whereby he ftands inga- 
ged to othcrs,to feeke Revenge. And it is the like cafe when 
a man is offended by iomc great imury a or knows any other to 
be offended by one vvhofe amendment can by no ether means 
then by fuflfering vengeance be cxpe&ed. For it behoveth Iu- 
fticetohavea care, that the Common-vvcalth be not full of 
pernirious men, 

5. 5. Butthe feeking of Revenge when it is not necctfa* 
ry for any pubhke good, nor for the amendment of the delrrt- 
>quent,nor for the immunity of the party offended, is by no 
nieanes an aft of Iuflice. And the rcafon is, Becaufe in fuch 
a cafe there is not any thing which doth legally engage any 
private man to feeke vengeance; nay, on the other fide,thei;c 
^re many things which oblige hifri to forgive the injury . 

<*■* 6. 6. Private Revenge is un;uft,cfpecialiy in a publicke 
fociety. R*m.i2<ij. & 13.4 1 Pet. 2, 14. ThefirftRe- 
fon is,Becaufe to take vengeance upon another mans offence^ 
belongs onely to him who is Superiour in his power : But all 
private men are by Right cquall 

, Secondly, Becaufe Vengeance is an Aft of Iudicature, and 
no man is a competent ludge in his owne caufc : which in- 
deed is the rcafon too, that he which defires revenge (cekes it 
not rightly, unleffc he defireit with this condition, that his 
caufe being heard, ir (hall be thought fit by the ludge. 
\ Thirdly. Becaufe a private man cannot by hxmfelfe fct any 
limits to his revenge, Vor feeing that in the Vindication of 
( father mens injtories,thefe three things ought to be confidered 
'yiotfi by the Law and Magiftratc. 

That the Delinquent punifhed may be thereby amended, 
Row, 13*4. 

That'the example of hispuniihment may make others bet- 
ter, Bent 19,20. 
That there mavbe henceforth more fecurity to the party 

£t£ ofKevengi. 

offended* and to others, £awi. ai. 18. Rom. 1 j.4; 1 Timl 
2.2. He.that taketh private Revenge doth not attainc to 
any one of thefe. For he doth more and more provoke his 
Adverfary ; He gives a fcandalous example to others, and 
draws an endleffc vexation upon himfelfe, and others. 

Fourthly, Becaufe vengeance is proper to God, Deut. 25 . 
35. #*z» 12.16 Htb.ip.$o. and therefore not to be "under- 
taken by any, but thofe : so whom by God it is committed, 
and their Vindication is- the Vengeance of the Lord, Numb. 

3*. *. 

7. 7. Publike Revenge, whether it be exerdfed by a Ma» 
giftate, or fought by a private man, if it proceed out of Envy, 
Hatred, Thirtt of blood,or Cruelty ,or if by any other meanes 
itbetaintedxntheimpulfine.formaUorfinall eaufe> doth in 
that relpeft become private and unlawful!. 

Qaeft. 1 . Whether Vengeance may he lawfully taken npl 
on thofethat are free from fault f 

8. A, !♦ Vengeance in its proper nature is a punishment: 
and all /uft punifhment doth effentially and formally ref peel 
fome antecedent Crime, as the efred doth ks compelling 
caufe, or as the adjunct doth its proper fubjeft, or any like? 
or proportionate thing,refpects the rule to which k is like,aod 
from which its takes.it meafure; or as the correcting a& re- 
fpe&s the obieft to be correcied,and therefore it can have no 
place where there was no precedent crime. 

p. 2. Yet there 13 fomething like revenge, which by way 
of Medicine, and as it may be neceflafy, either to prevent fu- 
ture crimes, or encourage Vertue, may be exercifed, though 
no fingular crime proceed. For as wee cut a Veinc for the 
health and fafeguard of the heart,.folome certaine extcrnalL 
conveniences aje to be deny edtafome private men, as occa- 
sion fhall (erve, either for the prevention ofgreater inconvc 
niences > or the procuring of fome greater good. So the 
Leprous man is denied publike commerce, and private con- 
verfation with others, andyet Lcprofieis no crime* 

10* g* That fotnetiraes Children do iuftly fuger under 
the punishment of that fault which properly is cheir Parents 
it hence arifeth, becaufe the children politically confidcree 
ve^membew^th^ they fo depend upor 

then * 


Of Reftitfiuen. nj 

tlieir Parents, than the Parents cannot bee piinifhed with- 
out the dammage of the children. For even as the Father 
cannot fuffer death, but the children muft needs bee Orphans, 
to hec cannot bee deprived of his eftate, but they muft needs 
bee the poorer* 

II. 4* That the Cjreaans (as the > prover be faith ) are 
fuviftid whil* the Qaptaines offend^ (id eft, ) that Sub;e<3s 
fometime fuffer for the faults of their Kings, is fo, for fomc 
kind of participation rn the fault, either by cxprejffe con- 
fenc, or by diflimulafion, or for negleft *f giving better ad- 

12, y. That there bee fome Lawcs tliat bind foaie to 
the punifoment, who are guiklefle of the faulc, is either un~ 
juftiy done ., .or elfe they are ufed by way of Medicine, or 
Example, and ar^mo: properly to bee termed punifli- 


Of RtfiitutUni 


V V i. A. i. Reftitution fometimes 
fignifieth the famcthing,as to reftore any thing, whether it 
bee out of Juftice, or out of Charity ,or Liberality, or Coin- 
' mon duty; but among Divines and Lawyers, this word is 
more ftridly taken to fignifie an ad of Jttftice , by which 
any k;ury or in/uftice done is repaired, and any man ftated 
inthe poffeflion of what washisowne, but" un juftiy taken 
%frora him. And in the fame fenfe, it is called a fatisfe&iorv 
\md requital). 

2. i. It is properly an att of Commutative Juftice. 
Firft, becaufe rcquitall otigbt to be made according to the 
equality of the thing, not the dignity of the pcrfon. 

Secondly , becaufe reftitution is of ibme thing* diredfy 
due. , 

Queftion *« In *&** things httb tbk Rejitvrion 



u g ' 0/ Reftttution. 

3* A. i. It doth moft properly and primarily agree 
\ to cxternall and corporall things : But by fome analogy it 
is rightly extended to internal!, incorporall, and fpirituall 
goods, and to thofc external! aifo which confift in honour 
and credit; that is to all thofe things, to which a mm hatkany 
title, for thofe we may reckon among his goods,as well as 
his cxternall and corporal! riches, 

Qucftion g 4 Whether it bee neceffary that Refiitution 
bee made. 

4. A k 1. Rcftitution is in its owne nature neceffary by 
the neceflity of Precept ; becaufe the detaining of what 
doth properly belong to another man againft his will, is < 
an unlawfullaftion, akind of cheft,and isfpccially forbidden, 
Rom 13, 7, 8. 1 iU f 

5. 2. A&uall Refiitution is km&ivnzs ty/accident not 
neceffary : ( viz,* ) when it is not in the power of him, that 
hath done the wrong* to make requital! ♦ 

6. 3. A mind ready and willing to make Refiitution, if 
it had power, is abfolutely neccflary. For neither is hce 
truly penitent for an injury done , who when hec may, wil]k 
not fatisfie for the fame: neither is there the love of Jufticey ,' 
or charity towards his Neighbour in him, who hath not an 
intention of giving every man his due. And in this fenfe 

it is not ill faid, That the crime is not remitted till the thing » 
taken away bee reftored. 

Queftion 5. Wh$ u bound to ma^e Refiitution} 
7. A> 1. Every one who un/uftly detaineth anything 
of anothers, unjuftly taken from him, whether it were taken 
upon truft, or by deceit: But yet there is a difference be- ^ 
tweene truft and deceit in matter of Refiitution; for hce 
who by deceit poflefleth any thing of anothers, is abfolutely 
bound to Refiitution of the thing, and alfo of the loffe thence ( 
acquired, and thegaine which by detention ceafed : bnthee, W 
which detaineth a thing as committed to bis truft, is not ^ 
Bound to a Refiitution of that thing, whkh in his charge 
is loft without all fault of his, butonely of that, which by 
theufcofit, hee himfelfe hath gained, rcierving ftillfoixie^ 
diing inxonfideration of his owneinduftry. * 
S. 2. Every man who detaincs any thing lawfully 1 re-v 

1 ccivedJtk 

Of Reftitution.- ii<$\ 

reived beyond die appointed time, and fcefcietco. if he re- 
ceived it upon that condition, that if it were led, itfhculd 
not bee to the loffe of the owner, but the receiver. 

9. 3. Everyman that hath unjuftly dammagedanother^ 
(id eft) by violence, by deceit. fraud,or negligence. 

10, 4. Not onely he who immediately offered the 
dammage is bound to make Reflitution, but alfo, (if the 
aSion whence the dammage arifeth beun/uft,; 6/ forts of 

Firft, He who either commanded or counfe IT d the dam- 

Secondly, He which maintaines any fuch a& committed 
in his name. 

^Thirdly, He whoconfented, if fo be his confent andcon- . 
nivance,fhali be the impulfive caufes of the unjuft aftion* 
Fourthly, He who fo helped on,that he was wittingly and 
! " wilfingly a partner in fuch unjuft; aftion. 

ri\ 5, He who did not hinder it, having power, and 
being in duty bound fo to doc. 

^ 1 2. <5. He who difcovercth knot, if his teftimony be 
* s squired by a Judge, or by the nature of the thing, or his 
o.wne confeience. 

Queftion 5. JVhatistobeereftored? 
\* 13. %A. 1. The thing it fdfe if it remaine,aad there be, 
no extraordinary impediment. 

/ 14. 2. The price or value of it, if it be either lGft,orim~- 
paired by the fault of the detainer. 

15, 3 ♦ That which another ought to have had as his 

Queftion 6. To whom U Rejlitutionto bee made? 

16 . A. u To the true owner it he bee alive, and to bee 
23. and iSaw.ii. %:Hebr. 5. 11, 

lawful! Heire, or DeputyjiVW. 5. 8; 

3. If after a diligent inquiry made after the true 

rs)wner,or his heires, Neither can bee found, the Kettitution 

^ then ought to bee made to God, befto wing the thing taken 

away cither upon the Godly, Num. 5, 8. or the Poore^ 

Luc 19. 8. 

Thefirft reafonis, becaujfe God is aiwayes offended by 


Queuion o. j. 

\ 16. A. 1. To 1 

\>\md;Hebr. 5.23 

r 17, 2* To his 1 

' 18, 3. If after 

323 'of Rtjtituton, 

that Cm, which is committed againft our Neighbour ;thercfor£ 
as farreas wee may, wc are bound tomakeRcftitutiont 

Secondly, The fincerity of our repentance before God,' 
will not fufifer us willingly to detaine that, which is unjuftly 
got, which muft aU the while needs upbradour crime unto 

Thirdly, Wee ought To much the more to abound in 
workes of piety and charity, by how much wcehavedone 
the more wrong by injuftice. 

Queflion 7. What caufes may excuft a man from T^- 

ip. A. i m A free Reaiiflion of the debt made by him 
to whom it was due, but by no meanes compell'd neither 
by guile nor fraud, nor extorted through fcare. Now this 
Remiflion is either expreffedor elfetaciteand wr*#*5. This 
virtual!, tacite, implicite, or interpretative Remiflion then is, ■ 
when from fome probable fignes we may guefle, that the 
damnified perfon would not have any Restitution made to 
him from fixch a perfon, or for fuch an injury. The will of 
parents, friends, or acquaintance may palfe for fuch a R^ 
million in iome light matters. 

20, 2. The di (ability of reftoring j whether it beabfb- 
lute , or onely fiich, that wee cannot reftore any thing of 
leffe value, without f arte greater loflct 

21 . 3. An. equivalent Commodity beftowed upon the 
Creditour by way of fatisfa&ion. 

22 4. If any inconvenience rnufl: neceffarily arife out 
oftheRellitution, to him to whom it ought to be made, it s 
doth neceffarily deferrethe Reftitution* 

Queft. 8. Whether or no, and how foe ought to make 
%e$it>Ation, who againft the 5 , Commandemcntjoath injured 
another mans fame? . 

23. exf, 1. If indeed any mans fame bee uotoriouflyfi 
blemithed, if unjuftly too, and not yet by arfy other meanes 
recovered, then hce which did blemifh it, is bound to make — 
a Refutation of if/ 

*4- *} Fame is recovered by recantation, and by fatif- 

Of Refiituthril 

i %l i\ Recantation is made cither by confeffiori that 
the fame was falfly, or rafoly,and urjuftly tainted* 

t6. 4* Satisfaftion is made : i ♦ In the fame kind, when 
the defemer (hall difcrcetly procure, that the defamation 
bee foioothered, and upon all occasions fpeake honourably 
pftheperfondefamed> and that without all fignc of affefta- 
tion. a. In fome certainefumme of money, to be paid (as 
the Judge or any honcft man fliall thinke fit) not properly 
in hen of the fame, which can by no tneanes bee rated at 
any price, but for the dammages which may arifc from the 
defamation, and to appeafc the wronged party if hce bea 
of fuch condition, that hee may with honour receive the 

Qucft. p. Whether or no, and how he ought to make. 
JReftitHtion,Tvhe againji the 6. Commtndcment hath hnriam^ 
ther mans life* 

17* tA, 1. Hce who hath hurt another mans fpirituall 
life, in rcfpc&hee wasthecaufc, perhaps of tys (inning, or 
left fome fcandall before him, is bound to doe what hee can 
to reduce the party fo offended to that State, atlcaft,from 
Which hee feduced him. 

For it is very juft, that hce which is caufcof thccvil^ 
fhould as much as in him lies rcpaire the fame,* As it is mod 
juft, that hce which hath gircn poifon to his Neighbour, 
(kould with allfpeed get him an antidote. And hence it is 
that the Ecclcfiafticall Difcipline in all folemne pennance 
for a fcandall givcn,cithcr in words,or decds,dothneceflarily, 
prefcribe and require Confefllon, Recantation, Deprecation, 
and holy Admonition, 

• *8* a* Hee who hath hurt his Neighbours corporall 
life , either by complete or incomplete homicide .* Is firft 
bound to make Reftirotionfor all the dammages, that from 
ihat man (laughter or hurt may arifc. Audthereafonis,tbat 
ibefides the Judiciall punifhing and vindicative Juftice which 
refpc&sonclythc Common good, the Particular good aifo, 
in as much as may bee, ought to bee made whole. Second* 
ly, But in refpeft, the dammages hence arifing are of two 
forts, £i*. cither Really the charges of curing, of dict y of 
buriaty, and the gainesccafing which all night be rated at a 

Qq ccrtaine 


~ a Of Kejmvnw* 

cerfainc price; or clfe Perfonall, fuch as arc Defolation, Af- 
fliction, Deformation, Maiming, andloffe of life, which ad- 
mit no certaine rate or price, therefore there is this difference 
of Reftitution* 

Firft, That in realiloffes, equallcharges,orasmuchasis 
duebeercftored, but in pcrfonall fomewhat equivalent; or 
clfe what may be reft or ed, and out of cuftome, or the judge- 
mentofwifeand honeft menougbttobereftored. 

Secondly, That rcall dammages bee payed to the Hcires 
of the party of w hat kind foever they be, though Creditours 
to the perfon deceafed, but perfonail to them oriely who 
are fo nigh the party deceafed that they feemc in a manner 
to make but one perfon. 

Queft* lo. Whether or no^ andhow hee is botmdtoma\e 
Reftitution yTvhe hath again/} the 7, Qommmdement defiled k 
yoomans Chafiity? 

29. A. 1. Bccaufe Chaftity once defiled, can nomorc 
bee reftored,then life when once taken from us, therefore 
fteftitution in this kind of in/uftice, refpe&eth thofc dam- 
mages which from fuch a pollution doc follow. 

30. 2. Now the dammages thence following, are botJ* 
In credite and temporal! eft arc j for from knowne whore- 
dome al way es doth arifc irreparable infamy,and many times, 
partly, by reaionofthe infamy; partly, and by reafonofthe 
iffue fo begot, many and great charges doe alfo follow. 

31* 3 : Amongd thofc perfons , who without further; 
inconvenience, may enter into matrimony, that Reftitution 
is moft commendable. Exod. 72.16. 

32. 4. The fecond degree of Reftituton, is a competent 
Dowry. Exod. 22, 17. And (orae faire fatisfa&ion fas 
well as may beej made to the Parents or Guardians of tt 
$*iaid,Z><?#;.22 2$. 29. 

33. 5, The third degree of Reftitution is, to bee al 
charges of keeping the child, and provide, asr much as mayP 
bee, that none henceforth be dammaged thereby* 

34. 6. There is a great deale of difference in the obli- 
gation to Rcftituubn bctweenc him, which by any«maidk. 
moved to defioure her, and him which movcthany maid to; 
*r fSRsrhefe whichmwethaiaiaid cither by violence, dcJ 


Of i^faeppw tfPcrfoxi. 'j$j 

ceitvasfcaud, orimpwwhatc^ici^atW^ is bound to twakc 
ilcflktmion as^eiitothe nuid% : hvt*fea^r,a£wcll in other 
dadrcflagtfs,'a* in her ho oir. Tfot "hec/that is himlclfemo- 
vedi altnotighheefcee bound 'as-mhefi, as inhim lies to make 
iatisfaftion to thofc, who without their co^ 
Wrongedjyc* in r etf z&'d the fiarty:rovin|! 
notfin jujlice ow& *y Kfcftituticfa at ai! , 

' . ■ ■ ■ ■ . ■ ' — .. ■ •■' ■ • 

-> 1£ Chap. V 


Queft. T. \ 7C jH<*tis tsfectftim ofPerfonsf 

t .t, \ V r: ^ li:Acception or Relpcaof 
fterfemr, dottvaot cortfift'in love of the Pcrfotas, bat in this, 
that when the caufe oaefy ought to bee confidcred, the Per- 
£onsii qualities are onely refpe&ed, which are altogether 
impertinent to the end, which is intended in the canfe in 
4 hmd 9 L*vit**9.i5; E f?* 1 1-3; And fuch qualities are kindred,, 
"^ovv«r 5 riche^ and friendship; and hence in thc'H.eBrcw it is 
called/ CD 1 ® the refpeft of the face ; and in the Greeke 
(igpQ9tii28 ) of the* external! or accidentall Pcrfon/ not 

3* a. If therefore hath noplace, but in him'whbii ob- 

. lig'dfdffomereafons to prfefdrrc one man before anotKer,not 

according to his opinion, but according to fome rcafons 

and caufci inherent and to bee looked after in the very Per- 


3. 3. And -hence it folio weV that refpeft of Pc^fons 
)faath not properly any place in free gifts and gratuities, but 
Jin thofc gifts ©nely, which are fome way due; whence alfo 
/it comes to patfe, that God when after his good will and 
pleafurc : hce beftowes his gifts on fome, and not others 
though equal! to them, is ncverthelcffc ill himfelfc free from 
alitcfpeft of Perfons/bccaufe hee beftowes his gifts freely, 
and n<Jt as any way due, nor hath hce regard to any particu- 
lar inconfiderablc qualities, but oncly to his owne good plea* 

^ m of Exception of Pfrfiml 

4^ 4. But yet it hath place in fome certatne gifts, which 
in therafclves arc free , but upon fuppofition due. As in 
cafe thofe things , which out of liberality are wont to be 
diftributedUmongall, bee conferred on fome f ew> who 1» 
no fingular defcrt. 

Qucft. 2. Whether %efpeU ofPerfmsbeeapnl 

5 . A. 1. It is in it's ownc gcnerall nature a (in, ?<*♦ 2. 
&c. Dan.i. 17. Prov. 5. 21. 2 8* Becaufc in the fameaft 
it excludes both Juftice and Charity. 

¥ orfirft, It deprives men of thofe good things which 
due to them. 

Secondly ,Becaufe it putteth a greater value on fome fmal- 
ler and more inconfiderablc things , then thofe which arc 
more Weighty, and which ought to bee confidered, and pcr- 
yertcth the Order of humane Society, Ecc/ejl 1 o. , z . 3, ^ 

Thirdly, Becaufc in effeft>it makes a plainc and dircS way 
to all kind of UnfPriv.iS. 2i.Fourthly,Andfas much as in it 
licthj takes away all difference between good and ill deferts* 

Queft. 3* To what fort of Juftice is re/pett of Perfint 

tf. tA. Refpedt of Pcrfons though it bee mofl: pra^ 
pcrly imputed to thofe, who offend againft diftributive Ju- 
ftice, in the deciding of controverfics betweene things and 
perfonsj yetrightlyunderftood^and according to Scripture- 4 
phrafe, it relates to all kind of Judgement, ElefiNon, or Sen- 
tence, which is made of men, not according to theKuJci 
which ought in fitch caps to bee-followed, but according to 
fome affeftions refpefting this or that quality, which- nothing 
$t all appertaines to the Judgement tn hand* 1 

Qacft. 4. In what cafes about- the EleUitnor Promotion 
efmenio Offices EcclefiafiicaH cr Secular js there this offence 1 
*f Refpeft ofPerfons? ' I 

7. A. 1 J If any doe wittingly, or willingly, or out on 
negligence make choyce of an unworthy man. Now fuch 
amanisunworthy, who is either void of skill, honefty,or^ 
the dexterity, or readines,whidns required to the exercife r / 
filch an office, Hie & Nunc (as the Logitians termeit/} A \ 
infuchan Ete&ion, 

f u&God u robbed of his honour. Which all men of p 


6f Except ton of Terfrts . 

iike place ought to maintaine as their functions fcall re* 

Secondly, By this meancs, the publique good, for which 
all publique offices are intended is much hindered. 

Thirdly,There is an injury offerd to them that arc worthy, 
to whom the honour of publique offices is due asa Reward 
of their vertucs. 

Fourthly , There is much wrong done to vcrtue her 
fclfe, whofe proper encouragement (Honour^ is denied to 
her.and pervcrfely mifplaced to her grea: contempt. 

8. %. If in cafe of oppofition the leffe worthy bcechofen, 
and the more worthy negleded. And the reafon is,becaufe 
firft, The leflc worthy, in comparifon, to the more worthy, 
is indeed unworthy. 

Secondly, Becaufe the more worthy is fitter for the end 
tfhisflace, which in eleftion ought chiefdy tabec confide- 
«ed # This is very manifelt in Ecclefiafticall eleftions^ccauic 
the Church ought, as much as may bee, to bee edified by her 
Minifters, Epb*f.+. 11.12. 1 3. 14. 
% $>. 3. But yet there is this difference betweene the cle- 
^ftion of one thfolntely unworthy, and one leffe worthy theft 
another : That the choyce of one abfolutdy unworthy is in 
it feifc a (Inne, butthc choyce of one idle worthy is not fo 
(imply and intrinfecallya finne, that it may not fometimes 
become lawfull upon that confederation of fome fupervc- 
ning circumftances.As for example if there be foure men pre* 
fented or nominated in thcffeleftion. A vain^fotHtelj un- 
worthy , a worthy man, ontM*re worthy then hee^ and one 
worthier then &U there!; If X give my voice to him, that is 
the worchieft of all, and will not concurre with them, that 
) would choofe the man that is worthy, or him that is more 
Tenth) thenhee, the other fide muft needs carry it ibrthe 
unworthy man, or for the leffe worthj 1 at the bt ft ; it is law- 
fall and fit for mee in fuch a cafe, letting paffe the mofiyor- 
thy to make choyce of him that is wmhy, or him that is the 
wore worthy. And the reafon i^, becaufe 1 4tm not bound to 
give'myvoyce to him, whom I know cannot pofftbly bee 
chofen, although hce bee moft worthy : yet I am bound to 
binder (as much as in race iicthj the cle&onof one aitoge- 


tbtr unworthy, or idDB, worthy .thmviwk^itkgii^ m'tif 

helpe with my choyce. But fuch a choyce is fo to bee iflocip- 
tatcdithat there [xforailthaVafo^ 
that is the worthicft of all, or him. that is moCe worthy theft 
the party chofen; becaufe every mans due honour ought to 
bee afforded him according to hii;. worths and irtcante.every 
man Is bound to give a faire tcftimony of Jais :ownc good 
intentionto the Common good for example {ake. 

Qtifift. 5, Whether this, fruit .ef : refpeff of perfons, hkth 
any place in giving of honour er reveywe to otherfyjam. 2 • 

a. 3. 4. 

10. A. I, Stmt J*t*e sm Ki$^ 

(Ufie this finne to be too frequent. 

11. a In that honour which is fimply^due to any (fuch 
asthat is,which we owe to our Parents ana Elder* jtbejcafe i$ 
plains : becaufe in thr distribution of this kind of hbnour^k 
wereveryutijuft to deny, any the dtie teftimony of his»peoh 
heminence which hee deferves,upon unfit grounds. 

12. 3. Nay in honour, that is but: upon fuppofition due, 
it hath place fo ferre forth, as there is way for injury -or con-^ 
tumely. And fomewhat heere unto this fault is it not t<f" 
falutc a man ( as the ufe and cuftome of the Cduatrey ir) 
that hath firft faluted you: or die not to falute men at atf,ac- 
cording to the diftinftion of their perfons and worth; 

Qicft. 6. Wether %ich men ought to fa honwr? d fir their 

13. A. Simply for the pof&flion of fa much wealth, 
they are not tobee honour'd, but for the good ufe of it,oc 
for the place they bcare, perhaps in the Common-wealth 
by reafon of their Wealth^theyjiretob^ehQncairecL i 

cQpOOftU 7. Whethen%nthofe.thi\$gty»h^^ tefi tvthe 
fcttmllofthefadge^thmm*^ d thinz^reCpeSrtff 

Perfbns?: f " y . J 

-1 4^ A. In thofe drcumftances which nothing con- 
cetne the parties^in fuite^. there can bee no refpeft of perfons: 
Bat in thofe which doecoricernc them and yetnevertheleflc 
3r^75ot determined by theilawcs, but are {*%t>f ntaflity 
w»/muft; left to the difcretion of the Judge, of which 
kiigd are the prgrogatiw, or reftraint of timc,and the like 


iFthcy bee don«, (asforthemoft part they arc, ) with an 
eye upon the Tpsxton^ndnot on the cai^e; There is in inch cafe 
this firynj of refpeft of Perfons. 

Ghap; VI. 
Of Injur 'fri 

z Queft. I. \1\T Hetber it is foffibU dnhjnrj may bet 
V V do'** t0 * willing wan ? 
i. A. t . By Willing, here we are to uiaderftanda man 
Chat knoweth,and willingly and freely confentcth to the fad: 
Otherwile there were no difficulty at all* For whatever is 
done either out of Ignorance, Feare,or violence, is efteemed 
as involuntary, at lead in part is fo,and fo in that part may ad- 
mit an injury by the confent of all men. 

2. 2. This word Injury tfit be taken in its general! fenfe 

^for the violation of that which is Right* and perpetration of 

\ * -that which is Wrong, doth no way depend upon the will of 

the patient, whether he confent or not, but onely upon the 

Rule of Iuftice. And in this fenfe it is plaine/that an iniurie, 

■ or an uniuft thing may bee done to an.'an both willing 

\ and confenting,as we may fee in the example of the Amale- 

kite who killed haul when he defi red him, 2 Saw i. 

j. j. There are many things in which a man cann t as he 

pleafeth , quit his owne Right i to wit, thofe things over 

which he hach not a full pow er, but rather a cuffody and fafe- 

guard of them,fach as are his lifg and members,and in thefe 

\ the confent of the Will taketh not away the nature of an in- 

4 iurie. 

( 4. 4. Now befides the Will Rsticnali , which afwaies 
fpingsfrouiCoun(eUwichin,thereis acertaine Naturall in- 
clination, may be termed the W ill Naturall,becaufe virtually, 
alwaics it carryeth with it the power of a Will, and 
dotbin fome fort then appeire, when amandotH nor difeft* 
lyconfentto his owne difc q .amodity, becaufc if iiHi dif- 
comowdity, or to the cviil of guntfhmcntj becaufe it if evill- 
> — ; - " r -; xho 

The confent therefore of the Will Rationall doth not a I waici 
deftroy the nature of an iniury* 

y. 5* That this, (viz,. To a willing and knowing man^ 
there can be no Iniury done) is affirmed by Philofophers and 
Lawyers, is from hence, becaufe by the word Iuiury , they 
underftand, a Violation of the Law , which is done by vio- 
lence, and neceffitie of coaftion But all kind of coa&ion is 
not required, to make the thing uniuft which is fuffered* 

64 6. Indeed the Agent is perhaps willing and con- 
fenting, but it doth not thence follow that he is no way pari- 
cnt# C hrift in fuffering death was willing, confenting, and 
an agent j and yet he fufftred mod horrid lniuries. 

Chap. VII. 

9f ChtritJ awards cur Neighbour] 

Qued I . V 7\ J Ho is to be undtrftood bj tUt termed 
V V Our Neighbour f 

!• A< r. Every man, whom by any meanes we may wef 
commodate, is, in force fort, our Neighbour, Lu\e xo. 29T 
37. A Sis 17. 16. 

t. *. Man in generail, as he is with us capable of fupcr- 
ttaturall haj>pineffc, inafmuch a* he is the proper obic&of ab- 
folutc Charity, is our Neighbour. For this is the Tyc of our 
Charity betwecne one another, in order to God whom we 
love. And thus is every man living our Neighbour, wichouc 
difference of kind, affc&ioo, or manners, unlcflc fomewhat 
ro the contrary doc certaincly appeare unto us. 

3. 3 . But in regard the nature of finnc doth oncly drive 
againft this capacity ; therefore Man as he is luch, or in con. 
^deration he is a Man, is not to be loved, but rather hated i 
and avoyded. J 

Queft. 2. In what fence *r our Neighbour to bee loved <w 
veuas our felves ? m ' 

4. A. Even*4 y in this precept doth not imply an abfo- 
lute and utuverfall parity, but a proportion of likencfle 1 Now 
dusl&erwlfc^ ~ 



Of CM tie Yomrds w XtigMourl t 'ip 

Firft, that we neither wifti, nor doe any cvill to bur 
Neighbour, more then to onr fefres. 

Secondly, that we with all true good to our neighbour* 
and to our power endeavour to procure its 

Thirdly, that we wifli thefe things to our Neighbour, out 
<*f ftneere and hearty aflfeftion, having ftiil an eye upon his be- 
nefit, and not our owne. 

<^ucft. 3 . Whether it be not Utvfull fometimes to nifh M 
to our Neighbour f 

5. A. i f Iiisnotlawrulltowiflianymanevill,aseviII; 
but as good, fometimes you may. And fo,Firft,you may de- 
fireand wifli a temporal! evill toany, for his fpirituall amend- 
ment : to wit, if his amendment cannot bee probably hoped 
for by any other meanes. As in cafe, any man for the favour 
of men doc perhaps ncgle£ his duty towards God, we may 
lawfully wifli him out of favour with thofe men. 

6. 2. It is.IawMIto wifli a temporall ill to fome for 
the good of others* As if any man be a defperate corrupter 
of others, it is lawful! to wifli him taken from the earth, for 
f|are he fliould undoe others afvveil as himfelfe* 

^>7> 3* Andfuchathingas this, is fometimes lawfull, out 
of zcale for Iuftice, and Gods honour. 

Queft. 4. How the degrees of greater or lejfe Charity 
ought to be obftrvedi 

8, d^". 1. If youconfiderthegoodinitfelf,asitistobe 
>viflit to your Neighbour, there can be no imparity in the 
thing. For we ought to wifli the chiefeft good to our Neigh- 
bou£ even as to our felves. And this too is the duty of eve- 
ry man, that as much as in him lyetfi, he promote the good 
and welfare of his Neighbour : But yet there is fome diffe- 
rence of order in the wishing that good : for we ought to 
*yifli that happincflfe to the godly immediately, but to the un- 
godly, onely hoping and fuppofing their Faith and Repen- 

9. 2. In refpeS: of the affe&ion it felfe, whereby wee 
wiflb good to others, there ought to be no imparity oif Men- 
tion QicZRfntiJpon therein : becaufe the very Habite of Ver- 
tue in its owne nature doth equally incline our Affc&ions to 
Its aft; without all difference of greater or lefTe intention. 

R r 10. 2. In 

|gz Qfchdrmt tm*rds our Nttghbm. 

10. 3. InrefpeaofthcEKcrcifcandcflfcfls of this Af- 
fe&ion, there is granted fome iroparitie, as of the frequence, 
the order r and cxtention , fo farre forth as the coile&ion of 
circumftances may make neccflary this aft and operation^ 


For firft, We ought more frequently to llirre up, andjm- 
^loy that aft of Charity toward thofc,in whom we (hall more 
frequently meet with reafons and caufes for our true love* 

Secondly, The order ought to be obferved according to the 
occaGon which is offered, and the proportion which the ads 
beare to their cbje&s. 

Thirdly, the extention to more, or more noble effefts, is 
requisite according to the neceffity oftheeffeds, and'hedig- 
nitie of the parties beloved. . 

Queft. 5* Whither or no y and in what cafes a man may bee 
hound, in refpeti of the exercifeandeffctts of hk Charitie, to 
love hi* Neighbour more then himfelfe f 

11. Ai 1. There may be fuch cafes :Becsufe our Neigh- 
bour, by fundry meanes may be in extreame grievous neceffif 
tie, fo that he ought not to be negleded, nor ought we to ex- 
pc&, when others may and will helpe him, although we afe- •« 
tiot doe it without our owne danger,, . •* 

1 2. 2. Every man is bound with any temporal! hazard 
whatfoever, to helpe his Neighbour that is in Spiritualldan- ( 
ger, if it be probable, his afllftancc may doe him any good, x ' 
fohn$.\6. [\ <| 

<)* 3* Againe, in extreame neceffity 3 Every mm of what ; 
condition focver, (but in the (veil place, he to whom of duty \ 
It may belong) is bound to expofe his life to any probable v 
danger, that fo he may hinder another mans cerraine deaths 
For another Mans certaine death ought to be efteemed a grea- * 
tcr evillthen our own, if uncertain. Hence it is not Iawfull,fo 
a Paftour toforfake his Church and Cure in time of Plaguy 
or perfection, unleffe perchance there bee fome other ftc 
man who may undertake the charge* 

1 4. 4* In temporall goods, every man is bound to prefefc -- ) 
a pubiike perfon,or the community before himfelfe. For the 
good of the whole is more to be valued then the goocl of any 
?5 C PS& Nowthofc men ought to£ce accounted publkke 


0/ Praying far ether si ^ t 

fertbns/who doc manifestly ftand the Common-wealth in 

much Read, 

1 5 . j. Moreover it is fomctimes an honcft thing to t xpofe 
ones corporall life to certaine danger, to fave the corporall 
lifeof a friend, thoughbut ofeqjall condition, ?ohm$.i jl, 
For although my life, by it fclfe taken, ought to bee confer- 
ved by me, rather then the life of another, yet it ought not to 
be cOnferved rather thea anothers life, and my credit. 


Chap. VIIL 
Of Graying for ether/* 

Queft. 1. w ^HOr whom ought t&c to prtyi 

17 I. ^- i# Forallthofc whom we hope 
may bee helped by our Prayers ; For Praier is a meanes in- 
ftitutcd by God,that it may be applycd to procure thofc things 
jvhich wc wifli: Hence no man li ing is abfolntely to be ex- 
Miud cd from our prayers, except it be evident unto us , that 
he is altogether defperate. 
2.2. We ought to pray for our enemies e(peciaily,^/^r* 


Firft, Becaufe we are to be affe&ed efpccially with their 
finne, from whence danger hangs over their heads, Luke 

*3. 34. 

Secondly, Becaufe by this meanes we doe, and tcftifie that 
we doe,that which is neceflary to the rcmiflion of our ownc 
finncs, Matt. 6. 12. 

) Thirdly, Becaufe alfo by this meanes we exclude from out 
othoughtsaliunlawfull defire of Revenge, R^m % 1 2,19,20. 
{ Fourthly, In regard this is in charity to commit our caufc 
to God. 

3.3. Ho wfoevcr wc are more bound to pray for oar friends 
and allies, becaufe in fuch there are many reafons found, 
whichxiire&lyandinthemfclves, are prevalent to move our 
Charity, infomuch that they move fomq love, even in Eth- 

nickes, Mttt.ytfrff* 

*u * * Quelle 

- ^ Of frying for other s 4 

Qucft. 2. Whether or no, andhoto farre it is lawful/ to 
mjb evill unto any man ? 

4, *A. \\ A deliberate imprecation of cvill, as it is evill 
againft any man, which is a formal! ,curfing, cannot chutebut 

be evill. 

Firft,becaufeit proceeds from Hate* winch isancvillop-* 

polite to Charitie. 

Secondly, becaufeit is not more lawful! to wiflh evill,; as k 
is evill, then to dos it fo. 

Thirdly, becaufe it is repugnant to our blefTed calling, I 

5.2. Thole rafh and common curfes which are in. ufc- 
amongfl: many, ( z$Tbc plague take you* Get you gone with 
amijehiefc. Would yottwere hang <(«&c % ) are expreflions of 
hatred and ill will, the figncs of pertifrbations raigning in the 
heart, and befides this are contumelious to our Neighbour, 
and therefore cannot be excufed from a grievous offence, 

6. 3. The imprecation of evill under confideration of 
good, is in itfelfe lawfulU Thus we may with a leflc evill to 
this or that man, with relation to the glory of God, the goo$ 
publike or private which is of greater moment ; yet this muS- \ 
be thus underftood. 

Firft, that therebe this condition, to wit, if that good will 
follow out of this evill, and not but by this evill. 

Secondly that we fubmit our will to the will of God. 

7. 4. Curfings which are caft on irrational! Creatures, if , 
tbey have any refpeft to God and his providence, which is 
converfant about thofc Creatures are bfafphemies, if to Man 
who is the lord of them , then they are injuries $ if to the 
creatures, as they are fimply considered in themfelves, then 
they are the fignes of heart and. mouth full .of bitterneflc, f 
•fyw.3.14. if to any evill which happens by them, then they* 
either ought to be %urativefpecchcs,as .2. Sam. 1. 2i.orclfe \ 
tfeey are unjustifiable motions of impatience, fo& $ ♦ 


Of BWherlj Refroft. 13 j 


CHAp, IX. 

Of 'Brotherly %epr<fe. 
Queft. Ii \ )t !&** p*rfo** f*&*nder BrctherlyRe* 

i. A. 1. Firft, andmoft properly, the faithfull, and a- 
mongft the faithfull, thofe who are members of the lame 
Church with us. The reafon is , becaufe thofe have greater 
brotherly conjunction with us, then others. 

2. 2. Yet Infidels aifo on occaftonareto be reproved. 

Firft, becaufe that feeing they are our neighbours, and to 
be beloved with true Charity > they oug;ht not to be excluded 
from the common aft, and duty of Charity. 

Secondly ,becaufe the fpirituall almes ought no more to be 
re(lrained,then the corporall : butt the corporall ought in great 
necefllty to be beftowed on any. 

Thirdly > becaufe the Oxc or Shecpe of ones Neighbour 
v-whichis aftray, ought by him that fecth it, if he can, to bee 
brougbtbacke, 'Devt^i.t. thenmuch more, ones Neigh- 
bour himfelfc, when he doth wander, ought to be reduced to 
the right way. 

Fourthly, Becaufe that he which erreth moft, hath mod 
neede of inftrudion, and the Law of Nature reqoires,that we 
drive to helpc our Neighbours in their greateft neceffities. 

Queft. 2. Wh*t conditions *re reqmjite to wake reprofe 
neceffary £ 

3. A. i. The knowledge of the finne , which at lead 
\ ought to be fo probable ; that it be morally ccrtaine, that is, 
I fuch which is morally judged, enough to beleeve without 
4 rafhncfle, That our Neighbour finneth. Yet in a doubtfull 

lufpition, the reafon of our duty ofttimes requires that wee 
flaould wifely intimate to our neighbour, what the fufpition 
is, and by what meanes it might be removed. 

4. £. The hope of fome fruit. For if there bee no hope 
of amendment, in that refpeft reproofe is not to bee ap- 
plied, 7r*v*9*7i 8. M*u 7. 6«Yct it oftentimes happens, 

I r* of Brotherly Re ft toft, , 

that thofe which are incorrigible in thetnfelves, ought to bee 
reprooved in regard of others, whole danger by this way 
maybe prevented. 

$♦ 3. The opottunity of time, and conveniency of other 

Queft. 3. Who are they which ought to reprieve <?~ 

6. A. 1. This duty in forac manner belongs to all men 
who have the ufeof reafon: becaufe it is a Precept ot the 
nacurall Law, a deed of Charity , and a general! duty of 
Neighbour towards Neighbour, as 1 ee is fo. Hence, the 
faichfuU ought to admomfli both the beleever, and the un- < 
beleever, and the infiJeli, as well the faithful!, asaninfidell; 
gen. 20. 16 Thcinferioursandthc feth^tarcfub/cd, ought x 
to admoniftk their Supcriours,but With reverence, Ivb 3 1. 1 j* 

7. 2. Yet more especially it belongs to them, who ei- 
ther by reafon of their calling, oughc to looke to the good 
of other, or by reafon of gifts arc more fit to fulfill this 
duty with fruit, E^eeh. 33. and 34. Gal. 6.1. Tit 2. 4. 

8. 3. Hec himfelfe which is guilty of the fame, or ^ 
greater crime, is not altogether exempted from the obli*-^ * 
gationof this Precepc. For no mans wickedneffecanbeefb 
helpefull to him , that fhould excufe him from a naturall 
Precept, as this is. But hec ought to doc this with efpeciall < 
expreffion of repentance, and compaflion, accufing himfelfe 
firft,and more then anothcrjefle bee incurrc that reprehenfion 

of our Lord, Mat. 7* 3. 4. 5. Thou Hypocrite f firfi cafi 
*ut thebeame out of thy own eyefhen thou maiftfee to eajl out 
the mote out of thy brothers eye. ThefCls a'notablc example v 
VCitSam. id. 17. 

Queft. 4» How ought reprtofe te bee applied} i 

9. A. 1. Admonition ought to be founded on the word 
of<£od,orthefpeechofChrift, Col. 3. 16. Let the word of \ 
Chrifl dwell injou pUnteoujly in aQ wifedome, teaching and 
admomjhing) &c m 

1 o* 2. It ought to bee fprinkled with brotherly Charity, 
2TheJf. 3. 15. 2 for. 2.4. 

11. j, It ihould bee feafon'd with mceknes and lenity, 
Gal, 6. it 2 Tim. 2*25* 

It 4. It 



Qf Partaking with ether mots firsts. I35 

12, 4. It ought to bee ftrengtbned by perfeverance, 
z Pet. 1 . So often^and fo long, ihculd our brorher bee by uk 
admoniilied, as there may any fruit bee hoped for there- 

Ciueftf 5- How ought Reproofe to 6ee entertained? 

13, %A* 1. In Charity and holy reverence, 1 Theff, 5. 

14, 2> With Humility, HtBr. 13.22, 

15, 3. With the fruit of Piety, lo that it fhould alwayes 
bee to us, either, as for medicine (tap*) or for warning 
( zspcfoteKT&f tov) or at left for ateftimony (^lajuafivfiafcjl 

C H A P. X. 

Of Partaking with other mens finnes < 

Quell. I. C 7\JH° * re thej that partake of othts 

V V mens finnes} 

1; A. r. All they which doc cooperate in the com- 

'viflitting thofe finnes^ for the fociall or joynt caufe cannot 

choofe, but partake of thole finnes both in the crime and 

guilt to the production, of which it hath Joyntly conferred 

it's power. And hence, firfl,hee who commands or pcrfwa- 

deth any finne, is partaker of that finne, becaufc hee hath 

both fuch an intent himfelfe, which before God is all one 

asthatfadl; and befides for as much, as in him lieth : hec 

would infufe that intent into another, and fo hee is the au* 

thour of finne, 2 Sam. i| f 28* 1 King. 12. 30. and 134 

35. &c* 

\ Secondly, Not oncly the Authours, buttheMinifters of 

finnes have communion with them, for in as much, as they 

i are the miniftring and aflifting caufes, and doe afford fooie 

ftrengthto the finne, they have a direft communion in the 

fame finne, Efa. 10.1,1 Sam, 22. 17. 18* with Pfalm. 53, 

iXings 1, p. Matth t 2S. 4- A Sis 12,18,19. 

y 2. All they which doc cooperate though indire&ly, 
that is, which doe any thing that ought to be omitted, or 0- 
mitted any thing which ought to be done, of which finne is 


f*S Of f Making vftthothtr mn$$inm> 

thefcqaell. For by the moraU interpretation, he alfo is ter- ' 
medthe caufe of finne, who doth notapply ail due diligence 
to forewarne or hinder the fame, i&am*$*i$* 'E^k? 33«<S, 
8. AU. 20. 2^,27. 

3. 3. And with thisfinne, Preachers, Magiftratcs,, Pa- 
rents, Matters, Teachers, are chiefly tainted, when they doe 
not their duty in prevention of the finncs of thofe,, who are 
intruftcd in their charge. 

4. 4. AJi they who by their confent approve ofa finne al- 
ready committed, Rom. 1. 3 2. For he who approvcth and 
commendeth the thing done, he (he wcth his Will ready and 
forward to doe the fame thing, or at leaft , to perfwade the 
doing of the fame thing, if weed and occafion fliould require 
it* And moreover he is a concerving, defending, and promo- 
ting caufe of the finne committed. To this confent of appro* 
bation is referred all ceffation from our duty, either in the Re- 
formation or corre&ion of the finner, I Cbron.$.i< <5. info- 
much that we may not onely participate in other mens finncs, 
by our endeavour,{peech, and example, but even by our fi- 
lence, di(TIrnulation,and connivency, 

5t 5. Andin this kind alfo doe (ome Preachers often of^ 
fend, who make piilowcs for the finners, and preach peace 
unto them. And all other Superiours,who through too fond 
an indulgence, doe diflemble, or too tenderly reprove the 
finnesofthem that are under their charge, and all they too, 
Who without fome / uft caufe omit brotherly reprofe. 

£♦ 6. Out of thefc principles the doubt is eafily cleared, 
haw when many arepuni(hed,and yet but one openly finning, 
they are not properly faid to be puniflied for the others fins f 
but for their owne; to wit, moft often for thofe, whereby 
they participate with others finncs. And after this manner, r 
7). Reynolds, otic of am Countreymen, doth pioufiy and learnedly fliew, 
bow Iudas CMachab&ut and the Iewes, 2 Mac* 12, 43, did i 
not offer Sacrifice for the finnes of thofe that were dead (as ! 
the Papifts wouldhaveitj butfor their owne, and the other 
furvivors fin, which they had contra&ed to themfelves from 
the pollution of thofe that were dead, and whereof perhaps 
not unworthily, they might, in fome part, thinke themfelves 
the Authors, For no man {"to fpeake properlyj jspuniflit 



OfHrtaUng with other mens Sinnes. ^ 

forinothcrs(inne,as no man dyeth of another mans difdafe but 
his ownc. But even as men doc oftentimes contract defeafes to 
themfelves from other mens (and many things hurt the body 
by tranfition : ) fo in thofe difeafes of the minde, men do ufuai- 
ly contract their own finnes from other mens. 

7, 7. M0reover,hencetheFaithfaIlareinftra6ledtoamorc 
profound humiliation ofthemfclves, in the conf effion of their 
finnes of this kind. And G.Par : propofeth a godly forme of 
Gonfefllon futablc to this purpofc, which will iiiuftratc thisdo- 

O Lord my God ! What cvill is there of which I am not gritU 
tie, cither in deed committing it y or de firing to commit it ? And 
this either in my felfe, no by *nyfelfe> or in fome other man : t* 
ivity by being willing or confenting that he fhould commit it, or 
by Gommending the faulty or flattering the committer of it, or 
not removing when out of my duty it belonged unto me ; or {what 
is worje ) by rejoycing at another mansfinne^ or which was the 
greatefi infidelity towards thee, by not regarding it at ali m For 
fure y it could not be lawfnU for me to fee one of thy flocks pcrijb, 
apdbe devoured by the infer naU Wolues y and not refifi as much 
*&>*! was able: In the like condemnation I acknowledge my f elf c^ 
in refpeft of good things % For what good is there % which I have 
not either extinguijht in myfelfor perfecutedin other slither by 
hindring it that itjhould not be done at all, or by difcommending it 
if it were already done^ or permitting it to be extsngui/&t,or elft 
rejoycing if it were extinguifht ? Lord of mercy 9 how many good 
things have been lofli either by my procuring that they jhould' 
not be 3 or my not afiifiing that they mtghtbe^r by not noHrtfiing 
them, or withdrawing my aydefrom them ? Moreover y / have 
finned againfi them 3 O Lord god, either by not rejojeingat them y 
yr by not giving thankes for them to thet 9 the ssfuthor of 

( Queftt 2 . whether or no it be lawfuS to rejoyce at stn other 
mansfinnCy or to take any pie a fur e in it ? 

8. A. 1. We ought not by any meancsto rejoyce at fin, 
as it is finne, but a$ by God it is fomctime converted into the 
occafio»of fome good* As if perchance fome haughty-minded 
arrogant man, after fome fliding^fliould repent and behave him- 
fclfe more modettly ; or as if after fome grievous oflfcncc,an ex- 

C S* ^a11am#i 

t *g Of good Example, tindScdndall. 

ccHent Law (hould be made, which other wife would not had 
bccnecna&ed. See Phil. 1. 15,16,17, 1 8. 

Quefh 3. Whether or no it be lawfnllto abnfe another mans 
fane ? 

p, It is lawfull when any neceffity fliall enforce it,provided 
that we doe not cheerifhthofefinnes which we abufe. So /*- 
cob when he tooke Labans oath, fwearing by falfe gods, abu- 
fed Lab an s iinne 5 without any finnc of his ownc, Gen. 31.5 3* 
Sotnlerew.^i. 8* The tenne innocent men did abufe the ra- 
venoufneffe of Ifhmael • So many out of neceffitie compel- 
led, doe honcflly abulethe iniquity ot Vfurers. 

Chap. XI. 

Of good Example, and Scandatt, 

Quefti I • \ 7\ 7 Ho are bound to give good example tt 

V \ others? 
I. A. i. This belongs to ail godly men, in refpeft of ill 
thofe,to whom their life may be any wayesknownc. 

Firft, In regard all men ought to glorifie God by their works, 
2 Pet. 2. 1 a. 

Secondly, becaufe there is no man who cannot expreffefome* 
what in all his life,whereby others may be encouraged and con- 
firmed in godlines. For from the contemplation ot the Bifmire 
men may be edified, Prov. 6. 6. 

Thirdly, becaufe each man in his place hath certaicie-fpecial 
occafionsof performing fomewhat, which upon the like occafion 
•nay be exemplary to others, £>w. a.ao.. *Pfal. 34.7. ( 

2 . 2. But this duty is chiefcly in joy ned to filch as arc above 
others, cither in Age, Parts, or forae Office, Tttm 2* 4. 7* 1 
2?». 4. 1 2 ♦ 2 Thejf. 3 ,p-i 

Firft, Becaufe to whom much is given, of, him much is re- 
quired, Lukfit.jfi* 

Secondly, Becaufe the more cmkenta manis, the rfiorc cks 
&c uponhhn,and he is the lefle tmdifcovered, Math. 5.14, 
Thirdly, Becaufe they whoin place doe precede pthcr^ pught 

OfgdodExAmfle, and Scandal!. 

by goingbeforc, to (hew them the right way, i Thcf.i $,*}$. 

Fourthly, Becaufe Inferiours, doe much rely upon the A- 
£MonsoftheirSuperiours,and doe frame therofelves to their 
example,?^. 2p,i2. 

Qucft» 2. Whether erno our gaoi works ought to be careful- 
ly madeknwne unto other s^ that they may bee an example tq 

Zi *A. U Good Workes are of two forts: fomc Publike, 
and fome Private, Thofe which arc Private, ought not ordina- 
rily to be divulged by « our felves; for this were ambition of 
Vaine-glory, Matth. 6, i, 2,&c« But Publikc good Deedes, 
becaufe in their owne nature they arc knowncunto othcrs,may, 
and fometimes ought, modeftly and warily be reprefented uk - 
to others, 

4. 2. Thereprefentationofagooddecd, of what fort fo- 
cver it be, if by it We refpeft our owne glory as the end, is not 
to be allowed of : but as it may conduce to the glory of God t 
and edification of others, it cannot be difcommended, 

Qiiefl> 3. Whether or no all Sand 'all be a finne? 
L> 5. A. i. In all Scandall there muft needs bee fome finnc: 
becaufe it ahvaicsappertaines to the Spiritual! ruine or detri- 
ment of our Neighbour. 

6. a. Neverthelefle, there may fall out fome Paflivc, or 
received Scandall, without any offence of the Agent : as when 
the faft of one man, is an occafion of finning to another man,bc- 
yond the intention of the doer , or fte condition of the faft : 
And there may too be an Aftive Scandall 3 without any finne on 
his part whom it airaesat. As when onc>as much as in him lyetb, 
by his example induceth another to fin, and yet the other wiU 
not fuffcrhimfelfeto beinduced. 

Queft. 4. whether or no^Scan-dall be a fpeciall fort of finne? 

7. A. 1. It is a fpeciall, and in deed,a devillifti one, when 
a man intendeth the ruine of his Neighbour. F or this is a fpeci- 
all difference which conftitateth a finne, thatfearfely fallethQii 
any befides the Devill himfelfc* 

8. *♦ Moreover it is a fpeciall finne, when that fad, where- 
by our Neighbour is fcandalized, cannot be any other waies c- 
vill, but by the mine of our Neighbour ; the occafion of which 
another man ought not to give. For by that difference, fuchan 


f3 £ OfGtodEx*mj>k>*ndScand*ll. 

a<fHsfirftinitfelfemadeevM, and therefore determinated to 
f orae certaine kmde . 

p. 3. In other finnes the nature of Scandallis onclyacir- 
cumftance oppofed to that Charity which is generally required 
in each part of our converlion with our Neighbour* By this 
circumitance,Publikefinncs are not changed but onely multi- 
plied and aggravated. 

Queft. f.whctherornoiitbefojfMefgramantotivcmthm 
ent Scandall ? 

10. *A> 1. By the Grace ofGodjafaithfull man may live 
free from paflive Scandall : Bccaufe he may fo firmely adhere 
unto God,tbat he can never be moved from good to evill^by the 
©rher example of other men : He may live too,frcefrom a&ivc 
Scandall, though not abfolutely from all finne : Becaufe the 
common infirmities of all the godly, in refpeft they arc not by 
them maintained, have not any aptitude to enduce others to 

Queft. 6* What %ules are to be obferved that wee give >r$ 

11. *A % 1. Fortheavoy ding of Scandall, no finne at a$ A * 
ought at at any time be admitted, though it fecme never fo 
flight : for this were only to finne my felfe, left another ftiould 
finne, Rom. 3 . 3 . To doe evitl that good might- come thereof. 
And hence noreqaitall of crimes is to be allowed of: Such as 
was that of the old Gibeonitt^ in the caufe of the Levite* Indg. 

J 9* 1 4. And of Lot in the caufe of the Angels, f/^.ip.8. 

12. 2. No gocd or lawfull thing is to be omitted, for fearc 
of the Scandall, which men of a Pharifaicall -temper will take 
thereat, Matth. 15.14. 

»g. 3. To avoid the Scandall which 'the weaker may take^'/ 
all tho£e,thinga are. tuher.to be done or omitted, which may 
lajy&lly and ; without finne bcdo'nc or omitted, And this is \ 
the obligation ofCbarity, 1 Cir. 8»i3* 

1 4. 4 . Thofe are to he called the W eake, who are not fuf- 
ffciently inftrufted about our Chriftian Liberty, 1 Cor$,j. 

2 ? v fh -NeiCbcftffeqU they fufficiently inftru&ed, to y/hom 
Wfi can, give a reason of thefaft :, for it may fo fall out.that fomc 
^re not-capable of the reafonthat is. given; who nevertheiefft, 
though there be a reafpn given, are yet to be efteemed as weak* 

Of GwdEtfdmfU^ndScAndd. 

x6. 6. No humane Authority can take away the nature of 
Scandall, from that which other wife would be a Scandall, nor 
the nature of a finne from that Scandall being given. For no 
man hath a command of our Charity and Confciences, nor can 
he take away the danger of Scandall when given. 

I7.7. There is no fuch dangef of Scandall in neglecting hu- 
mane inventions, as there was in the Apoftles time, about the 
cafting out the Ceremonies of the Law For we may not ufc 
any fach Confcience in humane inventions, as the I ewes ufci 
in the In j unftions of God. 

1 8. 8. There is no fuch perplexity that itmuft needs bee 
neceffary for a godly man to give Scandall, whether he do this 
or that, or doe it not ?^ 

Queft. 7. What Rules are we to obferve, tbuffrce doe not 
take Scandall ? 

ip 4 Anf 9 1. We mufl have a care, that we doe not fo de^ 
pendupon any man, let him be of whatpcrfe&ionhewiU, or 
have hitmn fo high eftimatron, that by his iliding>falling,or de- 
fection, our hearts flieuld be too much affe&ed. Hither wee 
^^Jtre to diredl our meditations upon thofc grievous finnes, into 
which many have fallen, not onely of thofc who fecmed,and 
were not, but alfo of rhofe who were notable fervants of God, 
as David, %alomon>Peter y &c. 

20. z. It is a dcteftable and horrid perverfeneflB of Judge- 
ment, whereby many are wont 5 at the falling of fcme,orthe de- 
tection of Hypocri(ie,ftrait to charge all of that profeflion with 
hypocride. For this is direftly to imitate the Devill inaccufing 
the godly, and burthening them with unjuft fufpition, lob. 1 . 1 1 * 

21. 3. Although it be good to tread in the fteps of the god- 
) ly, yet this is not to be done in a blind obedience, and imitation, 

but with a difcrcct and wary carriage,asfarre they follow Chrift, 
$ l Cor. Ii. 1. 

2*» 4. V/emuftagaineandagaineconfiderhow bafeathing 
it is, either for feare or hope ofthis world, to defiftor deviate : 
from the right path. 

*2» 5* Vponanyoccafion,wemuftcalltominde that God 
doth permit Scandals to be offered unto us, for the triall of our . 
£aith and conftancy> Zkut. 13. 

jaO ofSchifmf. 

Chap. XII. 

Of Schifme. 

Queft. I . \ 7C 7#*' « Schifme i 

V V >i. A. i. The Latinc word «fr£/£ 
#;vfi^nifying Schifme, is fo called d Scindendo^ from cutting. 
And ins a Cutting, a Separation, dif~ jundion, or ditfolution 
of that Vnion, which among Chriftians ought to be kept. But 
becaufe this divifion is chiefly effefted, and appearcth byare- 
fufallof any due Ecclcfiafticall Communion. Therefore this 
Separation by a fingular appropriation is rightly called Schifme. 

Que ft % 2. Whether or no , and how Schifme differs from 
Here fie ? ^ 

2. Anf. Schifme, as in the generall it denoteth all unjufti- 
fiable departure from the Church, containcth Herefic too, and 
thole two words are fometimes ufed in one and the fame fenfc # 
% Cor* n.iS. But they arc properly diftinguifiit, in that H^i v « 
rcfic is oppofed to Faith, and Schiime to Charity. Herefie is in ^ 
a pervcrf e opinion, but Schifme in the feft of a perverfe Separa- 
tion. So that he may be an Hereticke,who is not a Schifmatike, f 
as in cafe he deny fome Article of Faith, and yet will cleave to 
that Church which profefleth the true Faith; and he may be a 
Schifmatike, who is no Heretike, as in cafe he bcleevc all the 
Articles of Faith, yet will not communicate with the true 
Church in holy duties. Andfucha diftinftion is intimated' by 
the Apoftle,<7<s/«5.20. 

Queft. 3. Whether or no all Schifme be afinne ? . \ 

3. Anjw. Schiime, properly fo called ) is a moft grievous 
finnc. 1 

Firft, becaufe it is againft Charity toward our Neighbour, 
and robbes him of a fpitituallgood. 

Secondly, It is againft the edification of him which luakcth 
the Separation, in regard it deprives him of all commupion in 
that fpir it uall good. 

Thirdly, I: is againft the honour of Chrift, in regard that af- 
ter its manner, it deftroyeth the Vnitie of Chrifts Mvfticail | 



Fourthly, It m*keth way for Hcrefie, and a fepar&tson frcm 

4. 2. NevcrthelefTe,a Withdrawing from the true Church 
is in fome cafes both lawful and necefTary.As Firft,if a man can- 
not continue his communionawithout a communication of their 
finnes. Secondly, if therebeany eminent danger of being fedu- 
ced. Thirdly, If by oppreffion or persecution, a man be com- 
pelled to withdraw himfelfe, 

5. 3. Howfoever a totall 5 eflation or Withdrawing, with 
an abfolute renunciation and rejedion of all communion with 
that which is the true Churchman by no meaneslawfully be un- 
dertaken ; butapartialifecefliononelyisallowedof, as far as 
there caa be no Communion had, without a participation of the 

Qneft. 4* Whether or &>, SchifmAtik.es aye Members of the 
Church I 

6. An. Schifme doth in fo much feperatc from the Church, . 
as it doth renounce the communion with the Church. If there- 
fore, Firft, a feperationbemadefromfomccertaincAftionsor 

. *Perfons onely, although that fepcration be Schifmaticall , yet 
7 doth it no: presently fcparate from the Church* 

7. 2. If the feparation be made from one or more particu- 
lar Churchea,y et the party feparated may never thelcffc rcmaine 
a member of fome other Churches, in which hee findeth not 
that caufe of feparation which he did in the other. 

8, 3. If an obftinate Separation bee made from all true 
Churches, or from any one,for a caufe common to all> then fuch 
Schifmatikes (although it may be,retaining the Faith, they con* 
tinue members of the Church Catholike) they cannot be eftee- 
med as vifible members of the Church* 
' Queft- 5 . Howfarre we ought to avoide S chi fma tikes ? 

9, Anf* Sofarrc atleaft, that by our agreement, neither 
they be confirmed in their Schifme, nor we have communion 
in the fame, nor others by our example entifed tothe approba* 
tion of Schifme. 

Queft. 6. Whether er no, a SdifmatkaH Qhurch is to bee 
helda true Church? 

1 o. Anf. While it retaineththe true Faith, it is to be held 
for a Church, and fo thofc things which are EccleMically per- 


of the Horn? of our Neighbour. 

formed therein ; Forthcfubftanccof them ought to bee hell 
ratified and firme; but in refpea it is Schifmacicall, it is not to 
be held for a lavvfull and allowable Church. 

Chap. XIII, 
Of the Honour ofonr Neighbour^ 

Queft. I. C 71 7 Hat is the Honour which is due to our 
V V Neighbour ? 

I. A. i. Honour in its common fignification denoteth 
fome teftification of the excellence or eminence that is another* 
And in regard fuch teftification cannot be madebefore men,but 
by outward fignes of deedes and words, therefore in the com- 
mon ufe of the word, any outward exprcflions ofthatkindc 
are intimated thereby ; as it is in the holy Scripture, Lev. 19.3 a # 
tTet. $ % 6. Rom.if.j.ip.io* 

2. 2. But becaufe this outward teftification which is in 
words and deedes ( if it be not a diflembling and vaine connter** 
feiting of it, as indeed now adayes a Municaliobfcrvance hatfc 
the name and place of Honour among many) it include th a cor* 
refpondentludgcmencand intcrnali affc&ion, in which refi- 
dcth the teftification before God; therefore the true and fo- 
liddutyof honouring any man, deth chiefly rclie in an inter- 
nal! acknowledgement of his worth and eminence. Lev. 1^,3* 

Qucft. 2. To what men is Honour due ? 

3. Anf. i% We are bound moft properly and fully to ho^ 
nour,thofewhoin worth arc our Superiors, as our Parents, 
and the like, becaufe not onely a reverend efteeme andabfolute 
acknowledgement of their preeminence is due unto them, but 
alfoanillultration of the fame, by a fubmiflive obfervance, 
ipringing from the confeffion of our owne imparity. 

4» 2. Yet forall this, we have the expreffe word of God 
telling us that all men are to be Honoured, 1 Pet. 2* 17. Ho* 
mur all men. 

Firft, Becaufe a icther mans eminence may be confidered, 
jaotonsty by the comparifon thereof to him that honoureth 


Of the Hmwofw Wtghbcur] 143 

fcimuasif indcced he ought to be more eminent then the Sail 
that fhould honour hin^butby the coraparifon of him to other s, 
and by this reafon>we owe honour to our equa!s,nay,our infer i- 
ours, becaufe they are more eminent and fuperiour to others. 

Secondly, Becaufe indeede there is fcarfeany man found, in 
whom wee may not obferve fome gift or other , in which 
he is fuperiour to us, if we palfe our judgement upon our fclves 
with any humility, ThiL 2.2, 

Thirdly, Becaufe the meancft fort of people may have fome 
fiiigular relation to God, in which refpeft they are to be honou- 
red, M&k^y.+l. I F*t. 3:7). EJa.$9.9. 

Fourthly, Becaufe in all, and every man, who have com- 
munion with us in the fame nature at kaft, and are not exclu- 
- ded from a capacitie of the fame communion in grace, there ap- 
peareth (brae what which forbiddeth contempt, and fo doth in 
fome manner demand fome honour, /*£ 3 1 ♦ 1 3 , 1 4, 1 j . Mat, 

o£>jett, The godly arc tanght to contemnc the ungodly, 
Pf*l. 15. 4. 

5. Sol. 1. The ungodly are to be contemnd, Juft fo as they 
^ise co be hated, that is under that formall acception, whereby 

they are ungodly. They are not therefore to be honoured be- 
caufethey are ungodly , or fo that their impiety may be chcriftt, 
confirmd, or ftrengthncd by our honour, Prov. 5 .p, & 6. 3 3. 
& 2<5.i. 8, but as they have good in them , a faire teftimony 
thereof is not to be deny ed them, 1 Tim. 6. t . 

6. 2. And for this caufe fome fignes of that honour which 
is in it felfe (imply due, may for their wickednetfe fake, of right 
be denied unto them, 2 King. 3. 14. But with this caution* 
that this be not under flood but oi thofc that are very notorioudy 

I wicked, in whom the ordinary caufes that fliould invite our ho« 
nour> are by the op>pofite baftneffe quite overwhelmed ; and 
^ that it be (till with that moderation, that we may (hew a wil- 
ling difpofition to give them all honour, in cafe this obftacle of 
their impiety were once removed. 

C^ueftf 3- Whether or no, and bow farr ewe ought to regard 
our ovpnehcnoHr that is due nnto m ? 

7. *A. 1. Worldly honour, if once it come into competi- 
tiwvviriithat honour which wee arc to feeke at the bands of 

'Tt God 

j t| OfFttne, orRtptrt. 

God, ougHutterly to be contemned, M. ? ^& 1 243. *^g»< 
5 36. 

8. Andforthiscaufe, firftjWemay not commit any finne 
fcr,fogcttbe honour of this world; 

p. s. Neither are goodvvorkes to be done wholly for the 
honour of this world, Matth % 6. 

io. 3. Out of our regard unto folide honour, we muft ab- 
ftainefrom all finne : elpecially from that .which carrieth with 
it any Gngutar note of defamation, 1 Theff. 4 4 j Cor, <6. 18, 
1 9. Prov.^.p. & 6>1$* 

It. 4. We ought to apply om (elves to the performance of 
thole things to which God hath annexed true and follid ho- 
nour, 1 Sam, 2 30* Prov. 4, 8. & 8. 1 8. 

Firft, Generally to Righteoufncffe towards God. 

Secondly, Efpecially , to thofe duties of Righteoufneffe, 
which by the world are held ofgreateft difparagement, fuchas 
are to fuffer reproofe, Prov. 13.18- And to ccafe from iirife, 
Trov. 20. 3. 

— '• . — - ; .,. .- —^ 


CHip, XIV. 
Of Fdme, or %eport+ 

Queft. f. \J\ J Aether or no y and how far a man ough^ 
V \ to looke to his Fame f 

1. A. !♦ A good Report is in its proper nature, the tefti- 
mony ofVertue, and an eviil Report, the teftimony of Vice* 
That therefore is to be wifhed for, and; ought after ; but this 
to be avoyded and feared. A good report cannot wholly bee( 
contemned, without the contempt of Vertue too, Prov 22. i„ 
Ecclef j, 3. Phil. 4$ 2 Cor*S. 20,21. v 

1. 2. Now as all Teftimony is of moment, according to the 
condition of him that giveth it, fo alfo a good report amon<* 
thofe that are good , is the onely true good report, and chiefely 
to be confidered.to wit, to be praHed by a man that is generally 
prayled himlclfe, 2 for. 8. 1 8. 

3 . 3. And yet theteftimony of thofe that are without the 


Church, Co they arc not defperatly wicked, is net to be ne^ic 
ed,i Tim.} 7. 

4. 4. A, good report becaufe it is not a Vertue, butonely 
a teffimony of Vcrtue, ought never to be prized before Vertuc 
or our duty, 2 Cor. 6 8, We ought not to fecke Report; by dc- 
icrjring Venue. 

5. >. M ore over a good Efteeme is fir ft to bee fought in the 
hcajt and £on!cicnccs of men, rather then in their expreffions, 
Z ,0.4.2. & 5.ti,i2. andfromfolid workesof Vcrtue^a- 
therthei^omaaapplaufe gained by cunning Art, 2 Corinth. 

v. 6. 6? J3efi4 es if § coc * cflecme is. to belabored forbid pre- 
(frved,iipjt f or it feife, neither for our fclvxs, as if wee were 
bbun^tobeieevc other mens judgements upon our deeds more 
theii jojir owne, but principally tor the glory God, Gal. 1. 24. 
2 Thefi.i 2 .and that we by our exaoapieoj: deeds might more 
j! benefit others, 1 Tmf. 1 ♦ 7. 

7* 7* And for this reaibn* thofe men are bound to have 2 

fpeciall care of their credit and cfteeme, who by reafon of their 

parts or fun&ion,are fpecialiy called to the promotion of Gods 

^Vhonour, and the good of mankinde, Neh. 6 % 1 0,1 1 . 1 Tim<i 7. 

S 1 Sam, 2. 17,22,23,24. 

8/8. Yet this difference is to be obferved, thatwclefle e- 
(lecmc our credit in thofe things, which doe not much concern 
Gods honour, and that we more regard it in thofe thir gs which 
doc more conceme that* So Paul contemning the credit of hu- 
mane Wifdome and Eloquence, 1 C or * * t2 - & 2 Cir * IJ - <? « 
did fpeciaily regard the credit of knowing Chrift trueiy, and 
wa^ chiefly follkitous about the credit of his Calling, faithful- 
nefle, and conftancie, 2 Cor. 1 . 1 7, 1 8. Nor indeed is any man? 
) credit impaired, for that he is undefervedly and injuftly thought 
poore, bafe, or lefle learned, eloquent, or witty then ano:her« 
j For a good efteeme is not the Teilimony of Wealth, Titles > or 
Learning, but of Vertue* 

p. p. Amanmayfometimesfmoother.uphisdifcredit infi- 
lence, as in cafe there be no convenient occafion offered of re*- 
fcllingjhc fame to any purpofc, and there may bee fome hope 
thatthedifcreditwiiiof it felfefovanifh, that it may redound 
father to the good, then dammage Aethers, Me.ttb<ij t iu$. 

Tt2 3vt 

d/RaJh Cenfire. 

ButwhafWer lie be that without fome fuch rdafon negfc&s 
his undeferved difcredit, when it is not without Scandall to Ga- 
thers, is not fo much to be thought patient , as prodigalland 

ic. 10. He who difparageth himfelfe, by imputing a crime 
fo himfelfe which he never did, doth not by his lye offend one- 
ly againft the Truth, but againft his Neighbour alfo, by leaving 
a Scaudall to him, and againft himfelfe, whiift he robs himfelfe 
ofagood that ought to bee preferved, and againft God tbc^ 
whofc grace in this part is difavowed, and whofe name per- 
haps upon this occalion may be blafphemed, ?o6 27. 5. : 

11. 11. Yet a man may in fbme fort defame himfelfe, by 
Tevealing fome hidden crime, if there be any ciufe offered ; as 
for example, if the great ncceflitie to aske advice, or to dif- 
Jburthenhis heartofgriefe,or if this beneceflary, or fome great 
inconvenience to others, may hereby be prevented* 

Chap. XV. 

Of Rajh ftvftirr. 

V V *-• *sf*f. *• It is an Opinion or be- 
iiefe of any mans badneffe,conceived without juft ground. 

2 . a. It is called an Opinion or a(Ient,becaufe a private Ceir- 
furcmay be in the thoughts of the heart, without any expreflr- 
onof probation of the fame thoughts, which muft ncceflartfy 
be done in publike judgement. 

3* 3. TheOb/eftofthisrafliIudgemcntorCenfureisfeat-( 
cd in the badneffc of another, becaufc thcevill of the finne, is 
the onely thing that hindreth a good repute ; We generally (ay V 
inthebadneffeorwickedViefle of another, becaufe the Iudgc- 
mentmay paffc not onely upon fome fa& which is it felfe a fin, 
but alfoupon the ft ate which any man is in, as if he bee in the 
ftate of finne, Luke 1 p . 7 . 

4. 4. The difference properly doth confifl: in the lightneflfe, 
9 r wfijftcwncy of the profes upon which the cenfureis groun- 



OfXaJk Cenfure] 

dcd t in which refpeft it is properly tc rmed Kafh, whichif it 
went upon good and firnie arguments, were prudent and iuft» 
But thefe Arguments and Rcafons are not oncly requifite in the 
thing it felfe, butmuftalfo bee evidently knownetohim that 
paffeth the Iudgement : For a true Cenfure may be llafc, as a 
trueaffcrtion maybe a I-y in him that telleth it. 

5. 5. Now thofe grounds are tobeefteemed light and in- 
fufftcicnt,whkh upon iobcr confideration of all the circumftan 
ces, are not thought fufficient to produce fiich an affcnt as paf- 
feth* For thofe Rcafons which are to light to faften an ill report 
upon one man, may be ftrong and iuft enough to faften it upon 
another 5 and thofe which arc light to perfvvade one ill opinion, 
rr*ay be forcible to perfwade another, thofe which are light to 
ground a firme affent, may be iuft to ground a weaker aflent, or 
a fufpition which is onely an inclination of the minde t« affenr , 
or to doubt, where the minde is in fufpence, and cannot incline 
to cither fide, 

Qucft. 2. Whether or no % and how rajh judgement bee a 
finne ? 

6 . 1 It is a finne of Lightncfle, and fo againft Prudence. 

7. a. It is repugnant to that natural! Principle, Doe net that 
teannber, which thou wouldefi not have to be done to thy felfe^ 
For there is no man who would willingly have his Neighbour 
to Judge raflily of him,or his AQions. 

8. 3. It impaircs the goad of our Neighbour and is repug- 
nant to his Right. For every man hath title to a good repute, 
as a commodity trufted in the bofomes of other men, till fuch 
time as hce himfelfe by his ovvne mifdemeanours fhall, as it 
were,fetch it away thence. 

5.4. It begetteth a contempt of our Neighbour, Rem. 1 4. 3 J 
whence it cometh to pafTe, that heemay undelervedly^bee 
held unworthy of offices, or benefits. 

10. 5 ♦ It is an ufurpation of the Judgement and authority 
of God, in as mucb^ as it either judgeth of things hidden and 
knowne to God atone, or elfe , that it frames to it felfe a 
Law of judging, arid dothnot receive any, which is onely pro- 
per t£> God, Rom. 14. 4, Jam. 4. n. 12* 

Qoeft. 3, What w*J bje the difference of the finne mra(b 
judgtn,? ~ " 7 

Tt z n*A.vl 

i 4 8 9f : Rafh Cenfure. 

v il. '*A. r. Rafii judgement m^y fomedmes proceed from 
thcfimpfc'errour of the apprehcrilon, orelie i rom inadver- 
tency, whereby it may come to parte, that thofe prdofes .of 
forne wicteidncfle ftiay bee held fufficieiu, whichindeed are 
no? fo*- This is a Bgher offence, as proceeding troth Common 
weakeneile : And it is a lignc of this, when hee,tbatfo judged 
{hail bee ready upon better information to renounce his opi- 

1 2. 2. Tberfe is another kind of ivStk judgement ,-: which 
procecdeth from a pervrrfci -eft* of nma, wherehy, a. man 
is ready to judge pdrverfcly v a.o ; hcrman, or ionie perfb- 
nallmifprifion, whereby *kn will cafily bee perfwadedto 
bcleeve evili of this, or t; at man, towards whom hee is pee* 
vifhly inclined. And a figneof this,isfuchaperc^acy y wMch 
willingly neglects the trial! of the reafons or* prootes, upon 
Which the judgement is grounded, and a wiliingneffe toper- 
lift in the fame pervcrfe opinion, and fuch a kind of raflh judge- % 
inent,is indeed voluntary>and a grievous finne. 

Cueftion ^. Whether or no> and how things in therhftivt$ 
doutefft!/ y may be interpreted ufox the bettor paw > 

H%f A. i. Doubts upon things, ought to bee carried ac-^^ - 
cording to the weight of the proofes, without any inclination S 
to either fide. 

14. 2. Doubts about perfon$ in thofe things, which make * 
to the good or ill repute of the perfons, arc absolutely to bee 
interpreted in the better fenfe,i Cor. 13. 5. 

1?. ji But -wee itiuft not take this, as if pofitively and 
*fp tentatively > wee ought certaincly to judge thofe meivho- 
aeft, of wbofe.honefty wee never had any ccrtaitie proofs 
if for fo wee (hohld bee bound to beleeve a falftood jbut that i 
•negatiVeiy and praftically, wee ought to judge well of things ( 
doubtfull, fthat is,) that firft, wee judge not ill of our Neigh- 
bour, v 

Secondly, That wee fo behave oar felvcs toward him in 
common duties, asifheewere honcft, feeing, WccUavc no 
evidence to the contrary. And this is the judgement of cha- 
rity. , J 
16. 4* The Judgement of prudence is not repugnant 
jm > this Judgement of charity ,that Judgement I raeane,where- 


Of Dttrd&tM. 

by, by way of amendment or caution, of fome ill wee fo fee- 
have our fclves to fome men in doubtfull matters, a?if wee 
had fome bad fufpitbnrofthcm,as when wee have a reasona- 
ble carcfuli eye upon our goodsbefore fome men, which wee 
know not, as if they weretheeves; or when we doe feme what 
harfiiiy rebuke thole men , whom Wee take to-befe hoaefU 
for their owne, or the common good. For in fuch cafes , wee 
doe not interpret doubtfull things pofitiveiy on the wciie 
fide, but out of a poflible fuppofirion, wee preventthe worfc. 
And this kind of judgement is not onely law full, but in fome 
cafes neceflary, as well by the necejjitj of the Precept, as of 
the wanes to the end aimed at by our place and calling, - As 
in cafe of vigilant attention upon thofc men, who under Taincd 
fhowes deceive the unwary, or as the Apoftle admoniftieth 
us : *By good -words aadfairefpeeches deceive the hearts of the 
fimple , Rom. 1 6, 1 8. 

Chap. XVI. 
Of "DetraSiion. 

Queft. i \XJ Hatis DetraSfion?. 

V V i. A. i. In propriety of language* 
Dctraftion, is as much , as an un/uft and fecret violatiou of 
another mans repute. But in regard, this is the chiefe way of 
injuring another mans credit, therefore by the figure Sjnech- 
docbe, it may , and is ufually taken in fuchafenfe, as it may 
imply any open contumely. Which differeth from Detra- 
ction, properly fo termed, as rapine differeth from Theft, 
; becauie it is done to one> that knoweth and renfteth thein- 

J I t.2. And hence j Detra&ion is fo much the more grievous 

Firft, By how much it is the more un/uft, asifitbeeexer- 
cifed agaiM them, who are of an unblemiflit convention 
and manners, or if it be done with a drreft intention of wrong- 
ing another mans credit, and ngt out of any rafherp ratling 
huraour, — — — — 

jj Of Detrdttftn* 

Secondly, By how much the more it injured), as if it bec 
in a matter, which muft needs carry with it, a great blcmifli 
to reputation, and in fuch fort as it may fprcad the further, and 
fotoo, that it cannot well bee pretented, as in fcandalous li- 

Queft. 2. Whether orno^ hee bee truly aDetraftottryVho 
revealeth a true finne of another mans, which othermfe would 
have beene concealed. 

5. A. 1. Hee, who doth fuch a thing without juft caufc 
is a Detradour, becaufe feeing no other lawful! end of fuch 
revealing doth appearc,we muft judge out of the nature of the 
thing, wnich in fuch a revealing is nothing elfe, but aipoiling 5 
the mans reputation, to the intent to hurt him, 

4. 2* But if it bee done, either in refptft to the amend- 
ment of the offender, or for the prevention of fome great 
danger to others, or fome fuch rcafonablc grounds, it is not a 
finne. Becaufe by this meanes,the lefle good is ncgle&ed, 
that the greater may bee procured} and a growing evill is fome 
way repreft and not promoted. 

Qucftt g. Whether or no, hee be a Detraftour, who report 
teth things, that mal^e to an ill fame y which hee bath beardfrom^ 
others without any other ajfeveration of them t 

5. A. If any man without fome weighty rcafbn , re- 
port fuch things, fo that the hearers may bee very well in- 
duced to beleeve them, or if it be likely, that an ill fufpition 
may from fuch a relation arife in the minds of men, then it 
is detra&ion : Becaufe it is a caufe concurring to the unjuft vio- 
lation of a mans credit* 

Queft* 4. When it is UvofnU to defame another mans 
gnnes ? 

6. tA. 1. When they are publike either by the fentence ( 
of the Judge, or by the evidence of a notorious faft. For the 
authourofacrimc, being in fuch fort defamed, hath forfeited v 
his right to any good repute. 

7. 2. When wicked men by diflembling their wicked- 
neffe, andmaking a fained (hew of vertue, labour tcJgetagood 
repute with the manifeft danger of others 




Of Humility tomrds LMenl 

Chap. XVII. 

Of HffmiUtj towards LMcn, 

Q,ueft. I. \)\ )H*t, **d of what kind is this Humi* 

i. *A. i. It differcth from the humil ation ofourfclvcs 
before God,, and in re jfpeel: of- God : ^ecaufe in refped of G od, 
our very foules arc to bee fub/eded, and wee ought to ac- 
knowledge our felves not oncly unprofitable fervants, Luc* 
1 7. i o. but nothing Prov. 30. 1. 3 , 1 Cor, 3 7. gen. 1 8. 27. 
and to bee abhorred, Jet 41. 6. Butfuch a dejection of cue 
felves hath no place among men. For Paul profefleth him- 
fdfe to have beenc ufcfulltothe Churches, and that hce defer- 
red to bee beloved and honoured by them, 

2. 2. Yet our Humility before men, hath dependancc 
upon that Humiliation before God, 1 Pet. 5. 5; 6. Prov. 
12 r 4 Not onely becaufe wee eughttobcare our (elves htim- 

' 'hly before our brethren, ou: ofconfeience towards God : But 
' alfo becaufe a fenfe and apprchenfion of our owne vileneffc 
and unworthineffe before God makethus truly humble; and 
) fitteth us in all refpeds f x true hum :lity« 

3. 3. Humility towards mcfi, is a vert ne, whereby a man 
bath a care , tl at hee exalt not himielfe above his degree, 
Matth 23. 1 2 Luc. 14- 1 U and 1 8. 14, Rom. 1 2" j r 2 Cor. 
10. 13, 14. 15. And doth not willingly commend ximfeife, 

2 C or * IO I2 * 

4. 4. Therefore, hce that is humble affr&eth not aay out- 
ward fignes of Eminence, M*th. 53.6 7.8. Lu\e j 4.7. 
5.5. He priteth others higky andlalx>urs to waite upon 
3 them, Phil, 2 3. Math. 23, 1 u 

6. 6. He patiently endureth any contempt of hitnfelfc, 
fofarreasitappcrtainestohim: 2 Or, 5. 12 13 & 12.10. 

7. 7. He afpireth not to high things. />/*/. 131. 

8. 8. Andycthedoth not renounce the gifts which Gcd 
hath beftowed upon him: 2 Cor. > 1 $ N f doth out of the de-r 
jedion of Spirit refute any fandion to which he is called: Cen % 
\fin. Vu Caap. 

15 1 . of Pride 4ndMnv$.., 

Chap. XVlII. 
Of Pride and Envy. 

Queft. X. 'IN what things doth pride towards opr Neigh* 

\bour conjift? 
i % A. i .Pride in common is that,by which one doth inordi- 
nately goc beyond that wHch hee is. Whence it is common- 
ly defined, an inordinate affedation of ones proper excellence* 
From this difpofmon, it doth immediately follow , chat the 
proud man refufeth to be fub/cft to others- and in this relpcct , 
it chief ly lookes towards God, to whom ail ought to iubjeft 
themfelves. And it is found at lead interpretative/} in all 
finnc; becaufe hee tha, finneth refufeth to bee fubjeft to the 
Divine will. « 

a # i. Butinrefpe<S of men, although their bee fome fuch 
fimiliude of Pride towards fuperi >urs, to whom proud men 
will not bee fub jeel: Yet hath it anoihcr coriftdei4tion, in ro , 
fpe&to inferiours/to whom they will not defcend as-they^^ 
ought; and in refpeft to equals, to whomthey defire to bee* or ^ 
atleaft fecme, fuperiours. 

3. j. This Pride as it is in the heart, thought, and affe&ion, 
is called the lifting up of the heart, 2 Chron. 28 19 £ze. 
s.8. 1 as ifcis in the outward ge ures, it is called the haugh- 
tineflfcof the eyes Prov, 6, 17. as it is in words,, it is called 
boaiting; P ov. 129 and 10. 6 t 

4 4 The fame Pride as it is bufied about fame, and emp- 
ty oraiies, is called vaine glory j as it is buficd about honours, 
an tdighitics, it b called ambiti m t a* about the ofientatun of 
fome great vcrtue, which one hath not, it is called pr?fump- 

->f* 5. Th's finne doth then direHy hurt ones Neighbour, 1 
ttheaa ^Od iim.mndefervedly prefers himielfe before him; 
but chief cly fit bee done with any contempt, contumel),or 
4k ctteemir ;g of hi* Ndghbour # 

6 6. tfu becaufe it is the proper effeft of Pridtfi to fee 
onesieUeocfore hu. N€ighboio> it finguUrly appearesinthas 



peninacy, by which one wili iuk to Hs ownc opinion^ or 
caulc, againlt the judgement of others without any rcaton. 
Hcrce almoft arile all difcords, and contentions : and therefore 
in <his confederation, alio Pride is the caufe of many finncsa- 
gaiult our Neighbour ,Prov. i ; . i o. 

7. 7. From Pride alio Envy properly flowes : by which, 
a proud man niil not, or cannot w ith a willing mind fee ano- 
thcrsgood, becaufe by that his excellency ftcmes tobeedimi- 

Chap. X t X, 

Oftht mutual cblitation betwixt thofe that arc 
fiptrtour ewly 11 agt , «nd gifts ^ and 
their infer wars* 

Queft. I. \ 1\ lHatis'he duty of fuch Super tour s? 

V V 1. A. 1, Ail Supcriouis of this kind 
ought to endeavour to goe before their inferiouis,bv fomee- 
'mincnt example in living well ; TtujL.^ 1, Pet. 5 5, 
The reafon is, becaufeof thole Wiich have received more, 
more alio is required; Luke 1 2 48. and chat, f r others good, 
* and efpecially for theirs which have received Uffc but bee 
which is fuperiour in good parts, hath received gr^acer mcanes 
of living well s andhee which is fuperiuur onely in age, hath 
at lead greater experience* Therefore from either fomewhat 
more is required, then can bee expeded from the infericurs, 
which conduceth to their good by the meanesofan eminent 

2. 2 Hee which excels in fome gift, ought readily to 
impart it to the benefit of others* The icafonis, because thofe 
p gifts which wee have received of God, are no: meerely <%- ± 
as if wee were abfoluce Lords ofthem:but we arc only dilpen- 
fcrs of them, and in the dilpenfing of them, the will of the 
Lord and Giver,isto bee rjpede^ which requires, that they 
bee referred to his glory, in the right ufe of thorn towards o- 
thcrmen; Rom. 1. i^/lamaDebter^ &c. 

Queftt 2. Wbatu the dutj of infc> lows towards fuebfupe- 

154 Ofobtigdtion bitweeneStiperbm dndlnferhun. 

3. A 1. The inferiours owe tothemalowly revcrenceor: 
honour with fubmiflion. The reafonis, becaufc all are to bee 
honoured according to their degree : and the degree of thofe 
fuperiours is above others, therefore, the refped which is due 
to them, ought to bee joyned with acknowledgement of fu~ 
periority, which is honouring, or lowly reverence. 

4. 2. That reverence ought not to bee performed by in- 
ternall eftimadon oiidy 3 hue by words, geftwes., and deeds- 

5. $. Inferious alfo ought willingly to learnethofe things 
of fuch fuperiours, as willbcefor their proficiency in living 
Well .* and thefc things they have learned, they ought upon /ufc 
occasion, gratefully toprofeffe,.4#, 18. i6\ 

Chap. XX, 

Of the mutual, obligation betweene Supcriottrs in 
fewer, and thofe which arefnbjetted to them. 

Queft. Ii \7C 7& at u. the duty of this kind of Superb 
Y y riours? 

i . A ; 1 ♦ They ought to procure as much as in them lyes, for 
thofe which are their Tub jc<fls, that they may lead a quiet and 
peaceable life in all godlmefleand hoaefty, 1 Tim, % % 2. The 
reafon is, becaufe hee which isfaperiour in power, is the Mi- 
niflcrofGod for good to others, Rom. 13, 4. Therefore hee. 
oughtfirftfo todire&all his power, that God, whofe Mins^ 
fter he is,may bee honoured by it : and.thcn, that from the fame 
power the greateft good may come to the Aib/edlt 

2. t. Hence^they ought as much as in them is, 1 .To procure c 
for their fiibje&s attmeanes of living well* For the founda- 
tion and chiefe ad offupreame power amongft men, is the K 
communication of good , in refpeft of which, thofe* to whom 
it is communicated, depend on him that did bellow it, and are 
fub/cftto him. 

Secondly, to free them from danger or feare in doing well* 
for this is protection, which i^thc confervation of the good 
they haves and therefore it is a kind , at leaft according 


OfohligtiM UtWttMSuptrmrs Mdlnfcrkuri. 

to the continuation of it, of communicating good. 

Thirdly, to ftirre them uptogood by all juftmeanes.andT 
draw them from evill; for that is the end of themcanes of their 
fhpportand confervation. 

Queft. 2, JVha< is the duty 'of fubjefts towards tbofe which 
are Super tour* in power I 

3. e/£ i. They owe to them that fpeciallrcverence,which 
notonelyrcfpe&s cminency in degree (for fuch is due to our 
Superiours either in age, or gifts) but alfoonginall eir.inency, 
on which they doe depend according to their well bting, m 
lomc way as on it's caufe. 

4., 2. They owe to them fubje&ion, by which they fo ac- 
knowledge their power and authority, that they ftudy to pre- 
serve it unhurt. For the power and authority of the Supe- 
riour, can ho more adually fubfirt, without this fubjeftion^ 
then one relative without it's correlative. TothisfubjecHon> 
not oncly ail violent infurre&ions, but contemptalfo, and dif- 
cftecme is repugnant. For although this fubjechon towards 
men, is not properly of the fouleitfelfe, yet it ought to pro- 
ceed from the ioulc^Ephef. 6.6.J. £ol. 3.23. 

5. j. They owe to them obedience, by which they are rea- 
dy to performe thofe things which are appointed by them,; 
This obedience is diftinguifhed from fubje&ior*, as the fpe- 
ciallfrom the generall. For fubjeftron in common, rcfpc&s 
tbf authority, and power of the Superiour * but obedience re - 
fpefts the precept, or command which proceeds from that 

6. 4. Hence^Firft, there maybecfubjeftion, where there 
is not obedience ,asin the hurabb denying of obedience, when 
that which is commanded by the Superiour, is manifeftly un- 

7. 5. Hence alfo, Secondly; the rule, of obedience and 
rcalbn, why it is not to bee performed , in unlawful! things, 
flo weth > becaufe no man is bound to obey any one, but as ferre 
as ftce is fub.cft to him, but God will not, that men fhould be 
fiibieftxo men,eithcr to doe unlawful! things, or to finne. 

8. 6. They owe to them an humble gratitude, by which 
tbeymuft ftudy according to their ability to recompence thofe 
bencfits,of which they arc made partakers by their power. . 

,Vy 3 Chap*. 

ofthemtuUMgrnott UmttntUMAndWift. 

Chap. XXV 

Of the mntmll obligation between* Lftfa* 
and Wife. 

Que(L I. TT Ow the Hubandoaght to beare hmfelfe to~ 

^ X\yeardsht* Wife? 
i> Anf. I. Hee ought to reckon of his Wife in all things, 
as his necrct Companion, and as part of himfclfc, or of the 
ffme Whole, m a certaiue paricy of honour, Ephef 5. 

28, 29. 

And hence firft, there ought to bee amoftfociable and inti- 
mate affection bctweone-Man and Wife. 

Secondly, A crueil, oflfehfive, or contumelious ufage^fthe 
Wife, is altogether different from the true nature of wedlock, 
Coiof. 3. 1 p. 

Thirdly, There h a lingular Honour in a practical! Way due 
from the Man to his Wife, 1 Per. 3.7 

2. 2; Nevertheiefle, hee ought in ail things to beare hinw %d| 
felfe,as the head of his Wife; 1 Corinth if. J. V 

And hence firrt, Hee ought to excellin knowledge and pru- 
dence, that lb hce may rightly give example, governcand di- t 
reft the Wife depending upon nim,i Pet. 3.7.1 0.14.3$^ 
Oat of which prudcrcei hee ought often to depart rrom 
his owne juftifiable right, and confider thef infirmity of his 
Wife, and bee more forward, then fhee in the patient tolera- 
tion of all weakeneffes,! Pet. 3,7. 

3. 3/ Hce ought to provide for herallthings ncceflary^ 
according as his eftareand condition give leave, I 7/«. 5.8. c 
Hee ought to governe her in thofe things, which belong to good 
nianncrs s and houfhold affaires, Numb* 30. 1 4, ( 

Qucft. 2. In what fort ought the Woman to beare her felfe 
to her Hu* band} 

4 *Anf 1, Bcfides the Common duty of fociablc and in- 
timate affeftion. Shec ought in the firft place to {ubmit her 
felfetobimastoherheadjX Cor. 11,3, Ephef 5.22. crfoff, 3, 

J. 2 • Sh«c 

OfthewuMall obligation betmene Parents and Children. 
. 5. 2. Shee ought (a to carry her fdfc, that ftiec may bring 
Honour, (and if it m y beej gaine to her husband, Prov. 12.4* 
and 14, 1 . and 3 1 , 1 o, 1 j , i 2, &c. 

6. jrShee ought with I care andfubmifle reverence, have 
a care that foce doe not offend her Husband, Epbef. < 71 
i<Peir. 3 .2. . * " 

' 7 # 4. Shee ought in all things fo to behave her felfe, that 
herHusband may content himfeife in her, as in another him- 
felfc,7>/*//» 45. ii,i2. 

Chap. XXII. 

Of the M&tuall obligation betveeene Parents 
and Children, 

Queft. I. \ TXTHm ought Parents to doe for their 
V V Children? 
u u A f. i. They arefirft bound to nounfla their Children,, 
hilt .ey arefittohelpc themfclves* iTim. 5. 8. And this du- 
ly arilethoucof- the very propenfi on ofr Nature, which is com- 
mon to Man and B.ait. For even wild B afts doe n uriftv 
their young, 'tulluchti nc as they growfomewhatb?gge. Ai-d 
enroftbis real .n> it mull needs follow, that it is aJini einthat 
Mother, that without foroc juiicauiehindring^doth notnurfe 
feci Children with her o wne breatf s. 

: 2. 2 They are bound either by themfdves, or others, to 
bring tnem up in the D« ^cipiine^and feare of the Lord; Ephef 4 
6.4. A d the re3fon is. becaufe Parent* ought not on el) to 
provide that their Children may live/cut that,(asfarre asm 
j them !ieth)they live w ell to God. 

Hence fit it ought ( t ty acco ding to their appreI~cnfions)h> 
tlrucHhe.ninrhePnJXfpi^sci Religion, that they may from 
th^ir tender y cares cui cave the feeasof confcicnce. religion, 
pnd good manners 2 Tim. 3. 15. 1 %eg. 1 8. 12. Vrov. 4, 5,4. 
and 3 1, 1 2. 

Secondly, They ought by all fit rneanes to dcterrethem 
fcomevill,and incite them to good; 1 S«m.r. • *. And for this 
a:$aiun, not only a verball* but a real! correction is in ki place 
V" "2 ~ ?cqui^ 

ifZ of the mtttwll obligation -betweint Parents and Children* 

rcquifitc, Prov. 1 3. 24. and 19. 18. and 22. ij.andi?. t}« 
Butyctfucha moderation this here to bee obferved, that the 
Children bee not provoked to wrath , EpheJ. 4. 4, {ol. 

3. 3 # Thcyarcboundfotocxercife their pater nail authority, 
that ic may redound to the greatcft benefit ot their Children, 
not onely while they are in their Nonage but afterwards alfo # 
And to this place, two things chief ely have rclpcd ; 

Firft, That they provide tor them fome honeft,and fit courfe 
of life, Prov.. H.6. 

Secondly, Ti at when it fhall bee needfull, they provide 
for them an honeft and fit marriage, 1 V*r 7. 3 8. 

QuelU 2 # What , ana of fr hat kl*d H we pewer of Pa* 
rents ? 

4 # A*f. 1. The power of Parents, is the title, that they 
have over their Children by reafon of the generation, and 
education of them. And hence, all Paternall authority, i$ *» 
terminated in the good of their Children^ _by governing and 
retraining them, nor may it be extended to the power of life 
and death. 

5. 2. The chicfeft power of Parents over their Children, v^ 
is then, when they areddututeofthc ufcof right reafon^ for s 
fo long, all the anions of thcChiidrcn, are fub/ed to the com- 
mand of the Parents, becaufe they are not able to gov erne them- ( 

6. 3. When they are arrived at their perfect ufc of rea- 
fon, the power of the Parents doth chiclely tonfift in thole 
things, which feemc to bee of moment for the government 
of the Common family* In ref ped of other things, the authori- 
ty isleflcinthc Parents, bwtthe bond of obedience, feemes to 
bccHrongcrupon the Children, becaufe then they doe more < ' 
under (land what they are to their Parents. 

7. 4* After, that by the explicate or implicite confent of 
their arents, they arc feated in their owne power : then doth 
the authority ot Parents (as it is properly fb called) ceafe, 
though on the Childrens part, the duty of gratitude, obfet- 
vance, and filial! piety, may never have an end. 

Queft. 3- What *re Children bwnd to doc for their ps- 

8. X»fiU 

Of obligation hetweene Maftcrs and Servants* 

8. *Anf. i. They owe to their Parents, as their Parents 
doealfo to them a lingular love, the want, of which natural! 
affefiion , is reckoned among the moll odious vices , %w» 
i. 31. 

9.2. They owe a fingular reverence and honour, as the 
words of the fift Commandement intimate, to which con- 
tcmpt,Hiocking and fcoffi.ig them, are oppofed as mod: abottii- 
nablefinnes, Lev. 20, p. Deut.ij. \6 % Pr&v. 20. zo f c Prov+ 
15.5. and 30.17. 

10. 3. I hey owe them fub/e&ion and obedienc?, iTim $ 
3. 4*r.M*5. Epbef. 6. I. Col. 3, 20. 4 

11. 4. They ought to hav; a lingular patience, in bidmg 
and bearing with the infirmities -of their P^rencs, Prov, 2 3, 2 a. 
<jen % p. 22. 

12. 5. They ought to feare them, Lev. 19. 3. 

13. 6. They ought with all gratitude to repay their love 
and care in doing good to tf em as occallon fbail (erve, 1 Tim. 
5.4. Martb. 15,4,5.6. Mire 7.12. 

14. 7. Ail thefe duties ought (0 to bee performed by the 
Children, that they may beare the name cf piety, 1 Tim. 5.4. 
Becaufe the Parents in regard to their Children, doe beare ft 
fingular image of God, ashee is the Creatour, Suftainer,and 

Chap, XXIIt 

Of the mutuaS obligation Betweene Mafters ani Servants^ 

what, and of what kind it &* 

1, of*f. %. CErvirude is much different from the fiatc 
k3of a child. 

Firft, In refpeft, it is not from nuare,, as that of a child, but 
either undertaken by voluntaty confent^or eife impofedby way 

Secondly, In that the condition of a Sonne tendeth chiefely 
tohisownepropergood,notofhisFatheT; but Servitude doth 
aimcdire&ly at the good of the Matter, and not of the Ser^ 

1 50 Of Obligation detwtent Mnflers And St rmnts. 

.Thirdly, In that Children are not ordinarily enjoyned any 
worke, but what is ingenuous, but Servants are bound to doe 
all kind of workc* 

"Fourthly, In that the fub/edion of Children rs not alwayes 
in the fame proportion and equality, but Servants owe their 
perpetuall endeavours wLhout all ditfindion of time; 

Fiftly, That inali things. Children are more tenderly and 
favourably to beeufed then Scrvmt$>Prpv. 29. 21 ♦ 

2. *, Perfed fervitude/o it be voluntary, is on the patients 
part often law foil betweene Chriiiian and C hriftian, becaufe 
indeed it is-neccflary : but on the Matters part who is the agent, 
In procuring and txerci.ng the authority, it is fearce lawfully 
m rcfpeci,it thwarts thatgenerall Canon, wW^0« would hav* 
men doe untoycu y even fo doe unto them^Matth* 1 7,1 2 . 

3* 3* Perfed fervirude, by way ofpuniflimenti can have 
no place by right, unlefle for fame haiaous offence, which 
might dekrvethe fevcreft puniftimf nt, to wit, death : becaufe 
our liberty in the natural account is the very nest thing to 
life it felt &% yea by many is preferred before it 

4, 4. The condition of thofeii5€n v who are foreverbound 
and enflaved to fome certaine kinds of work : And of other Ser^ ^ 
vants,whohire themfclves out for a time at fuch orfuch a price, 
is not perfed fervitude. 

5. 5. Servants owe to their Matters fubjedion as well as 
honour; And therefore, they ought not to runne away from 
their Makers : becaufe this were the famr <>asto take away ano- 
ther mans proper goodb^ and fo nolefic unlawfull then very 
Theft, Ep+ ad Philem*. 

6:6. They ought to obey their Matters in the lord, in all 
things, wherein they are fub/ed. And this obedience, fliould 
not guide it felfe with an eye upon the knowledge of Men, but 
ofGoJ; nor fliould it aime chief ely at the reward to bee re- 
ceiv'd fromMen,but from God; CoUJf,^ ai. 2^2/^ Etbef. 

7 7. They doe not onely owe this fubjedion and obe- 
dience to good and mild Matters, bur alfo to the bad and harflv 
2 Tet. 2. 38. A *d the reafon is,becaufe the primary ground of 
this duty is not the merit of the Matters, but the ordinance of 
'Cod, Rom. fjf.jg ButthofeServants,which have faithfully and 


Ofolltgmon betweene Maflers and Servants. 

good Mafters, ought not thence take any occafion to bee Hack 
in their fub/c&ion and obedience, but rather fo much the more 
encreafe it- Becaufe both their ovvnd chancy and their Maiera 
merit it. Gratitude is hence augmenrcd : and fo where the Ma* 
Iters deferve more, and the Servants are more engaged, the 
fcrvile duties ou&ht not there tobeeflackned, but the rather 
encouraged, I Tim. 6*2. 

8. 8. It is the generall duty of Maflers, that they doe not 
ex^rcife an ablolute Dominion over their Servants; nor ima- 
gine, they are granted any fuch jurisdi&ion, but a limited Do- 
minion, whereof tliey are to give account to God, as the com- 
mon Maftcr of them, as well as their Servants, Epbef. 6. ^ 
Col K 4, ig 

9 9* They ought to give their Servants what is their due, 
O/0/. 4. 1 . (that is,) all things that arc due t o them for their 
labour, lac. .5.4. that is, all ma^ntcrance agreable to their fer- 
vid and attendance, fuch as is diet, doatbes, and lodging, Prov v 

10. lot They ought alfo to dec them what is fit as well as 
jufti O/4.1. (thati*,) fuch things, which though they can- 
not bee exaded by the Servants, as of right their due, yet ought 
of right reafon to bee allowed; fuch offices are to {hew 
fome fpeciall favours to a ervant, that is, fingularly trufty and 
difcreet, Prov. 14 35. and to promote him as much as is fit, 
Prov.ij 18.^17. 2. And not to forfake and caftoffa Ser- 
vant in his Gckncfle,- CMatth. *6>6. 

11. ii* Moreover they ought to have a care that their Ser- 
vants bee inftru&ed in the Do&rinr of Religion, and to fee 
that they frequent holy, exercifes, and alfo to lead them in the 
right way, and to turne them out of the way oflinne, as ap- 
peared in the fourth Cofnmandement, Trov. 29. 12. 

I2 # 12. They ought to bearethemfc Ives toward their Ser- 
vants with humanity, and meckeneffe; notimperioufly,and do- 
miuering, dealing with them as it they were beafts rather then 
n\m,Ephef. 6 9. 

13. 1 3. They ought tocorrecfHaucy Servants,?™^ 2p,ipT 
or if they bee incorrigible, to turne them out of dores, ¥fdm. 

1 6 2 of Obligation betwtenc Minifiers wd their Tlockf. 

Chap. XXIV. 

Of the mfitnall obligation betweene Miniflers and 

thsir Flacky. 

Quefh I. \7\J^ ac ** the duty oftheMlmftcrsr 

V V i. ifer/S i, They ought fo to be- 
have themlclves towards the Congregation as Servants, and 
not Lords; i < 7 > et.$> j« 2 Car. 4. y # Now they are Servants 
of God as their proper Lord; ^«5r. 20. rp. And of the Goi*. 
grcgation as the objed, whereupon their paines and fervicc 
is bellowed. And hence it is, that being eonfidered, as they 
areChrifts delegates, bringing and executing his Commands 
by fpeciail cominiffion, they doe all things with authority; € 
Tit 2. 15. Although confidered in thetnfelves in their man- 
ner of workings which concernes their perfons, they are the 
Servant ofailmen; 1 C or - 9* ip. 

2. 2. They ought by all meanes to endeavour, to fulfill, ^ 
their miniftery* Col. 4. 17, As well intenfively in being 
zealous and inttant in doing their duty , as extenfively in looking 
to every part of their duty; * Tim. 4, 2, And ail thi&conftantly I 
withourthought of looking back, Luk^. 9,62* 

j. 3. Theycughtin all duties of piety to behave them- 
felves exemplar ily coward then: Flock, 1 77 m. 4 12. 1 Feu 

4. 4. They ought to put a manifeft difference betwecne 
the good and the bad, that they may convert the bad from their 
badneffe, and confirme the other in their good way; J v. 15 . 
19 23. 14. 1 j, 17. 2?«^ 13* 18. 2 2-. 

5. 5, They ought to put forne difference bctweene thofe> 
that are more, andbhele, that are leffe perfeft among thofc ' 
that are good. And accordingly accommodate and apply the«n- 
ielves in all things 1 Cor* 3. 1*2, 

6\ 6. Trey ought to ptrforme all thefe things with An- 
gular aiige.ee as fculdiers; i Tim. 2, 4, as Husbandman* 
1 • or. 3 9. as Shepheards and Watchmen ready to give an 
e»&accoum of all thing? to Gcd 3 H*br % 13.7, 

6f ObligMm Utwttne Mwijlcrs md their Tlockf. 

7 7« They ought to doe all thefe things fo, that they may 
appeare not to refpeft themfelves,but onely the glory of God, 
and the edifying of his Church* 

Oueft. 2* What H the dmy of the people tcwrds their Mi- 

8* j4nf, i. They ought to fhew them fmgular reverence 
for the dignity of their place, in which Chrift hath feated them 
as his vicegerents; E/a. 52. 7; %om. 10. 15. And this re- 
verence though properly itbeebutciviil, yet in refped it is 
not onely en/^yncd by the Religious worfhip of God him- 
felfe, bur is directly and immediately derived from it, and hath 
an individual! connexion with the fame, it is therefore of a 
fingular nature by it felfe, ( that is,) participatively Reli- 

p. 2 They ought to have them above meafure deere; 
I Th*fat. 5c- 13, Gak 4, 14, 15. For they who are made 
Partakers of a great benefit, carrot ihoofe, but extreameiy 
Jove thofe, by whom as by iriiruraents, it was conveyed to 

io # 3. They ought to bee obedient to them, Hebr.i$. vj. 
And this obedience, as it looketh upon the will of God .ma- 
il ifefted by them to us, ought to bee fpirituall in purely intcr- 
nall ads. It is alfo requiiice, that obedience bee ycelded unto 
them in other things, which belong to their office, fo there bee 
not in fuch things any fhew of fiane, fcandali, or any notable 

ii # 4. They ought to provide, that they want nothing 
to raaintainc themfeives decently, 1 C°r* 9* ** Galat. 6. 6. 
%w. 15 27, 1 Tim. 5. 17. Nor is this any free or charita- 
ble donation, but a juftand exadible debt, Ibid. 1 8. 

il, 5 . All thefe ought fo to bee performed , that it may 
addc cheer fulneffe to the Minifters in the performance of their 
duties;H<?£r. 13.17. 

1?. 6. But becaufe, thefe things arc not due for the titles 
fake.but for the Divine ordination and the workes fake; 1 Thejf: 
5 .1 a.ij.They are not therefore to be obferved toMen.-fervers, 
vlqv to the abiolutely un worthy. 

X* 3 Chap* 

ofobligatiw bttwttne Mdgijtntes and Sub\cB$l 

Chap. XXV. 

Of the MHtuaU obligation hem tent LMagifirattt 
and Sttfyefts. 

Queft. I. X IX ]Hat kind of power u that of Uliarim 

V Xftrates > 
t. *An[. i. It is the greeted: of humane powers, becaufc 
it is above all other,and ruleth thcm,Rem. 1 3 . 1. 

2. 2. It is the inftitution of God 5 that in general!, there 
{hould bee Magistrates and pubhkc Governours, THorn. 5; 1. 
2. 4, But thatinfpccialljit (hould bee m this, or that forme, 
is the device of men, 1 Pet. 1. 1 3. 

3 . 3 . ■ Hence s this power is not abfolute, bat carries a dou- 
ble Limitation, one from the will of Gbd,whole Mmifter every 
Magiltrate is, Dent, 17. 18. 2. Another from that will of 
man, which is included in thofe conditions and Law£S,in 
which the power ofruie is founded. 

4. 4. The right of Kings, 1 S«m. i # 8. 9. 11, which is 
quoted by fome (as it is in the old tranflation,) to prove the un- 
bounded power of their rule, doth no more prove any fuch 
power, then the fame word doth approve and allow of the ini- 

• quity of the Priefts, 1 Sam, 2.1?, 

$. 5. It is not to bee denied, but that fome people com- 
pelled by neceffity, may fo fell themfelves over to a King, that 
they may bee all juftly his flaves, Gen. 47. 23. But wee muft 
not prefunethis,becaufc it isnotevtdent^becauieit is againft cu- 
ftome,& againft all naturall inclination: <cither can it lawfully or 
juftly bee aymed at by any Prince: becaufeit is his duty chiefe- 
ly to have an eye upon the common advantage of hisfubje&s: 
Neither would fuch a government conftitutea City or Body 
Politick) but rather a Lordly Domineering, and a monftrous 

Queft..2. what is the office of a CMagiJlrate i . 

6. Anf> 1 , H ee weth to his fubjeft an eminent protefHon, 
whereby they may ftand fafe from alipcrturbatioii,feare,^r 
impediment in their honefj ccurfc of life, 1 Tim. 7. ** 

Of ottigmon hitmen* M/tgi ft rates and SnbjeBsl 

Eft, 32 l. and hitherto belongeth the curbing and repreflion 
of the wicked, Pfalm. 10 1. 8. 

7. 2. Hceowech to them eminent direction, by providing 
fo for them, that they want no meanes, whereby they may bee 
advantaged in living well, Pfalm. 71.6.7. 

8. 3> The chiefe care of the Magiftrate ought to bee, that 
hee promote true Religion, and reprefleimoicty* Efa./^g. 23. 
Pfalm. 2, 1 1. Examples of this care are commended in David % 
Solomon, lofaph*t y Hcz,ckiah $ fofiah t &c. The bufinefle of the 
Lord, and the bufines of the King, are not fo difproportionate, 
(as you may fee in the 2. Chron. ip. n.) but that the care 
and ki>owledge of the things which are Gods, may well be- 
long to the King : But they are thus truly diftinguiflit, that in 
the mknnaging of affaires, the King play his part polit-ikely, and 
the Prieft his Ecc lefaftically. 

9. 4. The Magiftrare ought to further and promote the 
externallhappineffeofhisfubje&s, and not difturbe andover- 
throw their fortunes by unjuft cxaftions, Ptqv. 28. 15, 

10. ?. And to this end, their lieth upon the Magistrate a fin- 
' gular care of the Lawes and Iudgements, that they bee as 

Well executed as conftituted with all luftice and equity 5 Efa 
10, l.lerem* }.\.Deut % \. 16. -17. 2 fhron. I p. 

11. 6. Hee ought to ft- whisfubjefts a good example, 
and that by reafon of his place, in an eminent manner, Pfalm. 


12. 7,. In his manners, hee ought to fhew himfclfe as a Bro- 
ther to the reft, and in his fundion as a Father s Bent. 1 7, 20* 
£/*. 12,21. 

Queft. 3. What is the duty of Sttfyfts toward their M*- 
• giftraies? 

13, An/, i. They ought (pecially to pray for them, and 
that all manner of prayer $ 1 Tim, 2, 1, 2. Pfalm. 20. And 
this duty is to bee performed, not onely in refpeft, the good 
of the fubjeCl, is included in the good of. the Magiftrate, Ier. 
29, 7. 1 I'm. 2> 3. But becaufe indeed, a fingular part of the 
honour of God, depends upon their power and adminiftration,, 
jPet.2, 17. 

Up 2. They owstothein finguUr honour, Prov,%4> 2 ^ 


:D 6 vfobligttm btrnteneMAgiJlntes And Sub\cti$l 

Rom. 13, 7> An(1 thereis a double ground tor this- Firft, 
The ordination, and very image of God, which (hineth in 
their eminence, Rom. 1 3. 

Secondly, Thole biefllngs, which are derived to the Sub- 
jects by them, asinftrurnencs of God, Pfalw. 72. 

15. 3, They ought out of fingular reverei ce baveacare, 
leaftthey pafleany rafh cenfureupon their government, £***[. 
*i f 28, EccUf. io« 20. 2 Per. 2, \o.Jna. 8 Andtheground 
of this caution is: 

Firft, That Candor which as it is due towards ail men, fo 
efpecially tov\ ards Superiors, 

Scconaiy, The difficulty of fcarching the originals, andcau- 
fes of pubiike budneffc. 

Thirdiy, That moderation, by which wee ought to tolerate 
light infi rmiries and offences, and pardon them for publike 
quietnefle fake. 

1 6. 4. They owe to them lub/eftion and obedience, Rem] 
13, 2, s . Tit. 3, 1. And the ground cf this is : 

Firft, That fupe cminency of power, which Magiftrates 
haveTeccivedforthe diredion offubjtds, which cannot by 
any meant s ataine it's end without the obedience of thofc s 
fabjefts, Rcm.-i^. r. 

Secondly, That commongood, which floweth from this or* 
der of rule and fub jectibn. 

Thirdly, Feare. 

F ouuhiy , Confcicnce towards G od, ibid. verf. 5 . 

17. 5, They ought to performe all duties toward them, 
and pay tributes, and the ground is t 

Firft, The due care of the common good. 

Secondly, The debt of gratitude, for thofe benefits which 
are derived tp all through that pubiike adminiftration. 

Thirdly, The debt of Iuftice, for the pubiike paines difchar- 
gedbyche Magiftrates. 

Queft. 4. Whether or no, and how far re httmane Lawes bind 
the conjeience ? 

i8> Anf< 1. Nothing but the law of God doth properly^ 
dircftly, immediately , and by it fclfe bind the conference: 

Firft, Bsxaufe the Confcience or Souieofman, is not pro- 
perly fubjeft to any, tut God alone. 


Of(Migd\mbttwUnt MAgtpratfs avdSdjeflsl 1 £7 

Secondly, Becaufc the oncly rule of our confckncc, is 
the Law of God written in our hearts, %om % 2. 15 . 

Thirdly, Becaufc man cannot indeed judge oi the con- 

Fourthly, Becaufe they cannot Midi any fpirituall pu- 
fiifliment upon the confcierce. 

ip, 2> Yet nevenhelefle, humane Lawes are to bee 
obfervedout of confeience towards God, Ity*. 13, 

Fiftly, Becaufc the Law of Gcd, bach conltituted this 
power and order, and hath enjoy ned us to yceld obedience 
and fub/edfcon to the fame* ibid. 
- 20. 3. Now, becaufe the Law of God, doth diredMy 
and immediately en/oyne iubjedtion to fuch i upercminent 
power, therefore in all humane Lawes, the fub/edts are 
bound hot to oppofe them out of contempt of authority, 
nor thinke of any thino, which may carry the face of fuch 
fcandalous rebellion * Becaufc the contempt of authority, 
and the offence thereby given toothers, isbyitfeiteafinnc 
a^ainft the Law of God. 

\ . 21. 4. Thofe humane Lawes, which doe eithcrurge 
or declare the Divine, or doe diredtly further the conf er- 
vation thereof, doe bind even the confeience, and the reafon 
is becaufe fuch Lawes, in that refpedt doe partake the fea- 
ture, and force of the Divine Law. 

22 5. Other humane Lawes, becaufc they may be& 
either jult, or un/uft, or partly juft, and partly unjuft, and 
that by reafon of the efficient matter, former or end, or in 
xefpedof this or that fubjedt, oradjunft, therefore they 
doe not fo abfolutely bind, as that every violation of any 
of them (hould inferrea mortall finne For if it were fo, 
the^n as mfany Lawes as there were,fo many fnares foe 
foules there were.and they that live under Lawes,ftv «ld boc 
fubjcdlto many more finnes, then they who live among 
barbarous people, cither quite without lawes or but a 

f 2 1 . 6. The violation then of fuch or fuch a Law, which 
is purely humane, is not any fpeciatt kind of finne, in re- 
fpedt of the matter of Law, but is oncly fo farre forth a 
iinne> as it breakes the Law of general! obedience^ infcK 

Yv much 

x 6S Gf Obligator* vttmtnt MdgijlrAUs AftdSutyettsl 

much. that ad tranf^refiions of iuch Lawes, may bee redu- 
ced to one kind of finne. 

24. 7. 1 he ob/igation of a Law, muft not bee ftretcht 
beyond thejufi intention and mind of the Lawgiver. But h 
is to bee prefumed,. t! at no man would oblige hisfubjects 
to a mortall grit and utter damnation, for every ne^lcftof 
his will and pkafiirr* Nay if in fome cafe, the Law cannot 
pofficlybee obferved, but fome gre.t dammagcjfcandall, 
or inconvenience muft needs follow, it is to beep efumed, 
that the I awgivcr never intended, that the Law in fuch a 
cate fliould bee obferved. 

25. 8-. If the intention of the Lawgiver (hould becun- 
juftsneverthekfl'ejthe intention and end of the Law itfelfc, 
if it (at leaf!,) bee lawful!, is slwayes juft,nghtand the com- 
mon good* 

26. 9. The intention and obligation cfa Law, ought 
not to bee ftretched beyond the caufc and ground otthat 
Law; fo that the ground orcaufe ceafmg, the obligation of 
ihe Law is to ceaie too* 

27. 10. The obligation of a Law ceafeth, when either 
through aif-cuftome, or fome contrary cuftome, out of (U v 
lent confent,or the connivency of the Magiflrates, it is eflee- 
med as abrogated, NowMagiftrates may bee faid to con- 
lent (at leaftintcrpretatively,^ to the abrogation of- any of 
jheirpofitive Lawes, when for a longtime, and pubiikely, 
they know them to bccnegleded, and yet they doe not re- 
ilairoe them.. 

28. ii- Many Lawes are purely penall, fo that they 
are well chough obferved, if the penalty due to the breach 
bee undergone*. 

The reafots is> Pirft, B:caufe the end of the Law is to de- 
terrc men froui the common, or frequent u(e of fuch or 
fuch a thing, to which end, the constitution of fome pe- 
nalty n ay tuffice* 

Secondly, Bwiicks in all fuch Lawes, there is a tacke com- 
part and aggreement, that the penalty oncly bee undergone 
upon breach of them. 

Thirdly, Vnderftanding men never make any fcruple of 
conkience ia fuch Lawe$,jf cher cbe neither contempt,fcan- 


Of the equity o/Mofaicall La»a* j 69 

tJall,nor any great dammagc in the efface. Such are the 
Lawes againft hunting, and falling, 2nd againft the raking 
offowlcorfifii, and againft the ufc of this or that kind, of 
habit or meats &c 

zp. 12, Nor doth this penall Law bind a man to un- 
dergoe the penalty, unleffethe Judge determine it fo, that 
the penalty bee fu#ered, and for the moft part too, not un- 
lefle the fentence bee put in execution. For the penall Law 
binds onely in order as the punifhment muft beeir.fi ided, 
the delinquent not being of his owne accord to undergoe 
cr demand it, which were ridiculous. 1 

30. 13. In all donbtfull cafes, wee muft prefume upon 
the juftke and equity of the Law, and the moderate in* 
tention thereof, or elfe upon the obliging force it bea 7 

Chap. XXVl. 

Of the Equity of the Mofaitail Lawes^hich are 
appendixes to the fifth C omman dement . 

Queft. I. \}\ lH e th4ritbeejuJLj l fAthee y ?vhoftrike$ 
V \ cr curfes his Parent > according- to 
LawfljQttU beef unified wtth death ? Exod. 21, 1 5,17. 
Ley. 20,9* 

1 . *An(. i o The equity of this Law , feemes to be 
approved by the Lord uadef the new Teftament, Match. 

2. 2. Paricide of all finnes againft men is the moft hor- 
rid; Now to ftrike or curte ones Parent, isacertainedcgrcc 
of paricide* 

3. 3. Thofe linnes which are againft nature, or Againft 
the Law of nature are mod beynous : becaufe that Law 
which is more written in our hearts, hath more of Laiv in 
it, in refpeft of the more cleere manif citation and corco- 
miumtconvidion; whereby the contumacy of that man is 
more condemned, that fnall violate fccb a Law, Rem. }>i6, 
27, I Tim. 5, 8. IC is right therefore, that the mcftgrie- 

- Yy a vous 

170 oft&eqiiitjtfWfotiu&ll tm~is} 

vous j^unifhment may bee appointed for iucb, who are not 
afraid to commit fuch kind of faults. 

4. 4* In fuch finnes, there is a complication of many 

For firft, The chief eft duty of charity is heynoufly vio- 
lated in its prime objeft. 

Secondly , The crime of -greateft ingratitude is incur* 

Thirdly, There is a cleere profefllon off he word-kind 
of difobedience. 

Fourthly, There is an open difejaiming of all reverence 

Hftly, The Image of God is foulely violated. 

5. 5. Beddes in that kind of finne , are contained the 
feeds of many other (innes. 

For firft, The bonds of domeftick Difcipline, being quite 
rent afonder, there is open way made to all licentious 
manner of finning* 

Secondly, By fuch courfes, there is contra&ed a difpo- 
fition and habit of contumacy and rebellion towards all i 
rebellion, and even towards God himfelfc* * * ' 

Thirdly, The love of Parents, and the care nectffary fee 
their children is extinguiflit. 

6> 6, There are many conveniences doe arifc from the : 
conftittition of fo heavy punifiitoent for this crime. 

For firft, Children will containe tlaemtelves in a duti* 
full carriage towards their Parents. 

Secondly, Parents will bee the more carefull and exaft 
in the right education of their Children, lead by their fault, 
they perchance fall into that capitall offence. 

Thirdly, Youth will bee exercifed in the reverence due 
to all their Superiours, and to God hirolelfe, and atfo in the 
right eftimation of the nature of the finne. 

Quclh 2. whether or. no, is that Law in D£ut 4 ai,l8. 
jufljvhich appoints death to the rebellions child? 

7. 7. Anf. 1. The Equity of this Law, doth appeare 
by thecaufe$ofit. 

For firft, fuch a Child is here meant, who with r brings 
mi drinkip&s, difttfrbes aad defkoyes the peace of thefo- 


Of the equity tfUfihlczll 1/imsV 171 

mily and cftaffe of his Parents, Verftio. Prov. Ip,-s6;and 
38,7,2 4,311(1 2p, 3. Now in fuchaChild, the crime of 
theft and robbery is eminent, and that too* with a Angu- 
lar aggravation inrefpeftof the parties, againft whom it is 

8; 2. An incorrigible Child is here meant, ' Verfe 18* 
Nowfucha C hild to his obftinate difobedience, hath an- 
nexed an abfolute defpaire of his converfion , infomuch, 
that nothing can bee expefted trom fuch a one , if hee 
fliould bee fuffered to live; but thathee will bee hereafter, 
ss pernicious to the Common-wealth, as formerly hee hath 
beene to the private family. 

9, ? . Siich a Sonne is Jherc meant, as hath cfkanged from 
himfelfe the affeftion of his Parent^ and hath forced them 
to bee his moft fevere Accufers, V*rfe ip % Prov. ip, 26. 
Which to (orae parentBisworfe then death 3 2 Sam. 3 8. 3 a, . 
and ip, J. $ 

10. 4. The like Equity appcares from the condition** 

For fir ft, The execution of this Law, is not the pleasure 
' of the Magistrate immediately, hue in the will of the Pa- 
rents, who for the moft part doe rather offend by too much 

Secondly* This Law is enaftednotas if it were an in- 
junftioncamraandedtothe Parents, but as a power gran- 
ted tothem, to excrciie if they pieafe. 

Thirdly, This power too, is not granted to all Parents, 
butonely to fuch, as th of e, who bave difebarged their du- 
ties in the private education and due corretfion of their 
Children. It is not permitted to othersj to complainepub- 
1 like of that untowardneflfe and diffoluteneflc cf their Chil- 
dren! which they may thankc themfei ves for, and they muft 
beare thofe inconveniences, whxh they have brought 
uponthemfelvcs, as,uft judgements by God infli&edupon 

11. 5. Moreover, by the ev?nt it appeareth, that the 
Law A wasnotun)uft, for although, it cannot bee doubted, 
but Children in a family, were by this meanes better kept 
Withm the limits of their duty, yet wee meet not with any 

y y 3 example-- 

example in the whole old Tcftamentof any Child, that for 
this caufe differed death after this manner. 

Queft. 3. whether or no % that Law bee ;«/?, Deut. 17, 
1 2. that the man Jhonld fujfer death y that hearkeneth not tQ 
the Prieft or JuJge* 

12. An/. 1, The Equity of that Law, will eafilyap- 
prare, if wee obferve. 

Firft, That it \% not there meant of fimpledifobedicnce, 
butfuchadifobcdienccascarrieth with it petulancy, arro- 
gancy 3 and {'edition. 

. Secondly, *Tis a difobedience in thofe things, whieh are 
■manifeftly and plainely determined by the Law of God. 

Thirdly* It is meant of the difobedience of thofe > w 7 ho 
by a fpeciall compadjhave promifed obedience. 

13. 2. Nevertheleffe , rn refped, this Law did partly 
depend on the peculiar ftate of that people, it cannot bee ia 
its rigour extended to all people. 


Of Mee\eneffe, Tatience, Long-fufftrivg, 
and Placability. 

Queft. 'It\7{ J Hat he the grounds of thefc ver» 

V V msi 

1. Anf. 1, That Meekenefle towards God, whereby 
wee receive his word with quiet and coiupofedaflfc&ion, 
lam. 1 ^i^zz.andfubmitouriclvesuntohisyokejC^f^/A. , 

2.2. That Charity towards our brethren,whereby wee 
wifli unto them all g^ od, and pitty their afflidions, Gal, 3, ' 
22^23. Ephef.^,2. Tit. 3,2. 

3. 3. Humility, whereby wee are ready tofubmitta 
our brethren for their good, Ephe/l 4, 2 . CoL 3, 1 2, 1 Tet. 
5,5. Phil. 2, ?# 

Queft. 2. Bjwhat meanes are thefevertues difcernabie 


OfUeehneJJe y Patience^ &cl 143 

from other difpo ft ions, nhkh hare fome refembUHcemth 
tbefe^tnd ufuallj the names ? 

l+t esfxf. I, Thefe Vcrtucs doc flhcw themfelves in 
quite different wayes, as reafon perfwades.and as caufc dcth 
require, Gal. 4, 20. ?*d. 22, 23. For it is not indeed, 
Msekeneffc or Patience^ but meere ftolidity rather, which 
doth not conceive the caufes andreafons of things 3 ajid right- 
ly weigh and ponder them* 

5. 2. Thefe Vertuescaufe men, willingly to part with 
many things, which are properly their owne , but by no 
meanes will they fuflfer any thing of Gods right to bee 
bated, G*l t 4 I*. For it is not Chriftianpacience or meeke- 
nefle, but a m-erefhipid dulneffe, which doth not, with 
zealeop^ofeitfelfeagairiftalllirrc, 1 ^^12.13. 

6. 3. Thcle Vertues doe fo difpofe a man, that they 
doe not at all hinder him, but hclpc him, in feeking the 

§ amendment of his brother that finneth, Gal. 6, 1, For it is 
too fonda tenderneffe, and not meekeneff , which doth {o 
much refpect peace, that it ncgle&s the arc of it's du- 

7. 4. So that thefe kind of Vertues, though they fiiouldt 
never bee altogether wanting in a Chriftianman, yet fomc- 
times, in reiped of tteexercife of them, they ought cobe^ 
intermitted, x Cor. 4, 2 1. 

Queft. 3. By what motives is the mindofman y ftirred ' 
upto the #udj of thefe Vcrtfie^ 

8. Anf. i« If wee conGder the mcckenefte, patience, 
and long- fuffering,vvhich God fhewcth towards us j Eph.^. 

$2, Cbl.lt 13- 

$>< 2. If wee but confxder our fdves, what wee have 
3 beene, 7V. 3, 3 1 and what ftill wee are, Gal % 6,1. * 

1 o* 3 . It we confider, how God can, and ufually dotb» : 
diipence his grace, a Tim. 2, 25, 


!^ of * urnus t*wrati?,d*atfivrAui, 

Chap. XX VII I. 

Of Slowncs to wrath, and of Wrath. 

'Queft. I. X 1\ lH*p kind of fault u Slovenes to 

\\ wrath* 
l . Anf % i , It is a fault atifing from dcfcft of anger, by 
Which the duty of juftice, or charity, whereby a man is 
bouiTdcoadaicnifbiChide, andpuniih an offender is inter- 

t. 2 /It hath indeed fome refembknee with mcoke- 
nefie, but fuch a one as boldnefife hath with fortitude, and 
obftinacy with conitancy. 

3. 3. It hath fome fhew of long-fuffering , or that 
flownes to wrath, which is a ver tuc. But here 1^ the diffe- 
rence, that the long- fuffenng man is flow to wrath out of 
underftanding , and that not humane but heavenly , Urn. g, 
I7. But this is either out of duiaefTeoi nature,or of hum ne 
and carnall wi'edome. , 

4. 4. "The proper ev ill therefore , in this flownes to 
wrat%(of which wee fpeake,) is when it is thecaufe of 
the omiffion of fome duty to bee done,i Cor. 5. with 2 Cor. 
7. 11. 

Queft. 2. What k±nd of finne IsWrathl 

5. tsf*f*. 1. It is a finne inexceffe of anger, becaufc it 
obf erveth not the due meane. 

6. i. Now it is a finne, Rift, in refpeft of the inpulfive 
c&iife, when without juft occafion one is moved to anger 5 
<JWatth.$.tt. { 

7. 5, Secondly, In refpeft of the degree or meafure, 
though in a jutt caafe, (Jen. 49, 7. % 

8. 4. In the refped of the end, when it is not dire&ed ' 
^to the glory of God, andreprefling of finne, but israifed 

cither for our credit lake, or our pride, or our profit. Prov. 
Jj, *4> a "d ai. 24 and 28, 25. 

-9. 5 . In regard of the dire& eflfe&s, as when itbVeakes 
?? * n ?? e ????? t l?. M - * n 4 c wfag s i J [aim. lotf , 3 3 . 

10, 6.1n 

of concord and Good-will. 

10. 6. In regard of the indircft cffe&sas when it be- 
reaves a man ot his undemanding; Prov. \6 % 3*. Luc. 
3i. ip. Or renders him unfit to execute Gods Iuftice, 
(id eft } ) to performe thofc duties which God hath pre- 
ferred and doth require. 

ii. 7. In regard of the time it laftetb, when in due 
tltus it is not appcafed^ Epbef 4, 25. 

Chap. XXIX. 

Of Concord and Gocd-mE. 

Qucft. 1. TN r*h*t thing conp ft eth Concord? 

JL 1. A\ 1. Concord is commendable in 
that which is good, but not in that, which is naught. For 
otherwife bee the defigne knovvne to bee naught, which 
they confpire about it is fa&ion not Concord; but if that 
which is naught fcemeto bee good it is an apparent Con- 
cord onely, and not a true one; 'Phil, i, 27, and 2. 2. and 

3. 4. 2. Hence true Concord is not properly among 
any but the good, becaufe it is verTed about that, which is 
good,which i$ not indeed any way fought for but by thofc, 
• which are good themfeives, Infomuch, that there is never 
any folid Concord among the wicked: becaufe the ob- 
je& and ground e>ftrue Concord is ftill wanting, 

3. A. 3. Concord is an agreement of Hearts or Wils 
about fome defireable good : fo that although in many 
things it may feeme little different from peace ,yet it con* 
taines within it fomewhat more; for wee may have peace 
with the wicked; Jignan. n. i«. but no Con- 

4. A. 4. Now becaufe the Wils of men, may bee uni- 
ted in fome one good, aadyct not have a perfed harmony 
of opinions aboutthofe things, which belong to that good; 
therefore a diffent of opinions about thofe tbirgs, which 
arc not abfolutciy neceffary, although it (omewhat take 
from the perfection of Concord, yet it is not repugnant 

Zz to 


l$a Of *s€<l*AMmitf. 

to Concord it fclfc; Phil. ?. 1$. 16. 

Queft. 2. Whether or n$ Concord bee* difiinEl vertxe 

5, vZnf. 1; Concord as it implies an effect of onion 
betwecne divers parties, isnot it fclfe a vertue, bat fome- 
what flowing from the vertue of thofe divers. But the love 
of Concord is an aft of vertue* But the inclination and difpo- 
fition to this love, is oncly rationally diftinguiflied from 

6. A. 2. The defire of Concord is neceffary ; Firft, 
In refpeft of Charity from whence it flowes, and which 
it cheri(lieth,promoteth 5 andcompleteth. 

Secondly, In regard of luftice, whofe impediments it 

Thirdly, In regard both of publike and private felicity, 
which is more eaffly alwayes procured by theimitedforce* \ 
of agreeing good men* 

Queft. 3. In What tbwg conftfteth goodwill ? 

7 # *Anf. 1 • It properly confiftcth in that de(irc,where- 
by wecwifh well to other men : But,Firft, The true and 
principall good things are to bee wifht both to others and » 
to our fclvesj Imeanc Spirituall good things, and other 
things oncly ,as they may further thefe, 3 lohn 2.2. 

Secondly, No good is to bee wifhed to one manywbich 
may by aoy moanes bee pre/udiciall to another. There- 
fore wee may not wiflx> thatthofe may thrive either 
in wealth or honour , who plot mifchiefe againft 0- 


Of ss£quAnimity\ 

Quffti 3, V 7 X 7/7** is <s£q»Ammitj ? 

V V I. A?tf. x. ^Equanimity fsthafc> 
Moderation in convcrfation, with men, whereby Gon- 
twA good will and peace is maintained; ?W, 4, 5.* 

a * *\ •* Now this Moderation confifteth properly in 

Of MMpUghttTo i % j 

A relaxation of the ftri& and rigid Law, as'rcafon ftvall 
thinfce fit; all circumftances being rightly considered. 

3. A. 3. But this Relaxation that may partake the 
nature of a vcrtue § is to carry an even temper betweene 
twoextrcames; fo that it doe not without difcrction rc- 
laxe or pardon, either ail things or nothing* 

4« C/f 4* This moderation in the ftrft place is to bee 
obferved 111 our fpeecb, fo that wee doe not arrogate fo 
much to our felves by our wotdsasourdueis; Phtlcm. 
18. 19. 

j # A. 5. It muft bee observed too in our deeds, that 
wee doc not alwayes indeed challenge that right, 
Which by our fpeech perhaps wee maintaineto bee due; 
l Cor.g. 15. 

6. tA* 6. The like Moderation istobceobfervedina 
gentle toleration of thofe infirmities in others, which w ee 
cannot by any meanes cure- %om % 15 • i # 1 Thejfal. 5* 

M- . a 

7* A* j. This fame -/Equanimity is to bee excrcifed 
in the interpreting of other mens words or deeds, fo that 
wee allow of all that is good, and cntertaine all doubtful! 
things in the better fenfe as farrc as may beej and that wee 
doe not too much aggravate what is eviil , I £V. 


8, A. 8, It is to bee exerciled inpafling by and par- 
doning manifeft injuries, when thereby either Gods glo- 
ry, or the publike or private good of any men may thence 
bee probably expe&cd* 1 Cor. 13.7. 

Chap. XXXI, 

Of Manslaughter. 

Queft. I* \7\ l Ha * * Manjldugbter} 

V V !♦ e/*»/- 1. ^By Manflaughter is 
meafttany unlawful! killing of a man, to which may bee 
referred the maiming of a man as being an imperfeft 
and inchoate killing* Hence it is no finnc of Manslaughter, 


17 where a man is killed by JWHce. But to this Juflicc, thy 

conditions muft needs concurre* Firft, That the caufc bee 
weighty and juft. Secondly, That it bee done by publike 
authority. Thirdly, That k bee done orderly and by Juft 
meanes. Fourthly, That it bee done out of right intention 
and ztale for Iuftice, notoutofwrath,hatred,ordcfireof 
private revenge, or any other inordinate paflion. 

Qflcb- a. What ** *) u ft c * u f e tlMt * m * n &™M b?c 

2. e^ That onely in confeience ought to bee held 
a j uft caufe, which God in his law hath fct do wnc for /uft, 
cither in exprefle words, or by cleere conference : the 
life of a man is not fub/efl to the .pleafure of any but of 
- him, who is the Authour and Lord of life. It is the part 
of ail men to obey the taw which forbids murder, without 
any exception which is not allowed by the Authour of 
the Law* 

Queft. 3. Whether it bee not in fome cafes Uy*fuH to 
ktttthe innocent? 

j . tiA. Out of intention and defigne, if is by nomeanes 
lawfiill in any cafe : : 

Butfirft, It is foroeticnes lawfull to deliver an innocent 
to fome that will kill him> As in cafe, a Tyrant would 
quitedeftroya City, were not fome innocent man given 
to his rage : That innocent man isbound by the Law of na- 
ture to offer himfelfe to dy, for- the (afety of the whole 
Common- wealth ; Nay the Common- wealth cannot re- 
taine or defend him, bpt ought to urge him to the perfor- 
mance of his duty in this part. 

Secondly , By accident an innocent may fometiftes 
bee killed. As if irt eafe necefficy require, that fome one 
or more guilty fhould beckilled,and they defend themfelves - 
fay the interpofit ion of one not guilty : Or in cafe, any man 
flying for his life through a narrow paffage, cannot choofe 
but trample upon another, 

Qucft. 4. Whether > it bee nat Uwfullf to k±tt 4 man 
fometimes bjpivate authority ? 

4 v ^f. I* It is fomctimes lawfuU to kill a man without 
$ying any publike notice thereof, -hilt it is then onelylaw- 


full,whenthe caufe doth evidently require* that it ftould 
bee done ; and there is t\o poffibility of making publike 
complaint : for in fuch a cafe every private man becomes a 
Minifter of publike lattice* as Weliby Gods allowance, as 
Mans confent, 

5.. A. 2. Hence it is no doubt, but a ro^n lawfully 
fometimes in his owne defence kill one that affaults or fees 
upon him, 

6. A. 3. But that this may bee lawful!.' It is,FM, 
Requisite that the affault > bee violent and properly io 
termed;For it is force qnly which mull be repelled by force, 
and not every injury* 

Secondly* That the proper and true defence bee in the 
very a& of the affault, at leaftina»w*//fenfeif not in a 
phyficall, and not any prevention of the affault orfubfe- 
quent vindication § for if the afsault may with any poffibi- 
lity bee avoy ded, no reafon will allow that it fhould come 
to this. 

Thirdly, Th# nothing bee pffred under flicw of de- 
fence which is not neceisary to that end, for if it exceed 
meafiireor the moderation of a blamelefse fafeguatd, it is 
not properly a defence , but one afsault oppofite to ano* 

7. A. 4. The j unification, or recovery of a mans hoi 
nour, whether it fuffer by words or any reprcachfuil fignes, 
or by deeds,as by a blow, or any flanderous accufation^ or 
by provoking to fight, or the like, is by fome reduced to 
this kind of defenfe, but very un juftly. 

For firft, This honour* which is fo much florid upon, is 
for the moftpart ^ vaine thing, depending on the opinion 
ofvaine men, and by no meanes comparable to the life ofa 

Secondly, True honour is rather advanced then im- 
paired by the contempt of fuch kind of in juries. 

Thirdly, Any man may defend His honour by fowcother 

Fourthly, That impaired credit, cannot bee made whole 
by the death of the Petra&our> 

Fifdy, If this #w granted, the y^ay weteopentpfre- 
qwnt Murders, Xr* •-- S.^y t Tet 

g. A; 5. Yet this defence is* juftly referred to the guar- 
ding of ones cbaftity , becaufe hee that affaultcth anothers 
chaftity, doth offer the greateft violence that may bee, and 
that 'with fo heynous and irrcpairable an injury, that 
it may feeme rightly to bee equall to death it felfc. 

p. A. 6. It is rightly too extended to the defence not 
onely of our felvcs, bat of others that are innocent. For 
this is required of the Law, that wee lore our neighbour 

10. A. 7. Now the perfon afsaulting or f'ome other 
circumftanccs may bee fuch, that hee that is afsaulted, 
fhould rather fuflfer death then refift with any fuch de- 

Queft. 6. Whether in no cafe it bee UyvfuU to kjll ones 

ii. A. 1. To kill ones iclfe out of dircft intention 
to to doe, is one of the mod heynous kinds of Mur- 

Firft, It is a grievous finncagainft the authority of God, 
who is the (blc Lord of life. 

Secondly, It (inneth againft the goodnefieof God, whofe ' 
great benefit it contemnetb. 

Thirdly, Againft the providence of God, whofe order 
of things it endeavourcth to difturbe. m 

Fourthly, It is a finne againft charity, whereby a man 
is bound to defend his owne life no lefse then his neigh- 

Fiftly, Againft Iuftice, which doth not allow any man 
for his private pleafure to deprive the Common-wealth 
and other Societies, of which every man is part of any one 
member. ' ' 

Sixthly, Againft the Common inclination of nature,and . 
To againft the Law of nature. , 

12. A ♦ 2. It doth not ejraife this finne, though it bec < 
«Joae for the avoy dance 6f any great evils whatfoever, or 
for the getting any great good whatfoever.- or for re- 
venge upon our felvcs for our finncspaft* For no t ma» is 
a competent Iudge to decree fiicha thing upon himfelfc: 
^or jsevill tobeedpn?, that good may wm thcreor, ce 


of Uanfimghuf. \%*j 

that other evils may not folio wj and therefore In vainc is 
that faft of Srtutby fomeexcufediwho fell upon his fword, 
kaft hce (hould have beene mocked by God and his Ene- 
mies; i Sam* 31. 4. And fuch was the faft of Hazis, 
2 Mack. 14 

13. A. 3. Ncverthclefsc it islawfull and fometimes 
juft,tbataman fuffer himfelfe to bee killed by another ; and 
not forbidding him whenitisinhispovrer, whether it 6ce 
for the fatisfaftion of Iuftice, or for the great good of o- 
thcrs either pubhke or private, for this is not to doecvill, 
bat onely to faffcr it. 

14. A, 4. It is lawful! too fometimes to expofc ones 
felfe to fuch a danger, by which death muft necefsarily 
though indircftly follow.- So a fouldier may kcepc his 
Station, or obey any command of his Leader though hce 
know hee (hall therein bee killed. So Sampfon ("out of 
Angular infiina^ did dtrefl Ij intend to kill the Philiftims 
and not himfelfe, although hce fore fa w> that hisowpe 
death muft needs follow, Iudg. i6« 30. And fomewhat 
like is the cafe of thofe, who With gun-powder blow up 
the (hip they are in, lead the Enemy fliould poftefscher, 
For they doc not direftly intend to kill themfclves, but dil- 
advantage the Enemy. 

Qucft. 7« Whether or no the cafuaR hillingofaman bee 

15. A.i. Thatisfaid to bee done by chance, which i^ 
done btfide the fcope and intention of the Doer. And 
this may bee done two manner of wayes* Tor it is either 
abfolutely befide intention both in it felfe and in its caufe, 
orinitfclfe onely and not in it'scaufe. If manbecflaine 
she firft way it is not Manslaughter, but onely mtterialljfo 
and fo itisnofinne, becaufe it is by no meancs voluntary; 
Exod*%i m .t$.Numb.i'$.itii$ m Dem* 1^.5. 

1 6. *A % 2. If it bee done the latter way, it is the finnc 
of Manfiaughter,but weightier or lighter, as it. was more qi 
icfie voluntary in thecaufe* 

17.. if, 3, And in fuch cafes bee finncs moft, who 
doth fomc unlawfull aft, whereupon immediately fol- 
low tth the death ©f another : As ifamanfeouldun/uftly 

ftrikc another without any thought of ktUw% hiavandye* 
his death (houldfolbw upon the tiroke; 

it.iA. 4» The next degree offinne, is when a man 
dothanunlawfull aA,wherupoii the death of another fol- 
lovveth mediately or by another party: As if a man (houid 
cherifh fame Ruffian or notable Murderer, although foec 
doth it not to that intent that hee (hould kill any bo- 

\<f. A. 5. Hee finneth heavily in this kind, who being 
about fome warrantable bufineffc, doth not take fpcciall 
care to avoid ManQaughter. As when any mandifchargeth 
a Gunne, or throwes a dartorftiootethan arrow without 
any care, not regarding whether any body bee in the way 
or no« 

30. A. 6. Butfceing,fomearebyduty bound to have a 
more fpeciailcarc for the prevention of Murders, any ncg- 
gligence in fuch pcrfons is joyned with the greateft gift: 
as if the Minifters of publike Iuftice doe not do their du- 
ties in preventing Murders and all caufesor occafionsof 
•. thetn. 

21. *A. 7. Nor indeed can thofc bee well etfeufed, , 
who negleft that duty, which out of. Charity they are 
bound to per forme, as in cafe one doe not fuccour ^pother 
in great-danger* when hee may. 

Chap- XXXII. 


Queft. I. T 1\ iHether or no Duels bee Uyrfull I { 
V V I. Anf % By , Duels in this Que- 
ftionisnot underftood every fmgle combate or fight be- 
twixt two (for fo thencceflary defence of ones owne life # 
againft an aflauitei fliould bee called in qucftion$) bat fuch 
a one onely, which is dire&ly and voluntarily undertaken, 
upon agreement andbargaine, with danger pfkiUir^ or 
mayming. And fuch kind of Duels arefitnpiy to bee con- 
densed, as well in him th« receives the challenge, as 


Of Duels. x&i" 

hitn that provokes, though the fault bec greater in him 
that provokes. 

■* i. ssf. 2, There is no allowance offuchakindoffight 
in all the Scriptures, fo that the Lawcs of duelling (asalfo 
of drinking,) were never ofGods writing, but of the Di- 
vels tradirion for the ruine of Mankind. The coaibate of 
David with goliah, betides that it was with publike au- 
thority undertaken, and for the common good- and as it 
were a partiall Battle, having no correfpondence to a 
private duell agreed upon two, was alfo out of a Angular 
morion of the Holy Gho(t,and fo not ordinarily to bee imi- 

3 A. j. It is not ameanes apt, fit, or heceffarytoany 
good end. Not to the cleering of any doub:full truth, or 
the quitting ones fclfc of any accufation, becaufe feeing, 
God hath no where promifed, that he will by this meanes 
give a testimony to truth, to advife with or call his extra- 
ordinary providence thereto, is nothing elfc. but by a 
Diveilifti invention to tempt God. Not to the defence 
of worldly honour, becauie that honour which is to bee 
maintained this way, is vaine, and oncly in credit with 
vame men, who out of a perverfeabufe and barbarous cu* 
ftome have chenflit fuch an opinion, which honour or re- 
putation whofocver preferrcs before the honour of Gocf, 
which muft needs bee violaited by fuchfinne, is not fit to 
bee reckoned among Chriitians. Not to the defence of 
the honour of God, as if any man fhouid challenge an in* 
fidell, or accept a challenge from him, that fo upon the l» 
vent the true faith fliould appeare. Becau{e fo eithec 
the infallible truth of faith , fhouid rely upon a fallible 
sneanes, or elfe a miracle muft be prefumptuoufly- expc&ed 
6t Gods hands, which cannot bee without tempting of 
God. Not to the execution of any juft revenge, becaufe 
neither is there any revenge allowed to private men> nei- 
ther in that equall condition which Duellers are in , is 
there that power which is rcquifite to the revenging of in- 

4.-v*. 4. A Duell is a Warre betwixt two, which fs 
flo morclawfull then betwixt many t and fo is of the fame 

£23 ^ *»s 


nature as a Civill Warre, which willingly or fay compact 
to undertake all men would account for a madncfTe* 

5. A. 5. In a DuelUeverymanishisownludgcinhis 
proper caufc,& that too being diftempered by anger, rage, 
anddefire ofreverige^andfubjeastohiiiifelfeto the fame- 
danger with his adyerfary^n either flight or waighty c ufe* 


Of Warre. 

Qucft. !• \J\JHethcr or f?o Want bse lawful? 
V V for Chrifiians. 

x. 4. It is called a Warre, when there is a ftrifeby 
force, which is either privately undertaken of whkh wee 
Ipokebcforc.orpublikely, which is now the Queftion. 

2. A. x, Warre by it felfe, nakedly and entirely cc iW 
fidercd is a kind of evill. 

For firft, On one fide at the leaft, there is the evill of 
guilt or fin : becaufe there can be no War juft on both fides*. 

Secondly, On both parts there is the evill of punifhmcnr^ 
for the many inconveniences, which it alwayes bringeth 
with it.Whencein the Scripturcait is reckoned among the 
heavieft of Gods judgements* 

3^ A. z. Hence it is a figne of a barbarous and crudl 
man, if any one bee given to warre (imply defiring it and- 
delighting in it,P/i/.- 120. 7, 

4. A. 5. NevetthelcfTe by it fclfe and intrinfecally 
considered it is not alwayes unlawfull, but it may bee war* 
ranted upon iomc conditions : for had it beenc fo unlawful! 
then certainely it had never beenc allowedly God in the' 
old Teftament, which no body can deny,. 

5 . A^ 4. Iohn the Baptifi the forerunner of Ch r I s t ( 
; in his Sermon of the Kingdome of God, or the Baptifme 
pfrcpentancetotheforgivene{Je of finne, (idefi,) Of the 
new Feftament, Luc. 3* 14. being asked about the duty 
of Souldiers,p«rfwadcth them not to caft away their armes^ 
but to ufe them rightly*. And the like, is the rcaion of 


Of Duels. iZf 

tire Ccntutious and Souidiers, which were converted to 
Chr I s t ; Luc. j 4 Aft. io. Aft. 13.12, 

6. A. 5. Christ theLotdjMatt. 22. teachcthasto 
gtveunto Ctfar the things that are C^f drf y among which 
were payments for fouldicrs wages and cofts of Warre, 
which it were unlawful! to fiipply^if War re (imply were 

7. tsf. 6. The Apoftlc, %on%. 13. doth openly wit- 
nefle, that a fupcreminent power doth bearc the fword, 
as the Minifter of God, and therefore that the publike 
power of the fword is to fuch committed. 

8. A. 7. In the Apocalipfe are -many Prophefies of 
Warrcs,which the Children of God fliould wage* and that ^ 
with evident allowance. 

9. A. 8. That higheft power hath authority by tit 
Law of nature (the Apoftlein the 12. to the ^^ap- 
proving it)to repcli injuries and vindicate the fulrfed from 
them: But it often falleth out, that that cannot bee done 
without open Warrc 

10. ex/. p # Thofc things whicft are contrarily ob;e- 
ftedout of Ulfatth. 5. and tbf like places doe not (hew, 
that all Warre is finiply rjIawfclU 

Forfirft, There JTno new thing there en joyned,which 
cannot be fliftfedas a Precept in the old Teflarnent, where 
Warre isaWcd. 

S^rondly, Thofe things which are there faid, arc faid 
to private men , in that they give anyway to their affecti- 
ons and perturbations; Not to publike authority, which by 
God is cemftituted, a Revenger to execute wrath upon him 
ik*t dothtvih* Rom. 13.4. 

Thirdly, There the hatred of enmity and meerc re- 
venge,notthc care of Juftice is forbidden, 

Fourthly, Some Hyperbolicallfpeeches are there ufed f ' 
that wee might bee inftru&ed how wee {hould bec pre- 
pared in our minds with the greateft patience where need 
requketh, and that wee ought todrive that way, to which 
by our nature wee arc moft averfc* 
k Qfceft, 2« Wh«twnditiQnsarc rtquifa tom*k*4 W** 
Iwfnlll — -— -- 

15© yj vrtrre* 

iu A. ~x. Tbere is required a juft caufe, that wee 
fall not into that fault which is fo often with detection 
recorded in the Piahnes; They perfecnte mte : without a 
caufe. Now every light and {mall injury is not a juft 
caufe of Warrc, becaufe Warre being fuch a thing which 
panifaeth men with the mod grievous punifliiuents, itia 
not to bee undertaken, but upon forae in jury , which is great , 
orheynous, either initfeife,, or in the confluences. Nor 
doth a great and heynous injury warrant a Warre, un- 
leflfe after the triall of all meaaes of peace, D-cut. 20. 
jud. 20, 11. 

12. *A> 2, In the fecond place is required juftautho* 
Xity. Now fuch an authority though in relpett of a de* 
f^five Warreit is to bee found in every Common- wealth 
ahhe^himperfeft} becaufe all men have authority by the 
Laivofatfure, to defend themfelves and to repell force 
by force, yet^refpedofanaffaultingWarrejitisnotjCUt 
in the power of a^erfeft Common- wealth, which doth 
not depend nor hath any recourfe to afuperiour. but is in 
all things fiifficicnt it felled entire in every point, which 
is rcqulfitc to a due Govern ml 1 ?^ F°r an aggreffive of 
aflaulting Warre , is the fupreafftfc a& *f vindicative 
Juftice; ler. 39, 5. and 52. p. vhl*\ kind of aft 
can belong to none > but to a fupreame liri^e, fuch & 
one as hath not any fupcriour, to whotp hee^ib r £i have 
recourfe , oc by whom hee may demand fit fotifa? 

15. A. j f Thirdly, A right intention is reqaifite: Not 
ondy fuch a right intention in general! as aynieth at the 
glory of God, (which is the common condition of every 
goodworke) but fuch a fpectali one as immediatly con- 
cerne th the I aft ice of Warre, (id eft 9 ) that the Warre bee 
not waged out of paffion, or hatred, but cut of zcale for 
Iuftice, that Warre may alwayes tend to a ht peace and 
tranquility as to its proper end. 

14. A* 4. Laftly r There is rcquifite a juft manner of 
waging. In which that general rule of doing nothing con- 
trary to the Law of God is as well to bee cbferved, a3 that 
fPQ®Qwl$ !■!*?" W5? doe B?^ 11 !?^^ 8 ^ which is not 


convenient and neceffary for the comparting the end of 
the Warre : Nor may the received Law of Nations bee vio- 

Queft. 3. It is here * Qveftion about th?firfi cond>tion\ 
hoYpfwre thrfe that wage Wmyg are t$ bee acquainted yvitb 
the Jufitce of their caufe. 

15. A. i. The Prince or Authourof the Warre, and 
thofe Souldicrs of the higher ranke, who are admitted to 
Councelsof Warre, arc bound raoft diligently to weigh 
with themfelves, and enquire of other prudent and reli- 
gious men, whether or no they have juft caufe to make 
Warre* For, hee who maketh Warre, beares the place of 
a Iudgc inthehigheft matter. Now a ludgeisboundto 
ufe all diligence in the examination of caufes, that fohce 
may give fentencc out of right judgement. It doth not 
therefore fuffice to the Iuftice of a Warre*that a Prince doe 
beleeve hee hath a juft caufe, but hee muii bee very cer- 
taineupon triall of knowledge. And hence, the adverfe 
parties rcafons, are alwayes to bee heard, if they willdif- 
cufle about, what is fit and good. 

\6 A. 2. If after fufficient examination and delibera- 
tion, the Iudice of the warre doe ftill remaine doubtful L, 
whether the onepartbeeinpoffeffionornor, there ought 
to bee no Warre made, becaufe, hee who wageth Warre 
in a doubtfull caufe, 

Firft, Sinneth in that, Cvhat hee doth, hee doth it not out 
©f faith. 

Secondly, Hee doth rs&ly expofe himfelfe and others 
to moft grievous dangers, as well of finning, as of endu- 
ring the miferie.% 

■■ Thirdly, Hee giveth and executcth the fentencc of vin- 
dicative Iuftice,without any manifeft caufe. 

17, sA. 3. Souldiers of the lower ranke, whkh arc 
fab jefts to the Prince* making Warre, although in a caufe 
manifeftly un/uft, they ought nottoafiiithim, yet if after 
fuch triall as they may conveniently make,the caufe doe not 
sppcareuo juft, they may fight for their Prince. 

Tor firft, Such are not bound, neither are they able ex- 
actly to ponder the caufes of Warre jbgt are onely the 

Aaa 1 ^ £ *? cU : 

Etfecutours of another fentence and inftruments, which arc 
not fo much moved by their owne Councell or delibe- 
ration, as by the Counfeli and deliberation of the principal! 

Secondly, Becaufe inadoubtfull caufcthefaferpartis 
to bee chofen. Now it is {afer ("where no injuftice ap- 
pears J to follow the command of the Prince, and pro- 
vide for his owne and his friends fafety, then for ano- 

i8 # A. 4. Neverthcleffe , fuch Souldiers as are not 
fubjeft to the Piincc making Warre, ought not to aflift 
him in the Warre, if they doubt the lattice thereof, becaufe 
in doubtfull cafes , the (afer fide is to bee chofen«, but Soul- 
diers being, they are free men, if in fuch a cafe, they ab- 
ftaine from Warre doe no man any wrong: and if they 
undertake fuch a Warre, they offer violence to their owne 
conferences, and expofe themfclves to a great fozzard of 
doing the greateft wrong that may bee unto other men. 
And hence is it manifeft , that thofe Souldiers who have 
{alcabie fcufes, and are ready to undertake any warre where 
*cis probable they may have more wages, doc lead a 
molt wicked life, and arcinnowifeexcufable, 

Queft. 4* In the fecond condition, it is a Quefiionyvhe* 
tber it he lawful for a (^hrifiian c Prince m ajuft Warre to 
accept the aid of Infidch) or to give them *id in fuch 4 

1 p. A. 1. This thing confidered absolutely, and by it 
fclfc is not unlawfull for even as it is lawfull in a juft 
Warre to ufe the helpe of bcafts, as of Elephants, Hor- 
fes, &c. Soaifoisit lawfuUtoufetheaidofbeaftlikemenJ 
Wee have a warrantable example hereof in Ahraham, who 
joyned his forces with the forces of the King of Sodome-, 
<$en. 14, 

so, A. 2. Ncvcrthelcffe, by accident this fals out fo 
often to bee unlawfull, that it ought not indeed to bee 
tried without fpeciall heed, 

Firft, Becaufe it bearcs a kind of (how of diffidence, and 
inclination to compafle our ends either by right or wrong, 
35* *!*? 9? ?3 ?2*?wfuU union with the wicked. 

— Secondly, 


Secondly, Bttaufe hence ufuaily, doe arifcthegreatcfl: 
fcandals both bctweene Chriftians and Infidels. 

Thirdly, Bccaufe Infidels ufuaily keepe not faich, and fo 
their ayd proves a loflc. 

21. A, 3. The Ifrttlitss did notonely finnefortbofe 
reafons,whcn they u r cd the ayd ot Infidels.but alfo,becaufe 
they hadafingularprote&ion from Godpromifcdtothem, 
nor could they bee vanquished, as long as they relied upon 
God, 2 Chron % \6 . 8 # p.and 19.2,20,35. 

22. A. 4. Such a League of friendfhip as binds to a 
mutuall aflitlance to any Warre, whatfocver abfolutely 
and without exception of caufe isfcarcely, or rathsr not 
fcarccly fit to bee entred with any faithfuli Prince, much 
lcflfc Infidell. For this were to expofe ones felfe to the 
hazzard of a moft heynous fin, and to fuffer ones confeience 
to depend upon anothers plcafure* 

Qucft. 5 . 1* the third condition, it is a Qxeftion what 
what kind of finne is the Minifier intention of him y that 
makes Wane , as for hatred^ envy, dejire 0^ honour , or 
riches ? 

23. ftA. 1. A bad intention alwayes vitiatcth any mo- 
» rallaftion whatfeever, becaufc the end which is intended 

andmoveth the Will, haththe greateft power in produ- 
cing the a&. Now in waging of VVarre, the finne of a bad 
intention is fo much the more hey nous, by how much the 
more unwillingly any Warre fhould bee undertaken, for 
thecrueley of its nature, though with a good intention and 
not without a jurt and neceflary caufe. 

24. A. 2. Neverthelefle, the workeit felfe (as it is a 
thing different from the action ) is not changed cither by a 
good or bad intention, for the intention is the caufe onely 
of the working* not of the thing w r ought, it appcrtaincth 
to the manner of doing, not to the manner of the thing 
done, which ought alwayes to beecfteemedbyititsovvne 
internal! nature. 

25. *A+ 3. Hence in a Warre undertaken upon juft 
caufe and good authority it is not unlaw full to ufe the helpe 
ofthofe, who fight out of a bad intention, either out of ha- 
»e3,vioicncc # or araktionjQr deftre of prey, 

2^ ^.4. And 

*6. A* 4. And hence alfo a bad intention in a Warre 
other wife juft, although it bee a finne, yet it doth not in- 
ferre any obligation of reft itution , becaufc in it felf e,it is noc 
afinneagainft'luftice, for even asaludge, who puni/htfch 
a roan out of hatred though defervedly , although hee com- 
mit a finne thereby, yet hee is not bound to reftitution, 
even fo nor hee,who out of hatred ma&es a juft W arre. 

27. A. 5. In an unjuft Warre, the bad intention doth 
augm-nt and aggravate the injuftice thereof. For feeing 
the injuftice of the caufe, is fometimes qualified and excufed 
by an invincible ignorance; a tad intention maketh, that 
fuch an ignorance cannot beare the force of an excufe. 

28. A. 6, Befides,not onely that intention which is in 
itfelfebad, but alfo any vaineor frivolous intention, fas 
the oft citation offerees,,) isnotafitcaufefor any roan to 
make a Warre : becaufc it is againft right reafon, to choofe 
la dangerous and dreadfull mcancs to compaffe a vainc end. 

2p. A. 7. Moreover fuch a Iawfull intention, as the 
excrcieof Military forces and the gaining of experience, 
or the expeftation of reward, though it bee in a juft 
Warre, if they are principall motives to it, and not the right 
it felfe, cannot choofc but viciatc the whole a&ion. 

Queft. 6. It U* Que ftion in the fourth condition* Fhjf y 
What perfoms are they that wee may lawfully dtmmage by 
Warre* and how farre may wee dammdge them. 

30. A. u Every juft Warre is waged properly and 
dire&ly againft the Offendours and thofe that arc guilty, 
that is againft thofe, whofecaufc and fault it is, that the 
Warre was begunne. Therefore thofe onely in true vindi- 
cative Iuftice ought dire&ly and of purpofe bee punifhed. 
For without fotne prcceeding crime, no punishment can 
bee juftly infti&ed upon any man. So that the Jfraelites 
feemetobave finned grievoufly, by flaying the Sonnesof 
JjenjamiH without choyce, Ind. 20. 

31. A. 2. Among the guilty, neither Children nor 
ordinarily Women, nor indeed any other quiet men, who 
difagrecirig are forced to ftay with the enemies ought to 
bee numbred. 

3. 2 ! v& 3! Thofc that arc guilty, ate not to bee hurt 


any further then the compafling the /ufi: e nd of the Warre 
doth require, that is fo farrc, that they make a faire reftU 
tutionofthe thing taken away, or that the injury bee Ef- 
ficiently revenged, orapcaceeftablifhed. 

3j. A, 4. Thofe that are innocent may bee hurt, be- 
fides the intention of him that hurteth them, or by accident: 
as it fals out in any lavvfull aflault of a City or Ship, in 
which perhaps, there are fundry perfons that are innocent; 
fointhe fpoile of goods, by which the enemy was fomc 
way more encouraged to a Warre : Becaufc by fuch a con- 
junction, thefe innocents are reckoned with the guilty; and 
all the injury which is offered them, is indeed caufed by 
thofegwlty men; who detaine then in their power, and 
from them reftitution is due : Ncvertheleffe Charity and 
iEquity doth require, that the Warre beefo mannagedas 
the innocent may bee as little damnified as is pofli- 

34. A. j. And hence the leave given to Souldiersto 
fpoile any City, as they (hall pleafe themfelves cannot 
lawfully bee maintained, becaufe among many other hor- 
rid things, which thence follow in fuch a pillage, there is 
no diftin&ion fet betweene the guilty and the inno* 

35. A. 6 : Hence too it is rather to bee thought rob- 
bery then a juft Warre, where the opprerlion of innocent 
husbandmen is intended, and fuch a kind of Warre is that. 
Which Ferdinand the Emperour now wageth in Ger- 

Quc(k 7. I* whte things may wee damnifie Ene- 
mies ? 

$6 \ sAnf, In thofe things, which belong cither to 
their juft punUhment or our neceffary fecurity, as in de- 
priving them of lifcoutward, goods, and liberty* In which 
things coo, fuch a moderation is to bee obferved as the rule 
of Iuftice and the neceflity of the fecurity doeperfwade. 
But there can bee no violence offered to.chaftity, or bee 
permitted without the guilt of a grievous (inne. For fuch 
thirfgs dee neither belong tolultice, nor fecurity, nor in- 
deed can the (inne oi the agent bee here Operated 
~ Bbb ^ ~ " horn 

from the punifhment of the patient 

Queft. 8. Whether or no it bee Lavfull to ufe deceits and 
firatagems in a juft Warre* 

37. *A. i. God himlelfe the Authour of lufticc, did 
by his owne mandate approve of deceits and Military 
firatagems in his people, J of 8. 2. as it is in many other 
examples; ?ttd.j. 16. &e. and 20. ip. 

38. A. 2, But now wee moft not reckon lies among 
lawful! rtratagemsjbecaufe either to give an un)awfull pro- 
ir,ife,or breake a lawfull one, is alwayes unjuft. 

39. A % 3. Neverthekffe, in ilratagems 'tis lawful!, 
hot oncly to conceale your Councels and intents, but alio 
by fome deeds and other fignes to make a (Lew of fome- 
ivhat you do not intendv For although dire&ly in words to 
cxpreflc any thing that is falfe, is anuniulhfiablely, ne- 
yerthelefle, to exprefle either by geftures or deeds fome 
iuch thing, (Meft,) to doe that* which probably may in*- 
ducetbeadverfary togueflewrong,isnolyatali : Becaufc 
ihofe deeds which doe not of their owne nature> nor by 
any : inftitution or mutuall agreement iignific this or that 
bufineffc, are not of th^ fame nature orfpeech, and fo have 
mot any proportion to a ly, although they bee in a wrong 
fenfe taken by the Speftatours> and wee did forefee and 
defire, they would be fo interpreted. 

— , _ . . 

Chap. XXXIV. 

Of the Equity of fame certaine Mofaicall LaWe/ 9 
which belong to the 6* CommAndement* 
>i ■ . ; 

Queft,.I»T7T7ff^. right w& there in thtf % he& 
V V 'which prefzmed'to kill his Neigh- 
four ifbouldfuffef death himfelfe ? Exed.ll* 1 4. 

i, tAnf, 1 4 The fenfe is, and that mofl; juft, thaft the 
intent of killing a mm, or the plotting anothets deaths 
ftiould bee punifihed with death, 

y 2. A. 7. But this is to bee underftood, not of eVery 

kind of gefire to kill another, though in words cxpreffed, 

i ^ ~~~ " ~z% ST" 4 ~ ' but 

Of the Equity of fame certahe Mofaicall Lams] i§^ 

but of fuch an intent fo followed, that the 7 Murder is in 
doing, (that is, J begunne to bee put into aft, in fo much, 
that the Murder may follow, as farre as was in his power, 
that dehred it. 

^3. A. 3- Now fuch an intent, is to bee punched as the 
deed, becaufe fuch a man, bath done allthatinhimlieth 
to kill the other, and fo hath a&ively murdered him,though 
thepaffivc defigne did not perhaps follow. And fo hes 
Chat wittingly and willingly did his endeavour to have the 
innocent condemned, is to bee punifhed as a Murderer, 
Deut.ip. 19. 

4. A. 4. And fuch is the rcafon, in cafe a man by wea- 
pon or poifon attempt to kill another, or if on purpofe, hee 
fitahouieoa fire, in fuch cafes not foniuch the deed as 
the intent, not fo audi the event as the Will and Councell 
is to bee confidered, 

Queft. 2# What right u there in that Law , of giving 
hftefaisfaftionfor the killing or hurting of a Servant, theri 
of A Freeman ? Exod t 21,21,26. 

5. A. 1. There is fome difference betweene Servants 
and Free-people,for matter of firiking, which comes hence; 
in that, Servants and Slaves, are by their condition ob- 
noxious to blowes and ftripes, and are compelled to an- 
fwer their faults by the painc of their bodies; Luk^ 12* 
47.48, But the condition of Ingenuous and Freemen, 
exempts them from all fuch kind of violence, 

* 64 *A< 2. Neverthelefle, the Servant is not fubjc&toi 
his M after as farre as his life; but onely to the utmoft of 
his endeavour, and in all things tending thereto. For God 
onely the Giver of life, is Lord thereof, nor can any but 
God, or hee that bcares the authority of God, as a ludge 
lawfully take it away. 

7. ts4. % The Matter therefore is not to bee excufed, 
if hee ftrike his Servant with a weapon or inftrument of 
(laughter, but if it bee with an inftrument of correftion, 
hee u % Exod> 2 1, 20, 

8 % A. 4, Hee that ftriketh his Servant with a rod, is 
Bot prefumed to have done it with any intent to kill him, 
ugleffe fuch force and cruelty were ufed that $e Ser- 

' uliK 4 ~' vane 


which btUng to the 6. Commmkmmu 
vant dye under his hand, or immediately after the 

bIow ' i . . . . • t 

p. A. s* That rcafon, which is given in the %y % o2 

jExod. ver. 21. {For hee is his money.) Doth not excufe 
a man in the Court of conference, as if his money had 
procured him a title over the death of his Servant, nor in- 
deed in the outward Court, but onely as farre as it is pre- 
fumed, hee had no intent to kill him, hut oncly intended 
to chaftife, and give him due correction; in as much, as hee 
had iod the money, hee bought him for. 

Queft. 3. What Equity is there in thzt Lxw of the 
^Beaft> that kitteth * Man ? 

10. A. Vnrealonable Creatures are punifliable for the 
killing a Man, not as if they had thereby contracted any 
finne to themfelves; (for they are not capable of any guilt; J 
But firft, That the Owners of fuch Bcafts, might there- 
by bee punched, becaufe they had not with diligence and 
care enough kept them in. 

Secondly, That by this meancs,thelifcof matvnight bee 
more tenderly efteemed, and all things that make againft 
it, might bee had in the more detection. 

Thirdly, That beaftly minded men by the death of fuch 
3Bea(ls,might the more bee deterred from Murders. 

Queft. 4. Wh*t Equity was there in that Law, which 
f&rbade men to kUl fame certaine Heafts? Bent. 22. 
6. &c* 

11. Anf. Divers things of this kind are forbidden, not 
as if they were Murders or finncs properly againft Iuftice; 

But firft , Becaufe in fuch things, the cruelty and fa* 
vagencs of fome mens natures, appeareth, and is exercifed 
and encreafed thereby > whence Murders oftentimes 
ipring. Prov. 12*io # 

Secondly, Becaufe by fuch rudiments men, are taught 
to abhorre cruelty. 

Thirdly, Becaufe God would acenftomehis peoples 
keepe themfelves from fuch kind of finnes, nay from the 
very (hew of them- Tor God would have his Law guar- 
ded with fuch kind of in/unftions as with bounds to keepe 
men off from mots heynous finncs. Now asthc bounds 


of the equity of feme certaiae Mofaicall Lines &f. 19 5 

and wall which defended the houfe was rcckon'dasone 
With the houfe, fo thefe appendixes to the Commande- 
ments,make but one Decalogue. L\ke to this, is the rcafon 
that forbiddeth to boylea kid in the Dams milfce, Exod. 
2$. ip.and 34. i6.Deut.\<\ % 22. &c. 

Queft. 5* What right is there tn forbidding to eate 
bloudl Lev. 7. 27. and 17. Io. and ip. 26.Deut.12. 

1 2. A. This law partly aymes at the further detec- 
tion of cruelty; in which refpeft* it is joyncd with that 
fevere prohibition of Murder, Gen p, 4. 5. and partly 
for a Religious and Typical! obfervatiomin which refpeft, 
it is /oyned with the Law of facrificing ; Lev. 17. 10. 

Queft. 6. What ^Equity t»M there in the corfiltution 
cf places of refuge by the Law > Exod* 21, i^Nton. 35*. 
*l.Deut< 1 9. 4. 

13. A. 1. They were not properly places ofbanifti- 
ment, but of refuge; for banifhment is a pinifhment, buc 
refuge tendeth to an immunity from punifihment. Nor 
iindecd is there any thing in the Law read offuch apu- 
nifliment as banifhment* all punilhraents being either by 
deatb,mul&,ftripes,or fervitude. 

14. A. 2 This refuge was provided for thofeonetv, 
jvko had unawares killed any man, as by the inftrutn ;.c 
and manner is defcribed, Num. 35. and is llhtftfated y 
an example, Dent* ip, But to Wilfult Murderers, a!Hucfr 
refuge, is feverely denied 5 Exod, t\. 13. of wriich wee 
have an example in the 1 Reg. 1 . and 2. 

I J. *sf. 3. This refuge was provided for the innocent 
to defend them from the heedleffe and ra(h fury of the 
friends of him that wa^fo killed, not to take them out of 
the Magiftratesjurifdi&ion. 

16. A. 4. The ordinary places of refuge, were fome 
certaine Cities of the Lci4h*> not onely that thofethac 
fled thither, might rcmaine in more fcciinty by thenwe- 
rence, which all gavetothe i>t/ft«, butalfo, that by their 
examples and advice, they might the better bee inftruftsd, 
both to a religious bearing of themfelves under their cono 
— --,„--_-& » _,. ditioiv 

%p$ Of Wedlock. 

cfitioflj and tothecarefull execution of other parts of their 

17. A. j. The extraordinary places of- refuge, were 
the Temple and the Altar of God, Sxod. n. 14. Becaufc 
the reverence of God, which was moved in all men at fight 
of that place, did reprefle all violence. 

1 8. A. 6. In ordinary places of refuge , the Man« 
flayer might ftay, till fuch time as the anger,griefe,and trou- 
ble which the deccafed parties friends had conceived were 
over : Now that time did depend upon the life of the high 
Priefi, partly that by Gods confent,hee might bee reftored 
and partly that an opportunity of reconciliation, might bee 
taken from the joy of that new iucceffion* 

Ip* A. 7. If before that time,thc Man-flayer was taken 
out of the City of refuge, it was indulged to the griefe 
of the deads friends,that they might unqueftioned kill him. 

20. A. 8. The ^Equity of fuch places, wasj Firft,In 
that Man- flayers were not to bee punifhed before the caufe 
was heard. 

Secondly, In that it was fitj fuch (hould be fuccourcd 
who either againft or befide their intent had done fome ( 

Thirdly, That there was an account to bee made of the 
naturall griefe of men. 

Fourthly, That there was a Angular reverence due to' 
holy places, but yet that there was not any impunity gran- 
ted to wicked men for their fakes. 

.Chap. XXXV, 

Of Wedlock 

Queft. 1. X7\ iHicbu the mere excellent ft*tt,M4r* 

V \l rUge or Jingle Life} 
1. A. 1. If they are (imply and by themfehres confi- 
dcred, there is neither yercue nor vice, nor any worke 


Of Wedlock. 
morally good or bad included in cither, bzcmfc they arc 
naturall formes of living, neither of which is either en- 
joynedor forbidden, i Cor 7. 25. Seeing then, that nei- 
ther (late is morally good but indifferent, it cannot bee pro- 
perly faid of either,that it h better then the other. 

2* /. 2 Now becaulc among thofe things, which are 
of a middle nature, and neither good nor bad, fame are 
greater furcherers of vcrtueand good works.andfome lefle* 
(as knowledge doth more helpe piecy then ftrength of 
body, or riches;) they are therefore to bee eflcemedcrne- 
glefted according to the power they have that way. And 
in thisfenfe is the prefect queftion of the comparifonof 
'Wedlock, and a (ingle life to bee understood. 

3. A.<$> Now in this very comparifon* if the things 
bee abfolutely confidcred, the Hate of Wedlock feemeth 
more excellent. 

Firft, Bccaufe in the beginning, it was ordained by God,- 
for the bettering mans condition, Gen. 2.18. 

Secondly, Becaufe> that fince the fall, it hath that end, 
and ufe that it direfrly makes for the avoyding of finnes 
»aijd temptations; 1 £V, 7,2. 5 9. And by that meanes 
for the confervation and promotion of vertue. 

4 # A. 4. But if the comparifon bee made in refpeflr 
Ql this or that perfon, judgement muit then bee given 
partly from the gift he hath ,and partly from thofe circum- 
iiances which fanl comprehendeth under the name of 
prefent neccfilty, 1 Cor. 7. 7. And if any man according 
to this consideration hath the gift or power ,that other con* 
ditions concurring, hee findctfr himfelfe better able de-. 
cently and fitly to fervc God in his (ingle life, it is better 
for him to remaine fo, Verfe 26, But if any after diligent' 
examination, fee that hee cannot doe his bufineffcfoholi- 
ly and conveniently in fingle life as in Wedlock, to fu:h 
a*xne,the ftateof Marriage^ is better then f Ingle hfe. 

$♦ ^5% Thisisthefummeof the Apoftlos- advice, that 
hee, who by temfperance,and diligent warineffe and prayer, 
cannqt avoyd burning, (id eft]) fuch a burning of concu- 
pifcence which difturbeth the peace of confdence, (hould 
chooft Wedlock : gut as long a? by fuch meaner a man 
-** ; ' ~*~* max 


-j Of we***. 

may avoid bur ning all tbings being equally considered ,it is 
better for a man to continue (ingle, fpecialiy in time of per- 
fection or the like. 

Queft* 2. Whether or no 7 4*4 for what reafon 7otyg*mj 
is hx law full ? 

6. tsivf. i . Polygamy is a finne againfl; the firft in; 
ftituticn and law of Marriage, Gen. 2 . 

For firft, God made one Man and one Woman, and * 
Joyned them together : infomucb,that what is fuperadded, 
mutt needs bee monftrous, cJ3£*/. 2, 15. 

Secondly, By anedift from God, it is ratified that two 
onely, not three or m^reftiould bee one flefli, and that the 
Husband fliould cleave unto his Wife not to his Wives, 
Adattb. j p. 5. 

7. c^f. 2. Moreover, it is a finne againfl: the law of 
nature and right reafon. 

For firft, it is againft that inftinft,which is inbred in m£n 
by nature. / 

Secondly, It is contrary to the nature of con jugall af- 
fection, which is fofingular and proper to one, that it can-; 
not admit any third perfoa to the communion of the fame < 
thing,as experience flicweth us in con/ugall Jealou- 

8. A. 3. It is againlt the nature of the Matrimonial! 
contra&, whereby it comes to pafft, that the Married party 
hath not his body in his owne power, I Or* 7. 4. Whence 
bee that joyneth himfelfc to another Wife, is £aid, to deale 
treacheroujlj and unjuf) ly y Mai. 2. 14.15. 

9. A. 4, It is againft that united care, which fliould bee 
bad of the progeny, and which the end of Wedlock re; 

10. A. 5. It is contrary to that perfedion , vhich is 
found in fome brute beafts. For many fowles are obfer- t 
ycdnot to couplcbut with one only,taught mectely'1>y the 
mftinft of nature : and reafon doth di<5tate,tbat man fliould 
bavc greater continence, then any fowle whatfoever. 

1 1. A. 6. It is againft that naturall principle, Doe net 
ih*t to an$thjr , which] oh wohU mt htv* another doe unit 

Of Wedlock. \$% 

12. A. *j. It dcftroyeth the peace of the family, as ex- 
perience teacheth, <7'**4* *3* and 30. 1 Sam. 1.6. Lev* 

13. e//. 8. Thofe ancient Fathers, who married more 
Wives then one, cannot bee excufed, unlefle they hadfomc 
Angular difpenfation. But becaufe there is nothing itt 
Scripture manifefted unto us of any fuch difpcnfation> wee 
cannot affirme anything for ccrtaine, then that God tole- 
rated fome fiich things in them , and converted them to 

Queft. 3. Whether or no ^andhow farre too nigh an affi- 
nity hindereth Marriage ? 

14. csf* i. That affinity which is contra&ed bycarnall 
propagation from the fame immediate ftockand is called 
kindred of bloud is a natural! impediment of Marriage. 

Firft, Becaufe fuchkinsfolke are from the beginning one 
fleflh, and therefore arc not fo fit to bee made one of two, 
which is the nature of Wedlock. 

Secondly j Becaufe nature teacheth us to pay a peculiar 
obfervancc and reverence to our Parents, and the next of 
our kinne, which reverence and obfervancc cannot agree 
With the ufe of a con jugall ftate. 

Thirdly, Becaufe the encrca r e of neernefTe and friend- 
ship, ( which is one of the fruits of Wedlock; ) in fuch a 
marriage of kinsfolkc woidd bee loft. 

Fourthly, Becaufe the familiarity and acquaintance of 
kindred, would give an occafion of many inconvenien- 
ces, if they had power of contra£ing Wedlock* 

15. A. 2. That Spiritual! affinity, which by the Pa- 
piftsisfainedtobee contra&ed in the taking of Baptifme 
or Confirmation, or that Legall affinity which is made by 
adoption, as in cafe, a man take anothers child and make 
him his ovvnc, hath not any force to hinder marriage, either 
from the word of God, nor the Law of nature, 

id. A< 3 # Thofe degrees ofconfangtiinity and affinity 
with in which it is unlawfull to contra& Matrimony, 
cannot fafely bee defined to the dire&ion of the conlciencc, 
bufeonely by the Law of God delivered by Mofes>\%. Lev* 
wherein is unfolded the Law of nature* 

Ccc ij.A.4*Tb$fe 

2 00 V J mam*. 

17. A. 4. Thofe peffons arc to bee reckoned among 
thole degrees which have the fame reafon to L^e reckoned 
there as thofe which are, though they bee not expreffeiy 
flamed, as becaufe in the Law, the Nephew is forbidden 
to marry with his Fathers or Mothers fitter, it followes, 
that the marriage of the Vnkle, which his Brother or Sifters 
Dajghter is alfo prohibited. 

18. A* 5- Moreover, it is more fafc for honefty fake, 
and toavoyd all fnowol evill to obftaine from marriage 
with all fuch pcrfons, as may but fceme to have the fair.e 
lealbn of prohibition , as it is in next Cozens. 

19. A. 6. Thofe degrees that are generally prohibited % 
siay in cafe of neceflfay admit fach exceptions as in Scripture 
arc allowed. 

20. A. 7. Befides thofe degrees prohibited by Divine 
right, the Civill Magiltrate may prohibite a Matrimonial 1 
contraft to fome pcrfons for poiitike rcafons. And foie 
is well in feme places provided, that the Guardian marry 
not with his Ward. 

Qucft. 4. tVbat y andwka' kjn& of confent y itrcquifite t* 
hwffiH tnarri*gt ? 

li* A. I« A mutuall confent of the parties, isneceflV 
rily required to the eflence of a conjugall ftate. Becaufe in 
Wedlock, there is a mutuall furrender of bodies, and of 
power, and right over their mutuall bodies. Now there 
can bee no lawfull furrender of that thing, which isano* 
thers without his confenr, as in all confrads doth appeared 
And hence ic is, thatfucha confent, is the immediate ef- 
ficient caufe of Matrimoniall conjunftion, infomuch, thae 
it is not in the authority of any humane power to joyne any 
in marriage without both their confents. 

22. A. 2. This confent ought to bee fo declared by 
external! figncs, that inward and harty confent doc mani- 
feftly appeareby thera, (as farre, as morally one may gueflfc: 
fr&M them J For although ordinarily thofe fignc* arc no o- 
^her but words, exprcfling thefenfeof the mind, yet other 
tokens may bee equivalent to words, if they make an un- 
doubted confent appeare. 

*yA x 3* The confent of both* ought to goc together,. 

Of Wedlock* Id I 

as in other contracts. Yet it is notneceffarily, that their 

confents bee both at one time; but it is fufficient, if one 

party confent firft, and that confent is thought fhlltobec 

in force, for then in a morall lenfe, they are laid to confent 


^ 24. A. 4. This confent mull bee voluntary and free, 

clfe ic is not efteemed a humane confent. 

25. A. 5. And hence, the confent of fuch as have 
not the ufe of rcafon , is of no force to fuch a con- 

i6 4 A. 6. A compelled confent, fuch a one> as is forced 
by great and violent feare for that purpofe raifed, doth 
nullifie the contract, unlefle it bee renewed or ftrengthned 
by a fubfequent free confent. Now tha: feare, which in 
refpeft of fomemay bse thought light , in refpeft of weaker 
people may bee counted great. For a great feare, which 
is not violent, but rcverentiall, (that isj fuch a feare as 
proceeds from a reverence towards Parents, doth not nuU 
lifie the confent:becaufe fuch a feare, doth not extort a con- 
fenr, but foftly enticeth and perfvvadeth it. 
* 27. exf. 7. Such a confent as doth fo proceed of er- 
tour, as that the errour, was caufe of the confent ("whether 
it6ecimftake oftheperfon, as it was in Iaccb about Lea^ 
Cjen. ap, or of the condition or quality, which is etfentiall 
to Wcdlock,fuch as is the eiroUr treated of in the 2 ilDeut* 
20. and as Iofeph fulpe&ed the blefled Virgine,<JWWf &. u 
i8 # ) fuch a one I fay, is not to bec cfteemed a con- 

28. A. 8 f But if the miflako bee but in fome condi- 
tion or quality, which isoneiy extrinfecall and accidental!, 
and nothing cffentiall to the nature of marriage* then is 
the marriage no more to bee nullified then the oath, which 
the IfrAelite: made to the Gibconitcs upon mi&ake, 
lof. p. 

29. A. 9. Moreover, the confent of Parents, and .of fuch 
as bearc their authority, in whofe power the parties con- 
fentingate, is requifite. Now that fuch a confent of Pa- 
rents, is rcquifite for thefairneffeofthe marriage no man 
<teubtcthi buc that is requifite out of ncceffity , the papifts 

ie% (tf Wedlock. 

doenotoncfy cfeny, but alfo anathematize all filch as af- 
firmed it; Concil, Trid.fejf. 24. But if this Qucftion bee 
rightly and civilly imdcrftood : (o that by the name of Pa- 
rents bee underftood Father and Mother, but efpecially, 
the Father (for in Tutours and the Mother too properly, 
it is onely the Fathers power a little diminiflied ; ) and the 
confentordiflentofthem bee removed from all injury, and 
bee grounded on good reafons, the affirmative part is more 
confonantto the word of God and rea{on it felfe, and that 
for thefe reafons* 

30* A< 10. It is alwayes in Scripture attributed to the 
Father, that hee fliould bee the efficient caufe of the mar- 
riage of his children; Dent. 7. 3, Ier. 29. 6. &c. 

31. *A % u. The moft allowed examples in Scripture 
fhe w alwayes this, that the beginning and ground ot Ma- 
trimoniall contract, is frorotheconfentofthe Parent, gen, 
34.3.4.and28. u 2.and2p. 19. &c 

32. A. 12. Nay after the confenc of the parties, it is 
left in the choyce of the Father, whether hee will give 
his Daughter or no to him that hath laine with her • Exod* 
22 16. 17. 

33. A. 13. Nor is Beftarminet infwere fatisfaSory 
here, alledging- That the bufinejfe here wot not about any 
tJMatrimony a/ready contracted, but about a future mar* 
?iage enjoy ned for punij^mentof the preceding fornication* 
Toritisabfolutely (hewed, that the diflcntofthe Father* 
is a jufl: caufe to hinder Wedlock, wliatfoever the. Man 
and the Maid have bargained, or (hall hereafter bargainc to* 
lather . A vow madeby a childunto God, /which often- 
times the Father hath lefle to doe with then the marriage 
«f his children, and which in its nature containeth the moft 
ftrift obligation ) is not ratified without the explicit, or at 
leaft the implicit confent of the F ather, Num. 30, 4. 5 . 

34. *s4 n 14, Andthatisamcereevafion,which2?^//^ 
mine here ufeth ; That this lay* one ly concerned!) aughters % 
•not yet come to mature age. For the bufinefle' is abous 
every Daughter, which is in the houfe orpowerof the Fa- 
ther, about every Daughter which is unmarried, being not 

Of the Solemnities tf UMatrlmoty* 203 

35. A. 15. The Sonne cannot alienate or give any 
thing away of his Fathers, without his Fathers content, 
and confequcntly not himfclfe, foi heeis his Fathers, 

36. A. 16. The Civill Lawesoutof the principles of 
the Law of nature hare provided, that the marriage of 
Daughters without the confent of Parents (hould not bep 
ratified, and the Primitive Church both by Do&rine and 
praftffe, did in this part approve of thole Lawes. For 
the punjfliment appointed for fuch marriages was, that, 
neither Husband or Wife, nor marriagc,nor dowry fhould 
beeacknow!edged,and that the Coildrcn which fhould bee 
borne, (hould bee efteemed as Baftardsj Inftit h denptpt.f. 
penult. l % 2. < derit % nupt< /. dot is 68, dejure dot. 

Chap, XXXVI. 
Of the Solemnities of MatrimoHyl 

V V t/'A*"U Contrafts ( as they are 
diftinguiftied from perfett Matrimony^,) arc lawfull and 
mutnall promife of future matrimony expreffed by fome 
fenfiblcfigne. They are often diftingui&t from matrimo- 
ny (in refpefloftheexternall Court) by that difference of 
lime which the word$ pronounced doc ordinarily fignifie 
to thofothat rightly underftand theau For if the words im- 
port a confent of prcfent contraft, they conftitute matri- 
mony, but if oncly of future maximony, they makqa bare 

.2. A> 7. Although %h kinds of contrafts, arc not ab/c£ 
lately neceflary , (becaufe all contra As, which may be la w* 
&dfy promifed for the future, may bee at the fame prefent 
time, wholly per fitted,) yet ordinarily, they make for the 
faireneffc of the marriage. Firft,Becaufe fo there is a faire 
pfocecding by j ufl: degrees from the beginning to the ends, 
(as ijifo weighty a bufinefleis fit,) Secondly, Becaufe fa 
the whole aft is rendered more ftcc from (ufpition of 
rafhneffc. and appeareth the more grave and deliberate. 
bto? c *>- Thirdly 

> * Of the [oUnwmes ofMatrmonp 

Thirdly, Becaufc by this meanest the minds of thebe^ 
troathed, are prepared and dilpofed to thofe affc&ions, 
which in matrimony are requifite. 

3. A. 3. Alchough lawfull contra&s thus farre agree 
with matrimony, that any unjuft violation of them, is all 
oneasa violation of matrimony, Deut. 22. 23.24. fcle- 
verthclcfte, for many caules contra&s may bee broken, 
for which matrimony may not* 

As firft, if there bee Tome hoceft condition joy ned to 
the contract, which is not performed, 

Secondly, If there bee any certainetimc appointed for 
marriagc,and then one party is wanting, the other feemes 
to bee abfolved of the promife, in refped, the conditio 
was not performed. 

Thirdly, If any thing fall out after the contra^ which 
Would have hindred the contraft, if it had fallen out be- 
fore, and do:h realonably alter the mind of one party. 

Fourthly, If either party free the other of the promife 

Quell. 2. what is to bee thought of CUn&eflini mar- 
riage i 

4. *A. i* Claudefline marriage is fach, as is fecretly 
done, which two wayes is to bee underftood, cither when 
it is without meet witneffes, or without publike celebra- 

5 . A. 2. It may bee ( fctting afide poflcivelawes to the 
contrary, ) that fomefuch marriage may bee juft and rati- 
fied in the Court of confeience, becauie ail things eflfen- 
tiall to the nature of matrimony, may bee done in fc* 

6. A. 3. Nevertheleffe, becaufe moft heavy inconve- 
niences follow fuch kind of marriages; as unlawfuil con* 
junctions, difcords, anddiffcltrtions of matrimonies con- 
traded, &c. Therefore in the cxternall Court, a marriage 
whoHy Claudeftine, is rightly efteemed as none at all. 

7. *sf. 4. The ufuall .conjurations, which arc made in 
the mquiry of impediments, although they becnotofahc 
efTence, but onely the folemnity of marriage,y et in refpeft 
of many inconveniences which may follow, their omif- 


of the mutUAll duties of Mm todWtfe. 305 

fion , they ought ordinarily to bee premifed, 

8. A. 5. Publikc celebration is ncccflary, not fo much 
in refpect of them that are to bee married, as in refpeft of 
the community, to which they arefubjeft, andvvhofe part 
it is to fcCy that marriage bee lightly performed, 

p. ۥ*. 6. This celebration, though it may bee done by 
a Civill Magiftrate, Ruth. 4. 1, Yet it is molt fit, that in a 
Church it be done by an Eccledafticall Minifter. 

Firft, Becaufe that ratification which is made in the 
name of God, by a Minifter of God, before the Church of 
God is more weighty. 

Secondly, Becaufe the contraft is more reiigious,and the- 
obligation more piercing to the conference. 

Thirdly, Becaufe a more powerfall benediction and fan- 
ftification is thence expefled. 

Fourthly, It appear eth by Tertian, that it was a moft 
excellent inftitution of Chriftians , that marriages fliould 
beepublikely folcmnizedand confecratcd by the prayers 
of the Congregation; and Minifters, who writeth thus in 
hisfecondbooke; How (hall I bee able to tell the kappinejfe 
> of that marriage^ which the Church maketh y vbich the o(~ 
fation confirmeth) and the Angels acknowledge fealed^and the 
Father ratified ? 

Chap, XXXVU. 

Of the mutual I duties of CM** and Wife* 

Qticfh I. \7\JH** are the duties- which aye mu- 
V V W&llj due betweene CMan *«& 
Wife ? 

1. A*f % i 4 The firft duty, is a fpecialT love, andfucha 
one as is proper to Man and Wife, which therefore may 
bee termed con jogall,£p^ 5.28. 29. Genef % ; 24, 

l. A. z. The fecond, is a fpeciall or conjugal! honour, 

t*A. 3. The third, is living together, 1 Cor. 7. 10^ 

Now this living together contained] under it the or- 

"" " dinar^ 

*orf Of the mmumtes of Man andWtfc. 

dinary ulc of tbc fame houfe, table, and bed, 

4. A. 4. The fourth is, a nautua!I communication 6 
bodies according to the right end and limits of Wedlock 
Withmodefty andfobriety, * The/. 4. 4, 

5. A. 5* The fifth, is a communication of eftates,andf 
outward goods at leaft,as farre, as to the ufe of thero, £phef 

6. A. 6. The fijct,ts a Communion in the ordinary wor^ 
{hip of God, 1 IV* 3,7. 

Queft. 2. whether or no there is the fame reafin of theft 
duties iff the Man as in the Woman* 

7* A. i. Inrefpeftoftheefsenceofthe duty and obli- 
gation, there is the fame reafon in both. But yet for the 
manner of the performance there h this difference, that the 
man aiwayes fo behave himfelfe, that hec bee acfcnow- 
ledgedby his Wife ashcr Head, I Cor. 11. 3, 

S. A. 2. Hence it is the Husbands part to cherifh and 
fceepe bis Wife, and provide for her in all necefsaries, 
£phef. 5 . 2p. I Tim, 3. 4. 

Secondly, To goe before his Wife in knowledge, and 
every way declaring the fame, 1 Pft. 3, 7. 1 fir. 14. 35; « 

Thirdly, In the governing the life ana aftxons of his 
Wife, 1 Tim. 3. 4. 1 Qor % 11.3. 

9. A. 3. And hence, it is the duty of the Wife, Firft, 
To acknowledge hcrfelfc fubjefttoher Husband, Ephef* 
5. 22. Secondly,To reverence her Husband,-E/>A*/; $.u/t f 
Thirdly ,Tolearne of her Husband, 1 for, 14. 35, Fourth- 
ly, Ttf obey her Husband in the Lord as it becometh her^ 

Queft, 3 # Vfon iv hat caufes may the Man and Wife 
live afnncUr ? 

10. A. i. They may live afunderfor a while by mu~ 
tuallconfenr, 1 Cor.j. 5. 

11. e^t 2. Abfence too, may bee lawfull for a time 
upon fome great caufe, which cannot confift with a mutuall 
prefence, 2 Sam. n.g. 10. 

12. tA* 3. If the Husband remove his dwelling ijpon 
any warrantable caufe for a long time, and have a mind to 
carry his Wife with hiaiiftiee is bound to follow hio. un- 

^ ' ~ r ~ \& c 

of thetrntuaHdutes of mm dndWife*. z 07 

lefseTome great danger of body or foule, is thence main- 
feftly like to follow. For the Husband being the head of 
his Wife, may appoint both the place and manner of their 
habitation, 1 Cor. p. 5. Gen, 12 n. &c. 

Qucft. 4. Whither or no maj the Wife give any thing 
without her H^b^nds confeut'i 

1 j. tA. u In fame cafes (hec may, Asfirft, If flicc 
ha^cfrecad-niniftraiionandpjwerinfome goods, which 
in many places is granted to Women, over loch goods as 
they bring more then there dowry, and fuch as they have 
gotten by their owne induftry. 

Secondly, If (hee make prefen:s,and give almc^as other 
Women nfe of her rankc. 

Thirdly, I fit bee not any notable, but flight quantity for 
- the proportion of g?ods,which ihee and her Husband have 
in condition. 

Fourthly, If it bee done out ofprefamption of the in- 
tent and confenr of her Husband. 

Fifciy, If in cafe it bee done for the prevention of fomc 
dammagc other wife likely to befall her Husband, \Sam. 

Shtly, If her Husband be either abfent, or mad, or a la- 
vish fpender of his goods, 

Queft. 5. Whether or no, and how farre it U law full for 
a jMan toreprevs his Wife being faulty, 

14. A. Hee may and ought to redraine her by fuch 
meanes as are not repugnant to con/ugali fociety, as by ad- 
monitions, rcprchenfions, and the d.niali of fome privi- 
leges which are due to a godly and obedient Wife. But 
it is by no mcanes the part of any Husband, to corrcft his 
Wife with blowcs : 

, Becaufc firft, It proceedech from an unwarranted bittcr- 
nefleand cruelty. 

Secondly, It is repugnant to the ingenuous, quiet and 
peaceable fociety of Wedlock. 

• Thirdly, It deftroycth conjugall affe&ion, as well in the 

Husband, while hee ufcth his Wife as his Servant, as in the 

^Wife while fhecfeethherfelfe contemned and tyrannically 

dealt with. 

v ' ~ Ddd Fourthly, 

io8 Gfthe diffolutm ofmYrUgt. 

fourthly, Experience teacheth, that this is not the way \ 
either to the amending of the Wife, or the p:ace of ths 

Fiftlyjf is not allowed by afny la w,nor praftifed by any, 
but furious or drunken men* 

Chap. XXXVlU. 
Of the d filiation of Marriage. 

Queft. f, \J\J Hether cr no, and how AftirrUee 
V V way Bee dtf/ved? 

xi A. I. Matrimony cannot by anyathispleafurebec 
diflolved , and for that cau(e s (imply and abfolutely confide* 
red is rightly termed indiffolubk , Matth. ]p. p. %°m t 

2. *Ai 2. Now Matrimony , whether confumate, or 
onely by contrad ratified, hath this priviledge above other 
contra&s, not onely from Christs inftitution, but alfo 
from the Law of Nature, M*tth. ip. From the beginning 
it wo* not fo< The reafon is, becaufe Matrimony is not 
onely aCivill, but a Divine conjunction, whole Infti:utour 
and Ordamer is God himfeife* AUtth, ip. whom Cod 
hathjojned^ &c. And tsokhat nature, that it cannot pof-. 
fibly bee diflblved without the great inconvenience of both 

3. A. % Nevenhdef6eiti8notfoindifsoluble,butthat 
uponfudrcaufe, as God ^pprpveth tobeejuft ic may bee 
difsolved* For that indi(solubility was not inftituted for 
the puniChmcnt, but the comfort of the innocent, and doth 
admit fome exception, in which God ceafeth to joync them* 
Atatth. 1 p. 6 p, 

4. //« 4. There is r.o fa any juft caufe of making, a di- 
vorce approved in Scriptures, befides adultery and thfc 
like horrid impurities, whereby it comes to pafge, that two 
remainc no longer one fleflb but divided; and fo the faith 
of Wedlock, » dire&ly violated j M&tth. 5. 3* land 
}9. p. 

5. ^5 Hence 

of the dijfolutm ofumagt. -logr 

5. A* 5. Hence any contagious difeafc is not a juft 
caufe of diftolving a confumate Marriage, although it may 
hinder conjugal! converfation. Therefore in fach a cafe, 
God who enjbyntth continence, will not deny it to fuch, 
as beggc it by prayers, and 1 eekc to obtaine it by the ufe of 
lawful! ircanes. 

6 A. 6. An obiiinate defertion, although in the party 
deferring , ir contamcth nojui} caufc of making a divorce, 
yet it makes a faire caufc for the party defertcd, after the 
trial! of ail other rneancs in vaincto luff.v a divorce, 1 Cor. 

7 *J* 

7, A. 7- A voluntary and fpontancous abfence, ifitbec 

beyond the time appointed and continued by deceit, is of 
the fa'mc nature, with a profc£scd defertion* 

8. A. 8 The great danger, which one party may bee 
in by the crueity of the ether, or by any other manifeft 
mcanes of cohabitation, may bee jult caufc of retiring for 
a time, fo to provide for his owne fafety and fecurity, but 
not foranabfolutedcfcrtion, unlefsc firft hec bee d ferted. 
For if one party drive away the other with great fierce- 
ijcfse and cruelty , there iscau{eofdeferticn,andbce is to 
bee reputed the deferter But if hee obftinately ncgleft, 
that necefsary departure of the oth-r avoyding the emi- 
nent danger, hee himfelte in that playeth the defer- 

Queft- 2. Whether or n* Adulter] committed, dot onely 
n'Hllifi* the **/>, or the bovd too of Matrimony t 

g. tsf* i. It iscleere, that the bond it felfe is nulli- 

Firft, Becaufc the very efsence ofthe contra &,is dire^ly 
violated : Now theconua&ceafing,the bond grounded up- 
on the contraft doth necefsariiy ceafe. 

Secondly, It is diisonant from allreafon, t u at all Ma- 
trimoniail duties (hould for ever bee taken away, and yet 
the bond or obligation to thofe duties (hould remaine. 

10. <i^ a. The words of the Lord , in Matth. 5; 
32^and 19, p. have no diftin&ion of limitation, of dif- 
mifli'on, but doe fimply and abfolutely approve of dimif- 
fion in the caufc of Adultery i they doc allow therefor c» 

Ddd % not 

SI(>1 Of the diffifatioti of Marriage* 

not d.v-ty a partial! dimiflion, and in rclpcd off ome par- 
ticulars as from bedorboord, bat a totall one. 

u. A. 3, The exception of fornication, Alfrtfe 19*57* 
(Tgn'ihe;Ii a diverle thing^as Cayetane obfervethjf rom other 
caufss, and that divcrfc thing is nothing elfe but this, but 
that hee, who puttcth away his Wife for fornication and 
marrieth another, doth not commit adultery. The Con- 
fcllibn of Cajetane upon thac place is obfervablc, The- 
Text (peaketh thm in the plaine literati fenfe : I underpaid 
therefore ^that it is hwfnll by the law of our Lord Jesus 
C H R I S r,for a Chrifiian to put away his Wife for car- 
nall fornication, and that hee may marry another. 

12. A, 4. The Apotle, 1 C cr l *5« doth in expreffe 
termes pronounce tie defcreed party to be free. Now thatr 
hee which is free, is free from theborui But if in the caufe 
of obftinate defertion without adultery the innocent party 
bee releaft of the bond, much more Cure is hee, fointhe 
caufe of adultery. / doe rot onely wonder ("faith Ca}?tanu*,y 
but am amazed > that when Christ d n th fo cletrely 
except the caufe o< fornication^ that yet the whole torrent of 
Wrtters ftjottld neverthelejfe deny that liberty of the Hnf T 
band: And yet Paul not cleerely faying it, they allow afolu- 
tion of Wedlock^ out of his words in a dtfitntl cAHJe y fram 
7v hat Christ hath laid downe and folclj excep- 

13. A. 5. But yet the bond of Matrimony, is not fo 
broken by adultery, but that ir may by the confent of the 
innocent party bee continued and renewed,! S*m. 25 . 44. 
wi&iSaw* 3. 14. The reafon is, becaufe the divorce is 
allowed in favour of the innocent parr y, now hee that is in- 
nocent may part with his owne right. Neither is divorce 
enjoy ned as a Precept, but onely permitted and allowed 
as a priviledgc : Therefore although,, wee ought not fo to 
connive at thisfinne, that the amendment thereof bee* 
wholly ncglcfted, for that were to encourage wkkedneffc,. 
yet no man is forbid to paidon the offence to the penitent 
fo it bee without fcandall. 

14. A. 6. There would bee no Queflion aboufthe 

offending party, if adulteries were alwayes punifhed as 

~~^~ V they 

Of iinmdde ft Luxury^, n% 

Yiey ought, and the Law of God requireth. Yet becaufe 
ufually one indulgence draweth on another, it feemeth 
reasonable, that they bee not wholly deprived of their na- 
turall liberty. 

ij # A. 7. A commiflion of the f*me fruit on both 
fides, feemeth to takeaway the right of divorce from ei- 
ther of them; for faulrsofancquall nature, are fomctimes 
abolished by a compenfation. 

Chap. XXXJ5C. 

Of immodeft Luxury, 

Qucft. I, T IX JtJat kind of finne is Luxury ? 

V V . 1. //. 1. Luxury doth generally 
-note any exceflfe in the ufe of things, belonging to the deck* 
ing of the body. For hee, which liveth too delicately and 
fofc is faid to melt in Luxury. But taken ftridly and pro- 
perly, it doth fignifie a vice oppofitetochaflityby execflfe 
in the ufe of things which pertaine to generation. The 
rcafon is.becaufe ail excede in the decking of thebody,doth 
tend to that unckanneffe, as to the moft full abufe of the 

2. A. 2, It is a finne mod grievous in its owne na- 

For firft, It deftroyeth the foule, as it hath the nature of 
a burning, which doth confume, hinder, and oppreffe the 
piety of the heart; 1 Cor. 7. & In which fenfe>fuch defires 
are faid to fight againft the foule, 1 TV/. 1 . 1 a. 

Secondly, Becaufe luft doth pollute and dehlethe body 
raore particularly, 1 C r< 6. ifc.-. 

Thirdly, Becaufe ic is a perverfc raifufing of the moft 
weighty thing, which doth not onely belong to private 
good, but aifo to the common good of mankind. 

Fourthly, Becaufe ic elpecially overwhelmed the 
whole man, fo that hee can hardly bee freed from thence-, 
by reafon of the clofe inhering of this concupifCence , for its 
continuall importunity, and unbridled impotency, H*f.q. 
\uProv *, 18, Odd 3. Fiftly* 

~-j Of tmMift Luxnrj. 

Fiftly, Becaufe from this finne as from a fruitful 
roote, doe proceed many other, as idle talkc, filthy, dif- 
courfe, camall, difpofition* ani a total! alienation from 

Sixtly, Becaufe it bringeth along mod dangerous dif- 
commodittes to the natural! life. 

Seventhly, Becaufe it doth extingnifh the light of nature, 
and fo is both the finne, and the punifhment of the finnc, as 
alfo the cauic of other moft grievous punifliraents , Rom. r. 

Que ft, a . Wha$ is the luft of the heart I 
5. A. 1. A voluntary thought of any immodcfl aft, 
except it bee done with deteftation, is the receiving of a 
dangerous temptation. 

4. tA. a. Any delight from animmodeft aft, which 
is reprefented oneiy by the imagination and thought, al- 
though there bee no meaning of oecuting that aft, is a 
finne of wantonnes : becaufc the delight is al way fuch,as 
the object from whence it is iprung, and about whichitis 

j. A. 3* Thofe thoughts and delights, are fo mtrch 
the more vicious, by how much they are more voluntary, 
and continued* 
I 6. A. 4. A confent to an impure aft, if occafion and 

power might bee given, is accounted for the aft it lelfc* 
xJW ',ttk 5.28. 

7. A. 5 A libidinous habit, by which one is inflamed 
upon every ore ifion to fuch delights,with the confent of the 
will, is adifeafe of the aflfeftionWorfcthenany aft of im- 
purity, 1 Thef 4.5. 

QuelV 3. fVhat is t he Luxury cf Speech? 
8. A. 1. Obftene fpecches are in themfelves rotten^ 
that is, no way convenient to the ufe of fcd tication, but 
plainely repugnant to it, Ephef 4. 29. and 5.4. 

P« exf 2. As they arc epmmonly ufed, they are the 

manifclt iignes of an impure heart, from the abound ancc 

of which fuch words doc proceed, Luc. 6.45. 

• I0 - ^- ?• They arc not onely oppofitc to the Word 

<tf G?d,butto the order of nature; for thofc things, which 

ofimmtdefi Luxury i ^i* 

m their oWrie nature arc to bee hid with modefty, arc im- 
pudently laid open by fuch words* 

n. A. 4, They arc temptations to the hearers, to 

whom by thefc mcanes fowte thoughts are; fuggefted : 
butefpecially, when they are ufed to that end, that they 
might ftirre op, and kindle delights; i Cor % 15. 33. A mm 
brofe faycth rightly inthefirlt booke. Chap, i^.depoemt. 
Ltift tifed with banquet s> nonrtfted with delicate s t kindled 
by ^ine % andcnflimedby druxbc vine §e fB tit the fomentations 
cf words are more danger om then thefc , which inebriate the 
mini veith wtne of the vine of Sodome . 

12. */f* 5. Taike of beaftly tilings, with a meaning to 
delight himfelfc with the narration and propolail of fuch 
things to the phaofie, as if they were prefent, is a vcrball 
performance of that filthineffe, of which the taike is. 

13. At 6. Obfeene fpeeches out of a certaine natural 
model ty, are not wont to bee explained indownc right 
wprds, but infinuated obliquely by Metaphorical! phrafes: 
whence it is, that upon execation-of die like words, or phra- 
Ics, that godly difcourfe, meditations , and even prayers 
t^hcmielvcs arc troubled, polluted, and hindered by fuch 
fancies cntruding themfclves. And for this reafon, the 
frequent ufe of obfeene fpeeches feemeth to bee more 
hurtfull to piety, then the (implead of fornication. 

14. A, 7. Not onely obfeene foogs; and verfes ought 
to bee reckoned among obfeene fpeeches, but alfo fome 
immodeft geHures. For they are fpeeches exprefied afrer 
another manner. 

15. <l<4 8, Thofeaifoarcinthcc6aipaffeofthcfefirvne5 r 
who willingly and without any deteftation, or forbidding, 
hearc beaftly taike or read lu<?h things written* For they 
doc either intend an unlawfuU delight y cratlealtcxpofc 
^hemiclvcs to the haz rd of finning fo. 

Qued. 4; What* u the luft of the eyes t 

16. A. I; All beholding of that, which is in relation 
to unlawfull delights 5 and carnal! dehres ; is an exercife ot the 
wantonncsofthcheart,^/^^. 5- ag. 1 Pet 2, 14. 

17. U. a. The like looke, although it bee not cut of a 
fowie intention, but onely out of lightneffe^andcuriofiry, 

" ~" ' " . a* 

%l ^ Ofimmodef Luxury 

as Carte it is with the hazard of ftirring up unlaw full de- 
lights, doth participate of the fame finne under the consi- 
deration of a medium tending to it, lob ju i\ 

18. A. 3. The beholding of lafcivious and beaftly 
things, cither in aft, or in feme rcall gcflurc,or in its rcpre- 
(entation, by an unbefitting pifture, orimmodeft imitation, 
as it is commoijlyu fed, cannot bee excufed from the note 
of wantonnes* wpbefm 5 • 3. 

ip. A. 4. The beholding of a naked perion, efpccially 
in a divers iexe, becaufeto fpeake morally and according 
to pradife, it giveth occaficn of luftfull commotions, is 
not to bee allowed of without a neceffary caufe,- 2 Sam* 
if. 2. 

io % A. 5. To this kind of finne, is tobee referred the 
lafcivious trimming of the body, by which a luit full con- 
cupiscence is fhowen,or ftirred up,orany danger given any 
wayes to ones owne.or anothers chaftity, I[m* 3. 17. 1 Tim* 
i 9.1 Pet. 3. 2.3. 

Qucft. $. JVhat u the Luxury of touching f 

21. zs4. 1, Kiffcs and embraces, which are ufed after 
the honeft fafhion of the Countrcy to fignific an honcft 
good will, are things in themfelves lawfully Gen* 2p* 
1 if 

22. A. 2. Ktffes,embraccs, and lafcivious touches which 
3te done with aa intention of ftirring, or nourifhing un- 
lawfull carnal idefires, or for carnall delight bctwixtthofc 
who are not man and wife, or with danger of inordinate 
commotion, are the forerunners oi uncleannc(Tc:becaufc 
intheir ownc nature, they doc tend to the joyning of bo- 
dies, andisasitwereaninchoationof the fame, Rom % i-j # 
13. CW.j. 5 . The comicailport flieweth thisfufficicnt- 
lyinthofefentences : 'Bee alway quick) the flame is next 
tofmoake. Hee which tyov/deat the kirne/ 9 wuft brea\e thf 
fhelh and hee that would Ije with one 9 muft beginne with a 
kijfe % Then I fcekeout a Whore > and fir ft lath* * hijfeof 

Qucft. 6 m What is to bee thought of dancings^ 
13. iA* I, Common revelling*, or fportly dancings 
mingled or jdfyned betweenc men and women, arc altoge- 
ther tobe condemned. Firft f 

ofimmodejl Lttxurp xi% 

Firft, Becaufc (to fpeakc according to pra&ice^ ) they 
doeexprtffethe inioicncy, and a certains tnadncfic of die 
mind. For, then men arc more ready to beginne the danc^ 
when they are almoft frantiq tie, either out of drunkennefle, 
or aforivarddeure, £*>;/. 32, <5. c#f>, 6.z\ 9 

Secondly, Because they doe openly reprefent in geflures, 
thofe things whichbycourie of nature have modciHy joy- 
ned with them. 

Thirdly, Becaufc they arefnarcsand fcanclalsnotonefy 
to the Dancers, but alfotothe beholders. For they dec 
ftirre up and inflame the mind of man by their cnticings to 
Lu(t; which of it felfe iscafried thither with fo much for- 
Wardnefse, that it ought rather by all meanes to bee repref- 

Fourthly, Becaufc there is a kind of defiliag of that dig- 
nity, which ought to bee kept by all Chriftiaos: and in 
thatrefp.il, they were ufed among the graver Ethnickcs 
by hired prortitutes, and mufitians 

24. A. z. Neither doe thofe imitations and cautions, 
which being fet, many doe contend, that dancings may bee 
admitted, availe any thing.- 

■ As tirft, i i there bee a meahe obferved in them, and they 
are not too much frequented. 

Secondly, If they bee inftituted onely for delight, and 
not for levity, or lulls fake. 

Thirdly, If thcybeedonefntheprefenceofhoneflper- 

Forfirft, Weedoeinvainefeekeaftera mcane in info- 
lency, and madnefsc, and the like, which doe confift in the 
excefscof a meane. 

Secondly, Not onely the end snd intention of the doer, 
but alfotheend ofthedced, and what doth ufually follow 
upon it, ought to bee weighed in cur confcienccs, efpecial* 
\y when the thing if no way necefsary. 

Thirdly, Scandall may becgiven to honeft perfons, and 
if the perfons bee beyond the hazard of fcandall, they are 
more worthy of rcver<mce,which forbiddcth luch light and 
madfcoyesto be praftiled before them. 

*5« t4. 3. Ttot dotKlefse availe which is objected 

Ecc ' by, 

zl€ '■ Of tmmddeft Luxury, 

by the patf om cf thcfc fports, that they ske the Concilia- 
tours of good will, and affedlion betwixt young men, and 
maidens, and fo of contra&ing marriage. For every occa- 
sion of marriage is not to bee allowed of : but an honeft oc- 
cafionof impoiluted marriage. 

Queft. 7. What is to bee thought rfftag* P/ajes ? 

26. A. Such ftage playes as are now mufe, arc utterly 
to be condemned ? 

27. A. u They confift in the lively repr dentation of 
vices and wickednefles. And if it bee not lawfuli toname 
fuch-vices without dcteftation, Epbef^. 3. thencertaincly 
nauch ieffc may it bee allowed, that the fame fhouidbee 
expreffed to the lifebygefturcs. 

28. A, 2. In the reprefentation of fuch wickednefles, 
the a&ours doe not onely put on the refemblance ol them) 
(which all Cbriftians ought to abftaine from 1 Theff % ^. 
«♦ ) But they compofe Ibcmfelves with great care, that 
they as well conceive them internally, as exprcfle fuch 
manners externally. Whence it is by excrcifing them- 
felves to it, they difpofe thcmfclves to the fame vices, 
whence they become ready and prone to execute them , 
without (hame. For experience teachetb, that fome by 
a&ing of playes, have put on fuch indecent habits and 
geftures, as they could not put them of againe in a long 

29. tA* 3I Some vices are fo reprefented as they are 
alfb really done, fuch are idle talke, ribaldry, vainc curlings^ 
execrations, and the like. 

30. A. 4. Either Womcaarc brought upon the ftage 
to reprcfent wantonncs with impudency ("who ought e- 
ven m the Church tokcepe fiience, I Cor. 1 4. 3 4, or to bee < 
vailed, 1 ^Vrvii, 10.) or menfortoplcafe,puton Wo- 
mens apparcll, face, and gefture; which is repugnant to the 
word QtGod,DeHt. 2 2. y* and is a great kindling of wan- i 
tonnes, as alfo it giveth occafion, and leadeth the right 
way to thofe beattlinetfes which are againft nature, %om* 
1. 27. 

31. A. y. Beth Aftours and Speftatoars fecfte dc- 
5ight in thefe things, <£ whlfh they ought to bee afhamed, 

of inmodefl Lnxatj c 217 

52. A. 6. Tbeyexpofethem(c!7:sto manifeft hazard. 
Far they which aremoft mode! r, can hardly avoid chc tick- 
ling thoughts of unlawfaU things, and others iearne to doe 
that, which they were wont to hcare and fee without 
blufliing. ThcwifcrofthcEthnickcs themfdves, didob- 
fervc thisjamongft whom Seneca : Nothing is more dange- 
rous to good manner s , then tofst at afoe*> : for then vices 
creepeinmoreeajily by pleasure* 

33* *A. 7. Ifthercbceany offo hard abreaft, that they 
arc not moved with fach fights, yet they givefcandallto 
others, who by their example arc drawne into dangers,and 

34 e^# 8. Great cofl: is vainely , and with hurt be- 
llowed. For with the charges that are layed out upon one 
ftage play, many poorc may bee fuftaincd fome months. 

35* A. 9, Stage-players by the Civill law are infa- 
mous. In the Primitive Church, they were excluded from 
the Ecclefiaftkall communion. 

3^. *A m 10. In time paft, it was afolemnevowof all 
that were baptized : / renounce the T> evilly his pompes, 
Jhevpes/indyporkeS) from whence Salvian, deprovid. lb. 6. 
doth thus d if ccurfe : InattfpeBac!es> there is accrtainez* 
fofttcy of the faith, and a deadly prevarication from the 
Symbols, and heavenly Sacraments of it. For what is the 
firfi covfejfion of(fhrifti*ns infaving baptifme ? what elfe, 
but that they protefi to renounce the D evilly hit pompes % 
fiewes, andwerkes \ therefore fpettacles y andpompes, accor- 
ding to our prof effion y are the workes of the Devill, How 
capfi thou f 6 Chriftian after baptifme follow fhewes y whi:h 
thou confejfefl to bee the workfi of the Devill ? Thou haft once 
renounced the DeviS y and his fherves : and by this thou muft 
neceffarily k$ow % that when willingly y and upon knowledge , 
thou do fi gos againe to playes, thou returneft tothe K Devill. 
For thou haft renounced both together , and didft account 
cne as both. If thou retumeft to one, thou haft gone back^ 
to both. For thou f*yeft y I renounce the Devill y his 
pompes,fiewes 2 andworl^es § */4ndwhat then ? I doe beleeve 
{tmufujeft) tn Cod the Father y &c* Therefore the Devill 
*? frfi^ rimmQji^ before God is bclccvcd in; % becaufe he 

Eee i ~~~~ whwk 

£ g Ofmmodefi Luxury. 

which doth not renounce th? D evilly doth nto beieeve in 
God. zAnd therefore hee which returneth to the Devib\ 
leavetb CjoA. The Devil is inhisfbsrvesandpimpes : and 
by this ^hen-wee returns to fpettacles, wee leave the faith 
^/Christ. So holy Salvia* out of Tertnllian (as it 
icemcth, ) de Spettac cap. 4, & de Idolat, cap. 6. where 
the like fayings are found* Thofe ob/eftions and limita- 
tionsjwhich are brought by fome Divines in favour of thefe 
play cs, arc ofnomomenr. 

It isobyetted* Firft, That ftageplaycs are fome way ne- 
ceffary. For feeing tba: recreation is neceffary to man, 
and nothing doth recreate anji delight more then fuch kind 
of fports, it f olloweth that they are neceffary. 

57. 11. A. 1. Lawfull recreations or fports, doe con- 
fid in things onely indifferent, which arc neither appointed 
or forbidden by God. For wee ought not to ufe forbidden 
things, and it is not lawfull to retl with Precepts, hue 
it hath beene proved before that ftage playes, doe confift ia 
things forbidden. 

Secondly, Thofe delights which either fpring from 
things unlawfull, or which give an occafion to things un- 
law full,are vinous, and deadly* 

Thirdly, The too much inticings to carnall pleafures, 
ought to bee avoydedas fufpectcd, and daogerous r as if 
they Were fn«res : becauie they make the flefli warton,and 
infeft, and preffe downcthe mind. And truly, there is no 
other caufe, why common itage playes doe lo much tickle 
the multitude, then that they are bathed in all filthy plcafure 
by them, from the lively image of thole lul'ts, which they 
love by any meanes to nouriih, and ftirre up in them- 

It is cbjetted. Secondly , That then is a manifold pro- 
fit of thefe fports: betaufethey helpe the undemanding 
and memory in the knowledge of things: they promote 
the flight of vice>and love of verciie^and render both fpeech 
and manners more neat and civilized . 

38. 12. A. i # If thefe were meanes which brought 
fo much profit, without doubt they would have fome4p* 
probation m the word of God. But others andnotthefc 


Ofimtntdefl Luxury. 2J^ 

meanes are allowed of in the word of God, by the ufe of 
which thofc perfections ought to bee attained. 

Secondly, Such meanes arc wont to bee fan&ified to 
Chrirtians by the word and prayer, i Tim.^^ . But it is alto- 
gether unheard of, and ftrange to the nature of thefe fports, 
that any one frould prepare himfelfe by prayer to the ufc 
cf them. 

Thirdly, Experience of all ages fheweth, and the man- 
ner of ftage players do: proclaime it, that the undcrftan- 
ding and memory arc polluted by fucb fports, vices pro- 
moted,and vermes extmguiftied. 

It is objetted. Thirdly , That thofe fports may have an 
honcft cnd,a laudable fubjeft,as ahiftory of the Bible,and 
honeft a<5lours,{ree from all lightneffe and fcurrility. 

3P. 13. A. 1. When the end of the deed isdiQioneft, 
it cannot bee made honeft by the intention of the doer. 

Secondly, If choycC of the two were to bee granted, ic 
feemeth more fafferable that prophanc rather, thanfacred 
Tories (hould bee aflcd by players. For the Ma;dty of 
the word of God, wh;ch, ought to bee heard, and thought 
on with feare and trembling, is debatedXpoilcd^andabufcd 
In an unworthy manner, if it bse turned into a matter of 

Thirdly, If lijhtneffe aod fcurrility bee taken from the 
fecane; the common ftage it felfe is likewifc taken away: 
becaufe it will bee destitute of adlours and fpeftatours. 
The Heathen Philofopher obferved this of old , Tttfc. 
Q*aft. /. 4, Poetrj^the mo ft fxmotu Correttreffe of life f 
which thinkes it fit ^ th*t the lover of 'vices , and authourof 
levit^fhould bee placed in the Conncell of the Godt. Ifpeake 
ofComady, which except, wee did aiow of thefe offences,^ 
yponldnot bet at all. 

Eee 3 Ch A 


tt£3 of the Mofaicail tw$$e. 

Chap* XL. 

Of the Mofaicail Lawes , belonging to the 
*] % Commandernent. 

i. 'TpHere were fomc lawes appendixes to this 
JL Commandment, which were permiflive one- 
ly, by which a deed was not plainely allowed off, or made 
indifferent, or lawfall, but onelylcft free from the legal! 
punifhment. OF this kind was the law of putting away 
a wife, which was not anadulterefle, but was odious for 
fomc uncleannefle, Deut. 24. 1. Matth. jp m 7. 8. Of this 
kind was the la w of fearching out the truth in cafe ofjea- 
lonfie, Nttm % %> 14* To this kind alfo ought thofe la wes f 
atleallin part, to bee referred, which fuppofeP^aw;- 
Such was that which denied the transferring of the right 

of primogeniture from the Sonne of the bated wife, to the 

Sonne ofthebelovedJ)eHt, 2 1. 1 5 . 

2. Some Lawes were definitive, but yet proper to tfot l 
people, and had partly a judicially partly a ccremoniall con- 

3 . Such was the Law of taking ones brothers wife, 
Dent. 25. 5. whether the brother ofboth fides to the de- 
ceafed, and brother in Law to the W id dow bee under- 
ftood, (yet with the exception of the Law, Lev.ig. 16.) 
which is the moft received opinion; or whether the next 
of kinne, which could marry the Widdow according to 
the law, which is Calvins expofition, and not improba- 
ble* < 

4. Such was the Law concerning a Daughter which 
wasanHeyreffe, who is commanded to marry in her Fa* < 
thers tribe, lead the b^rcditance with her, fliould paffe 
from one tribe to another 3 iV/*>w. 36, 8. 

5. Such was the Law of not taking a ftrangcr to Wife, 
not that it was denied the people of God to take Wives 
which were Idolatrefles, Dent. y. 3, butbecaufethtfniar- 
fiages at left with fomp Nations then contracted, and con- 

. fomated 

Of the THminion ofexttftullthing}." ™, 

fcmared Were difannulled, Efa. 9. i. and 10. 10. \\. 

I For the Apoflle under the newTeftataent, teacheththe 
contrary, i Cor.j. 2. j. 

6. Such was the law of the Priefts marriage, Lev. %\. 
1?. and of the burning alive the Daughter of a Pricft for 
fornication, Lev s 2 1 9. 

7- The a?quity of ibch Lawcs, is onely from particular 
and morall right. 

8. But other Lawes concerning marriage, which nei- 
ther depend on the permiflion, or fpcciall condition of th: 
Iewes, but flowes from the nature of the thing it felfc, ac- 
cording to their fubltance, are of the common and moral! 

9. Such is the law of adultery committed with another 
mans Wife, by killing both, Dent. 22. 22. There wasno 
more derogated from this law, becaufc Christ would 
not condemne the Aduiterefle, Job. 8» i i.then was dero- 
gated from the juftice and equity of parting the goods of 
the family, when Christ would not divide the inheri* 
sancc betwixt the brothers, Luc. 1 2. 14. 

. Chap, XIX 
Precept. 8. 
Of the Dominion of extern fill things* 

Qaeft. j£ \J\JH° * r * froperlj the Lords of 
V V things* 

*. J. 1. God is the ondy abfolute Lord of aM things, 
fox whereas hce is the Creatour and Govcrnour of all, hec 
is the foie Lord of the nature of things, when man is Lord 
onely of the ufe of them : and in the ufc it felfc, man is 
fubjeaedtothcwiUofGodt WhenGod ufeth all things 
as it plcafeth him. 

*. vf. 5. It fecmes, Angels have not the Dominion 
of bodily things : becaufe wee no where read, that power 
Wasg^entoiVigcls;neither is th«r any wfeof bodily things 

222 Of the Dominion of extern all thtngs. 

attributed to them, except Minifteriallby Divine difpen- 
fation to execute the will of- the Lord. 

j, i ^, Brute beads have not property Dominion 
over thofc things which they ufe : becaufe that which is 
right and juft is onely metaphorically found in beafts, and 
not properly. 

4. A. 4. Man hath the proper Dominion of thofe 
things, which are fubjefted to his power, Gen. \ % Pfal, 8; 
Became hee ha:h the ability, as farre as God permita,to ap- 
ply thofc things to his ow ne ufe. 

5 . A, 5. Among men which live bodily lives, there 
is none^but hath power over his proper bodily things, in 
\vhatage,nate,or condition foevcr they bee. 

6. A. 6. Children, and madmen, alrhbugh for want 
of reafon, they have not the next aftuall power of uling 
things : yet they have a tadicall powcr,becaufc they are men. 
Gal, 4. 

7. A. 7. Infidels and wicked men, although by right, 
they arc liable to bee deprived of this power, being defti- 
tute of that mere eminent title, which the faithfull in 
Christ have obtained : yet, becaufe the fentence of 
the law againft them, is not commanded to bee executed^ 
and fbrae Dominion of bodily things in this lifc,is due from 
God to humane nature, being it is annexed by the law 
and order of nature ; therefore they have a lawfull and 
free ufe of thofe temporall things. 

Quefh 2- Whether or no, and which way was the du 
<u\fion of Dominions lawful!} 

8. zA. 1. The divifion of things was both juft, and 
neceflfary: Firit,Toavoidcontentions, gen. 13. Secondly, 
; That thofe things being in parts, fhould bee more dili- 
gently employed. Thirdly, That they might more orderly 
bee handled* 

'*. p. A. 2. That divifion is founded, not onely on hu- 
mane, butalfoonnaturalland divine right. For although 
the law of nature doth not from the beginning immediate- 
ly command this divifion, yet it didates,that divifion to bee 
necefTary, by reafon of the multiplication of mankind, 6nd 
the prevailing oi iniquity, to the more peacefull and quiet 

- — ictling 

Of the Dominion of external! things. 3 g ?• 

feeling of things. And this was alwayes in the Law of 
nature, which wee obferve at an ordinary table, or feaft, 
that although the dirties bee fct in common, yet thofe pieces 
which others have cut, no man ought totaketohimfeife 
without their leave, who firft had thenar. 

Queft. 3. Whether true Dominion according to the 
Court of Confidence may be foundedon the civiUUro alone^ 
or the Divine law alone yr en both ? 

10. e/£ 1. The Confcicnce in all things, ought to lookc 
back on the judgement of God. Vnleffe therefore, the title 
of Dominion is manifeft to bee lawfuil,and true by the law 
publifhcd by God either in nature,or in bis word, it cannot 
itand in the Court ofConfcience. 

11 *>4. 2. Properly it doth confider onely the judge- 
ment of God, becaufe it is not fubjeft to a humane Court. 1 
If therefore, it (hall plainely appearc, that the title is of 
force, either in the law of nature* or in the Divine law* 
it gives true Dominion according to the Court of Con- 
science, although it bee difannulled in the Civilllaw. 

12. A. 3. Hence it is, that hee hath /uft and true Do- 
minion, which poffefleth any thing by a contract, which 
ather wife is law full, and right, but onely for the want of 
fome ceremony, or formality, which the civill law pre- 
scribes to acontrad, in the humane Court is difannulled* 
or to bee difannulled. 

13. tA. 4. So alfo Dominion is transferred in the 
Court of Confcicnce, by a will which is not formal!; 
(id eft,) which wants a certaine number of witnefles, the 
Notary. &c This formality is therefore onely prefcribed 
in the Civill lawes, to prevent deceit pand coufening, 
which are often ufed in fuch contracts: but when the in- 
tents of thofe that made thefe contrafis doth manifeftly 
appeare, that reafon ceafeth, as alfo the force of the Civjfl 
law doth ceafe; For when the caufe is taken away , the effed 
alfo is taken away. 

14. e^f. 5. The fentencc of a Iudge which difannuls 
fuch a contraft, is founded on a preemption of deceit: 
but that falfe preemption takes noplace inthe Court of 
his- Confidence, thatknowes the contrary* 

Fff i$.A.63i 

I J. A. 6, By the content of ail, the obligation of the 
hw of nature is introduced by thefc contrads which arc 
not for mall, becaufc they are made out of free will, upon 
deliberate Counfell. But the Civill law cannot abrogate the 
law of nature, 'Erg*> 

16. sj4. 7. The intention of the Ciriillaw* inditan- 
hulling fuch contrafts, is ondy not to hclpe them in the 
external! Court, or give fentence on their fides, becaufe of 
the Common good. How foe ver, all obligation which 
arifeth from the Saw of nature isicfr. 

ly. A. 8/ The CivrH law it felfein fome cafes, (as in 
a Sculdiers will, 8cc*) Doth admit of this naturall ob- 
ligation although itwantthofe formalities. Therefore it 
doth acknowledge, that thefc contrads in thcmfelves, arc 
of force in the Court of Confcience, 

18. A. 9. Therefore hee, in whofe favour the law 
difannullcth fuch a contrail, cannot ("with a fafe Con- 
fcience) plead againft it before a lu-lgc. or require that it 
may bec declared^ nullified, orofnoiorce, if hee knowes 
the truth of it. 

ip. A. 10. Hence alfo the poffeffion of anothers 
goods, the Lord thereof being unwilling, although it bec ' 
continued fo long as the lawes require to prefcription^. 
doth not conferre the Dominion to the poffeffour in the 
Court of Confciencc. 

20. e^. 1 1. If the ppflTeffion bee by deceitfull dea- 
ling, (M 'ft,) if the Poffeffour knowes, or thintoes the 
thing poffefled not to bee his, but anothers, it is afinnc a- 
gainlt the law of nature , and therefore cannot cftabliflb 
the right of Dominion. And thofe lawes, which allow fo 
much power to fuch kind of pofleflions, tend to the deftru- 
ftion of the Common- wealth, in that they nonnfti heavy ' 
finnes in detaining other mens goods againft Confidences 
and alfo allow theives the Dominion of ftolen goods,* 
onely for delay of reftitution, which is manifeftly wic* 
% feed. 

%i.*A. 12. The poflfefllon of Bintfidei, by upright 
dealing hath nothing which is not in the poffeffioi^ maU 
ffah except it bec the falfe opinion of the Poffeflbur, that 

Of the totmimttt efexternall tMngf. \\^ 

the thing is his ownc. But this opinion cannot in the CotitC 
of Conference bring a juft title of Dominion : efpecially after: 
it is taken away by the raanifeftation of the truth, and the 
contrary knowledge hath place, by which hce knowes the 
thing, which heepofsefsedwasanothers. 

22, A* i g. No juft caufc can bee brought, why pre- 
fcription bona fidei {hould transfcrre Dominion. Three 
rcalons are wont to bee alleaged : 

Firft, That the Dominion of things (hould not bee un- 

Secondly, That contention (hould not bee infi- 

Thirdly. That the negligent and floath of men in re^ 
gaining their goods might bee punifhed i 

But firft, All thefe reafons arc as well for the poflfeflioa 
maU fidei, by dcccitfull dealing, as for that which bona fi- 
de*, hath upright dealing joy ned with it. 

Secondly, The firft and iccond reafon doe not belong to 
the Court of Confcicncc, buttotheextemallonely, where 
perhaps for thofe reafons, the a&ion may bee denied to 
the true owner, when the time is runnc out which islet 
'downe by the law. 

Thirdly, The third reafon is not fufficient:becaufe every 
negligence of the owner in re-obtaining his goods deferves 
not (o great a punifhment. Neither intruthis the law of 1 

Prefcription properly paenall, for then the former Matter 
(hould not loofe his Dominion , or the Prefcriber get it 
before the fentence is given. Neither can grotfeand fu- 
pine negligence bee calily proved, onely by the fpace of 

Fourthly, Affefted ignorance and voluntary negligence 
in finding out the truth, which excludes upright dealing, 
is aiwayes prefumed of him that detaincs another mans 
goods, efpecially ifhee were the authour, taking it into his 

23* A, 14, Hence alfo the detaining of gcods loft by 
fiiipwrack, doth not conferre a juft title 6f Dominion on 
the detainer. 

For firft, It is R»ft crueiland favage injufticetofpoiic 

Fff a the 

at 6 °f tfo Dominion of external things • 

the ipoiled, and to encrcafc the mifery at the mifera- 


Secondly, It is mod repugnant to charity, for where lin- 
gular piety and relief e is required, there to adde affliction 
to the af Aided, is togoepofitively oppofitc againft chari- 
' ty. And it is all one, as if a traveller, which hath fallen into 
the hands of robbers, andbeenc riflkd of ail his goods, yet 
letgoe alive with his horfe, and cloakc (bound neverthe- 
lefle,) (hould by the Lord of the Soilebee kept bound, 
and by him bee fpoiled of thole goods which were left, his 
horfe and cloathes. 

24. A. 15. The detaining of goods loft by fhipwrack, 
hath no colour of right of force enough for Dominion, 
except that which arifes from the poffeffionof goods for- 
faken,which become the firft Poffcffours. But goods which 
by (hipwrack, are caft into the water, are not therefore to 
bee accounted as forfaken. For things become forfaken 
either by the exprefse aft, of the former owner, or by equi- 
valent conje&ures, as when knowing and willingly hec 
utterly neglefts and permits thofe things, which were his 
tobecceafed on by others* But hee which unwilling fu f- 
fersfhipwrack,dothnomorc abandon thofe goods which 
efcape,either exprefsely or tacitely, then he, Who by reafon 
of fire or ruine, fuffers his goods to bee carried out of his 
houfe. Such goods are not out of the power of the owner 
dejure, but defaElo. They doe not want a M after, and 
therefore the Dominion of them cannot bee acquired, by 
the bare finding,or detaining of them. 

25. A. 16. The Civill tawes tbemfclves condemnts 
this detention. For fo C ofi ft anttne Cod. lib. 2. Tit. j. 
If at any timeafhipu driven by wrack on thefbore,or /ball 
touch at any land Jet it belong to the owners, my Exchequer 
fhallnot interpofe* For what right hath the Exchequer in 
mothers calamity ', that it Jbould \ feeke advantage in fo la- 
mentable it mifchancei And if the publiquc Exchequer will 
not appropriate (hip wrackt goods, much lefse ought it to 
bec done by private men. Cajetan therefore fayes rightly 
*\ i • 5 ' f HrtHm ^ Shipwrackt goods, which according to 
= tef'/^tewff! ii n $fM* d > therefore, bjcaufe 


Of Contrttts. sr^ 

they art fbipwrAckfyl know not by yvbatjuftice are detained, 
except B) that which addes afflict on to the aj flitted. There 
is no rcafon, that any one&ouldgaineby fhipwrack^un- 
Icfsc it bee that wages is due to thofe, by whofe labour and 
induftry the goods are delivered, and preferved. 

Chap. Xlll. 
Of C c *tratts< 

Qoeft. I. \7\J Hat /aw * there °f the efficient 
V V cau r es of contracts} 

ti isf. i. To a lawfull Contract, firft are required 
BerfonsfittoaContraft, f^*/?,) they which have the ad- 
miniftration of their owne goods, or power to oblige them- 
felves in fiich things, AB j . 4. 

2. tA* *. Hence Infants, roadmen, and prodigals are 
not fit to make a Contraft : and under that title their Con- 
trails by the Civill law, arc defcrvedly accounted nulli- 

> ties. 

3. A. 3. Thofe that are under age, and arc come to 
the perfeft ufc of rcafon, although they haveasyetover- 
fcers, if on mature counfellthey doe bargains that Con- 
trad confidered in it lelfe, according to the Got) r of 
Confciencc, feemes to bee of force. Whence the Lawyers 
teach, that thofe being underage, which Contraft with- 
out the authority of their Guardians , although they arc 
not obliged by the Civill law, yec by the naturall they 

4. <t/^ 4. In the fecond place is required, either the 
formal!, or vircuall confent of the Contra&crs, and that 
with three conditions : That firft, It bee free, at lcalt fo 
farreas one is bound freely to will and agree, although 
he will not in an iilicite aft. Secondly, Promiffive,f *W efi 9 ) 
with a mind to bee obliged to thole lawes of that Contract 
which is made. Thirdly ,Exprefsed by fome outward fignc, 

5I A. 5. From the firlt condition it followes, that the 
confent which is wrcftcd by extreame ftare, is not fufificient 
toa fkmeContraft. V i i 3 ^ <*. 6 4 Yet 

^g Of Ctntruh. 

6. J t %. Yettbismuft bee fo underflood t Firft, Tbat 
the feare is inferred to that end oncly that confent might 
bee forced. Tor if it {hould bee induced for another end, 
and hee which is afraid to avoid that evill flhoutd make a 
contraft, that contraft will bee of force : as if one being 
taken by a theifc, {hould promife a fumme of money to 
bee freed, that feare was notthecaufe, but the occafion 
onely of the contraft. 

Secondly, The feare muft bee brought on un/uftly. For 
if one oat of feare of punishment eftablifhed by the lawes, 
{hould bargaine with him, to whom hee hath done an in- 
jury, fuch a bargiine cannot bee difannulled. 

7. <••/. 7. From the fecond condition ic foil owes, that 
promife which is drawne out by guile, or given out of 
errotir, or is fo imperfect, that it containes not an intention 
of obliging, doth not properly make a contract. Howfoe- 
ver if one being deceived withanothers words to his owne 
lofle, taking thofe foraprormfc>heeis bound to perfbrme 
what hee promifed in that way effpeaking, left he {hould 
bee a caufe of dammage which would follow. 

8. A. 8. From the third condition it followes, that 
aninternall promife made to a man doth not bind; therea- 
fonis, becaufe the internall ads, are not fit inftruroents of 
conveighing our meanings and confents to others. 

QuefL 2. vflhat Uw u there concerning the matter^ 
about which contrails are verfed ? 

p. A. 1, Lawful! contrafts are not properly cxercifed, 
but about la wfu 11 things, thereafoiiis : 

Firft, Becaufe in every contrad, confent is given \ but 
confent to an unlawfull thing is finnc. 

Secondly, Contraft in it i clfc hath the force of promife: 
but it is not lawfull to promife, what is not lawfull to per- 

Thirdly, From a contract an obligation doth arifej but 
no obligation can bee lawfull which obligeth to finne, be- 
caufe under that very title it is repugnant to the obligation 
of the Divine law. 

■ io # A. 2, Hnce a contra&orbargaine foranydi/ho^ 
neft thing, is alfo it feifc di&Qncft as a bargaine for mur- 

OfContrtfis. 320 

&r, or tohoredotne, &c. The rcafon is, becaufe fcch bar* 
gaines arc ordained to diftionefty as their end, and therefore 
arc of the fame nature with the end it felfc, thatisdifiio- 
ncft. But if it bee asked, if after the difhoncft a&ion com- 
mitced, the contrad obligeth him which promifed, or if it 
bee lawfullto receive the hire bargained for in confide- 
ration of the danger, labour, and lofse, which was joyned 
with the diftionefty, it may bee probably anfwercd, that 
the promifcr is obliged, but it will hardly (land with (rue 
repentance, if the other party doc receive it, M<*tth % 27. 

3' 4. 

ii. A. 3. Contra&sof buying, and felling, andthofc 
which are of the fame naturc,have no place in fome things: 
not becaufc they are not lawfull or good in themfelves f 
but becaufc they are fo good that they cannot bee vale wed 
at a price. 

12. A. 4. Hence it is a finneof Simony, to buy orfelV 
or any way change a holy and Spiritual!, for a Temporally 
thereafon is 9 j 

Fijrft, Bccaufe holy things ought to bee ufed as holy, not I 
polluted, and profaned, which then they are,when they arc 
brought do wne, as Worldly things, into Tcmporall con- 
tracts, being it is againft the Religion and reverence, which 
is due to holy things. 

Secondly, Becaufe it is injuftice to fell thofe things, 
which arc to becbeftowedon freecoft, M*tth< 10,8. 

13. sA. 5* This finne is extended not onely t >iuper- 
naturail gifts, ( which yet wasthefmne of 'Simon /If a? us % 
from whom it tooke it s namq) But alio firft/To the caufes 
of fuch gifts, as the Sacraments aid the like. Secondly, 
To things annexed to fuch gifts, as they are fuch* Such arc 
all thofe, which are fo adjoyntd to the Spiricuall fun- 
ction and office, either as they goe before ^accompany, or 
follow after it, that they can no wayes bee feparatedfrom 

14. A. 6. Hence, not onely thofe are guilty of Simony, 
Which buy or felt thofe things which dircftly belong to the 
eltj&ion, ordination, or vocation of Ecclefiafticall Mini- 
fies, but all (uch, as in order to that calling,buy or fellthaffe 


Of CMtracn, 

things which arc fet apart for the maintaining of Minifter^ 
which ufually arc called benefices* 

15* A. 7. Such Simoniacall bargaines, notonelycon- 
fifts in money, but in all thofe things, which carr bceva- 
lewed, and rated with money, or hath the like nature with 
it,inrefpeft to fpirituall things. Hence a Simoniacall gift 
is not abfurdly divided, into a gift from the hand, a gift 
from the tongue, and a gift from observance. A gift from 
the hand is money, or that, which is of the famevalew 
with it. By the gift from the tongue arc underftood pray- 
ers, prayfes, entreaties, flatteries, if they have the power 
of obtaining Spiritual! things. By the gift from obser- 
vance, is underftood fome Temporal! deed, which induceth 
the beftowing of Spiritual^ as payment of a debt, whe- 
ther the bargaine bee exprefsed , or tacitely under- 

16. A. 8. To intend onely fuch donations or recei- 
vings, although it confifts in one party alone, yet it is a kind 
of degree of thisfinne, and foit is not ill called Mcntall 
Simony, and by fome Confidentially as it is diftinguifhed, 
from conventionall,and real!. 

17. *A. 9. That which is given to the fuRentation of 
thole, which are the helpers, and Minifters ofSpirituall 
things, hathnokindofSimonyinit* That alfo hath a place 
here which is faid of the reward of Phyfitians,and Schoolc- 
mafters : Wee doe not pay them the price of the thing, but 
then vwrkfy becaufe thej ferve, and being called from their 
orene affaires, thej attend ours* They doe not receive the 
reward of their defer t } but employment* 

18. A. 10. Neither is it properly Simony,when fome- 
vyhatis given cut of meerc gratitude, not by any agree- 
ment tacite, or exprefsed, director indireft. Neither if any 
thing is given by him, which hath a certaine and undoubted 
right to the Spirituall funftion, for the avoydingofunjuft 
troubles. Howfoever in thele wee muft beware of de- 
ceit, and the very appearance of cvill is to bee avoy- 

19. A. II. And although there i$not in every rcff>e£i: 
parity, yet there is Corns fimititudc * and proportion 


Of Contrasts. 5^ 

betwixt things facrcd and publfquc offices, whicbhavefhc 
power of jurifdi&ion. For the (ale of fuch offices, hatha 
difnoncft corruptneftc, which thwarts the nature of them. 
For as it is repugnant to the ad of jurifdiftion, that it 
flioulJ bee faleable, fo is it a!fo to the power of exercifing 
thit ad. Neither indeed, hach the Prince himfelfe Domi- 
nion over the offices of jurisdidion, but onely adminiftra- 
tion. There arc alfofo many evils which fpring from this 
kind of trafrick, that it is had in deteftation with all inge- 
nuous men. 

Quctt. 3. what Urt is there concerning the forme of 
•Contrails ? 

20. A. i. The externall forme is not the fame fct and 
determinated by any law, either naturall, divine, orcivilh 
For it may conlift in any declaration of mutuall confent 
v/hatfocver, whether it bee done by words, orgefturcs, 
or writing, or the delivery o£ the thing it fcife. Therefore* 
although chat forme hath power of obliging, yet becaufc 
it is not of force in it fclfe, but as it hath relation to the in- 
ternal! Court, for that caufc it doth thclefle belong to the 
,'irrternall Court of Confcience. 

•*i. A. 2. The intcrnall forme of a lawfull Contraft, 
h upright dealing, by which one dothtinccreiy intend to 
obi ge himfelfe to the performance, of that which hee pro- 
fcffctb, and afterwards toperforme it as much, asinbim 
licth. The reafon is, becaufe a Contraft includes a pro- 
miflive confent. Nowapronjifeisa teftimony, by which 
one binds his faith to dcalcuprighfcly with another in the 
performance of this or that; and therefore the forme doth 
require internal!, andeffentiall the upright dealing of the 
Contrafter, to bee truc,and fincerc. 

21. A. 3. Hence that divifion of Contra As; by which 
fome are faid to bee according to upright meaning, others 
*to bee according to the ftri&neflfe of the law, is n<5t accu- 
rate, and hath not place either in the Court of Confcience, 
or before God. For upright meaning is required in all 
Contra&s, and becaufe the chiefeft part of the nature of 
Cont^aftsdothconfift in that, the judgement as farrc as 
k can appeare, is to bee given out of that, and according 

Ggg to 

ibti. Therefore m all Contracts, wee (hould proceed ac- 
cording to right, and good, not che letters, or c*trcame ri- 
gour of the law, in which often times the raoft extreame in- 
jury is found. 

33. A. 4. Sometimes not to (land to promifes, is not 
repugnant to honeft meaning; to wit, when the promifc 
leaves off to bind : 

As firft, If the thing promifed becomes unprofitable, un- 
lawful!, or lmpoflible. 

Secondly, If the ftate of the things and perfons is fo 
changed* that in the judgement of wifecnen, the proroifer 
is thought, that hee would not have comprehended fuch 
an event. 

Thirdly, If the other party 5 in whofe favour the thing 
was promifed, fliould remit it. 

Fourthly, If hee which promifed on the other fide> will i 
not fulfill his promife. 

Fiftly, If any thing bee promifed for that caufe, which 
afterwards is found not to bee in it. 

24. A. 5. Repugnant to honeft meaning isdiflimu- 
lationj that is, craftinefse, fubtlety, fraud, chcating,plots,or 
contrivements either in words, or deeds, applied to the 1 
deceiving or circumventing anothers. 1 The fa/. 4* 6. 
1 Cor. 6. 8. It is ufually called eviil craft, that it may bee 
diftinguiflied from an honeft devilc, by which one is wil- 
lingly cheated into right rcafon. 

25. A. 6. It is repugnant to honeft meaning, in as 
much, as it takes a way the cleare intention of performing, 
that which was pretended , and feemed to bee promi- 

a<5. A. 7. This guile , if it bee about the fubftance of 
a thing, as if one fliould fell glafscforapearie, the Con- c 
craft in its owne nature is made voyd, becaufe in fuch a 
Contradi the confent is wanting, for hee which would* 
buy a pcarle , meanes not glafse. 

27, A. 8. Alike is the nature of evill guile, which yccl- 
deth thecbicfe caufe to a Contra^, although it meddles not 
with the fubftance of the thing, as if one (hould pe^fwade 
his chapman to buy a pcarle for that rcafon onely that be- 

OfCMtr&ttsl 2£j 

fore it was his Fathers, whootherwife would not have 
bought it* For fuch a Contract is -made voyd or to bee 
n?adc voyd, beaufe hee which was brought in by guile to 
bargaine, fuflfcrs injury in the Contraft; and therefore 
is tully to bee fatisfied by the undoing of the Con- 

28. A. p. When this guile lights oncly on the Con- 
tract, and is about it's accidents : as if one fliould bee de- 
ceived in the goodnefse of a thing, and is brought in by de- 
ceit, not that hee ihould buy, but that hee fhouldbuy for 
more then its value; it doth not make the Contract utterly 
voyd, or altogether to bee made voyd : howfoever hee 
which deceives is bound in Confidence, to recompence the 
others dammage according to equity. 

ig. A. io. Of this kind is that deceit, when the feller 
conceales from the buyer fome hidden fault of the thing 
fold, which bringeth dammage or lofse to the buyer. 

30. A% 11. To this alf@ belongs, if the feller knowing 
thatinfliort time, there will bee great ftore of fuch wares, 
by which occafion the price will bee diminished, and hee 
fliall fuffer great lofse which {hall buy before at the cur- 
rent price, will neither foretell that to the buyer, or abate 
the price: oralfoifthe buyer knowes that in ihort time, 
there will be great ftore ot buyers, andfearfityofwarcsj* 
by which the prifes of things will bee encreafed, and the 
fellet^ brought into poverty by felling at the ufuall rate* 
For in fuch cafes wee are bound, at lea ft by the law of cha- 
rity, to forefce for our neighbours good, as long as it may 
bee done without any great loffc to us • 

31. A % 12. Thofe Civill iawes which confirme a Con- 
tract made by circumvention, fo it bee under halfe of the 
jufl: price, arc pcrmiffive onely to diminifli ftrifes, and doc 
not juftifie the Contract, but leave it to bee judged in the 
Court of Confcience, by the law of nature?, and the Divine 

32. c/£ 13. That fault alfois oppofed to honcft dea- 
ling x which confifts in the inconfiderate omiffion of that 
diligence, which might and (hould have beenc added to the 
fulfilling of the Contract It differs from deceit, becaufe 

Gsg z deceits 

™ Of Contrtfo. 

deceit properly isufed wittingly, and on let purpofe-r 
but this fault proceeds from not heeding, or inconfidera- 
tion without fee purpose or intent. It is repugnant to ho-? 
neft dealing, notbecaufcitdoth fimply exclude fiocere. in r 
tent, but bccaufcitdothfticw, that diligent and due care 
of performance was wanting. Therefore it is rightly cal- 
led by the Apoftle Hghtne$e y 2 Cor. I • 17* 

3 }♦ A. 1 4. This fault is divided into open,flighti& flight 
teft. The open faulr,is the omiflion of that diligcnce^wbich 
men in the like cafe ordinarily apply, as if one fhould leave 
a borrowed books in iome open place from whence ic 
may bee taken a way.. A flight faultis the omiffion of that 
diligence, which diligent, men. of the like cafe commonly 
ufc, as if one (hould leave a thing entrusted of great value 
ipaaunlockt Chamber, from whence it may bee taken a • 
way. The flighted fault, is the omiflion of that diligence, 
which the mot diligent in the like cafe are wont to adde> 
a* if hec £h?uld leave that thing entrufted,andthinkcthe 
doorelockt,and yefcdoth not ccrtainely know. 

34, iA. 15. From the open fault, allContraftcrsare 
held guilty ot the dammage, which (ball thence enfue^ 
Becaufe common diligence is contained in the obligation 
of every promifc, and the omiflion of it, is manifeftly re- 
pugnant to honcft .dealing. Whence it is> that this open 
ftult is wont tobceranked almoft in the lame place, and or-? 
der, with cv ill guile*. 

35. A. 16, From the flight, or flighted fault, they ace 
bound fo farre, as either the nature of the Contraft, or the y 
agreement of the parties require, or aifo fo farre as hu- 
mane lawes out of equity have cftabltfhed* 

Queft. 4, What Uwjs there concerning the end ofCcn- 
trAfrii *" 

3(5. A. u The end of a Contrad, ought alwayes to , 
bee fomc good. For neither obligation,proroife,or confent, . 
ought to tend to cvilb 

37. A< 2. Contra&s ought chiefely to bee for the good 
ofthc parties. For they are employed about their good v. 
and. not other mens, For no man can bargaine abput thbfc v . 
S^^aWhicb vc not in bis swne power. 

38. ^tj.Somc 

Of CMratfs. 2 ^ 

38. A. 3* Some Contra&s arc for the good of the gi« 
vcr oncly, as a thing entrufted, a command. Others for the 
good of the receivers onely asagift,a free lone. Othcra 
for the good of both, as buying, letting our, partnership, 
pawnes, exchange, &c. But this difference although it 
propeily depends on the nature of the Contra&sthem- 
felves, yec upon the agreement of the parties it may bee 
changed, and many ends mixed together, as a thing en- 
trufted may bee lometimes for the good of him, which 
is entrufted, and a free lone for the good alfo of the Un- 

39. A. 4. To ieckc ones owne good onciy in that 
Contra^, which in its nature tends to the good of another, 
or of both (ides favours of fraud, and oftentimes is repug- 
nant to /uftice,but alwayes to Chriftian charity. 

Que ft. What is the effett of Contracts ? 

40. A. 1. Theeffed of every lawfullContra&,isthc 
bond of obligation to performc that, to which it hath coa- 

Fir ft, Becaufe every one is bound to [land to that, which 
face hath lawfully promifed. 

Secondly, Becaufe from promife, and the acceptation 
of it, the other party hath gained right and power of dc* 
maading the promife. W hence it is, that no Contraft caa 
bee broken, the party to whom it is availeable being un* 

41 f A. 2. This obligation, becaufe it is not extended 
beyond upright meaning, doth therefore fometimes ceafc 
upon a^neere chance, or an unthcught of event which hap- 
pens without the fault of the obliged, feeing it could not 
bee hindered by humane providence* 

4a* A. ?. But although, regularly and according to the 
nature of the thing it felfe, no* man is bound by a cafualt 
chance, which comes betwecne without his fault : yet hee 
may bee bound to fuch chance by fome particular agree- 
ment, becaufe fuch an obligation can bee vale wed at a cc*% 
taine price 

ti6 OfibefrdfOrtiotPdffrifes in Cmaftsoffmn^&t; 

Chap. XLIII. 

Of the proportion ofprifes in QontraUs tf felling, 

baying* letting out, hyring,and inthofe, 

which are of the fame nature* 

Qucft. I# \7\] Ha1: rHles are ^heobfervidinfot^ 

\f y ting a in ft price infnch Contrafts? 
I. *A. i. That rule is chiet&t, which is delivered by 
the holy Ghoft, *Prw. lo. 14, That the buyer, to abate 
the price, (bould not deceitfully take any thing away from 
the wares, which arc to beebought : or the Idler, to aug- 
ment the price, fhould not amplificagainft his conference 
the worth of his wares. For to bee willing to buy cheapen 
and fell deare, is (as t^ugnftine obfervesj common, but 
yet a common finne, except it is bounded within a ccrtainc 
meafureand limits. 

2. A. 2. The publique authority is tobeeobfervedm 
thofe things', whofe price is appointed by the Magiftrate, 
which happens in many places concerning thofc things, 
which moft neccflarily belong to foode. For that is alwayes 
prefumed jufl: and a?quall in fuch things of common tie, 
(except the contrary bes manifeft,) which is allowed of by 
the community* Yet here it is to bee obfervcd,that becauie 
in things neceffary to life, the price is ufually rated ao» 
ending to the bigneflc, for the buyers fake, yet notwith- 
standing, the price may bee brought lowerjthough.not aug- 

3 # A. 3. The common rate of the marker, and of wife 
and good men is to bee followed. For this rate hath the 
forceof a tacite law, and excludes the danger of any de- 
ceit to the dammage of another. In this fenfc may bee 
admitted that rule, which is approved in the Civilllaw, 
and the manners of men : that that price is juft,if the thing 
bee fold for fo much, as it can bee fold for: or, every faiica- 
ble thing is worth {0 much, as it can bee foldfor ; that 

\ Of theprtfonm effnfes m Contras »jjwii£&fi 

is, as it can bee fold for commonly, not cut of any aft 
ft&ion, or for the profit of this or that man. 

4. A. 4. Where no publique rating, or common va^ 
lew can have any place, there the price is to bee fet,(yct 
without fraud ) according to the judgement of undeman- 
ding men, all circumftances being duly confidered. Fcra 
more certaine law in many things cannot bee had to direft 

5. *s4. 5. That difference is to bee noted in thect> 
fetving of thefe rules: that the lawfall price Which is ap- 
pointed by pobWque authority, is indivifiblc, f o that it can- 
not the leaft way bee augmented by the feller 1 but the na* 
turall price which is fet either by common valuation, or 
the agreement of parties, hath its latitude, within which 
upon occafion it may bee altered* Hence a threefold jnft 
price ufeth to bee affigncd, one is called rigid, or the uttcr- 
moft, according to the terme of magnitude : another mild, 
loweft, cafie* fwect, according to the terme of parvity- And 
the third meane, or moderate, as it receeds from either ex- 

Queft. 2. Whether there bee tnyjstfi cattfes of varying 
>tbe jufi pr!ee ? 

*s4nf. There arc many caufes given. 

6. A. x. The firft caufe is fetcht from the confidera- 
tion of the office of a Merchant, for it is valuable at a price, 
that heefpends his time, care, and thoughts in getting, pre- 
ferving, and conveighing things, and alfo that hee hires 
fervants : infomuch, that if Merchants were wanting, the 
Common* wealth muft neccflarily provide publique Mi~- 
nifters to doe thofe things. Hence the fame thing is valued 
at a greater rate with Merchants, then with other private 
men. Yet Merchants muft not reckon all their charges 
they have laid out ; For it may oftentimes fall our, that fo 
much labour is employed, and fo great exoenfesbeftowed 

i 1 an unprofitable and unneccfTary thing, and therefore the 
common rate is to bee followed. 

7. A. 2. Hence, thole rules are dcceitfall, by which 
Merchants ufe to juftifie themfelves, in exacting a greater 
pftce for their wares : to w«* that they bought thofe wares 


for fo much, that they Ipent fo much in procuring themv 
For it may happen, that a Merchant may fell cheaper then 
heeboughtjandyct fellun;uftly : cither becaufchec bought 
it fooli(hly. t or afterwaids the rate of things is chan- 

8. *A. 3. The fecond caafc is brought from the man- 
ner of felling -.from whence manifold variety may follow 
in augmenting or diminishing the price 

p. A. 4. When the ware feekes out a chapman, it 
makes the jud price of a thing to abate, according to the 
common proverbe , proffered wares ftinke. The reafon 
u(ed to bee given, is, becaufc in that manner of felling, a 
fcarfity of buyers is prefumed, by which thecommon va- 
le w is diminished : but that reafon doth not feemefugf- 
cient in confeience for any notable diminution of the price, 
except that alio happen, that the thing which isfo fold, 
is little profitable to the buyer* or fach, that hce would not 
have bought it but upon {uch an occa(ion,or that hee buyes 
not fo much for his owne, as the fellers fake. 

*o. A. 5. From this rule it often happens, that goods 
which are at open falc, or by the voyce of the publiquc 
" irycribarc leffe pricc,thcn other wife they ufe« 

lit A. 6. When Chapmen fe^kc wares* For then 
the ftore of buyers augmentsthe common vale w, and fo is 
a / uft caufe of augmenting the price. 

1 a. A. 7. When one fcls a great quantity of things 
together, and not by parcels.: this manner of felling dimi- 
niQicth the price, becaufc it diminiflieth the number of 
buyers, and alfo the power of detriment, or danger of 
lofte, which might enfuc upon occaGon of felling it a£ 

13. A> 8. When one felsby parcels .'this manner may 
juftly augment the /uft price of things; becaufc there is 
more labour in felling, and more care in keepin g, and di- 
viding the wares. 

14* *A. 9. The third caufe is, if the feller by felling, 
(hall futfer fome particular difcommodity, although that 
difcommodity conlifts onely in the privation of fome ho- 
5i our, or particular delight • For then the feller may exSa 

fome what 

of cmn&s bj rfifyi *IP 

fotnewhat more then the thing is worth in it felfc, and the 
price by accident will bee jult : becaufe natural! equity 
requires that the feller, being hee is Lord of his ovvnc 
things > {hould keepe himfclfe harmleffe. 

15. A. 10. But thim^ lavvfuil onciythen, when the 
buyer follicites the feller, that hee would fell that thing, 
which otherwife hee was not about to fell. For if the 
feller freely offer himfeUe to the buyer, then the buyer 
is not the caufc, that hee is deprived of his ownecomnu> 

Chan XLIV. 


Of Contrttts by Vfmy. 

Qucft. I. \ 7\ ]H** * Vfftry i 

V V 1. %A. 1. Vfury by lending (in 
this matter of Contracts, ) is wont to bee defcribed, a 
gaine fought from the lone of money by force of the lone 
, itfelfe. 

• 2. A. t. By gaine is underftood the acquifition of 
fomc commodity which is valuable with money, which 
was not mine. For if any one fecke onely fricncUhip or 
good will, it is not Vfury; becaufe they are not of the num- 
ber of thofe things, which can bee animated at a price. 
If alfo one by lending (hould {eeke to receive that which 
is due by vertue of a former contract, and obligation, it is 
not Vfury, for otherwife, bee would not receive his owne. 
But if one (hould not feeke money, or wares, yet homage* 
or gifts, or the impofition of fomc burden, it is rightly 
called gaine by Vfury, becaufe it is valuable at a price. 

3 . *si % 3 . It is faid by the force of the lone it felf, to ex- 
clude that gaine which may bee received by fomc other 
title, as for recompence of emergent ioffe, or the ccafing 
of gaine. The gaine of which kind is ufualiy called intereft t 
and is diftinguiflied from Vfury. 

4^. 4. This gaine is faid to bee fwght $ not agreed 
Hhh upon* 

2%® Gf Cenira&s- by Vfary* 

upon j becaufenot oncly re all Vfury, in which a Contract* 
iriccrceeds, but alfo ment^U y which is in the intention of 
getting againe from the lone as a debt, may bee contained 
in this description. 

Queft. ?. Whether this kind j0V r fa r y Is taw full? 

5* <A* i* Such Vfury which is commonly pra&ifcd byi 
Viiirers, and Baakcrs, is defervedly condemned of .ail : 
becaufeit is a catching arty and' no regard of charity or equi- 
ty being had,layes in wait for othct mens goods, 

6. *A* a. But itcannot bee proved folidly byanyna- 
turall rcafon, that any Vfury whatfbever is generally, and 

• %folutely unla'wfull. 

7. A. 1, Not by their realpn who fay ? all loncs in their 
nature ought to bee of good will : For it cannot bee pro- 
ved, that every kpic with wbatfqcvercircumftances it bee . 
doathed, ought to bee freely beQowed : and if this bee 
granted, nothing el fe will fqllpw, but that, if the lo$ebee 
not gf'Mu+it paffeth into fomc Contra&,cither named or not 

• mined, (impleor mixed* 

8.. A* 4, Not by theirs who alledge, that in thofe things 
which confume by ufe, the Dominion isnotdilinguifhed 
from the ufe, and therefore nothing .can bee taken for the ' 
ufe beyond the vale.w of the thing it fejfc, or ,the Domi- 
nion of it, Tor it is anfwered,gainc is not taken (imply for 
the ufe of the borrowed thing according to its fubftance s 
but according to the vale w, or income which remaines af- 
ter the fubflance is cpnfujpaed : and is oftentimes in things , 
which are not confomed by ufe ; as alfo for the office, and 
a& of lending, from whence the borrower receives pro- 

9. A. 5. Not £y theirs who objeft, that money in its 
owne nature is barren. For 'although it bee barren in it, 
£elfe,yetit may eafily bee changed into mercbandife, which 
yeeld fruit : and the induPry-of the Vfer being added, it be - 
ftowes itepower to bring forth fruit. 

IQ. A 9 6 K Neither laftly by theirs who fay # in generall, 
that there is nothing in the lone, for which gainemaybee. 
Reived, For there is the, fruit ©if the .income,, or pfofir, 

which - 

OfCmuBshj rjurj. £41 

which probably might be ex{fe£ted from xht mony which is 
lent : and there is a burthen annexed to the privation of' 
the money, by which all occafion of placing it otherwife . 
With encrcale is omitted. For the vacation from ufing 
money by the fame righ?Vnay bee valued, as the vacation 
from labour, isExod. 21. 19, feeing that, no lefle then 
labour, or worke may bee employed for tic benefit of the 

11. A. 7. It is confirmed by evident reafon, that fome 
Vfury is lawfulhbecaufenoVeall difference can bee (hovvne 
betwixt fome Vfury, and othes Contrafts, which are al- 
lowed of by all> as fcr example one is furnifhed vvith mo- 
ney to buy a farme, from whence he may receive the y eare- 
ly profit cfa hundred pound. Another defires to have the 
fame farms, yet is not furntfhed with ready money ; if the 
firftbuythe farme, and rents it cut for a hundred pound, 
no man will deny, but that heehath done that which is 
juft and right. But if hce give the ttooney to the other to 
purchafe the farmc for himfelfe, and flball receive the fame 
fumme from him, fubjc&ing himfelfe to the fame peril!, 
which hee&ould havebcene obnoxious to in the purchafe 
for himfelfe, it is the fame jufiice, and befides there is fome- 
what added to him which payeth Vfury, by reafon of the 
Dominion of fchat farme, which hee hath got by his pur- 

ix. *A % S. The Scripture doth not take away altoge- 
ther *U Vfury; 

But firft> That which is exafted of the poore, who for 
urgent necefllty, and his owne fu Mentation borrowethjfo 
that the prohibition is founded on the condition of the 
pcrfon, Excd. 2J. 25. Lev. 25. jy. Pr&verb. 28. 8 # 
Ez,ec£>4 1 8. '1 7. 

Secondly, That which bites, and gnawes; that is, when 
the debt is exaftcd with rigcur> and the dammageofthe 

Thirdly, That, which is repugnant to charity, Luc K 6 A 

fourthly, Andpcrhaps, that which by -the politick law 
Hhh * Was 

H2r OfCotttrttfs by Vfury. 

was not lawful! to the Icwcs to cxcrcifc among thcm- 

13. A. 9. The Scripture doth feeme to imply, that 
fomeVfury in its felfe is lawfull, when it did permit the 
Iewcs to take Vfury of every Jftanger that was not poore, 
Bent. 23* 20 # For if all Vfury was intrinfecaily andm 
its owne nature evili,tben the Iewcs could not take Vfury 
of the gentiles without fomegrievousfcandall, by which 
the gentiles might bee averted from the religion, and law 
of the Iewes, which admitted a thing unlawfuil, as law- 
full* Hither alfo it may bee referred, that i: is moft pro- 
bable from that parable of the talents, Matth, 25. 37, 
that fo ufury of Bankers, was not oneiy in common ufc 
among the Iewes, but alfo not difalio wed of by the Lord: . 
becaufe under that (imilitude hec requires a fpirituail duty, 
without any infinuationofdiflike, which in other parables .. 
heedidufetoadde, which did fet forth our duty by the 
difallowingtbeufe,as Luc f \6. 8, 

Queft. 3. From rvl&t ground can the equity of gai^e 
By the lendingof money beedemonjlrated ? ' 

14. A, 1. The equity of itismanifeft, of which none 
can doubt, if any one doth not bargaine, that a fet fummc^ 
ofTCturnc fhall bee precifely payd; but fo puts oat bis mo- 
ney with fotnc honed man, on whofc faith hee doth rely, 
that hec will bee contented to receive fomeequali part of 
the fruit of the money according to the meafure of Gods 
bencdiftion towards the employer of the money. Of the 
putting out of money in this kind there can bee no que- 
ftion, if the danger of the principall bee commune alfo: 
3k)r it is nothing clfe,but a contract of copartnership, both 
ingaine-and damirage, 

1$. A. 2. Nothing is committed againft equity, if the 
uacertaine gaine which will probably follow, bee fold for 
amoderatc certainty* 

i6 % A> 2* Neither is there any iniquity in that, if the 
contraft bee made with equall conditions, that the whole 
danger of the principall fnould belong to him which em- 
Vl°y c A t\H* *??& c y • ??F ** * s nothing elfe, but a contra^ ofV 


Of Ontrafts by Vf*ry. ^ 

•flfurancc, by which the danger cf anothcrs thing, which 
may bec rated at a price,is undertaken for the price. 

17. A. 4. It is not neccflatily required, thai a con- 
trad ohhis nature, bee done diftindly and c*preffely,tut 
'(is enough ii it bee done implicitely, and out ofafincerc 
intention, as aJfo according to the eftimation of honeft 
men, and fuch as underftand affaires of that fort* 

i8f A. 5. When therefore all thofe contrafts, as all 
men confeffe. feverally are law full,it necefsarily folio Weth, 
thatacontra&mixt, and compounded of thofe, f to wit,) 
of a contract of copartner fliip 9 of afsurance of the flock, 
and of the fale of an uncertainegaineforacertainc,isnot 
(imply and abfolutely to bee difallowcd. 

Queft. 4. What things are to bee obferved in the put- 
ting out of money jhett fime may bee avojded? 

1 p. Ci\ u Firft, Wee muft beware, that nothing bec 
required beyond the principall, of thofe which arc poorc. 

20. A. 2. Wee muft beware alfo leaftthegrcedinefse 
of gain any way hinder any of us, that thereby he doth lefsc 
hdpe the needy by lending, or thofe that are altogether 
poorc,byfimplygiving 3 accordingtohis abilities. 

21. exf. 3. Wee muft beware all excefse, which to 
avoyd, it is raoft fafe, that hee which puts out moneys 
fhould not exad all that, which is allowed by the lawes 
or received cuftomc , but containc himfelfe within that 
which is permitted, 

22. A. 4. Confideiation is alwayes to bee had of him, 
with whom the bufines is, that the fruit of the xnony return 
to him that lent it with the profit of the borrower, and 
not the lofse. Hence extrcame right" cannot bee urged 
fometimes without extrcame injury; as if one fhoold fuf- 
fer lofsc without his ownc fault in the traffiquing with the 
money which was borrowed, it would bee inhumane to 
demand of him the encreafc of the money, that is, to receive 
gaine from his lofse. Naturall confeience alfo feemcth to 
di&ate this equity in Ietting,and hyring, as if either barrec- 
nefse, or any other calamity which happens, bec fomudv 
thafctbc hyrcrfuflfers fome notable dammage by the thing 

Hhb 3 tyred*. ». 

z44 °f ( ^ m ^ s h wgersjtisjfdgmwg. 

hyred, the rent is to bee remitted to bios by theleflfoar* 
either in whole, or according to the proportion of the 

23. A. 5 ♦ The rule of equity, apd charity is al wayes to 
bee marked ? and obferved : that that oncly bee taken,whioh 
everyone in .upright meaning being in fuch neceffity, 
would have others take of him. 

'24. *sZ. 6. Offences and calumnies, (to which this 
kind of contract is obnoxious, hr % 1 % . 10. J ought as much 
as *an bse,al wayes to bee avoyded. 

Xha?. XLV. 
Of Conirattsby wagers , lots y And gamin?. 

V V 1 . A. It is a contrail, in which 

**wo contending about fome truth, doe wager fomewhat 

on both fides, from whence hce lliall have reward that 

attaines the truth, and heepurifhed which doth not. Wqe 

-have an example in Samfons riddle, JW. 14. 1 3 ; 14. 

Queft. 2* Aretbefe kjtid of wagers lawfull ? 

2. A. 1. The aft of waging as it is conftdcred in its 
felfe, is not pltincly unjuft : becaufe onely the danger of 
one,isoppo(ed to the danger of the other, which dangers 
iometimes may bee undergone, and interchanged. 

,3. A. 2, One may undergoe the hazard of a voluntary 
mulft toconfirme his conjecture: and that mnl£ may de- 
servedly bee required of the other, if fo bee hee rafhly 
trufts his owne conjecture* 

4. A. 3. Th?re may alfo bee a reward appointed be- 
twixt two upon mutuall confent, on fomcdoubtfull evene, 
that from the hope of the re ward^hec, orthc other may bee 
birred up to a laudable endeavour. 

j r A. 4. Ycc wagers are unlawfull ; Firft, If they have 

an unlawfull condition, as if two drive bet wixt themfch cs 

for this or thatfinnc; as whofhould overcome another in 

4 drwkwgf 

OfCmuUs by wagers Jtts^ndgtmmg. 245 

drinking, or who (houid carry himfelfe more boldly in 
this or that bafinefse, which may bee difalo wable, &c. 

Secondly, If ic bee to the notorious lofsc of cither party* 
for fuch danger ought not co bee undergone in that con- 
trad:, which fer ves neither to publique or private profit.and 
fuch are common wagers. And that gaine is tobce accoun- 
ted flianxfuli, which ar if eth from anothers lode. Hence 
that contrail of Samjons riddle, wgs afterwards defervediy, 
condemned by the Pbi/iJ}i»es themfelves, becanfeit ten- 
ded to rhe fpoilingthcm of their inheritance,^ 14*16. 

6. ^4. 5, That revenew which is called an annuity, 
in which one gives a /iuxunc of money, that hee may re- 
ceive a certains ilipend every yeare as long as hee liveth, 
i>notto bee referred to the Contrsft by Wagers. For 
hee doth not promife, that hee will furvivc, till the" 
ftipend overcome, the principal!, neither doth the other 
to the contrary. For fuch a contraft is of buying and {cl~ » 

ling, by which an unccrtaine gaine, is bought for a certaine 
price; and it is held for lawfull according to the lawes, and 
nature of fiich a buying, and not by reafon of fome fained 
• Queft. 3 i WhvtUtkt > CoteraElby Uts? 

7< <zsf. If It is a contract, in which by theforce of a- 
foregoing agreement, lots are caft, that it mayappcare, 
who ought to bee Matter of this or that thing. 

S. A. %. Such kind of contrails are fomctimes made, 
betwecnethofe, which had right before to that thing, about 
which the lot is caft $ .whether it bee to bee divided amongft: - 
many, asin the distribution of the land of C<*naan,Iof,i% 9 
Or whether it bee wholy to come to one,as in the garment 
of the Lord which was to bee adjudged to this or that 
fouldier, Uh % ip. 24. to which kind, thofc lots may bee 
reduced which are by game, But fometimes it is betwecne 
thofc, which before hadno common right ofcdifpofing the - 
thing; as when one thing, or morcareexpoledtobeeasit 
were fold by lots, and divers meet to get the fame by lots : 
which wee call commonly Lotteries; or laftly, whenthe 
lots ;jre crdained to make fome ele&ion, as in the choyce of 
M4ibw,Atts J , : : ~ Quelle 

Qttcfl:. 4. What Uwfulnefie is there in fuck kin&ofQou- 
tratt I 

9. *sf. 1* The Contraainitfdfeislawfull,and isap* 
proved in the Scriptures by divers examples. Thercafon 
is, that becaufe every one mutually doth cxpofe his sequall 
right to the thing, or that part which hec ought to re* 
ceive, to the hazard of lots, ic is as jt were an equal! 

10. A. 2. Yet it is divers way es turned into finric. 
Fxrft, Ifany (hall depend upon the ftars, or fpirits,or for- 
tune for the dire&ing ofthe lots. 

Secondly, If that is intended which in it felfe is unlaw- 
ful!, or if an unlawfali manner of doing it bee adjoy- 

Thirdly, If they beeufed without fome great caufe, or 
due reverence; becaufe the calling of lots inksownena« 
tur*, hath a particular refpeft to the fpcciali providence of 
God,P>w # 16.35. 

Qucft. 5 . What is a fintratt b] game ? 

1 1 # ' ۥ*". U It is a contraft, by which the players doe 
agree betwixt thetnfelvcs,that fomcthing fliall bee yeelded 
by the conquered to the Conqucrour. For whether aK 
that which is flaked by both, is given to the winner, or that 
Which was ftaked onely by the loofer bee fpeut in com- 
mon, fomewhat alwayes is granted from the conquered to 
the Conquerour. 

1 1 4 A. 2. It is mixt of two coritrafts, of which the 
firftisamutdall changing both of danger, and intercftfot 
the good, either of this or the other, according to the event 
ofthe game, the fecond is a wager Mpendcd cither upon 
greater skill, induftry, or good hap. 

Queft. 6. Is fitch a comraSi lawfully 

13. A. 1. It is not in it feife unlawfuli, becaufe fuch an 
agreement may bee in the Uwfull power of the parties 
agreeing: it may bee ordained to a good end upon a good 
iatention : it may bee alfo fo ufed, that it (hall not bring 
with it 3py vioiatipn either of religion, ju[tfce,or chari- 
ty. • ~~" * j. 

14. A. 2, An 

Of Contracts by Mgcrs^ts y andgmingi fy? 

i4 # A. z. An eager intention of gaine, maketh it vi~ 

Firfl:, Becaufe the end of play is recreation, and delight 
of the players* Therefore if it bee meant for gaine, or if 
it bee turned to the notorious difcommodity of one party 3 
it is an abule contrary (b the nature of play. 

Secondly, There is either a parity betwixt the gamfters, 
and fo it is a prodigal! raftincfTe to hazard a considerable 
fumme of money without any ncceitity i or an imparity is 
fuppo r ed, and fo the contraft is vitiated by guile and de- 
ceit, when oncoppofeth little or no danger of lofle with a 
certaine hope of gaine, to the others great perilh 

Thirdly, No mortail man is fo abfolute a Lord of his 
money, that heecan alienate, or expofe to the danger of 
alienation, any notorious fumme without juftcaufe appro- 
ved of in the word of God : which cannot bee affirmed of 
gamingas it is in ielfe. 

Fourthly,It is not lawfull for any man to gaine by ano- 
thers lofle; which is manifeftly done in gaming on purpoft 
forgaines: andin this refpeS, gaine ariling from play, is 
filthy lucre : neither would it b©e more approved of com- 
monly, then the other kinds of avarice, but that it hath 
fomewhat of prodigality joyned with it, which feemes 
to have fome magnificence* in it. 

15. A. 3* That little for which it k lawfull to play, 
may admit fame variation according to the condition of 
thegamfters. Butit is certaine, that no man ought to ven- 
ture more in play, then that which hath a j\ift proportion 
to the end of gaming, that is, no]more then a man of fuch a 
ftate can reafo^bly beftow on his recreation. 

16. A. 4. Thofe games which onely are by chance, on 
doe efpccially-*ciy upoiichance 5 aretobeeremovedfroin 
fuch contra&s : 

For firft, In chance there is no contention or exercife of 
vertue, which to excite, as there ought to bee rewards 
pubikjaeiy ptopoled,foalfb upon private cqnfent to bee ap-^ 

Secondly, Lot ip its owne nature hathafpeciaflrefa- 
^ • ' lix tiofi 

S^§ 6f emptytniitt of life. 

tidntothc fpeciall providence of God,andfoitisafacred 
thing : and the old proverbs is true* it is not good to play 
jvith holy things* 

[ Thirdly, Such kind of games doc give occafion of divers 
finncs to the gamftersj p 

Asfifft, Of greivous perturbations, curfings,and blafphe- 
inies for their croffe fortune as they call it . 

Secondly, Of immoderate p:rtinaey in continuing to 
play,in hope of better luck,which to caS away,they can (ee 
no reafbn. 

Thirdly, Of loflfe of time and money, being no true gainc 
can redound to any from thence. 

ij. A> 5. Hence it is, that wee read in Scripture of 
ether exercifes ufed and allowed of for the encreafe of 
vcrtueandftrength, as of handling the bow; 2 Sam. 1. 18. 
But dicing hath no allowance in the Scriptures, and is con- 
demned almoft by all lawes, although fuch la wes arc com- 
pelled to give way to our compted manners. 

Chap. XLV-IJ 

Of empty M of life] 

'Quefe i* \ 7\ iHether *ny having no certain} eni* 
y V flojment can live without finne ? 

1. A. 1. Hee which hath fo much power, and gifts 
beftowed on him, by God that hec may live laudably in 
fomehoncft calling, if hee abftaine from all employment 
willingly, hec cannot bee quitted from finning grei- 

F or firft, It is the ordinance of God, that every one by 
helping others in fomc particular calling, ihould glorifie 
God, Gen. 2. 15, and 3. Jp* iPct.^. io. G*l>$. 13J 
& Theft, 4+ 11.. 

Secondly, Every one hath received his talent, or fome 
*pm of a talent from God to that end: which cannotbee 
baaed or hid witfioiit finnc, OMattk, 35 % 
, . - Thirdly,, 

Ofmffymm ofUfei ^ 

Thirdly, Idlenefle is to bee flicd, as tlie mother and mirfc 
of many vices, efpecially of evill thoughts, defires, curiofi- 
ties, and wicked contrivementsj 1^4. 11. iThejf. 
3. it. 

Fourthly,The glory of God,publ;que,and private well- 
fare, as alfo the peace of confeience, may and ought to bee 
fought by {orae honeft calling. 

2. A. 2. Hencelufty begging vagabonds are not to bee 

Firft, Becaufe they openly oppofe themfelves to the Di- 
vine ordinance. 

Secondly, They are a burden toothers with out neccf- 

Thirdly, Becaufe they defraud thofe that are poore,in- 
deed at lcaft offome part of the almes which they would 
receive, if they had not beene prevented by fuch. 

Fourthly, They doe not carry themfelves either as 
members of any Church, or Common- wealth. 

Fiftly, They dirc&ly fet themfelves to many kimlsof 

Queft. 2. How matydnc k^ow 9 that thU or that employ 
9hent bee honeft ? 

3. A. 1. I fit bee manifeftly approved of in Scriptures. 
Secondly, If with fome proportion to thofe callings, which 
arc allowed of in Scripture, it bee about that which is law- 
fiill in it felf e, or profitable to mankind, or good report, 
Efhef. 4.28. T^y.4.8. 

4. e^f. Hence firft, Thofe who are bufied in the nou- 
rishing and furthering of finnes, as thole vittailers, which 
doc not adminifter oncly to the neceffity of ftrangcrs, and 
travailers, but to the intemperancy of their neighbours,lead 
a difaoneft life, 

1* A. 2. Thofe v that follow trifling, light, fportfoll^ 
fcurriious arts, or belonging that wayj may not abide in 
them,as in an honeft courfe of life. 

Firft, Becaufe nothing is found in them worthy the life 
of man. 

fondly, They doe invert the order of nature* what 

lit ^ thc^ 

3 jo Of employment efllfel 

they turns the remiflion of labour, into coyfina 

Thirdly , They make themfeives unfit for the more 
Weighty and ferious duties of Chriftians. 

Fourthly, They ufe to hclpe the Devill in temptiae 
men, wbil'ft they .ttirrc up, and kindle their carnaU-det 

6. A. 3, Their employment, who take occafioo to 
raife their owne profit, by the dammage of others, which 
commonly is the courfe of ufivers, cannot be approved as 

Queff. 3. wb*t things Are required for the dnskxercU 
fing an honeft calling} 

7. Anf. t . Skill is required, by which every one per- 
fcaiyJ?noweththofc things, which properly belone to his 
owne vocation, Pr0z\ 14.8. 

8. A. 2. Attention to his owne afiaires, more then 02 
thers, %Thef 3. 1 1. 1 Tim. 5 . 13. j Pet> 4 

p. Ai 3. Diligence in undergoing bufin c fle,/V w . r oj 
4. and 13. 4. and 21, 5. and 27. 23. i^Ecclef. i© IZ 

10, A. 4. Wifedome, in obferving, taking, and ufinV 
rightly opportunity, Prov.. ix>. 5 , and 4*. *• Ecclef 
10. 8. . %'- ' 

J -i I \^ f, 2 ,Courage and , Conftanc y ™ overcoming 
difticulties, Prov. 1 5 . 1 9 . and 20. 4. and 26 16. 

1 2. ^ ' 6\ A moderation in the defire of gaine,andcare 
of Wilhed fucceffe, 1 Timl 6. 9 . Mmh. 6, 34.. ?y "°. a £ 

13. ^. 7. Laftly, A religious fancying of all our 
labours required, 1 Cor. xo, 31 .Gen, 24. i 3 .3 7 .pf*/. 

90. tilt, ... 

c «.a?; 

of Poverty *nd Rktei 3 j£ 

Chap: XLVIJ. 

Of poverty and riches* 

Queft* i# TTQ^ mufj wee account of poverty ? 

JLjL i. A. i. A Counterfeit poverty' & 
ingratitude to God, whofe bleffirg is renounced, and an in- 
jury to men, as well thole, to whom due aid is denied, as 
ehofe, who for that eaufe are the more burdened,, TVw* 

*3* 7. 

a. *A. 2. And fuchis the poverty for themoftpartof 
Popifii Monkes, which by word and habit profeflc po- 
verty, but in deed are moft rich,poffeffing large mannours, 
great: incomes, and mighty wealth. It is a ridiculous de- 
fence of thofe, that the Covent, and Brothers in the Co- 
vent, doc poffeflc thofe goods in common, and undivided^ 
fo that any one cannot fell, or alienate any thing from 
'thence, or receive at his owne will. 

For firft, If the Covcnt bee rich, theMonkes in that Co« 
vent cannot bee poore. For ifeachofthembeepoore,and 
the Covcnt rich, then by the fame reafon, each part of a 
body may bee white, and the whole black. 

Secondly, Theiicires of fome Prince, or rich man, al- 
though they pofTefse the inheritance individed, and arc f or* 
bid to fell,or alienate any of it, yet they are not, nor cannot 
bee accounted poore men. 

Thirdly, If two or more fecular men flionldddiverup 
their goods altogether to fome overfecr, on that condition,, 
that hce fhould minifter to them necefsaries, as need re- 
quired, either feverally, or together, thefe furely did not 
put off their riches, but the burden, care, and trouble of 
them s as ^etiphar the ^Egyptian did by himfelfc, gen; 
3^,8^andin fomefort Pbar a*hj Chap, q.r. 

•Fourthly , Every Monks hath right to demand his* 
III- 3. conveniens 

[Off overt} MdRhhet* 

convenient portion, infomuch that if it bee denied without 
a jufl: caufe, it is accounted a trefpafle, and hee may iuc an 
a&ion againfl: the covcnt before a competent Iudge. 

Fiftly, It is knovne that many enter Monaftcries to a-^ 
voyd poverty, becaufe they have not wherewithal! other- 
wife to live idly, and that many are thruft in by their pa- 
icnts,and kindred, that they might more certainely provide 
foMh^trtreceflary maintenance* 

Sixtly, Many goe into Monafterics, that they may make 
a way and degree to Papali dignities and offices, by which 
they may enrich themfclves, and theirs. 

3* A* 2. True poverty, if it beedircftly defircd and 
lought, which is ufually called voluntary, without forae 
fpeciall urgent neceflity, is a madneffe to bee condem* 

Fit ft, Becaufe fuch a poore man doth not provide for 
himfelfe and his,, according to the courfe of nature appro- 
ved by God. 

Secondly, Becaufe hee choof eth and feeketh the cvill of 

Thirdly, Becaufe hee doth expofe himfelfe raflily to ma^ 
ny temptations. 

Fourthly, Becaufe hee makes himfelfe unable to render 
many duties which are due to their neighbours from thole 
who have outward abilities* 

Fiftly, Becaufe this is to tempt God, if any one having 
where withall to fuQaine himfelfe, fhallcaft away that, ex- 
pefting fomentation from God. 

Sixtly, Heerefufcth that, which every day hee defircs 
of God,that is, his dayly bread- 
Seventhly, Hee burdeneththofe, from whom hecrc- 
cciveth any thing without hecefiity, and defiraudeth thofe 
Which (hould have received the fame if hee had not inter- 
cepted it. Such is the poverty of fomc amongft the Popifli 
Monkes, who live onely on that, which they get from day 
to day by begging. But they adde alfo to this madneffe, 
a fuperftitious and wicked preemption, being that they lei! 
this poverty for a worke ofperfedion, and fuperogatipn 


Of Poverty tod&kfof. £** 

which will much prevaile for fatisfaftion and tterit befoi$ 

4. A. 3. True poverty which is neceffary, not fought 
onpurpofc, but other wife happening, and is for the mod 
part joyncd With infirmity, weakneffeorfuchlikedefeft, 
whence it is that the poore cannot hclpe themfclves by 
labour; this poverty in itfeife, and by it felfe hath no crime 
in it, or fault to bee adiamcd of : but is oftentimes fent from 
God to the godly ,either as a corredhor^or triall and fearch- 
ing, or both. It is therefore a miferable ftate, yet not- 
withftanding fuch a one by the appointment and grace 
of God, workes with the faithfull to falvation* 

5. A. Hence firft, Such poore men ought chiefly to be- 
ware that they doe not defpairej Prov. io. 15, 

Secondly, That they doe not murmureagainfttheproi 
vidence of God, or ufe unlawfull meanestoheIpethen> 
{elves ,*Prov> 30.9+ 

Thirdly, That they fhould behave themfelves as poore 
men ought, free from all envy, Prov. 18.23. Hence alfo 
others mufttake heed how they deride, contemne,or fet 
againft the poore, as alfo to refute to helpe them according 
to their abilities, Pr*v. 14. io* and 17. 5. and ip.4, 7. 17., 
lam* 2.3t4% 

Queft* 2# tiow are riches to bee efieemedi 

6* zsf. 1 . Riches as they are confidercd abfolutely and 
inthemfelves,are morally neither good nor bad, but things 
indifferent which men may ufe either well or ill. 

7. A. 2* But becaule in their owne nature, they are 
ordained for a good ufe, Prov. 3. 9. Therefore although 
they are not morall goods, yet they arc ufefull and profita- 
ble, and fo they are rightly called the gifts and bteflings of 
God j Prov ,io.*i. 

8. A. 3* Yet by reafon of humane corruption and in- 
firmity, the pofleffion of large riches is joyned with fo 
mpch danger, that it containcs the evil! of great anddefpe- 
ratc temptations : fo that it is very difficult for a rich man 
to enter into the Kmgdome of H&ven, iM*ttb< 19. *$. 
Inwhichrcfpeft they arc compared to thick day* whicfr 

_ . _ . weigh. . 


of Farfttmny^ md 'Frugditf. 
weigh downe and defile the owner, Hab.<z. 6. to thorpes 
which prick and tcare thofe that handle them, and choke 
and ftrangle all fpirituall feed, CHauh, i 3*22. to an en- 
trapping fnare, and an arrow peircing thorough the loule* 
I Tim. 6. p. 10. 

5>. <s4. 4. But the more fpeciall temptations of riches 
is to pride, for placing vaine and idolatrous truft in the,m 
for the love of the World, laftly to luxury, and the follow- 
ing of every afle&ion with contempt of God, i Tim, 6. 17. 
Efbef, 5,$,Frov.$o.9.Luc.i6.9. 

to. A. 5 . Hence firft.Riches are not abfolutcly to be dc- 
fired, Frov, 23.4. J; 1 Tim*6. 8, 9, 10. 

Secondly, If riches encrcafeby Gods providence, the 
mind is carefully and ferioufly to bee fortified againft thofe 
vices, which ufually accompany them, Ffalm. 62.11. 

Thirdly, Wee muft ftrive as well by prayer to God, as 
all diligence to make riches our inftruments of piety, 

%,■■■■ ! 1 11 11 1 1 ■■!» !■— — — — ■ — e— ■ mmm* — ■ ■ ■ .,, , i , * " ' Wi ll n ..i ^ ■ i — **m ^m* 

Chap. XI VIII. 

Of £arjtmovy 7 and Frugality. 

Queft.l. \7\T^ at ** reared to honefi Varfm&Z 
V V ny? 

\. *A. i. There is required} Firft, That wee beware, 
Wee doe not idly lavifli thofe things which can bee cm- 
ployed either in profitable or honeft tifcs y Prov. 21. 17. 
This rule,, as agreeing torightreafon, and the Do<3rinco£ 
Ch r 1 s t > fome of the Difciples thought not well offj yet 
did confidently apply it, efpecially Judas, in reproving the < 
deed of Mary about the funerall of Ch r i s t , Mattb. 2 6. 
8. p f Mark. I4» 4. 5 ♦ lob. 12. 4. { 

2. A. 2. That wee looke, that no confiderabk thing 
ofthofe, which may bee ufefbll bee loft, fob. 6.±t. 

3. A. 5, That wee doe notout of too much piping cn- 
yy our feives the juft uJIVqf^thofc things we pofsc{sc,Ectf+ 
£1 15, Nor ye$ fooU^lydevour theni^r^ 21. 20. v 


Of Liberality and Pittyl ' j j y 

'4. tA. 4. It is required that this care doe not proceed 
tfrom the love of riches, but out of conference towards 
God, whofe benefits wee ought not ro abafc,and out of a 
fore/ight of providing for oumcceHitiesjand doing good 
to others. For honeft thrift: doth not hinder,but rather pro- 
mote liberality and orher vertucs. 

Qucft. 2. What is required to hotyfl frugality} 
j, A 4 1. Firft, There is required, that wee doe not lay 
out our money uponvainc, and unprofitable things If a. 
55. 2. 

6. A. z. That wee bee not lovers of pleafures, Prov* 
zi. 17. Luk. 16. ip. 

7. A. 3. That wee employ ojr money in thofe things, 
which have a teall ufe, P rov. 3 1 . 1 3 . i<5. 

8. A. 4. That wee willingly beftow upon pioas ufes 
as farre, as wee are able, and wee may exped from thence 
the moftfiire benefit, Prov. u. 14, and 19 f 1 7. Hag. 1. 
4.8,&e % 


Of Liberality andPitiy. 

Qttcft. I. \7\ iHofedutyis it to exercife Liber all- 

V V ty,and Pittyt 
1. aA. \\ To profit Of benefit others, is a duty bcbiv 
ging to all men according to a good inclination and difpo- 
fitionof mind, as alfo in fome fort according to endea- 
* 3. A. 2. According to the outward workc of gi- 
ving fomewhat, whereby anothers wants are fupplied, 
> ( which is the definition of an almcs*) it is the duty oncly 
y ofthofe, who have fomewhat of their owne, and alfo the 
power of bellowing it, 1 lob. 3*17. 

3. A. 3. This duty therefore doth not onely belong 
to rich men, but to thofe alfo of a meaner condition, whs 
get tfreir living by their hands, Epbcfi 4, 2 8, 

Kkk 4.^.4-Thofe 

2$ $ Of Ufotdity MdPittp 

4. A. 4. Thqfe who are fo much: fiibjeA to others, 
that they have nothing their owne, either according to 
the propriety, or profit, or profit onely, they are fo farre ex- 
empted from this duty, that they can beftow nothing at 
leaft without the tacite cosfentof their Matters. 

5. e^T. 5. Neither are all men which have fome* 
what of their o wne ftrait bound to give fome what to thofe 
that want. For by courfc wee muft helps others with 
thofe things which doe overbound with us, 1 £V. 8. 13, 
which is to beeuncferftood : 

Firft, Of things fuperfluous to the necefllty cf 

Secondly, Of things fuperfluous to the ftate and con- 
dition of life, wherein wee are placed,that is>of thofe things 
which wee may want without any detriment, either to 
life or ftate. But fome extraordinary chance may require, 
that fomewhat aifo of thoie things, which arc neceffary 
fliould bee fpent, and this is to give above ones power s 
2 Cor,%* 2. 3. 

Queft. 2. ToVvbemmufiweegivcanalmesl 

6. sy{. I. To thofe that want, who cannot maintaine, 
themfelves, Af*tt&. 23.35.. i6.*Ali. 20, 34* 35. 

7. A. 2. Seeing that want, admits of a threefold de- 
gree, fo that in fome it is extreame , and joyned with 
hazard, either of death, or finnc; in otheis heavy, with dan- 
ger of great difcomnaodity,in others ordinary, requiring 
onely fome reliefer from hence a difference of obligation 
followeth : for wee are bound to helpe him, that wants 
cxtreamely even with things neceffary to our ftate, (for 
the life of a neighbour is to bee more efteemed, then our 
owne externall condition*) Wee are bound to helpe him 
that wants greivoufly with things fuperfluous to cur ftate; 
but him who wants but ordinarily, with things fuper- 
fluous to the decency of our ftate. 

Quefh 3, what method is to bee obftrvedin beji } owing 
an almes ? 

1 8 # A. i. All things being alike, wee muft give fuccour 
10 a greater, and more heavy necefl]ty ? then to a leffe weigh- 
tjv ; Secondly y 

Oftihtrality dnd iPitty. 

Secondly, Where the need is alike, thofe are to bee pre- 
ferred, in whom wee difcerne mere reafons of favour : 
as thofe that are neerer, to thofe who arc further off, thofe 
who are of the houftiold of faich; to unbelecvers, the bet* 
terto the lefse good, thofe that are more profitable to the 
Church or Common- Wealth, to thofe that are lefle, &c. 
Matth. 15.5. 6. I Tim.<$, S. gai t 6. 10. Deut. 5. 7, 

9. A. 2. Although wee mult ufc diligence, that wee 
may rather ayd good then bad, especially if it bee likely that 
ouralmes may bee an occafion, and instrument to thofe of 
glorifying God j but to thefe of finning, yet wee muft not 
therefore bee curioufly inquifitivc into the hidden faults 
of the poore:for charity doth notealily thinkeeviil* 1 Cor, 

13. 5. 

Queft. 4. After what manner Are talmes to bee jp- 

*ven ? 

io # A. t. Out of religion towards God, aaddefire of 
his honour, Prov. 3. p. x Cor. 8. 3. 

11. A. 2. Out of the affedion of brotherly charity, and 
pitty; 1^13.3, 

, 12. exf. 3. Out of an humble confciencc of duty be- 
fore God, not out of ambition of vaine glory before men, 
M^tth. 6. 1.2. 

13. <t/^ 4. With refped to thepcore, net with con- 
temp t,or their fhame, 1 Cor. 11. 22. 

14. ^5. With cheeieFulnefse and freenefse of mind, 
and countenance, not heavily , or as it Were by compuMion; 
2 Cor. p. 7. "Rom. 1,2.8, 

15. A. 6 # Readily without delay, Prov, 3.27.28. 
Queft. J- How much mtift free heft-cited in altnts-} 

i(5. A. i. It muft bee accounted for a generall rule, 
that wee (hould rather give plcnteoufiy, then fparinglyj 
2 Cor, p. 6. 

17, A. 2. In common, the meafure of our bounty ,de- 
pendeth on the meafure of Gods bielling to us in cxternall 
things, l£V.i5. 2. 

18. A. 3. Here wee muft looke diligently, what pie- 
ty and charity doth dilate to the beft Chriftians, that wee 

Kkk % snay 


2 . g of Liber *Utf md Titty. 

may doc the like, if wee have the like abilities, and if nor 
according to an cquall proportion, 2 £V. 9, 2. 

19. «•/. 4. And that is ccrtaine, that all, and every one 
muft lay out, much more upon pious ufes, then they con- 
fume on their pleafures* 

20. *A< 5. How much wee muft give juft here* and 
at this time, cannot bee limited without tvife confederation 
of alt the circumftanccs. 

Queft* 6. "By what reafonifhotddwee cheifij bteftirred 
up to give almesi 

21. A\ 1. There is a Angular excellency found in this 
duty. For as charity is the molt excellent of all vermes, 
1 Cor* 1-3; And Piety is an excellent meafure of charity ^ 
fothisworke of charity andpitty hath its bleffed tranfen- 
dencyj A SI. 20. 3^. 

22,. A. 2. Not onely the wiH of jGod revealed in the 
Scriptures doth require this, but alio the law of humane na- 
ture* For. nothing is more naturall then that wee fliould 
doe Co to another, as wee would bee done toourfelvcs* 
And nothing is more humanc,,thcn to helpe the nccefiity of 

2rj. A. j. In pitty, and its workes, wee doe efpecialljr 
put on the image and likenefle of God, Lnk. 6.^6. 

24. A. 4 # Love towards God, cannot confift without 
this charity towards our neighbour,! lob. 3, iy.neithercan 
any truweligion^ lam. i.2j. 

25. A. 5. God is in Christ, who askethanalmcs 
of us by the ^ooxCiMatth. 25. 40, and hec requireth one- 
ly fomc little portion,, of that whkh hee.-hatti given us- 
I Chron. 29. n. 

26. A. 6. God gave us thofe things, which wee have 
notastoabfolutc Lords, but as to Poffeffoursac will, that 
wee fliould difpenfe the things committed to ourtruft,to 
hishonour,and according to biswill 5 Luk. \6. 12. 

v?> A % 7. Yet God will rcftore abundantly what is 
givento the poore in his name;.Pw. 3. ? % and t?. ij % and 
28. 27* 

1-S s A* 8. Without pitty to our brother, k cannot£ee 


ofrhtfi. ^ 

that wee ffiould have any fcnf e, or afiuraricc of Gods pitty 
towards us, or that wee fliouldbec difpofcd cither to re- 
ceive or askc itj tjiiatth. 5. y. and 7. 6. iTim.6.ij. 
18. 19. 

2p. A. 9, Pitty frequently in Scripture hath the pro- 
mifes, and uncharitableneffc the threatnings, both of this 
life,and the life to come. 

Chap. L, 



C^ueft. r. \7\ ]& 4 * ca b* * re there] in which cue 
V V m *J t*kf *w*J another* good*) with* 
out the [mm of theft I 

A. 1. If one fhould fnatch away any thing of another*^ 
without intent of keeping either it, or the ufe, or porflcffioi* 
fif it, which may bee valcwcd by money : as it of Centimes 
happens in jeft among friends^ 

Secondly, If the taking away of another mans goods 
bee done as a puni&ment by one, who hath power of in- 
flicting fuch a punifhment. 

Thirdlyjf (without fraud or fcandall jit bee for theprotf 
fir, and benefit of him from whom it is taken, as when * 
fwordis forced from a mad man t or the money of aprodf* 
gall husband is taken away by a provident wife for the ne- 
cefsary ufe of the family* 

Fourthly, If it bee done out of charity, againft the which 
the other ft or meth unjuftty : as if one flhonld fling away ano- 
ehcrsdice, or fpoile his cards, leaft by gaming heeflbould 
finne, or r unne into any other danger* 

Fiftly, If k bee done for fatisfadion ofa dearcand ap- 
parent debt, which could not bee recovered by the ordi- 
nary courfe of law, fo that it bee done without lofse, 
inferoy, 0* fcandall to his Neighbour. 

Kkk 3 Sixtly^ 

^ Of CovcMfie(fe. 

Sixthly, If there bee a probable confent or ratification of 
his from whom {omewhat is taken away, as when a thing 
of ftnall momentls taken by the Sonne from the Father, 
or the Wife from the Husband, &c. whkh is commonly 
accounted for nothing, D em. 2 3 . 24. 25. 

Seventhly, If the Matter which is unwilling, fhould bee 
angry without reafon; as in thofe things, which one hath 
taken from another man to fuccour his owneprefentex- 
treame-neceffity, which heecouldnot hclpc by any other 
mcanes* For this fecmes to bee by the law of nature more 
ancient, then the divifion of things, which cannot be abro- 
gated by the humane law, by which the divifion of things 
was made : In which fenfe it is not ill faid, that all things arc 
made common in urgent ncceffity. 

Chap. Li. 

Of Covetoufnefie. 

Qfld&A.KlXjHat is that Covetoufneffc which jg 

y y condemned ? 
t. A* 1. Covetoufneffe is properly verfed about thofe 
things, which are called externall goods ; and belongs to the 
concupifcence of the eyes j as it is divided oppofitely againft 
thecohcupifccnce of the flelh, and pride of life; I loh. 2. 
where the cheifeft worldly (innes are reduced to three 
heads, to honours, pleafures, and riches* Hence in Scrip- 
ture it is called the love of riches, the love of lucre, and the 
love of money by a fpeciall appropriation, becaufe all things 
may bee attained, and are rated bymeney, 

2. i 2. Not evety defireof riches is Covetoufncfse, 
but oncly the inordinate love of them; and that love is inor- 
dinate which is repugnant to the love, which wee owe 
to God, orourNdghbour. Hence, Covetouteefse ufeth 
to bee called an immoderate, or unjuft love of having. 

5 % tA. j. But becaufe the efsence of Covetoufncfse, 
"^°*??5fift|?dcfirc, therefore it is numbred among thbfc 


Of Cwetoafneffe. 2 ^ f 

ffnncSjWhich can bee confumated within, without any out- 
ward act, although it ufcth to command the whole man>and 
bring forth cxternall operations of all kinds. 

4. ^. 4. Hence alfo it is, that a Covetous manfin- 
neth three wayes : Fitft, In defiring riches. Secondly, In 
attaining them. Thirdly, In retaining or keeping them* 
For thefe three are contained in the defire of having. 

5. A* 5. But becaufc the inordinatenefse of this love 
con'ifteth in its repugnancy to the love of God , or our 
Neighbour; therefore the pravity of Govetoufnefse is in 

Firft, According to its matter, if wee would make our 
fclves rich by thofe things which arefacred to God,as in the 
Cinnc of Simony 9 or by thofe things which are our Neigh- 
bours, fo that they either ought not, or will not alienate 
them : filch was the finnc of Ahab about the Vineyard of 
. Naboth y 1 King. zl. 

Secondly, According to the forme or manner; if any m 
getting riches, ufcth either wicked, un juft.or unlawfoil arts 
crmeancs, Prov. 10. 2. and 28. 8. 22, 

• Thirdly, According to the degree or meafure, if any 
fliall fo give himfclfe over to the heaping up of riches, that 
hee ncgle&s his duty towards God and his Neighbour;. 
Luk. 2 2, $.Efa.$.$. 

Fourthly, According to the end, if riches are either lo- 
ved for them felves, or are referred to fome evil! end, 6t 
laftly doe turneamanfromGod, or his Neighbour eithet 
in whole or in part. 

Queft. 24 What are the (ignesofa Covetowman} 

6. A. 1. If hec bee too lolicitous in thought ofextcr- 
3 n&\ goodsio that his mind is in fufpenfc like a meteor >£t*k> 

12,22. 25. 29* 
> 7- A. i. If his joy, and fadnefse,truft and fearc doe de- 
> pend upon his fuccefse in thofe externall affaires, Lu\. 

12, ?£♦ 

8 # A\ 3. If hee have a quick and ready feeling in thofe 
things but flow, and unapt to difcerne Spirituaii things* 
Eor'the attention of the mind and a knowledge more 


yg % of Cwetoufoeffe. 

peirctngin one thing then another folio weth alwayesthc 
aflfe&ion, Matth. \ 3 . 2 a* 

p. A. 4. If that time, in which hec is compelled to 
kavc of his fecking gainc, although it is employed in Di- 
vine wor£hip,(eeme too long to him; Amos 8. 5 • 

io* A. 5. If his mind hunteth after gainc,cvcn in the 
cxercife of Divine worfliip; E*>e. 3 3. 3 1. 

Qocft. 3. B j what reafons mywee&eeftirreduptofij 
covet oufneffe I 

it. tsi. 1. Becautethisfinnefo averts our love, truft, 
and whole tieart from God to the World, that^ it excludes 
true Religion, 1 Ioh.i. 1$. and containes in it Spiritual! 
Idolatry, Ephef. 5. 5. Col. 3. j. 

i2 A A, ti Becaufe it peirceth a man with cares, and 
deadly greifes; 1 Ttm. 6. 10. 

13. A* 3- Becauicic is therooteofallcvillj 1 Tim. 6* 

C^uefK 4. What are the remedies which cheify avail* 
tgainft thisfinne ? 

14. 1A. i* Frequent and ferious meditation of the va- 
pity of richesj Eeclef. 5 . and <$♦ 

*$. -4. a. A continuall confederation of the (bortnefls 
of this life, and of the eternity to which wc ought to afpire, 
Zukj 12. 20.a1.3j* 

i<J. A. 3. Aftirring up of faith, and lively confidence 
in Gods providence, and fatherly care over us; Lukz i*« 
a8.*p. 30. 

17. A. 4. A great efteeme, and zeale towards the 
Xingdorae of God, and the righteoufneffe thereof, which 

areSpirituallriches;L«^ 1 *. 21. 31* 

1 8* At 5. Invocation to God, thathee will notfuffer 
our minds to Aide into covctoufnefle,/y^/w. 1^. $6. 


v/jome Moiaicaii Ld»et, J$t 

Chap. LIJ # 

Offome Mofaicall /awes belonging to the 
eight Comm'tndement % 

Queft. I. \J\TH*t w the equity oftbatla^ thai 
V V ™ fimfa theft jhould bee purified 
with capitall punijhment ? 

i. A, i. There was great equity in that moderation, 
Which is to bee obfervedby all Chriftians; becaufe juftice 
requiretb, that a proportion bee made with as much equa- 
lity as can bee, betvveene the fault, and the punishments 
but there will bee no proportion found betwecne thofe 
externall goods,which are taken away by fimple theft from 
men, and the life of man^f they (hallbee weighed together 
in the ballance. 

> 2. A . 2. To that which dually is mofl: ob/e&ed, That 
when the faults encreaf* y the puni/bments ought to be exafpe* 
rated; It is confefled to bee truly faid, but with this excep- 
tion and condition, that the whole kind of punflhment bee 
not changed, nor that all limits of proportion bet wcene the 
fault and the puniftimenc bee not leaped over. 

3. A. 3 That which is brought againft this, oat of 
Trov* 6. 31. of the encreafing of the punifliment of theft 
tofevenfbld,andoutofthe 2 Sam^ 12. 5, of the theifc ad- 
judged to death by David, arc not repugnant to this cqui-J 
ty . F or with Selomonfhc restitution of fcvettfold, f cemetft 
to bee put for a greivous mul&, which by right might, or in 
ad u{cd to bee impofed on the thcife : as the fe venth num- 
3 beris oftentimes put in the Scripture for great. But David 
giving that f entence, did not onely boke on the Ample, 
> theft, but the great cruelty of the rich theifc, or fpoiler, 
j preying on his poore neighbour : and alfo hee was kindlecl 
with wrath when hee gave that fentencc. 

4. A. 4. That is leffe which is obje&ed, that the lav^i 
" r A£ 9 C CS S?nce^ing the punifliment of {heft, is flpwbcrc 

LI1 "*""" "^ found 

%$% Of feme Mofaicall tawes] 

found to bee repeated, and confirmed or enjoy ned in'thc 
new Teftament, and therefore that it was meercly poli- ' 
tick and judiciall. For they thcmfelves grant, which are 
of the contrary opinion thofelawes of ^/<?/tobeeuni- 
verfall and perpetual!, which have an univerfali and perpc* 
tuall caafe and reafon, and not a particular belonging to 
thelcwes; and they can bring no fpeciall reafon, but a ri- 
diculous one of the kindred, and affinity of the Iftaelitcs 
among themfelves i which reafon can take no place in 
ftrangers* who notwithftanding were notpunifhed capi- 
tally for a fimplc theft; and if that reafon did availe againft 
the capitall punifhraent of theeves among the Jfraelites, it 
Would have availed alfo againft the capitall pumfhment of 
other fauItSa 

Queft. *• What wo* the reafon of reftoring double the 
theft of money i or hoHJboldfttiffe ? Exod, 33. 17. 

5 # *A* i.Itisjuft (by the law of retaliation, ) that 
cot onely. that which is taken away fhould bee reftored* 
but alfo that the theife fliould fuffer fomuchdammage as 
hee would, and did endeavour to bring upon another : and 
fohce may Icarne by hispunifliment, what it was that hee 
pra&ifed againft another^ and how hee ought to carry him- 
ielfe toward others 

6. A. 2. A Theife finneth doubly againft his Neigh- 
bour : for every one ought not to bee onely innocent to his 
Neighbour, but alfo to wifti him well, and doe good to him 
upon occafion, but a theife is delinquent againft both du- 

Qtteft* %. What equity was in that Uwj whereafejfer 
rtmlSl was appointed for him, which had ftolen money or 
houjholdftnfey then for him which ft ole tn oxeor ajheepe y 
"when oftentimes there was more dammage dons in that theft 
then in this ?■ 

7a A* i. Some evils which (imply confidered in them- 
felves, areieffe, yet may beemorehurtfulltothepublique 
peace and tranquillity, then others which are greater in 

Is ^ & Soms cvJ k t Q l tf^ir opportunities arcrnor^ 

% belonging to the%. Comtnindmcnu £ $ t 

••cafily committed, and more hardly redreffed : as to ftcalc a 
llieepe, then gold, becaufe it may, andufcth to bee kept 

p. A* 3 . Becaufe flieepe and oxen in their owne na- 
ture, are more neceffary to fuftaine mans life then gold, or 
houfliold fiuffe. 

i o. p4. 4, Oxen and fheepe were to bee offered a- 
mong the cheifeft facrificcs to God. Therefore it is no 
marvaile, if hce would have thofe things more narrowly 
kept, and their taking away more fevercly puniftied, out of 
which apart was due to him, and on which his worfhip foe 
the molt part did depend. 

Quefh 4» Whj were five oxen reJ}ored for one f and one/j 
foure Jbeepe ? 

ii. tsf* i. Becaufe the ufe of oxen is greater to theic 
Matters, then of ftieepe. But their curious observation doth 
not ill agree to the explaining of this difference, who fay 
there are foure commodities of a (heepe, theskinne, the 
fieflijthe milke,and the young ones, but in anoxc they count 
afift, to wit, the labour in husbandry, in treading out the 
Sornc^nd carrying of burdens. 

12. A. 2. Becaule there is appearance of leffeneccflf- 
ty for dealing an oxe, then one flicep, which one may feeke 
for want of meat,to releive himfeife, and his family in pre* 
fent neceflity. 

' ij. A. 3. Becaufe it is more boldneffe and villany, to 
Iteale anoxe,then a (heepe# 

Queft. 5 % What was the reafon that a theife taken witb 
thofe ft olen beafls living was lejfe ]>Hni(hed> then tfhee had 
killed them, or fold them ? 

14. e^T. Becaufe in the latter cafe, there is found 
more continuation, obduration, and multiplying of the 

P Queft. 6. what it the equity of 'that law, Exod. 2*#a. 
of hilling a night theife ? 

?f • d. i. The Divine law doth not command this, or 

either (imply or uaiverfally allow of it, but onrfy permit- 

tqthit to bee done without punifiiment, chac is* heeabfol- 

__ Lli2 " ~- ~ J«d§ 

26$ belonging to the eight CotnwAnimenf. 

vcth the killer from the jordinary penalty of man (laughter* 
Let not blond bee upon hlm\ Let him not bee guilty ot mur- 

i6.'A. t> The law doth alfo imply, that fome murder 
fome way may bee permitted, which is without the in- 
tention of thctlaycr : for it doth not &yJf*njJh«ttJtajJb;Mt 
if one Jhall bee [mitten^ and dje : As if the ftriking was 
onely intended, either to drive away or apprehend, and 
death followed upon that ftriking oncly by chance. For 
hee, who when hee could either drive away, or appre- 
hend, had rather kill, cannot bee excufed before God, and 
in his confeieece from the guilt of murder. 

17, A. 3. This is not permitted to bee done to any 
theifc, but onely to him which breakes thorough or opeiv 
ahoufe. Yet all Pyrates, and High- way- robbers, are in 
she fame condition. 

x& A. n> it is permitted particularly on the breaker 
open in the night. 

Firft, Becaufea night breaker open, comes with a vio- 
lent invafion; that is, with foch a force, as may lawfully and 
naturally bee repulfed by force. 

Secondly, Becaufc that violence in the night; is of an 
anknowne extent and manner. For it cannot bee difecrned, 
whither the violence of the theife tendcth, as whether hee 
bee a robber, or a cut- throat. 

Thirdly, Becaufc in the night, there can neither bee ayd 
or witneffes had, and therefore wee muft beleeve him 
which doth depofe upon his danger, and fcarc, and 
pardon him if hee ufeth yehemency in his o\yne de* 
fence. . 

1 p # ; A< j^Out of which confederations it appeal 
*cth, that hee could not lawfully kill fucha theife di. 
rc&ly for meerc theft cither attempted or done, but 
•nety to avoyd that perill, which he ought not to un-. 
dergoe,and could notftuinneby any other meanest 

20. A. 6. Neither is there any thing in the new 
Teftament, by which that which is permitted in this law 
I« forbiddent For it is natural! equity, and allowed 

Of feme MohksM Ldwet] && \&i 

of by the Lord, tMmh. 24. 43. That no man 
fiionld fuffer his Houfe to bee broken through by a 

Queft. 7. what is meant by that , -which is read 
Dcut. I5# 4. There /hall bee nofotre among jou\ 
§** 21. Anf. 1. Thefe words cannot bee fo taken, as' 
if they contained, either a promHe or an abfolute pre- 
diction* For fo they would contradift thofe words 
Which Wee have Verf. 11. The f lore /hall never ceafe 
cut of the landi And the like words of Ch r i s t s , Matth± 
14. 7. 

22. Anf. 2. Whether it bee a conditionall promife,; 
(as fome would,,) or (as others wouldjj the reafon o£ 
the antecedent precept of exafting debts in the yearc of 
releafe, it hath the force of a forewarning ftatute^ that 
there {hould bee none brought to extreame want, 
or beggery , and left {0, amongft the people of the 

*$*'%/£nf 3. But although this cannot bee procu« 
red, but by common confent, and the authority, and 
care of thofe who have publique power, yet this duty 
is impofed upon all and every one, that they {hould con- 
ferre fomewhat to this worke, according to their abili-i 
ty and occafion, as to the promotion of the publique and; 
gommon good. 

24. *A. 4. The equity of this law, is ftrengthned by. 
inoft found reafons : 

Forfirft, As itis afowlefcandalltoafamily, andaccr- 
taine token of diforder, confufion, and diffblution, where 
every one is not provided of neceffarics for food, in fa 
much, that it can hardly bec accounted a family, where 
that care knot ftirring, fo alfo it is in every City and Com* 

25, ^. 2. From the negleft of this care^ tftere 
fprings up a great company of beggcrs, who live idly andP 
diforderly, giving themfelves to moft bealWy njan~ 

_ it. A. 3iThcnce it comethfo pafle, that honeft and : 
"^r~ LM 3 ~ kini 

*6% °f A L V- 

kind Citizens arc barthencd above mea r are, and without 

27* A % 4. Thence alfo it is, that perfons truly mifera- 
bie cannot bee knownc from others, andfonotreleivedas 
they (hould bee. 

28. c^ J. Laftly, The publique and wandring begged 
ry pf Chriftians, is a fcandall of the true religion, as if it did 
not teach that humanity and charity, which nature it felfe 
didateth: and pafl&h into contempt of Christ, who 
fayeth, that that is done to himfeife, which is done to his 
members the poore: and into the manifeft difgrace of the 
name of God, as well in thofe beggers which worfhipping 
him are made the fpe&acles and examples ofmifery, as in 
the rovvtc of others, who wander without God as brute 
beads. ~ . 

Chap, LIU. 

The 9. Commanderoent£ 
C^ueft. 1. \T\J& at & (** Cf**kg properly ) k 

1 , A. i. A Lye is a faife Tcftimonyi 

2. At 2. A falfe Teftimony, differs from a falfe dpi*? 
hion; becaufe a falfe opinion may bee by errour in the 
mind, and (Ignified to no man : but it is required in a falfe 
Teftimony, that it (hould bee a finne of fpeech, that is, of 
an opinion expreffed either by the mouth, or writing, or 
feme figne equivalent to Words. 

3, A, i. It diflfereth alfo from falfe cnuntiation, by 
which a. thing is pronounced other wife then it is 1 becaufe 
this may iohappenu that it is not done to procure beleife, 
which is the nature 6f aTeftimony, and one may through 
errour pronounce this orthat which is falfe* yet thinkeic 

tobee true in his mind: now in a Lye the fpecch always 
<frffenteth from the mind, 

4. e^i 4. Therefore if any one (hall fpeake that which 
is falfe, belceving itto bee true, hee lyeth oncly materially. 
If any fpeaketh truth, thinking it to bee falfe, or not thinks 
ing it to bee true, hee lyeth formally. But if any Jhall fpeake 
that which is falfe, and thinke it to bee falfe, hee lyeth both 
materially, and formally, and fully. 

5. *A> $. Yet if any fliall teftifie that which is falfe 
in thofe things, which hee may, and is bound, and profef. 
fcth to know, although hee thinketh it true, hee by inter- 
pretation is accounted in the Scripture as one that did not 
thinke, and under that title is faid to lye; as it appearethin 
falfe teachers : all of which are frequently in Scripture faid 
to lye; although there were not a few amongfl: them, on 
whom God foutofjuftpuniihrnent,) fentthe power oft 
crrour, that they fhould belceve a lye, 2 Thejf. 2. 1 1. 

6. *A % 6. To this kind of lye an intcrnall falfe fpecchhath 
fome refpeft, as alfo the credulity of faifity, as far as it is in 
fome way the beginning of falfe enuntiation, & in fome fort 
it is a falfe Teftimony of that margin that hee doth teftifieto 
feimfetfej yet it hath not the formall nature of a lye, for to 
fpeake properly, no man can teftifie that which is true or 
falfe to himfelfe, but toothers* 

7. A. 7. It doth proceed from the fame reafon, that 
a lye, or falfe Teftimony doth properly belong tothefe- 
cond Table : becaufe words are inftituted that by them wee 
fhould transfcrrc our thoughts to other mens knowledge,, 
and therefore ftiould. properly and truly teQifie to men; 
although Hypocrites are faid with fame proportion to lye • 
to God, *Pf*lm. 78. 36, iAB> 5.4. 

Qncft. 2 4 whether every lye bee a finne > and what kind 
cf finne ? 

8. A. 1. It is a finne abominable to God; Pfalm. 5 75J 
JProv. 6. 17, ip. and 12, iz 4 and which is uluialiy pu- 
nifhed greivoufly byUm; Prov. 19. 5. p* and VU 18. Rev} 
Ji* ^7- and 22, 1 5 # 

l §• A* a. & lys cometh from the inftigation of the 


^ Of a Lye: 

Devill, Who is a Iyer, and the Father of lies, 'M. £ 


10. A. 3. It is a part of the old man which is to bee 

mortified and putoffbythefaithfulI,£p^ 4.25- C*I'f* 
3. 9. 

ii # A, 4. It doth difordcrthe Iyer in himfelfe; [or it 
is againft the order of nature, that the fpeech which is in- 
terpreter of the mind, fhould wholy difagree from the 

1 2. A. 5, It is a diforder alfo againft his neighbour, 
for every one by the obligation of the naturall law, doth 
owe to his neighbour the obfervance of truth. 

13. A. 6. It doth in aipeciall manner hurt the Ma je- 
ftyofGod, who is theauthonr, and fiich a lover of truth, 
that hce cannot lye : and alfo hath imprinted in man the 
image of his truth to bee kept : neither did hee ever give 
authority of lying by any difpenfation. 

14. A. 7. It is an abufe and fowl* defiling of the 
tongue, which is rightly called in Scripture the ghrj of 

1 5. tA. 8, There is fomewhat that is bafe, and low in 
a lye, more then in other vulgar finnes, (whether iris, be*- 
caufc it feemeth to proceed from feare,or becaufe it tendeth 
to deceit,) whence it is that rafti men,who ftand upon their 
flight honour; (although they lye continually; ) yet take fo 
hakioufly the cxprobation of a lye, that theythinkeitfit 
to bee revenged by the fword. 

i(5. A. 9. The violation and negled of faith, dothdi-] 
teftly difturbe, and take away all conttafts and humane fo- 
'cicties: becaufe they depend upon the faith and truth of 
men, as upon their cheife bond, and foundation. 

17. A. io, A lye, becaufe it robs the Iyer of all truft 
and authority, doth make him unfit to undergoe either 
Gsifliatyor Civill duties towards men. 

Queft. 3 % Whether , and hew ftrremay one concede the 
truth % reitbout the guilt ofa lye y or fame other finne} 

18. A. 1. It is lawfull to conceale the truth by filencc^ 
K5S9 Richer piety Juftice,gr charity require, that it (honk* 



Of a Lye** 271 

beerevealcd, <J\tMth.\6.6i.<JM:*rk* 14. *i. and 1 5 . 5 • 
L»k. 2$, p. lob. 19,9. For the affirmative Precept, of 
f peaking truth^doth not bind alwayes,tut where the reafon 
ofcircumftanccs well weighed doth require. 

1 p. A. 2. The famsisthe reafon of fpcaking one part 
of the truth, and hiding the other; if any (the circumftan- 
ces being confidered,) hath authority to hide it; Ierem. 38, 
n6, 27. 

20. A. 3. Alfoit is lawfull fometimes, without falfe- 
hood, to fpeakcthofe words, out of which wee know pro- 
bably , that the hearers may conclude fomewhat that is falfe, 
A SI. 23.6.7. 8. p. For this is not to lye, or beare falfe 
witncfle,but onely to give another occafion of erring,not to 
commit,but to avoyd a finne. 

21. A. 4. But that concealing of the truth by mental! 
rcfervation , or verball equivocation, which moft of the 
Pontificians teach, may bee ufed in fomc cafes, if it bee ap- 
plied in any \veighty teftimony, it is nothing el fe, but the 
art of lying, 

22. A.- 5. The concealing of the truth by mentall rc- 
fervation, (as if one guilty (hall fay, that hec did not, or 
knoweth not, that which hce did, or knoweth-, referving 
in his mind, with this meaning that hee did not doe it, or 
doth not know it, fo that hce would revealc it. ) Firft, 
It doth evert the nature and doftrineof enunciation and 
teftimony j becaufc that part of the fentence which is refer- 
vedin the mind, doth not declare, fignifie, or difclofe any 
thing to any man. 

23. A.i. It doth proceed from an intention of decei- 
ving,or creating an opinion contrary to the truth in anothcrs 
mind : which isagainft thenature of teftifying, or bearing 
fecord of this or that thing, 

24. *A. 3. In words pronounced after this manner, 
there is a plamc and bare iye contained. 

For firft, If the guilty which did this or that, Aral! fay 
that hee did, his teftimony is true, therefore ifheedenieth 
that hee hath done it, his teftimony is falfe ; that is, hec 

fyfmm Secondly^ 

iji • Of a LyeS 

Secondl/, By this meanes the guilty doth fay and tefra- 
fis not oncly that which is falfc,but what hee knoweth, and 
is fure is falfc : which is to lye both materially, and formal* 
ly,that is compleatly. 

25. *A* 4. If this bee not to lye, then fuch a guilty 
man, can by no meanes lye in the fame caufe, if hee would 
never fo faine. Hec which hath done, or knoweth this or 
that, ifheecanlyeany way^itmuftncceffarily bee by fay- 
ing,I have not done it, or I doe not know it, Some mentall 
refervation either diftin&ly or iroplicitely conceived, al- 
wayes lurketh in common lyes. For hee which knoweth 
that to bee falfe which hee fpeaketb, can hardly other wife 
fpeake falfe without this reftri&ion, or fome fuch like : al- 
though this bee falfe, and I would confeffe it in another 
place and tiro^, yet for fome reafonsj fay fo at this time and 
place : where the mentall refervation is almoft the fame 
which the Pontificians allow • I did not doe it,to tell thee 
in this place, or at this time. 

16* A. 5. There are great men amongft the Ponti- 
ficians themfelves, who arc forced to condemne thefe men- 
tall refervations; Sotus de juft. & jure, lib. 5. q. 6 % a. 3 a 
Tofaj) (/ did not doe it J which I did, although it be with 
this limitation of the trnnd, (that 1 Should give notice of it 
to you) is not equivocation, but a Ije. CovarruviaS follow- 
ed Sotusvar. rcfo!ut«lib. 1. cap, 2. num. 2, Azor/lib, 1 1. 
cap«4. If words which we ufe, are not ambiguous in their owk 
fgmf cation, or by the common frxElice of men, but one ly 
have one fenfe, we mufi ufethem in thatfenfe which they 
give : neither is it lavpfullfor us, although we be quefiioned 
ajrainjl bright and law , to wreft one thing into another by a 
thought, for it is never granted to l)ei but he lyeth who ta- 
keth words otherWife then they jigni fie; for there is nothing 
fo falfe, which cannot be freed from all lying, if at our 
€wne pleafure we Maine fomewhat tacitely in our 

37* A. 6. T'hat reftrifHon of this licence, which the 
patrons of it make to certaine cafes, doth not take quite 
aw^yj6uconelydimini(hcththcfcam5;it is lawful! ("fay 
'~ \ *~ " feey^ 

Of a Lye, yji 

they) abfolutely to deny by words, that which hce know- 
cthto bee true upon oath: Firft, If hce hath heard it in 
confeffion. Secondly, If hce bee not quellioned legally 
by aludge. Thirdly, If fome iri/ury is brought upon hint 
by the Interrogatory. Fourthly, ]f hec have any reafora- 
ble caufe, Ftlucttu tr. 40. cap. 2. num. 49/50, 51:, 

For firft, Thofe cafes, although they containe caufesof 
filence, yet they have no other relation or refpeft to a tcfti- 
many mingled of words external!, which arc falfe in them- 
fetves, and mentall,fained at will, then any other matter of 
fpeech in common diicourfc. 

Secondly, Neither confeflion, or the defeft of legall 
procefle, or an injury can give power to any to lye. 

Thirdly, More then this, that laft limitation (if be have a 
reafonable caufe,) doth let fuch Ioofe bounds to this falla- 
cy, that k may take place upon all occafions, and in all bu~ 
fineffc, with thofe,who thinkc they have a reafonable *aufc 
for coufening others: which bringeth with it thedeftru- 
dion of humane cntcrcourfe. 

28. X. When one (fay they^J being que ft Honed of no man, 
OY being alone, or before others difcourfing with himfelfe 
for his minds fake* may under ft and what he wiH by any wrd$ 
without a lye. Therefore alJo % he ma} in cafe he be unjuftlj 
queftioned : becaufe he is obliged to nothing by an un\nft in- 

But firft, This is fuch an inference, as if ono fhould fay 1 
it is lawfuli to play with huckle bonesi therefore it is law- 
fall to play with oaths. 

Secondly, The rcafon is altogether unlike, hee which r 
difcourfcth alone with himfelfe, or triflethonfetpurpofc 
before others, teftifieth nothing to any man, neither doth 
hee profefle, that hec will givo his teftimony. But hec 
which anfwereth to one qucftioning ferioufly, profeflcth^ 
(and that oftentimes npon the religion of an oath,) that he 
Will give in true witneflc. 

2p. 2. There may bee ambiguity in words (addcthcy,! 

xotonclyinfignifcAtion, but aljo according to the f lace, time* 

Mmra a ferfo** 

274 of * L y** 

per/on, manner , and other crcnrnflances^ Now it u wholy 
left to -one, that is uniuftly qttefticned to take ambiguous 
word; in whit fenfe he wtff. And indeed, they fpeakefo 
farre true, that there are fbme ufuall fignifications of words 
to bee drawne oat of the circuraftanccs : to wit, when 
fome particles may bee and commonly are undcrftood, 
and (applied in fome propoficion , by the circum* 
ftance of time, perfon, end, Sec, As if one felling corne, 
after hee hath fold all that hee would fell, rcferving fo 
much as is rieccflary for hirafclfe , fhould anfwer to a 
Chapman, demanding if hee had any corne, I have none* 
hee did not lye : becaufe by the circumftance of perfons* 
die difcourfe is underftood to bee of wheat that is to bee 

Butfirft,. In thofe fallacies which wee treat of, there arc 
no circumstances from which the hearers may gather that 
mentall interpretation, ( which the equivocatour refer- 
vethto himfelfe;as for example, if a Icfuite, or fome Mafic* 
g>rieft,ftiould be asked by a Lay- Judge, whether hee were a 
Prieft or no, and hee fhaildepy it*herefore,becaufeheeis.a 
Prieft, and fo not fubje& to the Iurifdiftion of a Lay- judge: 
he denieth to this Iudge that hee is a Prieft, onely becaufe 
hee is one. 

Secondly, Thofe circumftances as long as they remainc 
the fame, alwayes denotatc one and the lame meaning: but 
Eqaivocatours turne thcmfelves into divers fenfes even as 
they lift* 

Thirdly , Hee which will bee underftood by cir- 
cumftances, neither hideth the truth , or deceivcth the 
Examiner, or Hearer j but an Equivocatour profefieth 
both. « 

Fourthly* When fomewhat is underftood by the cir- 
cumftance?, hee which fo fpeaketh,if heefaould.beefar* 
ther asked, whether his words ought to bee undcrftood « 
iq or no, if hee diouid deny, it were a plaine lye : but thefe * 
Equivocatours being asked diftiqSly, whether they fpeakc 
equivocally^ from their Mafters doftrine, nfc to deny that 
too* ~~" 

go.^ c S*X» 

Of, a Lye. 27J 

85 3-o» *A. 8. In the examples , which the Pontificians 
bring of this kind of equivocation in feme fpceches of 
our Lord which are regillred in the Evangelic there 
is nothing to bee found, which can countenance this de# 

31. 1. They fay, Christ the Lord> Mauh. 9, 
24. /*id of the Damzell that was dead, Jbee is net dead) 
underftandingjn refpeB cfmy fewer and will, 
I Butfirft, In that example*, there was neither a fecret 
of confefiion, neither an interrogatory made either a- 
gainft,or befide Iaw,neithcr an injury offered to Ch r i s t* 
or any reafonable caufc that did compell Christ 
to uie any equivocation by a roentall rcfervation, but it 
was fuch a fpeccb, as C h r i s t ufed in his common con* 
yerfation with. men. 

p Secondly, The meaning of C hrist s. words was 
manifeft enough by the circumftances, without any men- 
tall refetvation. For hee fpoke to thofe, who crying 
and mourning, did provide the funeral! rites for the dead, 
as not to beeraifed againe; but hee would teftifie, that hee 
-Wonld raife her againe as one awaked from flecpe; and 
therefore could notexplaine this moreaptly, then in thofe 
Words which hee ufed* 

32. 2. They bring thofe words of our Lord, hh. 15. 
15^ %sfll thfrgs which > I have heard from my lather ', 
I have made knowne to you. Which words they fyy, 
are to bee underftood by a mentall refervation : becaufc 
hee had other things to tell them, not yet fpoken, ^^ 

But Tolet the Iefuite, upon the place, doth anfwer 
after larfeniv*: That there are na*j ■ things, ffoke* in 
Serif tare , which are to be reflrainea according to the 
ctrcumftances of things y ferfons , times , or the end or 
fco\e i jor which they Are -produced : fo Christ did 
now makg kgowne all things to his Difciplcs^ which. 
According to u their- condition and fiate they ought- te 
• 33* 3- Jhcy;Qb,tt<3 and urge, moft cfpccially thatof 
Mcroi 2 M&k^. 

a 7 6 *f ' ty- 

LMark. I g. 32. Of that dnjandhowt noma* knowsth, no 
mt the Sonne bmfelfe. 

But firft, The conditions which the Pontificians require 
to lawfiiH equivocation, doc no more agree to this in* 
{tance,then the firft. 

Secondly, The Sonne as man in that place, is oppofed 
to the Father as God. For Christ did not dcny> or 
would feerne to deny, but that the Holy Ghoft did know 
the day of judgement. The meaning therefore is cle ere as 
the words (ound : that Christ as man was ignorant as 
yet of the day of judgement, or at ieaftdidnot know by a 
natural! knowledge ; which is the interpretation oftsitba- 
nnfiw ,B afiliu* , Hiltriw, Naz.iM&n.Tbeodoret, Cjfriff> and 
the whole fixt Synod, as the Iefuites among themfelves 
doe COnfeflc, Gregor. de valent % in comment. Tbsffog. t$m. 
q.difput. 1. qu&fi. 10. pttntt. 2. And Ma/donstc upon 
M*rkc 13* For although Christ the Lord had no faul- 
ty ignorance, either privative, or out of a bad difpofition, 
or quality, yet it was not unmeet for his (late of humilia- 
tion, that as hee was man, hee might have the ignorance of 
pure negation, or a not knowledge of fomethings, Which 
afterwards hee (hould perteftly know, being gloria 

34. 4. They alledge alfo that of Ln\. 24, 28. Hee 

made as though be "toould have gam no further \ But this 

i cining was not in words contradiding the truth, but in 

geftures agreeing with the truth: For the Lordcompofed 

himfelfe as if hee would have gone further , unlcffc the 

Difciples (hould carneftly urge him to the contrary, and as 

it were rctaine him by force. Such geftures of guefts, 

when they arc alfo j oy ned with words agreeing to them, € « 

in common difcourfe doe fignihe nothing clfe, then fuch 

1 a will fufpended on fuch conditions. Therefore in this 

example, there is nolikelyhood or (hadow ofanextraor- • 

dinary equivocation $ in words which are other wife # 

contradiftory to truth, unlcffe they uacre tranflatcd to f ome 

unperceived meaning by mentali refervation. 

H* j< L«ftijri They oppofethofc words of our Lord, 

jib 9 

Of fubltqHe judgements, &c. 

hh. 7, 8. I mil **t gtiHptotheJinfti becaufe, notwith- 
ftanding this deniall, the fame Evangelift doth teftifie, that 
bee did goc up to the Feaft ; Vcrf^ i o. But the whole force 
of this objection relieth upon the dcubtfall traKflation* 
by which that word, which properly fignifieth, not yet, 
is rendered by not. C*')it*n % lanfentusj MaUonate^ and 
Tokt doe obierve this in the explanation of this place. 
And this is fully {hewed in the very \ulgar translation, 
where in the words next following, itrendcreththefame 
Word by notjetjor wj time is not jet come. 


Chap. LIV. 

Of % lubllqne judgements % the Judge] Accufers r 
Witnejfes^Advecate^Kd Defendant. 

Queft. I. \7\ jH*tu Judgement ? 

V V i. A. lodgement doth properly 
fignifie, the determining of that, which is juft betwixt 
thofe which ftrivc about right. But it doth alfo connotate 
u coaftive power, of compelling the parties to fubmit 
themfelves to the determination, or fentence given. 
$* Quefh 2. Whether fuch Judgements , and the office of 
Iudgesbee UnfullamKgfh C^fi $ans ^ 
> 2. *A* i. They are not onely lawfull, but ncccflary* 
Aft. 15. 10. ^m. 13. For that which bythelawofna- 
ture is profitable and necefsary for the good eftate of hu- 
mane fociety, is not taken away, but rather is cftabliflied.di- 
reded, and perfe&edby the inftitutions of Chriftian religi- 
on. For Chriftian religion doth not deftroy, but perfedt na<- 
cure: but the office of Iudges and judgements, by the law 
of nature, are ufefull and necefsary for the good eftate of 
humane fociety : as it appcareth by the «xample and expe- 
rience of all people, which have ufed fuch judicatures, as 
necefsary for the flatc of the Common- wealth* For it is 
plaine, that confofion cannot bee avoyded without the de* 
termination of ftrifes, andthat many ftrifes cannot bee en- 

2 7 g Of pttblique judgement*, &c. 

ded without the Iudges power. 
U^.t^A.t. That which the Anabaptifts objeft againQthis, 
istowcakc to takeaway fo neceflary an inft it ution* For 
Chri s t Mmh. 5.40. doth not Command us~ to flee 
firing at Law, as a thing unlawfull : but tobeare injuries 
patiently, and not to repay evill with evili, neither (lightly 
to contend with thofe, who doe us an injury; Matth.j. 1 . 
a private judgement is forbidden, and that too rafh, proud, 
and in j uft, and not a juftone, as it appearcth bytheoppc* 
fite words, fsh. 7.14. 7**1* 1 Cor. 6. 6. doth notcon- 
demneall going to law, but that contention which was 
joyned with fcandali , fuch as was that of the faithFur! 
brethren before the unbeleeving Iudges, which gave of- 
fence, both to the faithfull and the unbeleever. 

Queft. 3. What things arc required to atawfuli Judge* 
went ? 

4. A< 1. It is firft required that it bee From /uft au- 
thority; that is, that it bee done by him, who hathlaw&ll 
authority over fuch peifons in fuch acafe, Z»^ 1 2. 14. 

5. *A. s, It is required, that it bee juft in it ielfej that 
is, thatthe judgement, or judiciail fentencebeeconforma- 
ble with true jufticc, loh. 7.24. • 

6. A t 3. It is required, that it bee certaine,* that is, that 
it bee not given upon things hidden, or onely (lightly 
knowen, but throughly tried; Prov. 18. 13. 

7. A. 4. It is required, thatthe judgement bee upright 
andfincerej that is, that it proceed from no other affe&ion* 
but onely from the love of Iuftice, and publique good, 

. Queft. 4. How tniny wye* m*] a fudge lawfully from 
Geedagainfl offences? 

8. gA. i. In criminal! caufes wee commonly proceed 
orderly, by way of accufation : ( vU, ) when there is 
one that accufeth, and promifeth to prove the crimes which 

The reafon is, Firft, Bccaufe that judgement hath re- 
lation to a ftrife, qucftion, or controverfic, but there can bee 
^4!fencej orqu;^b^ except it bee between? ewo, 


Of fublique judgements, &c* ij$ 

arid it can bee ofnoftult done, except betweenc theactu« 
fer^and defendant. 

Secondly, Ic is the office of aludgeto appoint the me- 
fount of Jufticc : which can have no place,cxcept there bec 
two betweenc whomit raay bee appointed, DcHt.ij* 8, 
and 35. 1. AS. 25. 16, 

9, A. 2, But by thcnaturall and Divine law, there is 
bncly required a fufiScient tcftification of the fa&, which 
is often without a formall accufer, to ihe giving of ajudi- 
ciallfentence: viz. when there are other things which 
fiippiytheplaceofanaccufcr, fas a manifefl: evidence o£ 
thefaft, publique report 9 ) in which there is contained a 
virtual accufation; 

10. A % $. It oftentimes belongs to the office of a 
ludge, to proceed by way of enquiry y where there is ne 
inftance of the accufer. 

For without this, Firft, All judgements would depend 
on the will of the accufers. 

Secondly, That Iufticc would ceafc, which is neceflfary 
to the bridling of hainous vices, and to the purging and pre- 
ferring of the Common, wealth. 

Ii. 3. The Iudge doth not fulfill his office, if hec 
•nely taoweth the caufes which are brought unto him, 
unlcflc upon occafion, hee doth prudently find them out; 
lob. *$>. \6. Prov, 14. 1 1* 1 2. 

u* A. 4. That enquiry, which is called generality, 
which wee moderately looke into the obfervanceofthc 
lawes, and faults committed againft the la wes, is both pro* 
Stable, and agreeing to reafon both in Church and Com- 
mon- wealthy as alfo to the office of thofe, who have the 
, } care of the community, and fo ought to have fufficient 
knowledge, how they ought to carry themfelves in ob-| 
fervance of the lawes, -4#. 15.36. Dcut. 13. I4.and 21J 

} J.2.&C. 

13. *A. y. If it bee certaine, that the crime is com- 
mitted, and the authour concealed; as for example, a man 
iycth in the high way flaine, or it is ccrtainc,that ones houft 
is pulled downer or rifled, then onely a gewrali enquiry 

Nnn ~ "**"" ought 


Ofpbliqne pigments ^ &c* 
ought to bee made, whether or no any probable infamy, or 
fufpition fticketh upon a man about the fault committed 
ncere thofc places, and according to proportion, extraordi- 
nary enquiry is to bee niade,as if bee bee excommunicated, 
lob. 7, 

14. A. 6, But if there bee an -infamy, probable fufpi- 
tion, or complaint made of this perfon, as the authour then 

- there ought to bee a fpeciall enquiry of that perfon, whe- 
ther hee bee authour of the crime or no? for then upon 
publique notice, theludge procecdeth as a publique per- 
fon. And a certaine virtuallaccufationis contained in fuch 
an evidence; Beat. 22. 14. &c. 

15. *>4. 7. In a generall fearcb, thefe things are to bee 

Firft, No man ought to betray any to theludge, to bee 
punifhed in that cafe which hce knowcth to bee honcft, 
and to deferve no puniftitnent. For this would bee in- 
fuftice, to promote that,whkh is not juftice. 

Secondly, No man ; who was not formerly attached, 
<ar tainted with the crime of which the enquiry is made 3 
is bound to betray, or aecufc himfelfe, althc ugh hee bee 
asked upon oath, whether heeknoweth any one to biC 
guilty of fuch a fault ? 

The reafon is:Firft,Becaufe by the intention of the Iudge 
Which proceedeth legally, hee is not asked of bimfelfe : 
being that hee dpth not enquire of things altogether 

Secondly. Becaufe no man is bound to punifli bim- 
felfe, or dire&Iy to cooperate for his ownepunifbment. 

16* A. 8. It is fo farre againft nature, that any man 
flaould betray or defame himfeifc, efpecially when there 
Isgreat danger, that fuch enquiries, in which one isqueftio- f 
ncd of himfelfe in criminall caufes, no fcandall going be- 
fore, force nature, and give occafion of horrid per Ju- < 

17. A m g. No ftianis alway bound to revcale afecret 
crime of anothcrs, of which no ill report went before* 
for hce, whofe offence is bidden, has hee as yet right to 


ofpbtiqM judgements', &c* 2§t 

preferve his fam:, chat it (hould not rafaly bee layed open. 
Neither is it the part of a Iudgc to fearch into hidden 
faults, who as heeisa pubiique psrfon, ought to proceed 
ppon iorne notice, or fofpfcioh. 

1 8. A. 10. Therefore to decline fuch incommoditi:s ; 
neither the ludge ought to impofe, or the examined to 
take that oath ot enquiry, which is calkd c x officb> to de- 
clare the truth of whatfoever (hall bee asked : except it bee 
with this reft ri&ion; as farre as hee is bound to it by law : or 
as farre,as hee may doe it by right. 

ip. A. ii. Yet fometimes,fecret crimes which before 
were hidden are to bee detefted, when the circumftances 
being well weighed doe induce this : 

As for example, Firft, When the manifeftation will bee 
profitable and neccfTaryto the hindering the committing 
of another crime, which is probably feared. 

Secondly, When fomc dangerous difcommodity is at 
hand* which can fcarfebecavoyded without revealing of 
the crime. 

Thirdly, When the manifeftation is neceffary, cither 
for procuring the delinquents amendment, or hindering 
the continuation or iteration of the offence. For in fuch 
cafes, there is greater account to bee made of justice a»d 
charity, the common good, and one innocent, then of the 
fame of the faulty, which is bicmifhed onely by chance,awl 
that by his owne fault. 

Queft* 5. Whether the Judge ought alwAytstogivefen- 
fence according to the things a lie aged and proved ? 

ao. A. 1. The Iudgc ought not to pafle fentencc ^ 
gainft the things aUeagcd and proved, whatfoever there 
bee in his private knowledge. 

For firft, The ludge fentenceth as a pubiique perfon, and 
inftead of the Common-wealth, therefore hee cannot bee 
accounted to give a fentence rightly and by his office,excepc 
it may bee thought, that the Common- wealth would give 
and approve the fame fentencc. But if the Common- 
wealth fhould fentence, it could not pr oceed,but upon pub- 
■liqjie Isfiowledgc. Therefore, hee muft judge cither ac- 

Nnn 2 cording 

lofpbtym judgements, &c* 

cording to publique knowledge which arifeth out of the. 
things allcaged, and proved* or clfc whoLy abftainefrona 

* Secondly, If the Iudge could fentence either againft, 
or befide things allcaged and proved, there would from 
thence follow great difcomtnodities, and the pervcrfioa 
of judgements : when unjuft Iudges would eafily coa- 
demnc the innocent, and quit the guilty, under pretext of 
a private knowledge , which difagreeth from the things al- 
lcaged and proved* 

Thirdly ,There can be no other way, by which the Con> 
mon-wcaLth may remainein quiet. 

a i. <*xf. 2. Yet the Iudge is not foreftrained to things 
alleaged and proved,that he muft condemne him to death, 
whom hce knoweth plainely to bee innocent. 

Firft, Bccaufe things allcaged and proved, arc onely 
meanes of manifefting the truth, and therefore ought rot 
roprevaile with any againft the truth which is certainly 
knowenj and that nothing availeth which they ufctoan- 
fwer to this , that the end of proofes is onely publique 
truth: becaufc, publique truth doth prefuppofe abiolute 

Secondly, Becaufe a Iudge which pronounce th that to 
bee true which certainly hce knoweth to bee falfe, would 
bee a Iyer, and finne againft his owne confeience* 

22. A. 3. Neither is this argument &lvcd by that 
iliftinftion, betwecne the publique and private conference 
of a Iudge. 

For firft, the private confeience ought not to be violated 
at any time. 

Secondly, That publique knowledge,although it may-fcee 
toothers, yet it cannot bee a rule for proceeding to him, 
which certainly knoweth it to bee falfe. 

Thirdly , B;caufe to flay an inaocent,is a fa<3 intrinrecally 
«vHU and fo ought not to bee committed, by any wittingly, 
and willingly. Neither is it enough to fay it was done by 
chance, or that fuch a man was guilty by the common 
ludg^ment; Eor hce who, wittingly and wiilipgly, mxd 


Of fuhlique \udgmwtS) &c. 2 g^ 

*pm deliberation doth any thing, hecis thecaufeofitby 
himfelfe. And the common judgement if it erre for the 
deftru&ion of any, ought not either to bee confirmed, or 
promoted by hkn which knowcth to the contrary. 

Fourthly, Hee would rightly bee accounted by all, a 
wicked man,who in fuch a particular cafe,(liould take upon 
him the office of a Judge to condemne him whom hec 
knoweth to bee innocent. Therefore it is wicked to abufe 
that office after fuch a manner when it is undertaken. 
> %fcuti 4. If the Iudge would but doe his duty in pro- 
curing the manifestation oi the truth, fomuch intricatencfls 
would feldome happen* But if it flaould happen after hee 
hath tried all things for the delivery of the innocent, hee is 
bound to.leave his office of Iudge rather then, to con- 
demne him. 

Qucft, 6* whatpnnes ought kludge efpeciallj to beware 

*4. ss4. 1. Either to make, or follow in judicature 
Unjuftlawes; If*i. 1 0.1. Wot unto them that decree unm 
righteoHi decree^ and that write greivoufnejfe which they 
have preferred: To tarne a fide the needy from judgement % 
and to take away the rightfromthepforeofmypeop/e^&c^ 
For every Iudge ought to adminifter true juftice* Buc 
that cannot bee true juftice, which is adminiflred accor- 
ding to lawes which arc repugnant either to the natural! 
or divine Jaw. Becaufe a Iudge by his office is the Mi-* 
nifter of God, and the Keeper of his law; 2>o*r. 1. 17 j 
^ Chron. ip, 6.7* And therefore hee ought to judge ac- 
cording to that. 

25. *A. 2. To accept of pcrfonsj that is, in judicature 
to refpeft fome condition of this or that per ion, which 
maketh nothing to the judging ofthecaufej DeHt.i$ % j^J 
JExod. 25. 3, Lev. ip. 1$. 

For this is dire&ly againft the profeffion of a 

Firft, Becaufe a Iudge is appointed as a medium and 
Mcdiatour bctweene thofe whofe caufe hee jadgctb;, 
tbcccforc as the middle doth carry it fclfe eqeial! in *e~ 

N9? £' fm* 

$% a v of pMique judgments^ &c. 

fpeil of either extteamc, fo the affeftion of the Iudge 
ought nouo encline to any fide. 

Secondly, A Iudge is nothing eife but IuRice enlivened : 
therefore hec ought no more to encline to this or that par* 
ty,then the Iufticc it felfe of the caufe doth encline. 

Thirdly, A Iudge undcrgoeth the perfon of God, who 
is free from all paffion. 

*6. A. 3. To receive bribes, Dettt. \6 % ip, and every 
where in Scripture, 

Thereafonis, Firft, Bccaufe this bendeth the inclination 
of the mind to this or that perfon, which is beyond the 
caufe F and fo bringeth in acception of perfons* ^ 

Secondly, By this meanes, judgement is either corrup- 
ted,that it may bee unjuft, or juft judgement is foldj either 
of which is abominable; therefore that defcription of a juft 
man doth cfpecially belong to Iudges, and other admini- 
Iters of judgement j If*i. 33. 15. Hee that dfpifeth the 

Same of oppre£ims y that {bak*th his hanisfnm hiding cf 
ribes, thatftoppsth his e ares from bearing of blond, and flat- 
tsth his eyes from feeing evid. 

27. A. 4. To put', or fuffer by others to bee put, de^ 
murres, proiongings, or unneccflary delayes on a caufe; 
Lvkz 18.3.4. 

For firft, This is to deny juftice in part, though not ill 

Secondly,This is to yeild an occafioii of dammage, eithet 
of both parties, or atlcaftpfone : for whiieft the caufe is 
fpunne out, charges every day encreafe, which oftentimes 
exceed the principal!* 

Thirdly, By thefe meanes it commeth to paflfc, that fo 
many inconveniences doe belong to judgements, that they 
become hurtful!, and formidable, as well to others that arc 
lovers of the peace, as to poorcandmiferableperfous, for 
tvhoft fake they were chcifly constituted, and doe efpe- 
cially favour bufic wranglers: info nauch, that oftentimes 
they that have a j uft caufe, will fly going to law, when the 
unjtift oppreffours wi(h it, and fceke after it; which is a 
mtaifcCt perverfion and corruption of judgements, r By 



Of fU(rlique]t!dg(n)Ms,&c. 2 g« 

fuchabufcs, judgements are turned into )we^^ Amos 
5. 7* and 6. 12. and imottKqmctncfieJjai. jo, i.jj, 

Qucft, 7. Wht.t Uiv u there ccnc&ning&iCKferi} 

iS. A. 1. Information made to a Iudgeofthefaultof 
one guilty, whether it bee done by ccmfJaittt, fin which 
the private good of the party effended, is ufuaJIy fought*) 
or by Ezfivgclicall dinmemwn^ ( where the geed ot the 
brother denounced, is intended;) or by judiciary denuncia- 
tion, ('where the common good, or of another which 
is innocent, is intended by the erquiry of the Iudge; ) or 
byferfetbtccufAtion, (where the procuring the fame good, 
is iought by the proofes of theaccufer;)if it be rightly done, 
and in order, is alaw/uil and honeft thing* \Tim % 5. ip. 
The rcafon is,becaufe fueh information is a certaine meanes, 
which hath jufr proportion and order to the defending the 
common good. It is alioanaftcf juftice,asfarreasiti6& 
taking punifbment of hainous injuries by publique autho- 

2p. A. a. There are many cafes whereitisnotonely 
lawfulljbut neceffary to accufc the delinquent : 

As for example, Fir ft, Promooters, and fuch like Of- 
<£cers are bound by their place to accufc the guilty, as of- 
ten as it is profitable to the advancement of the publique 

Secondly , Every Citizen is bound to bring in thofe 
faults, which doe either immediately hurt the publique 
good, or mediately redound to the publique harme, or 
which hurt heavily any innocent, if thp detriment cannot 
conveniently by any other courfe bee averted, The reafoti 
is, becaufeheeisboundby the law of nature, and out of 
charity either to the Common-wealth, or bis neighbour, 
to employ all hisinduftry, when need fhall require, to rootc 
out utterly all fuch evils. 

30, tk % 3. Allaccufetion is made unjuft,either through 
calumny^ by putting in afal{ecrime,or through f>revaric*~ 
tfon, by ufing fraud in the accufation, or by^kzfli^g^ 
by defiling from a /n$ Stfu&tk>a tvithout lawfuil 
-"'" 31/^4* & 

4$6 ^ offdtipe ]udgtments y &cl 

f t, A. 4. It is not alway necetfary to ufc private and " 
brotherly admonition, before judiciall accufation and in* 
formation. For fotnetimes it may bec a publiquc fcandaft, 
and fo cannot bec taken away by private correction : fome- 
times there is no hope, that private admonition will pre- 
vails. Alio fometimes the common good may beefofarre 
endangered, that it cannot bee defended by fecrct admoni* 

don. . 

32. *A. 5. If the delinquent may bee correftcd by 
brotherly admonition, and the fault it fclfe is not pernitious 
to others, fo that the end of the accufation may bee ob- 
tained without the accufation it fclfe , then charity and 
juftice require, that fetting afide accufation, wee content 
our (elves with private corre&ion. 

Qucft. 8. fVkatUw is there conccrmngmtnejfes? 

33. A. i. A wtaiefTe is bound to teftifie a knowne 
truth. % 

Tirft, If hecbee lawfully asked by a Iudgc, becaufe obe- 
dience which is due to the Iudge, requircth this as well 
as the care of promoting, or at lead of not hindering Ju- 

Secondly, Although hee bee not queftioned by a Iudge/ 
yet if fome great danger is like to befall the Common- 
wealth, or any private man, which cannot (to fpeake mo- 
rally,) bec averted without his teftimony, hee is bound to 
teftifie the truth at leaft out of charity, if not out of juftice,' 
if hee may conveniently. Hence in Civill caufes, when 
his Neighbour (hall fuffcr un/uftly any great dammage, if 
there bee any, which can helpe him, without his owns 
detriment, hee ought not onely to teftifie when hee is 
queftioned, but alfo to offer his teftimony : as alfo in crimi- 
nall caufes to free an innocent, 3Vw. 24. 1 1. 

34. A. a. In great and criminal! caufes, two witneflfes 
by order are required, Num.^. 30, Dent. 17. (J. and i£« 
15. Thercafonis, becaufe one may cafily bee corrupted, 
and cannot eafily bec convinced : but two or more wlt-i 
nefles are more hard to bee corrupted, and becaufe they 
can fcarfe agree in all things, or fpeake alike, they ihay the 
more eafily bee convinced, "" 3 y . A. 3. Yet 


Ofpuhliqut judgements] &cl 2^7 

35 • ^ 3- Yet this doth net hinder, but that in ligh- 
ter caufes, efpecially when it doth not ftand upon the con- 
demnation of any one witneffe of fpcciall authority, may 
fuftice. As alfo in fome crimes, about the proofe, whereof 
from the nature of the thing it felfe,- fas in night villanies, 
in adultery, or the like, where) two witnedes cannot (to 
fpeake morally,) exfpe&sd or found, other proofes may 
fuffice,, although there bee not two witneffes whoteftifie 
the fame particular fad:. The reafon is, becaufe the nature 
of the thing, and the publique neceflity make this exception 
from the univerfall rule. 

36. A. 4. Not onely the evidence of the f aft, proper 
confeffion not extorted, and written inflruments have the 
forceofatcftimony, but fomctimes alfo preemptions, if 
they bee not ra(h, and light, but ftrong, and convincing; 
I King. $. 

Queft- 9. fVhdt' Uw is there concerning Advocates} 
37, A. r# Advocates, and Pro&ers are appointed to 
fupply their places, who having a j uft caufe, cannot handle 
their ownc caufes as they ftiould, either through unskilful- 

°38. A* 2. It is therefore the office of an Advocate, to 
expound the grounds of his Clients caufe, and approve it 
to the Iudge.and to per f wade him as much, as in him lyeth, 
t© give fentence fork, 

39. A. 3. Hence is required in an Advocate; Firft, A 
fpcciall knowledge of the caufe, and of the law belonging 
to it* Secondly, Fidelity, and right order and method in 
handling the fame. 

40. AU 4* Hence no Advocate ought to undertake or 
■> defend any caufe which hee knoweth to beennjuft* 

For firft, This hereto lye, and to finneagainfthiscon-J 
; fcience. 

Secondly, It were to defraud his neighbour againft tbat s 
) of Lev, ip. 13. and to doe unrighteoufneffe in judge- 
ment,^/. 15. 

Thirdly, This is not onely to participate of the finnes 
of theludge, but to give an efFeftuall occafion, and caufe 

Ooo to • 

*$&/ of phliqiit judgements y &c) 

to the fame. Whence it commcth to paffe that the art of 
pleading, (as it is ufed now adayes by many,,) is nothing 
but Sophifticall and pernitious^nd made up of guile, deceit, 
Heights, cavils, fnares, captiouineffe, entrappings, tricks, 
windings, and circumventions. 

41. e/^» 5* It followeth from the fame reafons, that 
the Advocate, who thought the caufe to bee ;uft at the be- 
ginning of the lute* and afterward in the progreffe findeth 
ictobeeunjuft, is bound to admonifli his client of thein- 
juQice. of the caufe, and to lay it downe. 

For firft, when hee is come to that knowledge,hee can* 
not goe forward jp it, except hee will doe againft his con* 

Secondly, If his Client nnderftandeth that his caufe is 
unjuft, hee ought to defift, and therefore the Advocate* 
who is but his helper. 

42. A. 6. It may alfo happen, that after the injufiice 
of the caufe is evidently found out, that the Advocate may 
bee bound (if it bee without fcandall) to helpe the contrary 
patty either by his teftimony or counfeli ; as in a capital! 
caufe> or in any other of the like moment. For charity re- 
quircth, that every one fhould bee ready to hinder afly 
great danger of his neighbour. 

43. A. 7. But if the caufe bee fo probable, that the 
planitiffe or defendant may trie the juftice of it by a judge- 
ment, then the Advocate may further it, by fuggefting argu- 
ments to the Iudgc, which may ferve to makc^the caufe 

44., A, 8, Although the Advocates and Probers may 
receave a moderate ffipend either out oi caftome, or va- 
lew of the goods, for their labour faithfully employed, yet 1 
for poore people which arc not able to give, they ought 
to plead gratis^ by the equity of the law^ Exid. 23.4; 
%Mmh> 7«i a. For this infuchrefpe&istheaimesofthe* 
Advocate. 4 

Qaeft. 10. What law is there concerning the defendant 
*r part j accufed I 

[ 45 1 vd* i. If the defendant bee legally queftioncA bet 


Of publiquc judgements, &c, i%$ 

ought to Confcfle his fault : The realon is, Firft,Becaufc hec 
can neither deny the knowne truth without a lye : or hold 
his peace, or deny the duty of anfwering, when hec is exa- 
mined by a fuperiour, who hath power of queftioning 
him, without the finne of difobedience. 

Secondly, Becaufc to hide a fault revealed by Divine 
providence, (as it ought to bee manifefted, fo that the de- 
fendant may lawfully and legally bee qucftioned concer- 
ning it j ) cither by a lye, or a fleight,is in fome way againft 
the glory of God if of. 7. 19. 

Thirdly, Becaufe that publique good whichisaymedat 
by the Iudge in a legall examination, ought not to bee 
hindered by the defendant. 

Fourthly, Becaufc the defendant in denying a fault le- 
gally obje&cd either indire&ly, or by confequence, by ca- 
lumny, fayethj that the planitiffe lyeth to his great in- 

4^. A. r. The defendant being condemned by evi- 
dent in jufticc,may defend himfcife through lawfull meaner 
either by a&ivc or paflivc rcfiftance , that the fentence 
given may not bee put in execution, fothat it may bee done 
Without fcandall 5 or a greater evill. 

Thereafon is, Fir ft, Becaufe there is no.fiicb fentence 
in the Court of confcicncc. 

Secondly, Becaufe by the law of nature, every one- hath 
right to defend himlcUc againft thoie injuries which arc 
intended to him. 

47. A, 3. A guilty man jfuftly condemned, is bound 
to fuffer the juft punifhment : but not fo that hee (houid 
either procure it to hiaieife, or haften it, or not decline the 
occafion of fuflfering* 

48. A. 4, Yet it is lawful! for the defendant (to 
avoyd a greater evilly to execute upon bimfelfe in a fort 
a lighter punifliment, which is decreed by the juft fentence 
of the Iudge, as to rcftore money which is adjudged, or 
to goe to prMbn, orbanifhment: but not the punifhment 
of death, or fame like which in its nature is horrid, 
and repugnant to humane nature : becaufe this is an 

Ooo 2 $¥iM 

of revealing a Secret] 

cvltt mtrinfccally, and cannot bcc commended by a cir~ 

Chap. LV. 

Of revealing * Secret. 

V V reve*le a Secret ? 

X. A. Another mans Secret which wee engaged our 
felvcs to keepe clofe, if there were a promife which doth 
ffemaine lawfull, cannot bee difclofed without finne. 

Thercafon is, Firft, Becaufe it is againft vcrarity,and fi- 
delity, which wee are bound to kecpe by the law of na« 

Secondly, Becaufe it is repugnant to Civill fociety,thc 
perturbation whereof followeth upon the detcdion of 

2. The promife of concealing is not thought to bee 
made onely exprefly, when wee doe promife filence i» 
plaine words; but alfo tadcely, when by the manner of 
(peaking and rcceaving it, and out of words fignifying and 
pcrfwading confidence, fuch a promife is left to bcc gathe- 

3 . Although there had no promife pafifed, yet if the de- 
£Hon of a fecret fliali bee hurtfull to anorhcrs foulc, body* 
credit, or eftatc, hee which doth reveale it without a caufe, 
linnet^ as well againft juftice as charity. 

4. If adefire or intention of hurting doth accompany 
fuch a revealing^ the finne is the greater, being that it isdi- 
ffeftiy repugnant to charity, 

5 . If there bee no meaning of hurting another, and yet 
bee is dammaged indeed, or at (lead there bee danger of 
bis dammagc, the finne is as much as that of ntgifgencc or 
inconfiderateneffe : in which wee find the fault fometimes 
lighter, fometimes larger. For as indeeds, fo alfo in words 
It is not enough that the intention of hurting bee wanting, 


of the equity 6ft he Lm df muttm^ &c. 3£S 

bat juftice and charity d^c further require, that wcefhould 
ufe diligence, leaft another mans detriment {hould follow 

\^ 6. Becaufe theunjuft revealing a Secret, hath in it often- 
times the pernitious violations of truft, friendfhip, andho- 
nefty, therefore it is not oncly in the common efteeme of 
men, but in the Scripture alfo reckoned amongft the mod 
odious finnes, Pfal. 35. 15. Wee did take [met counfell 
together-,! Tim, 3. 4. Trap ours. 

j. Bat if the Secret which is committed unto us, may 
bee to the gr eat iofle of others, or his who committed ir^ 
except it bee dete&ed, wee are bound out of charity to 
make it manifeft* 

*. Or if the Secret bee of flight and no momentjif there 
bee no promife, it may bee revealed without finne : becaufe 
in fuch a matter neither juftice or charity doe induce b^ 
themielves any obligation* 

Chap. LVI. 


Qf the equity of the law of tali at ion y efiablifbod- 
hj Mofes, again ft a falfe witnejfe} 
Dent. 1 p. 1 6. &c. 

i\ *TpHis law is not cftablifhedagainft him, which one 

A of probable ignorance,or inadvertency ,or errour 

which is not much faulty, (hall bring in a falfe teftimony: 

bat of him who upon fetled. counfeli foali rife up to teflificr 

agatnft any man that which is wrong; VerC. 1 6, 

a» Diligent inquifition ought to be made by the Iudgcs ^ 
that it may not onely bee agreed of the wicked fad, but 
alfo of the meaning and intention of fuch a witnes, Verf* 
17. 18. &c. 

q. The hainoufneflfe of this finne, doth appeare from 
&ence : 

Firfifcj That contempt of religion, and Godhimfelfeis 
contemned in the perjury of a falfe witnfflfe* 

Ooo 3 Secondly? 

Ipi of Contentment. 

Secondly, That malice and cxtrearne hatred is fhewed, 4 
and ufed againft his neighbour. 

Thirdly, That fuch falfe teftimonies doth dire&Iy tend 
to the everfion of common juftice and humane fociety . 

4. It is moft juft, that hee which finncth in this manner, 
ftiould undergoe the feme punifhment which hce did in- 
tend andftrive to bring upon the innocent* 

For firft, That law is accounted moft even by the content 
of all men, that hee which fheddeth mans bloud, by 
man ihali his bloud bee (bed, Gen. 9. 6. Now hee 
which by his falfe teftimony hath procured, orftrivethto 
procure anothers death, hce, as much as in him was, hath 
filed his bloud. 

Secondly, Thcjuftice of punifliment, (which confifteth 
in the proportion of it to the fauitj is mod manifeftly 
obferved in that law. 

Thirdly, The keeping of this law is for this purpofc,thac 
they which intend fuch an offence, and yet arc afraid of 
fiich a punifliment, may bee admoniftied of thahainouf- 
neffe, from the nature of the thing it telfe, andio bee decer^ 
red from their refolution. 

5* The equity of this law is to bee extended to faftg 
accufcrs, who wittingly and willingly by calumny accufe 
any wrongfully to Iudges, who •ondemne the innocent 
out of malice, to the malicious Corrupters of witneffcs,ot 
Iudges, &c. For feeing that in all thefe, there is the fame 
malice m procuring their Neighbours ill, they ought all to 
fufftr the fame punilhmenu 

Chap. LVII, 

Of Contentment. 

QuefK l ^ \7\TH** ** required to Contentment I 
V V 1. -A 1. That wee have our; 
-fiDnverfation free from all covetoufnes , Hebr. 1 3 . j . 
h. *dL\ *\ Ikatyyrc bsenotto carcfirflforthofcthing^ 

«-^— ^ ~ which 

which belong to this prcfent life, Matth* 6. 25 ~. &c. 

3. A. 3. That wee doe not abfolutely and greedily 
defire any particular tneafure,or kind of fuch things; 1 Tim. 
6. p. 

4. A. 4. That wee wifli the bed to our Neighbours, 
and take in good part our condition whatfoevcr it bee; 
2 Cor. ij.p* 

Queft. 2. By what reafonsmay weefiirreup our/elves 
to thefiudy of thu content ? 

5. A. if Gods providence which difpenccth all things 
to his glory and our good, doth require this fubmiflionof 
Contentment, lob 1. 2 1 . 

6. A. 2. The defett of this Contentment lcadeth into 
divers temptations and finnes as welltowards God, againft 
whofe will wee murmure, as towards oar Neighbour 
whom wee envy. 

7. A. 3. The tranquility of the mind ( without which 
wee are unfit for the common duties of piety, cbarity,and 
juftice, and in which the greateft part of our felicity doth 
confift,) cannot bee retained without Contentment. 

8. A. 4. The want of this Contentment argucth a mind 
too much given, and intent to this World, and the profits 

" Queft* J. What meanes are wefi cffeBttfill totheprocu- 
ringofthi* fcontentmtnt'i 

9. *A. 1 . If we ftirre up in our felves, a juft eftceme of 
Spirituall things, and ansffeftion agreeable towards them* 

10. A. 2. If wee often and ferioufly meditate upon 
the vanity of this World, 

n«ex< 3, If in what condition foevcrwec are, wee 
chcifiy give our felves to thofe things which yceldus mat* 

12. A. 4. If wee accuftome our felves to ufc, and have 
thofe things which God hath granted to us, as if wee had 
them not; 1 Cor. 7, 30, 

Glory to God, town peace of confiknet*